Collagen Type XIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Factor XIII Deficiency: A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Collagen Type V: A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Event: An event experienced by an infant or a child that is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, change in muscle tone, choking, and gagging.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental: Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thymoma: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Melissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Famous PersonsLamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Fetal Viability: The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Hydroxychloroquine: A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Galium: A genus of herbaceous annual and perennial plants in the family RUBIACEAE.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.New Orleans: City in Orleans Parish (county), largest city in state of LOUISIANA. It is located between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.ArthritisArthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Endostatins: Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Wnt2 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is frequently up-regulated in human GASTRIC CANCER and is a tumor marker (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) of gastric and COLORECTAL CANCER.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Mice, Inbred DBAHSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Streptothricins: A group of antibiotic aminoglycosides differing only in the number of repeating residues in the peptide side chain. They are produced by Streptomyces and Actinomyces and may have broad spectrum antimicrobial and some antiviral properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Collagen Type VIII: A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII: An x-linked recessive hepatic glycogen storage disease resulting from lack of expression of phosphorylase-b-kinase activity. Symptoms are relatively mild; hepatomegaly, increased liver glycogen, and decreased leukocyte phosphorylase are present. Liver shrinkage occurs in response to glucagon.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.TextilesBiological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.ThiomalatesGlutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Salivary Ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Submandibular Gland DiseasesSubmandibular Gland NeoplasmsSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.

Lack of cytosolic and transmembrane domains of type XIII collagen results in progressive myopathy. (1/11)

Type XIII collagen is a type II transmembrane protein found at many sites of cell adhesion in tissues. Homologous recombination was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (Col13a1(N/N)) that expresses N-terminally altered type XIII collagen molecules lacking the short cytosolic and transmembrane domains but retaining the large collagenous ectodomain. The mutant molecules were correctly transported to focal adhesions in cultured fibroblasts derived from the Col13a1(N/N) mice, but the cells showed decreased adhesion when plated on type IV collagen. These mice were viable and fertile, and in immunofluorescence stainings the mutant protein was located in adhesive tissue structures in the same manner as normal alpha1(XIII) chains. In immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type mice type XIII collagen was detected at the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells whereas in the mutant mice the protein was located in the adjacent extracellular matrix. Affected skeletal muscles showed abnormal myofibers with a fuzzy plasma membrane-basement membrane interphase along the muscle fiber and at the myotendinous junctions, disorganized myofilaments, and streaming of z-disks. The findings were progressive and the phenotype was aggravated by exercise. Thus type XIII collagen seems to participate in the linkage between muscle fiber and basement membrane, a function impaired by lack of the cytosolic and transmembrane domains.  (+info)

The type XIII collagen ectodomain is a 150-nm rod and capable of binding to fibronectin, nidogen-2, perlecan, and heparin. (2/11)

Type XIII collagen consists of a short N-terminal intracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a collagenous ectodomain, and it is found at many sites of cell adhesion. We report on the characterization of recombinant type XIII collagen. The shed ectodomain was purified from insect cell culture medium and shown to form 240-kDa trimers with a T(m) of 42 degrees C. Correct chain association into a triple-helical conformation was confirmed by limited pepsin digestion and CD spectroscopy. Rotary shadowing electron microscopy of the ectodomain revealed it to be a 150-nm rod with two flexible hinges separating 31-, 52-, and 68-nm portions. The rods represent the collagenous domains 1-3, and the hinges coincide with the non-collagenous domains 2 and 3. By using surface plasmon resonance analysis, the ectodomain showed interaction with immobilized fibronectin, nidogen-2, and perlecan with K(D) values in the nanomolar range. The binding sites of type XIII collagen for fibronectin were localized to the collagenous domains, whereas the binding activities for nidogen-2 and perlecan resided in the pepsin-sensitive portions of the ectodomain. Furthermore, the ectodomain bound significantly to heparin, which also inhibited shedding of the ectodomain in insect cell cultures. The results reveal that type XIII collagen is notably distinct in its structure compared with other cell-surface proteins, and the in vitro binding with fibronectin, heparin, and two basement membrane components is indicative of multiple cell-matrix interactions in which this ubiquitously expressed protein participates.  (+info)

Type XIII collagen and some other transmembrane collagens contain two separate coiled-coil motifs, which may function as independent oligomerization domains. (3/11)

Type XIII collagen is a homotrimeric transmembrane collagen composed of a short intracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning region, and an extracellular ectodomain with three collagenous domains (COL1-3) separated by short non-collagenous domains (NC1-4). Several collagenous transmembrane proteins have been found to harbor a conserved sequence next to their membrane-spanning regions, and in the case of type XIII collagen this sequence has been demonstrated to be important for chain association. We show here that this 21-residue sequence is necessary but not sufficient for NC1 association. Furthermore, the NC1 association region was predicted to form an alpha-helical coiled-coil structure, which may already begin at the membrane-spanning region, as is also predicted for the related collagen types XXIII and XXV. Interestingly, a second coiled-coil structure is predicted to be located in the NC3 domain of type XIII collagen and in the corresponding domains of types XXIII and XXV. It is found experimentally that the absence of the NC1 coiled-coil domain leads to a lack of disulfide-bonded trimers and misfolding of the membrane-proximal collagenous domain COL1, whereas the COL2 and COL3 domains are correctly folded. We suggest that the NC1 coiled-coil domain is important for association of the N-terminal part of the type XIII collagen alpha chains, whereas the NC3 coiled-coil domain is implicated in the association of the C-terminal part of the molecule. All in all, we propose that two widely separated coiled-coil domains of type XIII and related collagens function as independent oligomerization domains participating in the folding of distinct areas of the molecule.  (+info)

The shed ectodomain of type XIII collagen affects cell behaviour in a matrix-dependent manner. (4/11)

Transmembrane type XIII collagen resides in adhesive structures of cells and tissues, and has therefore been implicated in cell adhesion and in adhesion-dependent cell functions. This collagen also exists as a soluble protein in the pericellular matrix, as the ectodomain is released from the plasma membrane by proteolytic cleavage. Analysis with various protease inhibitors led to confirmation of the furin family of proprotein convertases as the protease group responsible for the shedding of the ectodomain, cleaving at a site conforming to the consensus sequence for the proprotein convertases at the stem of the ectodomain. Both the trans -Golgi network and the plasma membrane were used as cleavage locations. Mammalian cells employed various intracellular mechanisms to modulate shedding of the ectodomain, all resulting in a similar cleavage event. Cell detachment from the underlying substratum was also found to augment the excision. The released ectodomain rendered the pericellular surroundings less supportive of cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, as seen specifically on a vitronectin substratum. Type XIII collagen ectodomain shedding thus resulted in the formation of a soluble, biologically active molecule, which eventually modulated cell behaviour in a reciprocal and substratum-specific manner. The dual existence of membrane-bound and soluble variants widens our biological understanding of type XIII collagen.  (+info)

The shed ectodomain of type XIII collagen associates with the fibrillar fibronectin matrix and may interfere with its assembly in vitro. (5/11)

Type XIII collagen is a transmembrane collagen, which is known to exist also as a soluble variant due to ectodomain shedding. Earlier studies with the recombinant ectodomain have shown it to interact in vitro with a number of extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. Fn (fibronectin). In view of its strong binding to Fn, we examined in the present study whether the released soluble ectodomain can bind to the fibrillar Fn matrix under cell-culture conditions and, if so, influence its assembly. In this study, we demonstrate that the type XIII collagen ectodomain of mammalian cells can associate with Fn fibres and may eventually hamper incorporation of the fibrillar Fn meshwork. The association between type XIII collagen and Fn was implicated to be mediated by the C-terminal end of type XIII collagen and the N-terminal end of Fn. The results presented here imply that the shedding of the type XIII collagen ectodomain results in a biologically active molecule capable of remodelling the structure of the pericellular matrix.  (+info)

Modulation of the cellular cholesterol level affects shedding of the type XIII collagen ectodomain. (6/11)

Type XIII collagen is a transmembrane protein that also exists as a soluble extracellular variant because of ectodomain shedding by proprotein convertases. Because ectodomain shedding in a growing number of transmembrane proteins has recently been shown to be dependent on their localization in cholesterol-enriched detergent-resistant membrane microdomains, this work aimed at analyzing this aspect of type XIII collagen ectodomain processing. In HT-1080 cells type XIII collagen and its cleaving proprotein convertase furin localized partially in detergent-resistant cholesterol-containing membrane microdomains. Disruption of these domains by lowering either the level or availability of the cellular cholesterol reduced ectodomain shedding, implying that, in such membrane domains correct cholesterol level is important for the regulation of type XIII collagen ectodomain processing. In addition, we show here that ectodomain of type XIII collagen is also shed intracellularly. HT-1080 cells released vesicles from the Golgi apparatus, which contained only the cleaved variant. Intracellular processing and the subsequent entry of the cleaved ectodomain into the vesicles was totally blocked by inhibition of the proprotein convertase function by cell-permeable chloromethylketone, but not with cell-impermeable alpha1-antitrypsin Portland. This supports the hypothesis of type XIII collagen ectodomain also being cleaved intracellularly in the Golgi and suggests that the intracellular cleavage may act as a gating event in the vesicle-mediated ectodomain secretion.  (+info)

Cleavage and oligomerization of gliomedin, a transmembrane collagen required for node of ranvier formation. (7/11)

Gliomedin, which has been implicated as a major player in genesis of the nodes of Ranvier, contains two collagenous domains and an olfactomedin-like domain and belongs to the group of type II transmembrane collagens that includes collagens XIII and XVII and ectodysplasin A. One characteristic of this protein family is that constituent proteins can exist in both transmembrane and soluble forms. Recently, gliomedin expressed at the tips of Schwann cell microvilli was found to bind axonal adhesion molecules neurofascin and NrCAM in interactions essential for Na(+)-channel clustering at the nodes of Ranvier in myelinating peripheral nerves. Interestingly, exogenously added olfactomedin domain was found to have the same effect as intact gliomedin. Here we analyze the tissue form of gliomedin and demonstrate that the molecule not only exists as full-length gliomedin but also as a soluble form shed from the cell surface in a furin-dependent manner. In addition, gliomedin can be further proteolytically processed by bone morphogenetic protein 1/Tolloid-like enzymes, resulting in release of the olfactomedin domain from the collagen domains. Interestingly, the later cleavage induces formation of higher order, insoluble molecular aggregates that may play important roles in Na(+)-channel clustering.  (+info)

The role of disulfide bonds and alpha-helical coiled-coils in the biosynthesis of type XIII collagen and other collagenous transmembrane proteins. (8/11)

Type XIII collagen is a type II transmembrane protein with three collagenous (COL1-3) and four noncollagenous domains (NC1-4). The human alpha1(XIII) chain contains altogether eight cysteine residues. We introduced point mutations to six of the most N-terminal cysteine residues, and we show here that the two cysteines 117 and 119 at the end of the N-terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) are responsible for linking the three alpha1(XIII) chains together by means of interchain disulfide bonds. In addition, the intracellular and transmembrane domains have an impact on trimer formation, whereas the cysteines in the transmembrane domain and the COL1, the NC2, and the C-terminal NC4 domains do not affect trimer formation. We also suggest that the first three noncollagenous domains (NC1-3) harbor repeating heptad sequences typical of alpha-helical coiled-coils, whereas the conserved NC4 lacks a coiled-coil probability. Prevention of the coiled-coil conformation in the NC3 domain is shown here to result in labile type XIII collagen molecules. Furthermore, a new subgroup of collagenous transmembrane proteins, the Rattus norvegicus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans colmedins, is enlarged to contain also Homo sapiens collomin, and Pan troglodytes, Mus musculus, Tetraodon nigroviridis, and Dano rerio proteins. We suggest that there is a structurally varied group of collagenous transmembrane proteins whose biosynthesis is characterized by a coiled-coil motif following the transmembrane domain, and that these trimerization domains appear to be associated with each of the collagenous domains. In the case of type XIII collagen, the trimeric molecule has disulfide bonds at the junction of the NC1 and COL1 domains, and the type XIII collagen-like molecules (collagen types XXIII and XXV) and the colmedins are similar in that they all have a pair of cysteines in the same location. Moreover, furin cleavage at the NC1 domain can be expected in most of the proteins.  (+info)

*Collagen, type XIII, alpha 1

Latvanlehto A, Snellman A, Tu H, Pihlajaniemi T (2003). "Type XIII collagen and some other transmembrane collagens contain two ... Collagen XIII belongs to the transmembranous subfamily of collagens, like collagen XVII, XXIII and XXV. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... 2002). "The type XIII collagen ectodomain is a 150-nm rod and capable of binding to fibronectin, nidogen-2, perlecan, and ... 1998). "Type XIII collagen is identified as a plasma membrane protein". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (25): 15590-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...

*Nidogen-2

Tu H, Sasaki T, Snellman A, Göhring W, Pirilä P, Timpl R, Pihlajaniemi T (Jun 2002). "The type XIII collagen ectodomain is a ...

*Collagen receptor

It preferentially binds collagens IV, VI and type XIII collagen, but also fibril-forming collagens. Specific binding sites in ... A ligand of Lair-1 receptor is type XVII transmembrane collagen, it binds type I and III collagen as well. Collagen binding ... It binds fibril-forming collagens and primarily type IV collagen, but also collagen of types I, VI, VIII. It is expressed ... Binds fibril-forming collagens, collagen of types I, II, III and X. A specific binding site in collagen II has been identified. ...

*List of A1 genes, proteins or receptors

... type IX, alpha 1 Collagen, type X, alpha 1 Collagen, type XI, alpha 1 Collagen, type XII, alpha 1 Collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 ... Collagen, type XIV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XVI, alpha 1 Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 Collagen, type ... type I, alpha 1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 Collagen, type V, alpha 1 ... Collagen, type VI, alpha 1 Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 Collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 Collagen, ...

*Type V collagen

... as well as in association with tissues containing Type-I collagen. Autoimmunity against type V collagen is associated with lung ... Type-V collagen is a form of fibrillar collagen associated with classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. It is found within the dermal ... "Type V collagen controls the initiation of collagen fibril assembly". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (51): 53331-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Collagen Type V at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*Collagen, type III, alpha 1

... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Structure and Function of Collagen Types. Academic Press, Inc. ISBN 0-12-481280-5. "Entrez Gene: COL3A1 collagen, type III, ... GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV Collagen type III at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Type-III collagen is a fibrous scleroprotein in bone, cartilage, dentin, tendon, bone marrow stroma and other connective tissue ...

*Collagen, type VI, alpha 3

This protein is an alpha chain of type VI collagen that aids in microfibril formation. As part of type VI collagen, this ... This gene encodes the alpha 3 chain, one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in ... "The 1.6 A structure of Kunitz-type domain from the alpha 3 chain of human type VI collagen". Journal of Molecular Biology. 246 ... "Anisotropic behaviour of the C-terminal Kunitz-type domain of the alpha3 chain of human type VI collagen at atomic resolution ( ...

*Collagen, type XIX, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XIX collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with ... other members of this collagen family are found in association with fibril-forming collagens such as type I and II, and serve ... collagen (COL12A1), alpha 1(IX) collagen (COL9A1), and alpha 1(XIX) collagen (COL19A1) to human chromosome 6q12-q13". Genomics ... "Entrez Gene: COL19A1 collagen, type XIX, alpha 1". Yoshioka H, Zhang H, Ramirez F, et al. (1992). "Synteny between the loci for ...

*Collagen, type V, alpha 2

... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... "Entrez Gene: COL5A2 collagen, type V, alpha 2". Mann K (1992). "Isolation of the alpha 3-chain of human type V collagen and ... type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 4

"Entrez Gene: COL4A4 collagen, type IV, alpha 4". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... Murata K, Motayama T, Kotake C (1986). "Collagen types in various layers of the human aorta and their changes with the ...

*Collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix ... 2002). "Epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies against multiplexin collagens demonstrate that type XV and XVIII collagens are ... "Cloning of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding human type XVIII collagen and localization of the alpha 1(XVIII) collagen gene to ... "Entrez Gene: COL18A1 collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1". Pufe T, Kurz B, Petersen W, et al. (2006). "The influence of biomechanical ...

*Collagen, type VI, alpha 1

COL6A1 collagen, type VI, alpha 1". Bertini E, Pepe G (2002). "Collagen type VI and related disorders: Bethlem myopathy and ... "Type VI collagen anchors endothelial basement membranes by interacting with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26522-9 ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen (alpha1(VI) chain). Mutations in the genes that ... 1996). "Type VI collagen mutations in Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures". Nat. Genet. 14 (1): ...

*Collagen, type V, alpha 3

... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This ... "Entrez Gene: COL5A3 collagen, type V, alpha 3". van der Rest M, Garrone R (1991). "Collagen family of proteins". FASEB J. 5 (13 ...

*Collagen, type VI, alpha 2

COL6A2 collagen, type VI, alpha 2". Bertini E, Pepe G (2002). "Collagen type VI and related disorders: Bethlem myopathy and ... "Type VI collagen anchors endothelial basement membranes by interacting with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26522-9 ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective ... 1996). "Type VI collagen mutations in Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures". Nat. Genet. 14 (1): ...

*Collagen, type XI, alpha 1

The COL11A1 gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a ... collagen cDNA demonstrates that type XI belongs to the fibrillar class of collagens and reveals that the expression of the gene ... "Entrez Gene: COL11A1 collagen, type XI, alpha 1". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Stickler Syndrome Yoshioka H, Ramirez F ( ... Keene DR, Oxford JT, Morris NP (1995). "Ultrastructural localization of collagen types II, IX, and XI in the growth plate of ...

*Collagen

Type XV, XVIII) MACIT (Membrane Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple Helices) (Type XIII, XVII) Other (Type VI, VII) ... 12 types of collagen Database of type I and type III collagen mutations Science.dirbix Collagen Collagen Stability Calculator ... With type I collagen and possibly all fibrillar collagens, if not all collagens, each triple-helix associates into a right- ... Multiple collagen fibrils form into collagen fibers. Collagen may be attached to cell membranes via several types of protein, ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 1

It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. COL4A1 is a subunit of the type IV collagen and plays a role in ... collagen". FEBS Letters. 225 (1-2): 188-94. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)81155-9. PMID 3691802. "Entrez Gene: COL4A1 collagen, type ... Type IV collagen is the major structural component of basement membranes, which contains two or three COL4A1 proteins. Thus, ... COL4A1 belongs to the type IV collagen family and contains three domains: a short N-terminal domain, a long triple-helical 7S ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 2

"Duplication of type IV collagen COOH-terminal repeats and species-specific expression of alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A2 collagen, type IV, alpha 2". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C- ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 3

Collagen alpha-3(IV) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A3 gene. Type IV collagen, the major structural ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A3 collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen)". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of ...

*Collagen, type XI, alpha 2

Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and diameter of type II collagen fibrils. Type II collagen is an important ... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Instead, another type of collagen chain replaces pro-alpha2(XI) to form type XI collagen in the vitreous of the eye. COL11A2 ... The COL11A2 gene produces one component of this type of collagen, called the pro-alpha2(XI) chain. Type XI collagen adds ...

*CSL Limited

... freeze-dried human coagulation factor XIII concentrate TachoComb, fibrin sealant fleece-type, fleece-type collagen preparations ... Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine) M-M-R II (MMR vaccine) Menjugate (meningococcus group C vaccine) Meruvax II (rubella ... Haemophilus influenzae type B/hepatitis B vaccine) Fluad (influenza vaccine) Flucelvax (influenza vaccine) Flucelvax Quad ( ... freeze-dried human coagulation factor XIII concentrate Helixate FS and Helixate NexGen, freeze-dried recombinant coagulation ...

*CSL Behring

... freeze-dried human coagulation factor XIII concentrate TachoComb, fibrin sealant fleece-type, fleece-type collagen preparations ... freeze-dried human coagulation factor XIII concentrate Helixate FS and Helixate NexGen, freeze-dried recombinant coagulation ...

*Von Willebrand factor type C domain

Collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) Collagen, type II, alpha 1 (COL2A1) Collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1) Collagen, type V, ... Its occurrence in collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV, the integrins and other proteins by averaged structure predictions". J. ... collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV; and other extracellular proteins. Although the majority of VWA-containing proteins are ... "Type A modules: interacting domains found in several non-fibrillar collagens and in other extracellular matrix proteins". ...

*Von Willebrand factor type A domain

Its occurrence in collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV, the integrins and other proteins by averaged structure predictions". J. ... Colombatti A, Bonaldo P, Doliana R (1993). "Type A modules: interacting domains found in several non-fibrillar collagens and in ... collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV; and other extracellular proteins. Although the majority of VWA-containing proteins are ... Perkins SJ, Edwards YJ (1995). "The protein fold of the von Willebrand factor type A domain is predicted to be similar to the ...

*Von Willebrand factor type D domain

Its occurrence in collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV, the integrins and other proteins by averaged structure predictions". J. ... Colombatti A, Bonaldo P, Doliana R (July 1993). "Type A modules: interacting domains found in several non-fibrillar collagens ... collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV; and other extracellular proteins. Although the majority of VWF-containing proteins are ... the vWF type D domain in particular, is a large, multimeric glycoprotein and it is synthesized by a type of bone marrow cell ...

*Catenin

Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see ... Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR (October 2011). "A role for collagen XXIII in cancer cell ... For instance, higher levels of collagen XXIII have been associated with higher levels of catenins in cells. These heightened ... levels of collagen helped facilitate adhesions and anchorage-independent cell growth and provided evidence of collagen XXIII's ...
Collagen α-1 (XXIII) chain is a protein encoded by COL23A1 gene, which is located on chromosome 5q35 in humans, and on chromosome 11B1+2 in mice. The location of this gene was discovered by genomic sequence analysis. Collagen XXIII is a type II transmembrane protein and the fourth in the subfamily of non-fibrillar transmembranous collagens. This kind of collagens have a single pass hydrophobic transmembrane domain. The molecule of collagen XXIII can be found either in membrane-bond form or in shed form. Type XXIII collagen is expressed in both adult tissues and developing organs. It can be found in the epidermis and other epithelia such as those in tongue, gut and lung, but also in the brain, the kidney and the cornea. It has been shown that in prostate collagen XXIII expression is associated with tumor progression. The functions of collagen XXIII are still unknown, although it is believed that they could be similar to other transmembrane proteins, such as collagen XIII. Collagen XXIII was ...
Complete information for COL13A1 gene (Protein Coding), Collagen Type XIII Alpha 1 Chain, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The cornea is a curved and transparent structure that provides the initial focusing of a light image into the eye. It consists of a central stroma that constitutes 90% of the corneal depth, covered anteriorly with epithelium and posteriorly with endothelium. Its transparency is the result of the regular spacing of collagen fibers with remarkably uniform diameter and interfibrillar space. Corneal collagen is composed of heterotypic fibrils consisting of type I and type V collagen molecules. The cornea also contains unusually high amounts of type VI collagen, which form microfibrillar structures, FACIT collagens (XII and XIV), and other nonfibrillar collagens (XIII and XVIII). FACIT collagens and other molecules, such as leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans, play important roles in modifying the structure and function of collagen fibrils.Proteoglycans are macromolecules composed of a protein core with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan side chains. Four leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans are present ...
Moreover, there are some collagen molecules containing sequences of hydrophobic amino acids inserted in the plasma membrane. For example, type XIII and XVII collagens. Collagen type XVII is part of the molecular structure of hemidesmosomes. No matter the type, collagen is synthesized inside the cell as a precursor: the pro-collagen molecule. First, alpha chains are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where proline becomes hydroxyproline by hydroxylation. Proline and hydroxyproline may be up to 20 % of the alpha chain. GLycosylation (type O-glycosylation) of alpha chains also occurs in the reticulum. At this point, three alpha chains join together by hydrogen bonds to finally form the pro-collagen molecule. Disulfide bridges are also formed between the alpha chains. Pro-collagen molecules are recognized and linked by transmembrane receptors and packaged in COPII coated vesicles. Typical COPII vesicles are 60 to 90 nm in diameter, but COPII vesicles transporting pro-collagen are 500 nm in ...
The ISCIP Analyst, Volume XIII, Issue 4. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. XIII: Saint Chrysostom: Homilies on Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, full text etext at sacred-texts.com
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. XIII: Saint Chrysostom: Homilies on Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, full text etext at sacred-texts.com
XIII. Pracovní setkání fyzikálních chemiků a elektrochemiků 13 th Workshop of Physical Chemists and Electrochemists sborník příspěvků Přírodovědecká fakulta Masarykovy univerzity Agronomická
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Fluorescent Dyes , Enzyme Detection Reagents , 520 MMP FRET Substrate XIII; A sensitive substrate for assaying MMP-3 and 12 activities, Abs/Em = 494/521nm.; 5-FAM-RPKPVE-Nva-WRK(QXL 520)-NH2; 5-FAM-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Val-Glu-Nva-Trp-Arg-Lys(QXL 520)-NH2
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Salt Lake City, UT: Associated Students of the University of Utah, February, 1923. Volume XIII 13 , Number Two. Paperback. 68pp. Quarto 27 cm Gray stapled printed wrappers. Very good plus. Faint sunning to extremities of wraps. Lower right corner of front panel slightly dog-eared. Name discreetly in ink at head of front panel. Item #13768 This collection includes the Vardis Fisher
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Looking for online definition of f's I to XIII in the Medical Dictionary? f's I to XIII explanation free. What is f's I to XIII? Meaning of f's I to XIII medical term. What does f's I to XIII mean?
Ferret Theory XIII: Musings of a Cigarette Smoking Man . A man named Rubenstein born in 1911: He became a big union leader,...
Thread XIII Find out more, and download the Steam client from the official site. ♥♥♥♥♥ Steam Groups - Join up! Theres a variety of groups on Steam that certain members from this forum have created related to these games, ranging from vague to actually useful. If youd like to be part of these, either ask a member of the group you wish to join, or message one of the Administrators there. Or create a new group for a game that hasnt been listed, or otherwise fills a niche. A few of
Looking for online definition of factor XIII in the Medical Dictionary? factor XIII explanation free. What is factor XIII? Meaning of factor XIII medical term. What does factor XIII mean?
Definition of f's I to XIII in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is f's I to XIII? Meaning of f's I to XIII as a finance term. What does f's I to XIII mean in finance?
Congenital deficiency of Factor XIII is an extremely rare hereditary disorder associated with potentially life-threatening bleeding. This study will evaluate the safety and recommended (best) amount or level of Factor XIII in a patients blood. Factor XIII Concentrate (Human) is given to people whose blood is lacking Factor XIII. Factor XIII Concentrate (Human) works by assisting your blood in the usual clotting process, thereby preventing bleeding ...
Martin Khor. On 21 April, the UNCTAD ministerial conference known as UNCTAD XIII begins in Doha. It is shaping up as an important milestone to reaffirm - or not - the mandate given to UNCTAD to work on key global economic issues, including finance and macro-economic policy.. In fact, UNCTAD enjoys that mandate already, given its role in the UN system to organize an integrated perspective on trade, finance and economic issues.. However, some developed countries have attempted to dilute the specific issues that the UNCTAD secretariat has highlighted in recent years, especially in the wake of the global financial and economic crisis.. A draft outcome document prepared in Geneva by delegates is being transferred for continued negotiation in Doha with the hope that a consensus can be reached by 26 April, when UNCTAD XIII ends.. A major contentious point is whether UNCTAD XIII reaffirms the Accra Accord, adopted at UNCTAD XII in Accra in 2008. The Accord gave UNCTAD a mandate to work on a broad range ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Factor XIII A-Subunit (Recombinant). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Sqeenix have release their cinematic Final Fantasy XIII trailer with English dub, so everyone hanging to play the game from Western shores can check this out to become acquainted with the characters t ...
Study XIII - The Lung flashcards from vinarao ampy's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Around one in every 100 people is mixed-handed. The study looked at nearly 8,000 children, 87 of whom were mixed-handed, and found that mixed-handed 7 and 8-year old children were twice as likely as their right-handed peers to have difficulties with language and to perform poorly in school ...
The administration of F XIII in septic animals prevented the decrease of mucosal FCD as seen in the untreated LPS group compared to controls. We could not detect an influence of F XIII administration on leukocyte to endothelium interaction and plasma extravasation. After three hours, endotoxemia resulted in an expected decrease in F XIII activity compared to the control group. The decrease of F XIII in our sepsis model correlates with findings of clinical investigations in septic patients [18,19]. However, through F XIII substitution in the treatment group we achieved F XIII levels comparable to controls after three hours of endotoxemia.. In our study we found a higher FCD in the F XIII group compared to untreated endotoxemic animals, indicating that perfusion in capillaries of the intestinal mucosa was protected by F XIII administration. It appears that not only the preservation of microcirculation but also pro-angiogenic properties are related to the effects of factor XIII. In vitro F XIII ...
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Presidential Election 2008 - Is it Immoral to Vote for McCain/Palin? Battle Royale XIII GodsfreeWill and The Graphite vs. WandererinFog and Nicholsmom In this thread feel free to discuss Battle Royale XIII. Whos winning and why?
ante diem xiii kalendas novembres 480 B.C. -- Battle of Salamis (one reckoning; seems a bit late) 127 A.D. -- ludi votivi decennales pro salute Augusti c. 250 A.D. -- martyrdom of Maximus of Aquila 1524 -- death of Thomas Linacre ... the best Greek and Latin scholar of his age 1952 -- death of…
References for Abcams Human Factor XIII ELISA Kit (ab108836). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Study XIII - The Lung flashcards from Janus Alcantara's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
I went ahead and posted all of the recipes from last weeks menu (below), in case anyone wanted them. If I havent posted a recipe that you would still like, please let me know. ...
If you want to learn more about the tip then just click on the link (if available) to go to a page that will elaborate on the topic. Change to Fluorescent Bulbs - If every house in the United States changed all of the light bulbs in their house, that would be equivalent to…
King of Fighters XIII for Steam is basically just developing itself, isnt it? Evidence that the PC port exists has been banging about since late 2012, but no one from SNK Playmore has deigned to actually talk about it. Well, fans of 2D Japanese beat-em-ups can rest in peace now because an actual listing for the game has turned up on Steam, containing actual solid details and an actual solid
Chapter XIII. The disappearance of the Prince. A heavy drowsiness presently fell upon the two comrades. The King said — Remove these rags. — meani
Men wore powdered wigs in the 1700s as a symbol of status. The practice was initiated by King Louis XIII of France, who wore the hairpiece because of premature balding. Powdered wigs soon bore a...

Collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 - WikipediaCollagen, type XIII, alpha 1 - Wikipedia

Latvanlehto A, Snellman A, Tu H, Pihlajaniemi T (2003). "Type XIII collagen and some other transmembrane collagens contain two ... Collagen XIII belongs to the transmembranous subfamily of collagens, like collagen XVII, XXIII and XXV. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... 2002). "The type XIII collagen ectodomain is a 150-nm rod and capable of binding to fibronectin, nidogen-2, perlecan, and ... 1998). "Type XIII collagen is identified as a plasma membrane protein". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (25): 15590-7. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collagen,_type_XIII,_alpha_1

COL13A1 Gene - GeneCards | CODA1 Protein | CODA1 AntibodyCOL13A1 Gene - GeneCards | CODA1 Protein | CODA1 Antibody

Collagen Type XIII Alpha 1 Chain, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... collagen,type XIII,alpha 1,short chain *COL13A1. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion ... Nucleation of the type XIII collagen triple helix is likely to occur at the N-terminal region with triple helix formation ... COL13A1 (Collagen Type XIII Alpha 1 Chain) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with COL13A1 include Myasthenic ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=COL13A1&keywords=GH10G069852&prefilter=genomic_location

COL13A1 Gene - GeneCards | CODA1 Protein | CODA1 AntibodyCOL13A1 Gene - GeneCards | CODA1 Protein | CODA1 Antibody

Collagen Type XIII Alpha 1 Chain, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... Nucleation of the type XIII collagen triple helix is likely to occur at the N-terminal region with triple helix formation ... View all 3 R&D Systems COL13A1 (Collagen XIII alpha 1) Primary Antibodies*Mouse Collagen XIII alpha 1 Antibody (AF4627) ... COL13A1 (Collagen Type XIII Alpha 1 Chain) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with COL13A1 include Myasthenic ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=COL13A1&keywords=GH10J069838&prefilter=genomic_location

Gene expression profiling of postnatal lung development in the marsupial gray short-tailed opossum ( Monodelphis domestica)...Gene expression profiling of postnatal lung development in the marsupial gray short-tailed opossum ( Monodelphis domestica)...

Collagen type XII alpha 1 chain. COL13A1. Collagen type XIII alpha 1 chain ... slow type MYBPC1, troponin T1, slow skeletal type TNNT1, tropomodulin 4 TMOD4, leiomodin 3 LMOD3 and myosin light chain 10 ... Induction of alveolar type-II cell-differentiation in fetal tracheal epithelium by grafted distal lung mesenchyme. Dev Biol. ... The lung contains about 40 cell types and myofibroblasts represent 10% of mature lung cells. As the normal rate of regeneration ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12864-018-5102-2

Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Homo sapiens, page 1Browse ORF cDNA clones by species Homo sapiens, page 1

collagen type XIII alpha 1 chain. protein-coding. SRGAP3. SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 3. protein-coding. ...
more infohttps://www.genscript.com/gene/9606/homo-sapiens

Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsCongenital Myasthenic Syndrome disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

Encoding the Atypical Non-fibrillar Collagen Type XIII I+1 Chain. ( 26626625 ) ... Type. Significance. SNP ID. Assembly. Location. 1. DOK7 NM_173660.4(DOK7): c.1124_1127dupTGCC (p.Ala378Serfs) duplication. ... The most common type of myasthenia, myasthenia gravis, is caused by an abnormal immune response in which antibodies block the ... Since all types of myasthenia are due to the inability of nerves to trigger muscle activity, they all involve weakness, ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/congenital_myasthenic_syndrome

COL13A1 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-RadCOL13A1 - PrimePCR Assay and Template | Life Science | Bio-Rad

Select a product type :. All. qPCR. ddPCR. PrimePCR™ SYBR® Green Assay: COL13A1, Human collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 Assay Type ... collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 Assay Type: EvaGreen Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dHsaEG5012455 Info: EG; Same ... collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 Assay Type: EvaGreen Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dHsaEG5018484 Info: EG; Same ... collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 Assay Type: Probe Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dHsaCPE5043220 Info: FAM; Same ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/gene/col13a1-human

Recombinant Human COL13A1 293 Cell Lysate COL13A1-7379HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human COL13A1 293 Cell Lysate COL13A1-7379HCL - Creative BioMart

COL13A1; collagen, type XIII, alpha 1; collagen alpha-1(XIII) chain; COLXIIIA1; FLJ42485;. ... Antigen standard for collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 (COL13A1), transcript variant 1 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells ... Products Types ◆ Recombinant Protein Col13a1-465M. Recombinant Mouse Collagen, Type XIII, Alpha 1, Hi... ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_409035_318.htm

KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: bta:510654KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: bta:510654

bta:613849 collagen type XIII alpha 1 chain K16617 686 115 ( -) 32 0.388 67 -, bta:529621 proline rich 12 2041 114 ( -) 32 ... bta:538590 collagen type V alpha 2 chain K19721 1463 105 ( -) 30 0.310 129 -, bta:539896 bromodomain containing 8 K11321 952 ... bta:528171 zinc finger CCHC-type containing 14 946 106 ( -) 30 0.321 106 -, bta:531208 NAC alpha domain containing 2649 106 ... bta:507466 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 10 435 124 ( -) 34 0.304 115 -, bta:525521 RNA pseudouridylate synthase domain ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_paralog?org_gene=bta:510654

KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: cfa:486257KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: cfa:486257

cfa:609516 collagen type XIII alpha 1 chain K16617 808 296 ( -) 73 0.243 580 -, cfa:612218 Myb related transcription factor, ... cfa:403467 collagen type VII alpha 1 chain K16628 2936 431 ( -) 104 0.235 1410 -, cfa:478835 collagen type III alpha 1 chain ... cfa:403496 collagen type IV alpha 1 chain K06237 1646 425 ( -) 103 0.241 1322 -, cfa:482056 collagen type XXII alpha 1 chain ... cfa:100685969 collagen type XI alpha 1 chain K19721 1857 389 ( -) 95 0.234 1262 -, cfa:403842 collagen type IV alpha 3 chain ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_paralog?org_gene=cfa:486257

CTAWWWATA RSRFC4 Q2CTAWWWATA RSRFC4 Q2

collagen, type X, alpha 1. COL13A1. 1305. COL13A1. collagen, type XIII, alpha 1. ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/CTAWWWATA_RSRFC4_Q2.html

Table of Contents - June 15, 2004, 380 (3) | Biochemical JournalTable of Contents - June 15, 2004, 380 (3) | Biochemical Journal

The shed ectodomain of type XIII collagen affects cell behaviour in a matrix-dependent manner Marja-Riitta VÄISÄNEN, Timo ... membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase) transcription by glomerular mesangial cells Maria Alejandra ALFONSO-JAUME, Rajeev ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/380/3

Overexpression of AKT2/Protein Kinase Bβ Leads to Up-Regulation of β1 Integrins, Increased Invasion, and Metastasis of Human...Overexpression of AKT2/Protein Kinase Bβ Leads to Up-Regulation of β1 Integrins, Increased Invasion, and Metastasis of Human...

α1β1 mediates cell adhesion to type XIII collagen. J. Biol. Chem., 275: 8255-8261, 2000. ... Matrigel/Collagen IV Invasion Assay.. Matrigel, which is primarily composed of collagen IV and laminin, or human collagen IV, ... Elices M. J., Hemler M. E. The human integrin VLA-2 is a collagen receptor on some cells and a collagen/laminin receptor on ... To assess whether increased invasion and attachment to collagen IV could be associated with changes in collagen-binding ...
more infohttps://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/63/1/196?ijkey=4a6ab12ae31f4da1dc001742631decfdfd65b832&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Reactome | 5Hyl-COL13A1(1-?) [plasma membrane]Reactome | 5Hyl-COL13A1(1-?) [plasma membrane]

Collagen type XIII ectodomain shedding (Homo sapiens) * Cleaved collagen type XIII [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * Collagen ... alpha-1(XIII) chain N-term transmembrane regions [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * 5Hyl-COL13A1(1-?) [plasma membrane] (Homo ...
more infohttps://reactome.org/content/detail/R-HSA-2471910

Motor Nerve Arborization Requires Proteolytic Domain of Damage-Induced Neuronal Endopeptidase (DINE) during Development |...Motor Nerve Arborization Requires Proteolytic Domain of Damage-Induced Neuronal Endopeptidase (DINE) during Development |...

... such as collagens XIII/XXV and laminin; collagen Type XIII and XXV are abundant in the NMJ and muscle, respectively, and their ... 2014) Type IV collagen is an activating ligand for the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126. Sci Signal 7:ra76, doi: ... 2010) Muscle-derived collagen XIII regulates maturation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci 30:12230-12241, doi: ... 2014) CLAC-P/collagen type XXV is required for the intramuscular innervation of motoneurons during neuromuscular development. J ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/36/17/4744?ijkey=a7e287e41703a7a56223c56feecf2702414f5ee1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Keränen M[au] - PubMed - NCBIKeränen M[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Type XIII collagen forms homotrimers with three triple helical collagenous domains and its association into disulfide-bonded ... Comparative analysis of leaf-type ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana. ... 13.. Donor simvastatin treatment prevents ischemia-reperfusion and acute kidney injury by preserving microvascular barrier ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Ker%C3%A4nen+M%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

OLIGONUCLEOTIDES IN FOOD, BEVERAGE, COSMETIC AND MEDICINAL FORMULATIONS - DNA ESSENCE GMBHOLIGONUCLEOTIDES IN FOOD, BEVERAGE, COSMETIC AND MEDICINAL FORMULATIONS - DNA ESSENCE GMBH

The collagen type XIII alphal structural protein of Callorhynchus milii (shark) has been identified as depicted in SEQ ID NO:5 ... Collagen is the main component of shark fins (Motta PJ. (1977) Anatomy and Functional Morphology of Dermal Collagen Fibers in ... 57-50-1 ) to a final concentration of 20mg^l and filled into brown hydrolytic class 1 Type FIOLAX glass vials (Schott, Germany ... The main component of the rhinoceros horn is keratin, which is encoded by structural keratin type II (HIY3) of Buceros ...
more infohttp://www.sumobrain.com/patents/wipo/Oligonucleotides-in-food-beverage-cosmetic/WO2017092808A1.html

Table of Contents - January 01, 2006, 393 (1) | Biochemical JournalTable of Contents - January 01, 2006, 393 (1) | Biochemical Journal

The shed ectodomain of type XIII collagen associates with the fibrillar fibronectin matrix and may interfere with its assembly ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/393/1

Collagens are functional, high affinity ligands for the inhibitory immune receptor LAIR-1  | Journal of Experimental Medicine |...Collagens are functional, high affinity ligands for the inhibitory immune receptor LAIR-1 | Journal of Experimental Medicine |...

Type XIII collagen expression is induced during malignant transformation in various epithelial and mesenchymal tumours. J. ... Type XIII collagen expression is induced during malignant transformation in various epithelial and mesenchymal tumours. J. ... Type XXIII collagen, a new transmembrane collagen identified in metastatic tumor cells. J. Biol. Chem. ... Type XXIII collagen, a new transmembrane collagen identified in metastatic tumor cells. J. Biol. Chem. ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/203/6/1419/54102/Collagens-are-functional-high-affinity-ligands-for

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

collagen, type XIII, alpha 1. 0.125. Sall3. sal-like 3 (Drosophila). 0.123. ... a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase (reprolysin type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 7. 0.013. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/mouse-context-global/2508/?gene=70846

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

collagen, type XIII, alpha 1. 0.013. Nrp1. neuropilin 1. 0.013. Nfkbid. nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer ... sirtuin 1 (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog) 1 (S. cerevisiae). 0.011. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/mouse-context-global/5103/?gene=63045

Nidogen-2 - WikipediaNidogen-2 - Wikipedia

Tu H, Sasaki T, Snellman A, Göhring W, Pirilä P, Timpl R, Pihlajaniemi T (Jun 2002). "The type XIII collagen ectodomain is a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nidogen-2

Patent US6350274 - Soft tissue closure systems - Google PatentsPatent US6350274 - Soft tissue closure systems - Google Patents

... type II through type XIX collagens, and mixtures thereof.. The collagen dispersion is then poured into molds. The shape of the ... Type I to type XIX collagens may be used either singularly or in combination for the manufacture of the implantable member 13. ... The purified collagen material is first dispersed in 1 10−4 M NaOH solution to swell the collagen fibers. The collagen material ... A collagen dispersion is mixed uniformly with thrombin (collagen:thrombin=10:1 w/w). The thoroughly mixed collagen/thrombin gel ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6350274?dq=6008737
  • Alternative splice variants of the NC3 and NC1 domains of type XII collagen were investigated in the mouse wound-healing model using RT-PCR. (arvojournals.org)
  • In a mouse model of corneal wound injury we found that at 14 and 21 days postexcision, type XII collagen was largely concentrated in the subepithelial region of the cornea, especially in and near the wound bed. (arvojournals.org)
  • Type XII collagen is overexpressed in permanent human and mouse corneal scars and could represent a new target to treat corneal scarring. (arvojournals.org)
  • Since all types of myasthenia are due to the inability of nerves to trigger muscle activity, they all involve weakness, although there is some variability in the specific muscles affected. (malacards.org)
  • The DINE KO mice, which overexpressed wild-type DINE in motor neurons, succeeded in rescuing the aberrant nerve terminal arborization and lethality after birth, while those overexpressing two types of protease domain-mutated DINE failed. (jneurosci.org)