A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is frequently up-regulated in human GASTRIC CANCER and is a tumor marker (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) of gastric and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.

Endostatin induces endothelial cell apoptosis. (1/137)

Endostatin, a carboxyl-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, has been shown to regress tumors in mice. In this study, we have analyzed the mechanism of endostatin action on endothelial cells and nonendothelial cells. Endostatin treatment of cow pulmonary artery endothelial cells caused apoptosis, as demonstrated by three methods, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining, caspase 3, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling assay. Moreover, addition of endostatin led to a marked reduction of the Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL anti-apoptotic protein, whereas Bax protein levels were unaffected. These effects were not seen in several nonendothelial cells. Collectively, these findings provide important mechanistic insight into endostatin action.  (+info)

Endostatin binds to blood vessels in situ independent of heparan sulfate and does not compete for fibroblast growth factor-2 binding. (2/137)

Endostatin is a carboxyl-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII and a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. The mechanism of action is unknown, but the crystal structure of endostatin predicts a prominent heparan sulfate binding site, suggesting that endostatin competitively inhibits heparin-binding angiogenic factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The goal of the study was to map endostatin binding sites in intact human tissues and to determine whether this binding is heparan sulfate dependent. In situ binding was performed with recombinant epitope-tagged murine endostatin. Endostatin predominantly binds to blood vessels of different calibers in a saturable fashion. In addition, binding to some epithelial basement membranes is seen. The localization pattern is similar to that reported for collagen XVIII, endostatin's parent molecule. In breast carcinomas, endostatin co-localizes largely with FGF-2. In a surprising contrast to FGF-2, endostatin binding is resistant to treatment with heparitinase, demonstrating that binding is not mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Furthermore, FGF-2 and heparin do not compete for endostatin binding, providing additional evidence for the discreteness of endostatin and FGF-binding sites.  (+info)

Angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin is a distinct component of elastic fibers in vessel walls. (3/137)

Theendothelial cell inhibitor endostatin (22 kDa) is part of the carboxyl-terminal globular domain of collagen XVIII and shows a widespread tissue distribution. Immunohistology of adult mouse tissues demonstrated a preferred localization in many vessel walls and some other basement membrane zones. A strong immunogold staining was observed across elastic fibers in the multiple elastic membranes of aorta and other large arteries. Staining was less strong along sparse elastic fibers of veins and almost none was observed in the walls of arterioles and capillaries. Strong evidence was also obtained for some intracellular and basement membrane associations. Immunogold double staining of elastic fibers showed a close colocalization of endostatin with fibulin-2, fibulin-1, and nidogen-2, but not with perlecan. Reasonable amounts of endostatin could be extracted from aorta and skin by EDTA, followed by detergents, with aorta being the richest source of the inhibitor identified so far. Solubilizations with collagenase and elastase were approximately fivefold less efficient. Immunoblots of aortic extracts detected major endostatin components of 22-25 kDa whereas skin extracts also contained some larger components. Solid-phase assays demonstrated distinct binding of recombinant mouse endostatin to the fibulins and nidogen-2, consistent with their tissue colocalization. Together, the data indicate several different ways for endostatin to be associated with the extracellular matrix, and its release may determine biological activation. This also defines a novel function for some elastic tissues.  (+info)

The generation of endostatin is mediated by elastase. (4/137)

Endostatin, a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth, is a COOH-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII derived through cleavage of an Ala-His linkage by an as yet unidentified endostatin-processing enzyme. Endostatin was originally isolated from the conditioned medium of hemangioendothelioma (EOMA) cells. By investigating the processing of collagen XVIII to endostatin by EOMA cells, we show here that the generation of endostatin can be mediated by an elastase activity. We also show that several members of the elastase family can act as an endostatin-processing enzyme by specifically cleaving the Ala-His linkage and releasing endostatin from a precursor molecule. We further suggest that the generation of endostatin from collagen XVIII is at least a two-step process, involving a metal-dependent early step and an elastase activity-dependent final step.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of recombinant murine endostatin in E. coli. (5/137)

Endostatin, a carboxyl-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII is known as an anti-angiogenic agent, that specifically inhibits the proliferation of endothelial cell and the growth of several primary tumor. We report here the purification and characterization of the recombinant murine endostatin (rmEndostatin) which was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. This rmEndostatin has similar physiochemical properties of yeast-produced recombinant endostatin, and it also specifically inhibits the proliferation and migration of bovine capillary endothelial cells stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor. The biological activity of rmEndostatin was also shown by its anti-angiogenic ability on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo in vivo. In this article, we demonstrate the refolding and purification of rmEndostatin, expressed using E. coli system, to a biologically active and soluble form. In addition, these results confirm the activity of endostatin as a potent anti-angiogenic agent.  (+info)

Reality testing in cancer treatment: the phase I trial of endostatin. (6/137)

Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. The September 1999 Schwartz Center Rounds addressed the growing attention around the phase I trial of Endostatin. Endostatin represents a new treatment paradigm. It is an anti-angiogenic protein, an endogenous fragment of collagen XVIII. In an attempt to ensure a fair allocation of a very limited number of treatment slots in this classical phase I trial, a lottery was established. More than 1,400 patients enrolled within two days of the lottery, all vying for three places in the first cohort. Two contrasting cases are presented, each a potentially eligible patient. The discussion focuses on the dilemma presented by patients desperate for an unproven treatment and the responsibility of staff to explain and support without compounding the hype or suffocating the hope.  (+info)

Secreted cathepsin L generates endostatin from collagen XVIII. (7/137)

Endostatin, an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth, was identified originally in conditioned media of murine hemangioendothelioma (EOMA) cells. N-terminal amino acid sequencing demonstrated that it corresponds to a fragment of basement membrane collagen XVIII. Here we report that cathepsin L is secreted by EOMA cells and is responsible for the generation of endostatin with the predicted N-terminus, while metalloproteases produce larger fragments in a parallel processing pathway. Efficient endostatin generation requires a moderately acidic pH similar to the pericellular milieu of tumors. The secretion of cathepsin L by a tumor cell line of endothelial origin suggests that this cathepsin may play a role in angiogenesis. We propose that cleavage within collagen XVIII's protease-sensitive region evolved to regulate excessive proteolysis in conditions of induced angiogenesis.  (+info)

Increased concentrations of the circulating angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin in patients with systemic sclerosis. (8/137)

OBJECTIVE: Endostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from type XVIII collagen. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of circulating endostatin in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and to assess the relationship between these concentrations, extension of tissular sclerosis, and presence of cutaneous scars or ulcers. METHODS: The study involved 50 patients with SSc and 30 healthy subjects. Cutaneous extension of sclerosis was graded according to Barnett's classification system: 33 patients had grade I SSc and 17 patients had grades II or III SSc. The results of pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 31 of 50 patients, 8 of whom also had abnormalities on chest radiograms. Cutaneous scars or ulcers were found in 22 of 50 patients. Endostatin concentrations were determined using a competitive enzyme immunoassay method. RESULTS: The mean circulating endostatin concentration was significantly higher in the SSc group than in the healthy subjects group (mean +/- SD 53.2 +/- 22.4 ng/ml versus 9.9 +/- 9.7 ng/ml; P < 10(-4)), in patients with grade II or grade III SSc than in patients with grade I SSc (63.2 +/- 20.2 ng/ml versus 45.1 +/- 15.6 ng/ml; P < 10(-2)), in patients with abnormal findings on chest radiograms than in patients with normal findings on chest radiograms (67.6 +/- 22.4 ng/ml versus 50.4 +/- 21.6 ng/ml; P < 0.05), and in patients with cutaneous scars or ulcers than in patients without these manifestations (60.9 +/- 25.9 ng/ml versus 47.2 +/- 13.3 ng/ml; P < 10(-2)). CONCLUSION: Circulating endostatin concentrations are significantly increased in patients with SSc. Production of endostatin may result from tissular sclerosis and could contribute to the development of ischemic manifestations.  (+info)

Collagen type XVIII is a type of collagen that is found in the basement membrane, which is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that separates and supports epithelial and endothelial cells. It is a heterotrimeric protein composed of three different chains, alpha1(XVIII), alpha2(XVIII), and alpha3(XVIII). Collagen XVIII is thought to play a role in the maintenance and organization of the basement membrane, as well as in cell adhesion and migration. It also contains a number of distinct domains that are involved in various biological processes, including angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor growth. Mutations in the gene that encodes collagen XVIII have been associated with eye diseases such as Knobloch syndrome and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

Endostatin is a naturally occurring protein that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. It is derived from collagen type XVIII, which is found in the basement membrane of blood vessels. Endostatin has been studied for its potential use in treating various diseases, including cancer, because tumors need to form new blood vessels to grow and spread. By inhibiting this process, endostatin may be able to slow or stop tumor growth. It has also been investigated for its potential role in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness, due to its ability to inhibit the growth of new blood vessels in the eye.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

The Descemet membrane is the thin, transparent basement membrane that is produced by the corneal endothelial cells. It is located between the corneal stroma and the corneal endothelium, which is the innermost layer of the cornea. The Descemet membrane provides structural support for the corneal endothelium and helps to maintain the proper hydration and clarity of the cornea. It is named after the French physician Jean Descemet, who first described it in 1752.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

The basement membrane is a thin, specialized layer of extracellular matrix that provides structural support and separates epithelial cells (which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels) from connective tissue. It is composed of two main layers: the basal lamina, which is produced by the epithelial cells, and the reticular lamina, which is produced by the connective tissue. The basement membrane plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

The basal lamina is composed mainly of type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and proteoglycans, while the reticular lamina contains type III collagen, fibronectin, and other matrix proteins. The basement membrane also contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines that can influence cell behavior.

Defects in the composition or organization of the basement membrane can lead to various diseases, including kidney disease, eye disease, and skin blistering disorders.

Wnt2 protein is a member of the Wnt family of signaling proteins, which are involved in various developmental processes such as cell growth, division, and migration. Specifically, Wnt2 protein plays a role in the development of the nervous system and the immune system. It binds to receptors on the surface of cells and activates a signaling pathway that regulates gene expression. Dysregulation of Wnt2 protein has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Collagen Type III, also known as Collagen III Alpha 1 (COL3A1), is a type of collagen that is found in various connective tissues throughout the body. It is a fibrillar collagen that is produced by fibroblasts and is a major component of reticular fibers, which provide structural support to organs such as the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Collagen Type III is also found in the walls of blood vessels, the skin, and the intestinal tract.

Mutations in the COL3A1 gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder called Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, which is characterized by fragile and elastic skin, easy bruising, and spontaneous rupture of blood vessels. Collagen Type III has been studied for its potential role in various other medical conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Collagen Type IV is a type of collagen that forms the structural basis of basement membranes, which are thin, sheet-like structures that separate and support cells in many types of tissues. It is a major component of the basement membrane's extracellular matrix and provides strength and flexibility to this structure. Collagen Type IV is composed of three chains that form a distinctive, mesh-like structure. Mutations in the genes encoding Collagen Type IV can lead to a variety of inherited disorders affecting the kidneys, eyes, and ears.

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An Encephalocele is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the skull do not close completely during fetal development. This results in a sac-like protrusion of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening in the skull. The sac may be visible on the scalp, forehead, or back of the head, and can vary in size. Encephaloceles can cause a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, vision problems, and seizures, depending on the severity and location of the defect. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the encephalocele soon after birth to prevent further damage to the brain and improve outcomes.

Eye abnormalities refer to any structural or functional anomalies that affect the eye or its surrounding tissues. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to various factors such as injury, disease, or aging. Some examples of eye abnormalities include:

1. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes, strabismus is a condition where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions.
2. Nystagmus: This is an involuntary movement of the eyes that can be horizontal, vertical, or rotatory.
3. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye that can cause vision loss.
4. Glaucoma: This is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss.
5. Retinal disorders: These include conditions such as retinal detachment, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
6. Corneal abnormalities: These include conditions such as keratoconus, corneal ulcers, and Fuchs' dystrophy.
7. Orbital abnormalities: These include conditions such as orbital tumors, thyroid eye disease, and Graves' ophthalmopathy.
8. Ptosis: This is a condition where the upper eyelid droops over the eye.
9. Color blindness: A condition where a person has difficulty distinguishing between certain colors.
10. Microphthalmia: A condition where one or both eyes are abnormally small.

These are just a few examples of eye abnormalities, and there are many others that can affect the eye and its functioning. If you suspect that you have an eye abnormality, it is important to consult with an ophthalmologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common refractive error of the eye. It occurs when the eye is either too long or the cornea (the clear front part of the eye) is too curved. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it, causing distant objects to appear blurry while close objects remain clear.

Myopia typically develops during childhood and can progress gradually or rapidly until early adulthood. It can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK. Regular eye examinations are essential for people with myopia to monitor any changes in their prescription and ensure proper correction.

While myopia is generally not a serious condition, high levels of nearsightedness can increase the risk of certain eye diseases, including cataracts, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic degeneration. Therefore, it's crucial to manage myopia effectively and maintain regular follow-ups with an eye care professional.

Night vision refers to the ability to see in low light conditions, typically during night time. In a medical context, it often relates to the functionality of the eye and visual system. There are two types of night vision:

1. Scotopic vision: This is the primary type of night vision, enabled by the rod cells in our retina which are highly sensitive to light but lack color vision. During twilight or night conditions, when light levels are low, the rods take over from the cone cells (which are responsible for color and daytime vision) and provide us with limited vision, typically in shades of gray.

2. Mesopic vision: This is a state between photopic (daytime) and scotopic (night-time) vision, where both rod and cone cells contribute to vision. It allows for better color discrimination and visual acuity compared to scotopic vision alone.

In some cases, night vision can be impaired due to eye conditions such as cataracts, glaucoma, or retinal disorders. There are also medical devices called night vision goggles that amplify available light to enhance a person's ability to see in low-light environments.

... which codes for production of type XVIII collagen. It is speculated that the mutation of type XVIII collagen that occurs in ... Type XVIII collagen is a type of collagen which can be cleaved to form endostatin. The endostatin is from the c terminus end of ... This type of mutation particularly affects only one isoform of type XVIII collagen - the short isoform type, while the medium ... When type XVIII collagen is mutated at the COL18A1 gene, exon 2 in the sequence is skipped, which results in production of an ...
"Cloning of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding human type XVIII collagen and localization of the alpha 1(XVIII) collagen gene to ... This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix ... 2002). "Epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies against multiplexin collagens demonstrate that type XV and XVIII collagens are ... "Entrez Gene: COL18A1 collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1". Pufe T, Kurz B, Petersen W, et al. (2006). "The influence of biomechanical ...
... of type IV collagen in synovial capillaries by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against human type IV collagen ... Collagen Type-IV collagen Alport syndrome GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000188153 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A5 collagen, type IV, alpha 5 (Alport syndrome)". Lemmink HH, Schröder CH, Monnens LA, Smeets HJ (1997). "The ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ...
"Entrez Gene: COL14A1 collagen, type XIV, alpha 1 (undulin)". "COL14A1 - Collagen alpha-1(XIV) chain precursor - Homo sapiens ( ... 2005). "Collagen types XII and XIV are present in basement membrane zones during human embryonic development". J. Mol. Histol. ... Tono-Oka S, Tanase S, Miike T, Tanaka H (1996). "Transient expression of collagen type XIV during muscle development and its ... Collagen alpha-1(XIV) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL14A1 gene. It likely plays a role in collagen ...
... this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene, alpha 5 type IV collagen, so that the ... of type IV collagen in synovial capillaries by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against human type IV collagen ... collagen chain and comparison with other type IV collagen genes". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 26863-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.45. ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A6 collagen, type IV, alpha 6". Ständer M, Naumann U, Wick W, Weller M (1999). "Transforming growth factor- ...
"COL22A1 collagen type XXII alpha 1 chain". NCBI. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017. v t e (Articles with short ... COL22A1 is a human gene encoding for collagen. The associated protein is thought to contribute to the stabilization of ... description, Short description matches Wikidata, Human genes, All stub articles, Genetics stubs, Collagens). ...
Type IV) Multiplexin (Multiple Triple Helix domains with Interruptions) (Type XV, XVIII) MACIT (Membrane Associated Collagens ... of the collagen in the human body is type I collagen. However, as of 2011, 28 types of human collagen have been identified, ... With type I collagen and possibly all fibrillar collagens, if not all collagens, each triple-helix associates into a right- ... All of the types contain at least one triple helix. The number of types shows collagen's diverse functionality. Fibrillar (Type ...
... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... This gene encodes one of the chains for type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues. Mutations in ... Type-I collagen Collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: COL1A2 collagen, type I, alpha 2". Byers PH, Wallis GA, Willing MC (1991). "Osteogenesis imperfecta: translation ...
"Entrez Gene: COL6A1 collagen, type VI, alpha 1". Bertini E, Pepe G (2002). "Collagen type VI and related disorders: Bethlem ... "Type VI collagen anchors endothelial basement membranes by interacting with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26522-9 ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen (alpha1(VI) chain). Mutations in the genes that ... 1996). "Type VI collagen mutations in Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures". Nat. Genet. 14 (1): ...
... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This ... "Entrez Gene: COL5A3 collagen, type V, alpha 3". van der Rest M, Garrone R (1991). "Collagen family of proteins". FASEB J. 5 (13 ...
This protein is an alpha chain of type VI collagen that aids in microfibril formation. As part of type VI collagen, this ... This gene encodes the alpha 3 chain, one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in ... "The 1.6 A structure of Kunitz-type domain from the alpha 3 chain of human type VI collagen". Journal of Molecular Biology. 246 ... "Anisotropic behaviour of the C-terminal Kunitz-type domain of the alpha3 chain of human type VI collagen at atomic resolution ( ...
"Entrez Gene: COL6A2 collagen, type VI, alpha 2". "COLLAGEN, TYPE VI, ALPHA-2; COL6A2". www.omim.org. Retrieved 2023-10-13. ... "Type VI collagen anchors endothelial basement membranes by interacting with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26522-9 ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective ... 1996). "Type VI collagen mutations in Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures". Nat. Genet. 14 (1): ...
It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. COL4A1 is a subunit of the type IV collagen and plays a role in ... collagen". FEBS Letters. 225 (1-2): 188-94. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)81155-9. PMID 3691802. "Entrez Gene: COL4A1 collagen, type ... Type IV collagen is the major structural component of basement membranes, which contains two or three COL4A1 proteins. Thus, ... COL4A1 belongs to the type IV collagen family and contains three domains: a short N-terminal domain, a long triple-helical 7S ...
Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and diameter of type II collagen fibrils. Type II collagen is an important ... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Instead, another type of collagen chain replaces pro-alpha2(XI) to form type XI collagen in the vitreous of the eye. COL11A2 ... The COL11A2 gene produces one component of this type of collagen, called the pro-alpha2(XI) chain. Type XI collagen adds ...
"Entrez Gene: COL4A4 collagen, type IV, alpha 4". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... Murata K, Motayama T, Kotake C (1986). "Collagen types in various layers of the human aorta and their changes with the ...
"Entrez Gene: COL23A1 collagen, type XXIII, alpha 1". Banyard J, Bao L, Zetter BR (June 2003). "Type XXIII collagen, a new ... The molecule of collagen XXIII can be found either in membrane-bond form or in shed form. Type XXIII collagen is expressed in ... Collagen XXIII is a type II transmembrane protein and the fourth in the subfamily of non-fibrillar transmembranous collagens. ... Collagen XXIII shows structural homology with collagen XIII and collagen XXV . Apart from having the characteristic structure ...
Latvanlehto A, Snellman A, Tu H, Pihlajaniemi T (2003). "Type XIII collagen and some other transmembrane collagens contain two ... Collagen XIII belongs to the transmembranous subfamily of collagens, like collagen XVII, XXIII and XXV. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... 2002). "The type XIII collagen ectodomain is a 150-nm rod and capable of binding to fibronectin, nidogen-2, perlecan, and ... 1998). "Type XIII collagen is identified as a plasma membrane protein". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (25): 15590-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Collagen, type I, alpha 1, also known as alpha-1 type I collagen, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL1A1 gene. ... the structure of type I collagen is compromised. Tissues that are rich in type I collagen, such as the skin, bones, and tendons ... Ehlers-Danlos type IV is most attributed to abnormalities in the reticular fibers (collagen Type III). Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ...
This condition is caused by a mutation of COL7A1, the gene that codes for a type of collagen 7. Epidermis (skin) Dermis Lamina ... Anchoring fibrils (composed largely of type VII collagen) extend from the basal lamina of epithelial cells and attach to the ... Keene, Douglas R.; Sakai, Lynn Y.; Lunstrum, Gregory P.; Morris, Nicholas P.; Burgeson, Robert E. (1987). "Type VII collagen ... Burgeson, Robert E. (1993). "Type VII Collagen, Anchoring Fibrils, and Epidermolysis Bullosa". Journal of Investigative ...
Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... "Entrez Gene: COL9A3 collagen, type IX, alpha 3". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Dominant ...
Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, a collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... "Entrez Gene: COL9A1 collagen, type IX, alpha 1". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Dominant ...
... type III collagen is also an important regulator of the diameter of type I and II collagen fibrils. Type III collagen is also ... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Type III collagen could also be important in several other human diseases. Increased amounts of type III collagen are found in ... Type III collagen is one of the fibrillar collagens whose proteins have a long, inflexible, triple-helical domain. Type III ...
... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... "Entrez Gene: COL5A2 collagen, type V, alpha 2". Mann K (1992). "Isolation of the alpha 3-chain of human type V collagen and ... type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This ...
It has been reported that biglycan interacts more strongly with collagen type II than collagen type I. Biglycan has been ... Pogány G, Hernandez DJ, Vogel KG (August 1994). "The in vitro interaction of proteoglycans with type I collagen is modulated by ... "Binding of the proteoglycan decorin to collagen type VI". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (8): 5250-6. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)42759-7. ... "Interaction of biglycan with type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (6): 2776-83. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.6.2776. PMID 7852349. ...
"Duplication of type IV collagen COOH-terminal repeats and species-specific expression of alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A2 collagen, type IV, alpha 2". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C- ...
The COL11A1 gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a ... collagen cDNA demonstrates that type XI belongs to the fibrillar class of collagens and reveals that the expression of the gene ... "Entrez Gene: COL11A1 collagen, type XI, alpha 1". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Stickler Syndrome Yoshioka H, Ramirez F ( ... Keene DR, Oxford JT, Morris NP (1995). "Ultrastructural localization of collagen types II, IX, and XI in the growth plate of ...
It encodes the alpha chain of type XVII collagen. Collagen XVII is a transmembrane protein, like collagen XIII, XXIII and XXV. ... which in turn causes a type of osteogenesis imperfecta. Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with Keratin 18 ... Collagen XVII is a homotrimer of three alpha1(XVII)-chains and a transmembrane protein in type II orientation. Each 180 kD a- ... 2015). "Mutations in collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 (COL17A1) cause epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophy (ERED)". Hum. Mutat. ...
... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... "Entrez Gene: COL5A1 collagen, type V, alpha 1". Mann K (1992). "Isolation of the alpha 3-chain of human type V collagen and ... type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This ...
"Enzymatic Phosphorylation of Ser in a Type I Collagen Peptide". Biophysical Journal. 115 (12): 2327-2335. Bibcode:2018BpJ... ... Chen, Eric A.; Lin, Yu-Shan (November 1, 2019). "Using synthetic peptides and recombinant collagen to understand DDR-collagen ... "Collagen Gly missense mutations: Effect of residue identity on collagen structure and integrin binding". Journal of Structural ... Lin and her lab use molecular dynamics simulations to understand how the structure, stability, and interactions of collagen are ...
Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... "Entrez Gene: COL9A2 collagen, type IX, alpha 2". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Dominant ...
... which codes for production of type XVIII collagen. It is speculated that the mutation of type XVIII collagen that occurs in ... Type XVIII collagen is a type of collagen which can be cleaved to form endostatin. The endostatin is from the c terminus end of ... This type of mutation particularly affects only one isoform of type XVIII collagen - the short isoform type, while the medium ... When type XVIII collagen is mutated at the COL18A1 gene, exon 2 in the sequence is skipped, which results in production of an ...
"Collagen Type XVIII" by people in this website by year, and whether "Collagen Type XVIII" was a major or minor topic of these ... A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ... "Collagen Type XVIII" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Collagen Type XVIII*Collagen Type XVIII. *Type XVIII, Collagen. *Type XVIII Collagen ...
Collagen Type VIII / genetics* * Collagen Type XVIII * DNA Mutational Analysis * Electroretinography * Encephalocele / ...
Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ...
Increased concentrations of fibronectin and collagen XVIII were also seen in this patient. Although types I and III collagens ... Fluorescent intensity of collagen type XVIII and fibronectin in normal and scleroderma skin. ... The distribution and levels of collagens type I and III (Research Diagnostics Inc.®, Flanders, NJ) and XVIII (Antibody against ... and collagens type I, III and XVIII.. Results and conclusions.-Dermo-epidermal cleavage, fibrosis and inflammation are the main ...
Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ...
... chain that is used to assemble a larger protein called type VII collagen. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... these mutations alter a part of type VII collagen known as the triple helical domain. This region gives type VII collagen its ... chains that cannot form type VII collagen. As a result, little type VII collagen is available to make anchoring fibrils. This ... which affects the production of type VII collagen. When type VII collagen is abnormal or missing, anchoring fibrils cannot form ...
Rat tail collagen (High Concentration, type 1; BD Biosciences), 1 N NaOH, and serum-free EBM-2 (Lonza) with or without ... The ECs were trypsinized and added to the collagen solution to produce the EC-collagen mixture (1 × 106 cells/ml and 3 mg/ml ... anti-collagen type I (C-18; Santa Cruz Biotechnology); anti-phospho-FAK (Tyr397; Cell Signaling Technology); anti-FAK (Cell ... anti-collagen type I (Rockland); anti-elastin (Elastin Products); anti-vimentin (GP53; PROGEN Biotechnik); anti-CD14 (M-305; ...
Apparent deficiency of mucosal vascular collagen type IV associated with angiodysplasia of the colon. J Clin Pathol. 1998 Jan. ... Roskell et al demonstrated a relative deficiency of collagen type IV in the mucosal vessels in angiodysplasia compared to ... The percentage of colonic lesions with a size of more than 5 mm or elevated type detected in Japanese patients was ... The beneficial effects of argon plasma coagulation in the management of different types of gastric vascular ectasia lesions in ...
Still further, the collagen produced by the methods described herein is suitable to be used in cosmetics, food products, and ... Further, the collagen produced by the methods described herein is substantially free of odor and discoloration. ... Disclosed herein are methods for efficiently isolating collagen form a collagen source. The methods are inexpensive and do not ... Fibrillar types of collagen include Types I, II, III, V, and XI. Type I collagen makes up a great deal of the organic part of ...
C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen types I (uCTX-I) and II (uCTX-II) and radiographs. After 6 months: VAS, uCTX- ... chondroitin sulfate and collagen type II (GCC). The following information was collected at entry: demographics, BMI, ... urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type II collagen (uCTX-II), and bone degradation, urinary C-terminal cross- ... linking telopeptides of type I collagen (uCTX-I), structural progression of osteoarthritis (OA) and potential therapeutic ...
Salivary type I collagen degradation end-products and related matrix in periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2013 Jan;40(1):18-25. ... Both periodontitis and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common diseases with a multifactorial etiology and have influence ... Estimation of Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-4 and 6 in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and Type II ... Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4 and-6 in the serum of health, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. J ...
"The best collagen for anti-ageing is a combination of the three types. Type 1 and Type 3 are the most effective at anti-ageing ... 3. Collagen. This is a protein in the body that improves skin elasticity and reduces fine lines and wrinkles. Best says women ... That said, long-term use of selenium supplements may be linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cancer - but there ... The function of vitamin E, according to Antoine, is that it protects against collagen crosslinking, and stops the oxidation of ...
... the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin is a C-terminal fragment of collagen XV/XVIII, a proteoglycan/collagen found in vessel ... collagen alpha-1(XV) chain. Names. collagen XV, alpha-1 polypeptide. collagen type XV proteoglycan. collagen, type XV, alpha 1 ... COL15A1 collagen type XV alpha 1 chain [Homo sapiens] COL15A1 collagen type XV alpha 1 chain [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1306 ... This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XV collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with ...
Discover all your need to know about the different types of sugar, and find the answers to some sweet sugar FAQs. ... When we eat sugary foods, sugar molecules bind to protein structures such as collagen and elastin that help keep skin plump. ... Other types of sugar. These types of sugar will fall into the categories above. ... But too much sugar is a leading contributor to heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and even some cancers. ...
One type has a surprising role on voting day. When the ballot is folded and dropped in the ballot box, something strange ... hyaluronic acid and collagen. Many women use it as part of their makeup set. ... Paper is used in every aspect of daily life, and in Japan the race is on to develop technologies for new types of paper that ... A world of possibilities: Paper processing and special types of paper. The "air vase" is the result of highly advanced ...
Eighteen essential amino acids are found in gelatin; beef gelatin is the most nutritious type. ... Many people take collagen supplements to combat this effect.. When collagen breaks down in the body we get cellulite. Many ... Gelatin is a form of collagen, a key protein in the body. About a quarter of body mass is collagen, and we need it for skin ... Collagen is a major element of bone composition. Some studies suggest that taking collagen can increase bone mass density; ...
A novel recombinant peptide containing only two T-cell tolerance epitopes of chicken type II collagen that suppresses collagen- ... Keywords: Vitiligo, heterologous type I collagen, narrowband ultraviolet B, phototherapy, collagen, ultraviolet ... Heterologous Type I Collagen as an Add-on Therapy to Narrowband Ultraviolet B for the Treatment of Vitiligo: A Pilot Study. ... Objective. We sought to evaluate the possible efficacy of heterologous type I collagen as an add-on therapy to narrowband ...
JTD Keywords: Collagen type IV, SAMs, AFM, Surface-induced protein assembly, Endothelial cells, Vascular grafts ... JTD Keywords: Type IV collagen, Adsorption, Remodeling, Pericellular proteolysis, Reorganization, Substratum chemistry, CH3 and ... Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we seek to follow the nanoscale behavior of adsorbed type IV collagen (Col IV)-a unique ... Considering the structural role of type IV collagen (Col IV) in the assembly of the basement membrane (BM) and the perspective ...
Collagen XVIII is found in the basement membranes of several parts of the eye, including the vitreous and retina, among other ... When the condition is caused by COL18A1 gene mutations, it is sometimes referred to as Knobloch syndrome type I. Research ... Lack of collagen XVIII/endostatin results in eye abnormalities. EMBO J. 2002 Apr 2;21(7):1535-44. doi: 10.1093/emboj/21.7.1535 ... Collagen XVIII, containing an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth, plays a critical role in the maintenance ...
Association of NF-E2 Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) and inflammatory cytokines in recent onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sci Rep 2018 ... In contrast, the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is needed to balance the fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition ... Association of NF-E2 Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) and inflammatory cytokines in recent onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sci Rep 2018 ... collagen)[20] and releases various bioactive proteins that include growth factors, one of which is TGF-1. Platelets contain 95 ...
because its marine type of collagen. pls do more research before consume any supplement. ... Have you tried this collagen drink or any other collagen drink? Did you experience any results? Should I try it and see how it ... drinking collagen is better than applying collagen onto your skin… apparently, those cosmetics/skincare products that claim ... It contains marine collagen and a mixture of fruit drinks. Its quite tasty so it wasnt hard to drink this everyday. ...
... safe for all skin types, sensitive skin, skincare, skincare device, smoother skin, stimulate collagen production, tone ... Tag: stimulate collagen production. Auria Vita Trio Review. The Auria Vita Trio is a 3-in-1 at-home microdermabrasion device ... The device is clinically proven to be safe and effective for all skin types, including sensitive skin. The Vita Trio comes with ... October 18, 2023. Categorized as Skin Tagged and health, and sebum, at-home microdermabrasion, Auria Vita Trio, brighter skin, ...
In addition to its role in the formation of epithelium and vasculature, type IV collagen appears to be key for alveolar ... Our study showed that type IV collagen and, therefore the basement membrane, play fundamental roles in coordinating alveolar ... Lastly, we revealed that addition of type IV collagen protein induced myofibroblast proliferation and migration in monolayer ... the specific role of type IV collagen in regulating alveologenesis remains unknown. We have performed a microarray expression ...
A monoclonal antibody to the carboxyterminal domain of procollagen type I visualizes collagen synthesizing fibroblasts. J Clin ... Immunohistochemical evidence of a fibroblastic neoplasm with ongoing type I collagen synthesis. Am J Dermatopathol 1995;17:339- ... 18.. Satoh T, Katsumata M, Asaka Y, Tokura Y, Takigawa M: Solitary sclerotic fibroma of the skin. Int J Dermatol 1991;30:505- ...
Endostatin is a C-terminal fragment of type XVIII collagen and it is the strongest endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis [114, ... In many cancer types, the anti-VEGF resistant tumors present increased expression of FGF and/or FGFR upon hypoxia [45,46] that ... Cancer Types. Study Phase. Primary Endpoint. Registration. Date. Status *. NCT00790010. ipilimumab + bevacizumab. between ... In different cancer types aberrant PDGF signaling leads to the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors, promoting an increase in ...
The proteases involved are of different origins and types: (i) present as precursor in plasma, (ii) secreted into the plasma by ... The proteases involved are of different origins and types: (i) present as precursor in plasma, (ii) secreted into the plasma by ... Itoh Y Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases: their functions and regulations. Matrix Biol. (2015) 46:207-23. doi: 10.1016/j. ... Cleavage by MMP-13 renders VWF unable to bind to collagen but increases its platelet reactivity. J Thromb Haemost. (2020) 18: ...
Click here for the 18 favorites that made the cut. ... It boosts collagen in the skin, minimizes fine lines and ... This was such an amazing opportunity for me to learn about different skin types and skin conditions. This was also where I ... One of the most notable antioxidants in skincare is vitamin C because it is essential for the formation of collagen in the skin ... It stops the glycation process of the skin in which sugars attack and breakdown our collagen and elastin fibers, weakening the ...
... type I, alpha 2), -3a1 (collagen, type III, alpha 1), -5a2 (collagen, type V, alpha 2), -6a3 (collagen, type VI, alpha 3), ... Collagen fibrils of the sclera are arranged in layers (lamellae) and are relatively similar to the collagen arrangement of the ... also previously demonstrated to promote synthesis of collagen type I [19]. In agreement with these findings, our results also ... collagens was longer in older rabbit eyes, and thus collagen synthesis might be reduced in older age. Our results correlated ...
In clinical studies of up to two yearsduration, FOSAMAX 5 and 10 mg/day reduced cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen ... such as deoxypyridinoline and cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen). These biochemical changes tended to return ... deoxypyridinoline and cross-linked N-telopeptides of type l collagen, by approximately 50% and 70%, respectively, to reach ... osteoporosis with FOSAMAX 10 mg/day for two years reduced urinary excretion of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen ...
  • Type XVIII collagen is a type of collagen which can be cleaved to form endostatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endostatin is from the c terminus end of the collagen XVIII, and is known to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knobloch Syndrome is a type of inherited autosomal recessive disorder in which a mutation occurs in the endostatin COL18A1 protein encoding gene, which codes for production of type XVIII collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is speculated that the mutation of type XVIII collagen that occurs in Knobloch syndrome can be located in several variants of endostatin, a gene that interacts with type XVIII collagen to not only develop the ocular system, but to also maintain its visual functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage. (musc.edu)
  • Collagen XVIII/endostatin is essential for vision and retinal pigment epithelial function. (musc.edu)
  • Endostatin, an anti-angiogenic C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, has been recently reported to play a role in scleroderma pathogenesis, but collagen XVIII immunohistochemistry in scleroderma skin has still not been performed. (cdlib.org)
  • The proteolytically produced C-terminal fragment of type XV collagen is restin, a potentially antiangiogenic protein that is closely related to endostatin. (nih.gov)
  • Lack of collagen XVIII/endostatin results in eye abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, understanding what each of these 28 different collagen types does can be a challenging experience. (bodynutrition.org)
  • McDonald JA, Broekelmann TJ, Matheke ML, Crouch E, Koo M, Kuhn C 3rd: A monoclonal antibody to the carboxyterminal domain of procollagen type I visualizes collagen synthesizing fibroblasts. (karger.com)
  • Researchers classify dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa into a few major types based on the inheritance pattern and features of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The recessive types of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) result from mutations in both copies of the COL7A1 gene in each cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A lack of type VII collagen is the cause of a severe condition called dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Injection of recombinant human type VII collagen restores collagen function in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. (medscape.com)
  • Collagens are a family of proteins that strengthen and support connective tissues, such as skin, bone, tendons, and ligaments, throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine relationship between disease activity, systemic markers of cartilage degradation, urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type II collagen (uCTX-II), and bone degradation, urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen (uCTX-I), structural progression of osteoarthritis (OA) and potential therapeutic efficacy of type II collagen (COLLII) in combination with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (GC). (springer.com)
  • Approximately 90% of the organic matrix of bone is type I collagen, a helical protein that is cross-linked at the N- and C-terminal ends of the molecule. (practo.com)
  • The amino acid sequences and orientation of the cross-linked alpha 2 N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen make it a specific marker of human bone resorption. (practo.com)
  • Synthetic mineral collagen composite bone graft with ribose. (lww.com)
  • The aim of present case report was to investigate if synthetic mineral collagen composite bone graft (CBG) with ribose cross-linked collagen membrane (RCLM) may be successfully used to obtain lateral augmentation of alveolar ridge that is planned for dental implant placement. (lww.com)
  • 4 , 5 ] The present study consists of a case report aimed at investigating the effect of composite bone graft (CBG) with ribose cross-linked collagen membrane (RCLM) in lateral augmentation of alveolar ridge that is planned for dental implant placement. (lww.com)
  • Introduction and Objective: Because L-PRP constitutes an important source of growth factor that is associated with osteogenesis and fibrogenesis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-PRP on the presence of collagen III and MMP-2 and MMP-9, while comparing these results by means of a histomorphometric analysis of bone matrix and fibrous deposition on bone repair. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regardless of this justification, some studies have demonstrated negative action of L-PRP on osteogenesis 1,10,16,18 at the same time that fibrosis is produced 5,6 generating conflict about the real clinical effect of L-PRP in bone reparative sites. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the immunolocalization of MMP-2 and -9 and collagen III in rabbit calvarium bone defects treated with and without L-PRP insertion. (bvsalud.org)
  • Relation of JAGGED 1 and collagen type 1 alpha 1 polymorphisms with bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women. (cdc.gov)
  • Type VII collagen is the major component of structures in the skin called anchoring fibrils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When type VII collagen is abnormal or missing, anchoring fibrils cannot form properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, little type VII collagen is available to make anchoring fibrils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the abnormally shaped collagen molecules are incorporated into anchoring fibrils, they interfere with the fibrils' normal function and prevent them from effectively connecting the epidermis and the dermis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • BioCell Collagen II® is a low molecular weight, water-soluble glycosaminoglycan complex completely derived from chicken sternum cartilage. (vitacost.com)
  • BioCell Collagen II has clinically documented bioavailability, and has been shown to support joint health and skin hydration. (vitacost.com)
  • Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to assess repair time, as well as the expression of collagen III and MMPs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the process is unclear, the COL18A1 gene mutations result in the loss of collagen XVIII protein, which likely causes the signs and symptoms of Knobloch syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the condition is caused by COL18A1 gene mutations, it is sometimes referred to as Knobloch syndrome type I. Research indicates that mutations in at least two other genes that have not been identified may cause Knobloch syndrome types II and III. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mutations in type XVIII collagen result in a multitude of abnormalities in vision and eye structure, some of which include high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, macular abnormalities, and occipital encephalocele. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations alter the structure or disrupt the production of the pro-α1(VII) chain protein, which affects the production of type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the COL7A1 gene mutations responsible for RDEB-sev gen result in production of abnormally short pro-α1(VII) chains that cannot form type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Somewhat less severe forms of RDEB, grouped as the generalized and localized types (RDEB-gen and -loc), are caused by other types of mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In many cases, these mutations alter a part of type VII collagen known as the triple helical domain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations that substitute other amino acids for glycine in this region can disrupt the triple-stranded structure of type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • DDEB can also be caused by other types of mutations, particularly changes that affect the folding of type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the COL7A1 gene can also cause a rare condition called epidermolysis bullosa with congenital localized absence of skin (also known as Bart syndrome or aplasia cutis congenita type VI). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most COL18A1 gene mutations lead to an abnormally short version of the genetic blueprint used to make the collagen XVIII protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in collagen 18A1 and their relevance to the human phenotype. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the gene related to collagen type III result in severe conditions such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Thick and hyaline collagen fibers are found, as well as lymphatic ectasia and pilosebaceous atrophy that extends to the hypodermic region (Fig. 2). (cdlib.org)
  • The apparently normal skin from the patient with scleroderma shows histological signs of the disease, with thick collagen fibers and lymphatic ectasia. (cdlib.org)
  • It has a special configuration that gives particular elastic properties to protein: collagen fibers are located in the extracellular matrix and have the capacity to increase or reduce their volume according to the degree of compression to which they are subjected. (springer.com)
  • Because Radiofrequency (RF) energy has been shown to renew and restore spatial structural arrangement of collagen fibers, treatment of ED with RF could lead to anatomical and physiological changes at the penile tissue level and could lead to improvement in the erectile mechanism. (researchgate.net)
  • Collagens are a big family of proteins, the main one forming connective tissue in all higher animals. (springer.com)
  • Type XV collagen has a wide tissue distribution but the strongest expression is localized to basement membrane zones so it may function to adhere basement membranes to underlying connective tissue stroma. (nih.gov)
  • The sclera is a fibrous connective tissue consisting of 90% collagen and a small percentage of proteoglycans and glycoproteins. (molvis.org)
  • Type VI collagen is another prevalent collagen in connective tissue, although it plays a different role than the previous types. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers 2014 Nov 18 (11): 736-40. (cdc.gov)
  • When type XVIII collagen is mutated at the COL18A1 gene, exon 2 in the sequence is skipped, which results in production of an early termination codon in exon 4 of this gene's transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COL18A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that forms collagen XVIII, which is found in the basement membranes of tissues throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The collagen XVIII is located within the basement membrane, and plays a major role in the integrity of the structure of the basement membrane for both endothelial and epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type XVIII collagen functions to provide strength, structural integrity, and cohesiveness to the basement membrane region in endothelial and epithelial cells of many different types of tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. (musc.edu)
  • Type IV collagen is the main component of the basement membrane that gives strength to the blood-gas barrier (BGB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study showed that type IV collagen and, therefore the basement membrane, play fundamental roles in coordinating alveolar morphogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collagen type IV forms part of a specific cellular structure called the "basement membrane. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Collagen Type VIII is rarely found in the musculoskeletal system - instead, it forms hexagonal networks in Descemet's membrane. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Observations on a new collagen barrier membrane in 16 consecutively treated patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • A comparative study of the effects of advanced platelet-rich fibrin and resorbable collagen membrane in the treatment of gingival recession: a split-mouth, randomized, clinical trial. (who.int)
  • The collagen membrane was cut into small strips and moistened with normal saline before being inserted through the pinhole into the interdental papillae and over the root surface. (who.int)
  • 4 Heterologous type I collagen (HTIC) has been shown to promote cell and fibroblast proliferation and improve cutaneous extracellular matrix metabolism. (jcadonline.com)
  • In contrast, the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is needed to balance the fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition to prevent fibrosis. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Lastly, we revealed that addition of type IV collagen protein induced myofibroblast proliferation and migration in monolayer culture and increased the formation of mesenchymal-epithelial septal-like structures in co-culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to its role in the formation of epithelium and vasculature, type IV collagen appears to be key for alveolar myofibroblast development by inducing their proliferation, differentiation and migration throughout the developing septum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Visfatin is a novel adipokine involved in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines, however, the effects of visfatin on proliferation and collagen synthesis of CFs are unclear. (thieme-connect.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether visfatin has any effect on the proliferation and collagen synthesis in rat CFs. (thieme-connect.com)
  • These results suggest that visfatin promote CFs proliferation and collagen synthesis via p38MAPK, PI3K, and ERK 1/2 pathways rather than JNK pathways, which also indicate that visfatin might play a role in myocardial fibrosis. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Similarly, CNT/F exposure (0-2 microg/cm2) to PHFs elicited increased cell proliferation and collagen I production that was greater with increased primary particle diameter. (cdc.gov)
  • Renin-angiotensin system and myocardial fibrosis in hypertension: regulation of the myocardial collagen matrix. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Conclusion: Thus, the results suggest that L-PRP not only induces an intense fibrosis rich in collagen III, which is not degraded, but also suppresses MMP-2 and -9 expressions, mimicking a similar pathological event as that of a cleft-palate or cranial suture. (bvsalud.org)
  • Collagen is a crucial protein that helps your body support many of its structures, such as tendons, ligaments, eyes, and skin. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Collagen is a protein that is the building block for many of your body's structures, including your skin, bones, and tendons. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Collagen I's presence in tendons and ligaments has earned it the top place in a sub-classification called "fibril-forming collagens. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Type II collagen also forms part of the fibril-forming sub-group, as it's present in structures such as tendons, skin, and ligaments. (bodynutrition.org)
  • A combination of calcium phosphate-based mineral with carbon apatite structure and type 1 collagen derived from bovine Achilles tendon has been introduced for augmentation of alveolar ridge and periodontal defects. (lww.com)
  • With the increasing molecular definition of several types of collagen and recognition of the concentration of certain types in cartilage tissue, many skeletal dysplasias came to be defined as collagen abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • Because an abnormality in type II collagen should affect the molecules throughout the body, it remains unclear how the currently defined abnormality can translate into major structural abnormalities of the vertebrae and capital femoral epiphysis while leaving the distal femur, proximal tibia, and other regions structurally unaffected. (medscape.com)
  • The process of thrombus formation is considered to be initiated by von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding to exposed collagen or laminin in the damaged vessel wall, followed by shear-dependent platelet binding to VWF through the glycoprotein (GP)Ib-V-IX complex ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The flow-dependent adhesion of platelets to those and other extracellular matrix components is stabilized by a panel of integrins, including integrin α 2 β 1 , α IIb β 3 , and α 6 β 1 (adhesive platelet population), while the initial activation of platelets is achieved by signaling via the collagen/laminin receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). (frontiersin.org)
  • Company to discuss new clinical study that demonstrates how Peptan collagen peptides aid faster recovery from exercise. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • The type I product range of Peptan collagen peptides offers holistic health benefits, acting as building blocks to support musculoskeletal health. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • The latest results of a new clinical study on the effect of type I Peptan collagen peptides on recovery from exercise will be revealed during the " Nutritional Strategies for Exercise Recovery " workshop on Thursday, Nov. 8. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Peptan collagen peptides are a collagen type I ingredient with a unique amino acid profile that acts as building blocks for healthy skin, muscles, bones and joints. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • In active nutrition, collagen peptides such as Peptan have shown to have a positive impact on maintaining healthy joints and bones and aiding optimal muscle recovery. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • As official sponsor of the " Nutritional Strategies for Exercise Recovery " workshop, which will be available to visitors that register on Thursday, Nov. 8 at 2 pm at the North Convention Center, Rousselot will reveal a newly-released clinical study that demonstrates how Peptan collagen peptides can aid faster recovery from exercise. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Shitabata PK, Crouch EC, Fitzgibbon JF, Swanson PE, Adesokan PN, Wick MR: Cutaneous sclerotic fibroma: Immunohistochemical evidence of a fibroblastic neoplasm with ongoing type I collagen synthesis. (karger.com)
  • Incorporation of [ 3 H]-thymidine and [ 3 H]-proline were used for evaluating DNA and collagen synthesis. (thieme-connect.com)
  • We demonstrated that visfatin significantly increased DNA and collagen synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. (thieme-connect.com)
  • Studies have indicated abnormal synthesis of type II collagen in SED congenita. (medscape.com)
  • If you have a medical condition, are pregnant, lactating, trying to conceive, under the age of 18, or taking medications, consult your health care practitioner before using this product. (vitacost.com)
  • Some research has suggested that abnormal forms of type VII collagen that retain a procollagen fragment called the NC1 domain may increase the risk of tumor formation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When creating gelatin, the aim is to remove as much collagen as possible. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • beef gelatin is the most nutritious type. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Gelatin has lots of collagen, and we need collagen for beautiful, plump skin that doesn't thin out as we get older. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Many people take collagen supplements to combat this effect, but why do that when gelatin powder is a more affordable food source of collagen? (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Gelatin is a form of collagen, a key protein in the body. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Throughout the show, Rousselot and Peptan experts will be available to provide advice on how latest gelatin and collagen innovations can provide endless opportunities when formulating supplements to address key market trends. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Tumor suppression by collagen XV is independent of the restin domain. (nih.gov)
  • Key molecular-initiating events (MIE) and functional responses were screened over a wide dose range (0-60 microg/ml) in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1), both wild-type and NLRP3 inflammasome deficient cells, and in primary human lung fibroblast cells (PHF). (cdc.gov)
  • Articular cartilage is divided into four zones-superficial, intermediate, deep and calcified-according to morphology, the orientation of collagen fiber, and the proteoglycan content. (springer.com)
  • Peptan IIm contains glycosaminoglycan matrix components (GAGs) and hydrolyzed collagen type II, matrix elements similar as found in human cartilage, in one single ingredient. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Type II collagen is a primary matrix protein of physeal and epiphyseal cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • Note disproportionately short stature with mesomelic shortening and deformities of forearms and legs (in mesomelic dysplasia) and short forearms with Madelung-type deformity (in Leri-Weill syndrome). (medscape.com)
  • Infant with Beemer-type (left) and an infant with Majewski-type (right) short-rib syndrome (SRS). (medscape.com)
  • Child with Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IH). (medscape.com)
  • This collagen can, like type III, cause conditions like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome when the gene is not functioning correctly. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Although they are caused by alterations in different genes, the three types of the condition have similar signs and symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In general, mRNA levels of ECM and collagen genes have been found to be downregulated in both the adult mouse sclera [ 6 ] and cornea [ 7 ] when compared with samples from an earlier developmental stage. (molvis.org)
  • 6 ], the transforming growth factor beta 1 ( Tgfβ1 ) gene and several collagen genes were significantly downregulated in 8-week-old B6 mice scleras when compared with 3-week-old B6 mice scleras. (molvis.org)
  • Collagen XVIII is found in the basement membranes of several parts of the eye, including the vitreous and retina, among other tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It accounts for 90% of your total collagen and is crucial in forming connective and load-bearing tissues. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Type V collagen is another fibril-forming group member present in most of your body's connective tissues. (bodynutrition.org)
  • The function of vitamin E, according to Antoine, is that it protects against collagen crosslinking, and stops the oxidation of lipids linked to ageing and the skin. (afr.com)
  • Our aim is to report a rare case of bullous scleroderma, studying the presence of fibronectin and collagens type I, III and XVIII in sclerodermic skin. (cdlib.org)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence measured by laser confocal microscopy allows quantitative determination of fibronectin and collagens type I, III and XVIII. (cdlib.org)
  • Conversely, both fibronectin and collagen XVIII are increased in scleroderma skin, suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of bullous scleroderma. (cdlib.org)
  • Recombinant human collagen XV regulates cell adhesion and migration. (nih.gov)
  • d - i Type IV collagen protein and mRNA expression in the lung. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was also found that visfatin upregulated collagen I and III production, procollagen I and III mRNA expression and protein production. (thieme-connect.com)
  • These results coincided with the larger occurrence of diffuse collagen III deposition and the scarce presence of MMP- 2 and -9 spread among the fibrous tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • The dominant collagen of this tissue is type II collagen (COLLII), together with smaller quantities of other collagens (IX, XII). (springer.com)
  • Both periodontitis and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common diseases with a multifactorial etiology and have influence of cytokines in their pathogenesis and thus may also influence each other. (thejcdp.com)
  • Japanese researchers have found that a specific type of collagen is responsible for damaging hair follicle stem cells in mice, leading to hair loss, and think the same mechanism is responsible for hair loss in people. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • The phenomenon was observed in the skin of mice that were 18 months old, the age at which hair loss in mice begins. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • In mice lacking type XVII collagen, damaged stem cells turned themselves into skin cells and sloughed off from the scalp as scurf, resulting in hair loss. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Mice that continued to produce the collagen were found to be less prone to hair loss despite aging. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Here, we used myeloperoxidase knockout B6.129X1-MPO (MPO k/o) mice and showed that oxidation and clearance of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) from the lungs of these animals after pharyngeal aspiration was markedly less effective whereas the inflammatory response was more robust than in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice. (cdc.gov)
  • B6.129X1-MPO (MPO k/o) vs wild-type C57Bl/6 mice (w/t) and induction of mesotheliomas) [8,9]. (cdc.gov)
  • The COL7A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called pro-α1(VII) chain that is used to assemble a larger protein called type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many of these genetic changes alter the structure of the pro-α1(VII) chain protein such that it cannot form normal type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XV collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). (nih.gov)
  • Collagen is an essential component of the structures involved in the erectile mechanism and as such, impaired collagen may hinder it. (researchgate.net)
  • Surprisingly, and unlike most other collagens, type IV collagen is exclusively present on basement membranes. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Five patients with non-segmental vitiligo older than 18 years with bilateral and approximately symmetrical vitiligo lesions that did not evolve in size for at least six months were included. (jcadonline.com)
  • Then the molecules arrange themselves into long, thin bundles of mature type VII collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The dermal distribution and amounts of collagens and in the scleroderma patient are similar to normal skin. (cdlib.org)
  • In particular, type VII collagen plays an essential role in strengthening and stabilizing the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About a quarter of body mass is collagen, and we need it for skin elasticity and tone, two key factors that contribute to youthful looking skin. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • It must be where I get it from 😛 Anyway, about 3 months back, Mom came up to me and excitedly told me about collagen beauty drinks she'd read about in the papers and asked me if it might work to boost collagen in the skin, to prevent sagging skin and wrinkles etc. (mywomenstuff.com)
  • It is possibly a combination of everything and I do think this collagen drink has helped my skin all over. (mywomenstuff.com)
  • I believe its a combination of everything she takes and uses on her skin and perhaps this Collagen drink has helped her. (mywomenstuff.com)
  • The device is clinically proven to be safe and effective for all skin types, including sensitive skin. (sdss.tv)
  • When shopping for skincare products, there are so many things that need to be considered: skin type, skin tone, skin concerns, skin goals, budget, and even time constraints. (whowhatwear.com)
  • Type VII collagen is crucial to the skin, as it attaches the epidermis to the dermis - meaning that it rivets the outer layer of skin to the middle one. (bodynutrition.org)
  • The paper hit the market about 20 years ago, and now offers many types of moisturizing ingredients, including menthol, hyaluronic acid and collagen. (web-japan.org)
  • Collagen Type XVIII" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • Collagen Type X" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the study led by Tokyo Medical and Dental University's Emi Nishimura, the team determined that type XVII collagen, found near hair follicle stem cells beneath the scalp, is the key to thinning hair. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Collagen type III is found along with type II in the fibrocartilage zone, although in fewer amounts. (bodynutrition.org)
  • Two selected nonfacial lesions of each patient were also treated with intradermal injections of heterologous type I collagen (HTIC) every two weeks. (jcadonline.com)
  • [ 1 ] In this modified classification, numeric AHA lesions types I to IV are replaced by descriptive terminology to include adaptive intimal thickening, intimal xanthoma, pathologic intimal thickening (PIT), and fibroatheroma, as shown in the table below. (medscape.com)
  • It was suggested that Tgfβ1 could possibly act as a signaling molecule in controlling collagen gene expression and modulate ECM during ocular growth. (molvis.org)
  • Mechanical stimulation led to a significant increase in chondrogenic gene expression, while histological analysis detected sulphated glycosaminoglycans and collagen II only in loaded specimens, confirming MC hydrogel suitability to support load induced MSCs chondrogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Lung development timeline and type IV collagen expression in the chicken and the mouse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (DMCU) result from a mutation in collagen type VI. (bvsalud.org)
  • and type VI, complicated plaques with surface defects, and/or hematoma-hemorrhage, and/or thrombosis. (medscape.com)