A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.

Contacts with fibrils containing collagen I, but not collagens II, IX, and XI, can destabilize the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. (1/125)

OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of cellular functions, including matrix synthesis, proliferation and differentiation. This is well exemplified by the characteristically labile phenotype of chondrocytes that is lost in monolayer culture but is stabilized in suspension under appropriate conditions. We were interested in the role of collagen suprastructures in maintaining or destabilizing the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Primary sternal chondrocytes from 17-day-old chick embryos were cultured in gels of fibrils reconstituted from soluble collagen I from various sources. The culture media either contained or lacked FBS. Cells were cultured for up to 28 days and the evolution of the phenotype of the cells was assessed by their collagen expression (collagens II and X for differentiated chondrocytes and hypertrophic chodrocytes, repectively; collagen I for phenotypically modulated cells), or by their secretion of alkaline phosphatase (hypertrophic cartilage phenotype). RESULTS: The cells often retained their differentiated phenotype only if cultured with serum. Under serum-free conditions, cartilage characteristics were lost. The cells acquired a fibroblast-like shape and, later, synthesized collagen I instead of cartilage collagens. Shape changes were influenced by beta1-integrin-activity, whereas other matrix receptors were important for alterations of collagen patterns. Heterotypic fibrils reconstituted from collagens II, IX, and XI did not provoke this phenotypic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Chondrocytes sensitively recognize the suprastructures of collagen fibrils in their environment. Cellular interactions with fibrils with appropriate molecular organizations, such as that in cartilage fibrils, result in the maintenance of the differentiated cartilage phenotype. However, other suprastructures, e.g. in reconstituted fibrils mainly containing collagen I, lead to cell-matrix interactions incompatible with the cartilage phenotype. The maintenance of the differentiated traits of chondrocytes is pivotal for the normal function of, e.g., articular cartilage. If pathologically altered matrix suprastructures lead to a dysregulation of collagen production also in vivo compromised cartilage functions inevitably will be propagated further.  (+info)

Articular cartilage repair using a tissue-engineered cartilage-like implant: an animal study. (2/125)

OBJECTIVE: Because articular cartilage has limited ability to repair itself, treatment of (osteo)chondral lesions remains a clinical challenge. We aimed to evaluate how well a tissue-engineered cartilage-like implant, derived from chondrocytes cultured in a novel patented, scaffold-free bioreactor system, would perform in minipig knees with chondral, superficial osteochondral, and full-thickness articular defects. DESIGN: For in vitro implant preparation, we used full-thickness porcine articular cartilage and digested chondrocytes. Bioreactors were seeded with 20x10(6) cells and incubated for 3 weeks. Subsequent to culture, tissue cartilage-like implants were divided for assessment of viability, formaldehyde-fixed and processed by standard histological methods. Some samples were also prepared for electron microscopy (TEM). Proteoglycans and collagens were identified and quantified by SDS-PAGE gels. For in vivo studies in adult minipigs, medial parapatellar arthrotomy was performed unilaterally. Three types of defects were created mechanically in the patellar groove of the femoral condyle. Tissue-engineered cartilage-like implants were placed using press-fit fixation, without supplementary fixation devices. Control defects were not grafted. Animals could bear full weight with an unlimited range of motion. At 4 and 24 weeks postsurgery, explanted knees were assessed using the modified ICRS classification for cartilage repair. RESULTS: After 3-4 weeks of bioreactor incubation, cultured chondrocytes developed a 700-microm- to 1-mm-thick cartilage-like tissue. Cell density was similar to that of fetal cartilage, and cells stained strongly for Alcian blue and safranin O. The percentage of viable cells remained nearly constant (approximately 90%). Collagen content was similar to that of articular cartilage, as shown by SDS-PAGE. At explantation, the gross morphological appearance of grafted defects appeared like normal cartilage, whereas controls showed irregular fibrous tissue covering the defect. Improved histologic appearance was maintained for 6 months postoperatively. Although defects were not always perfectly level upon implantation at explanation the implant level matched native cartilage levels with no tissue hypertrophy. Once in place, implants remodelled to tissues with decreased cell density and a columnar organization. CONCLUSIONS: Repair of cartilage defects with a tissue-engineered implant yielded a consistent gross cartilage repair with a matrix predominantly composed of type II collagen up to 6 months after implantation. This initial result holds promise for the use of this unique bioreactor/tissue-engineered implant in humans.  (+info)

COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in sporadic colorectal tumors. (3/125)

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the alpha-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1), not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of beta-catenin. METHODS: We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 sporadic colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/beta-catenin pathway. RESULTS: In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/beta-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in sporadic carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/beta-catenin pathway in FAP and sporadic colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Expression of collagen and aggrecan genes in normal and osteoarthritic murine knee joints. (4/125)

OBJECTIVE: The STR/ort mouse strain develops osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial tibial cartilage whilst CBA mice do not develop this disease. We investigated whether changes occur in the expression of genes encoding major extracellular matrix proteins in the connective tissue of the murine knee joint in OA. DESIGN: Expression of the genes encoding collagens II (Col2alpha1), X (Col10alpha1), alpha2(XI) (Col11alpha2) and aggrecan (Agc) was detected in skeletally mature and immature male mice of the CBA and STR/ort strains by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Col2alpha1 was expressed by chondrocytes of the tibial and patella-femoral cartilage and by the meniscal cartilage in all young mice (4-9 weeks) but only in the patella-femoral cartilage in older mice of both strains (36-45 weeks). In contrast Col2alpha1 was expressed by growth plate chondrocytes of both species at all ages. Similarly, Col2alpha1 transcripts were detected in cruciate ligament cells in both strains at all ages. Col10alpha1 transcripts were detected in cruciate ligament cells in both strains at all ages. Col10alpha1 expression was evident in the hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate of young CBA and STR mice, but was not active in these cells in mature animals. However, Col10alpha1 was transcribed in articular chondrocytes of the tibia, meniscal and patella-femoral cartilages of all ages, in normal and osteoarthritic mice. Transcripts were also present in ligament of some mature animals. Col11alpha2 followed a similar pattern of expression in CBA cartilages to Col2alpha1, being active in adult growth plate but generally inactive in adult articular cartilages. Young CBA and STR/ort mice expressed Col11alpha2 in articular cartilage and very strongly throughout the growth plate. Agc expression was detected in all articular cartilages at all ages in both strains. Interestingly, transcripts for all four genes were absent in tibial articular chondrocytes located close to osteoarthritic lesions in STR/ort mice, indicating that these cells are unable to synthesize matrix proteins. Adult STR/ort mice also showed evidence of tissue remodeling around the periphery of the knee joint. Cells in remodeling areas actively transcribed Col2alpha1, Col10alpha1, Col11alpha2 and Agc. CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that OA develops in STR/ort mice because of failure to express major proteins in joint tissue. However, once lesions develop in articular cartilage neighbouring chondrocytes fail to express genes encoding several matrix proteins.  (+info)

A Kruppel-associated box-zinc finger protein, NT2, represses cell-type-specific promoter activity of the alpha 2(XI) collagen gene. (5/125)

Type XI collagen is composed of three chains, alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI), and alpha 3(XI), and plays a critical role in the formation of cartilage collagen fibrils and in skeletal morphogenesis. It was previously reported that the -530-bp promoter segment of the alpha 2(XI) collagen gene (Col11a2) was sufficient for cartilage-specific expression and that a 24-bp sequence from this segment was able to switch promoter activity from neural tissues to cartilage in transgenic mice when this sequence was placed in the heterologous neurofilament light gene (NFL) promoter. To identify a protein factor that bound to the 24-bp sequence of the Col11a2 promoter, we screened a mouse limb bud cDNA expression library in the yeast one-hybrid screening system and obtained the cDNA clone NT2. Sequence analysis revealed that NT2 is a zinc finger protein consisting of a Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) and is a homologue of human FPM315, which was previously isolated by random cloning and sequencing. The KRAB domain has been found in a number of zinc finger proteins and implicated as a transcriptional repression domain, although few target genes for KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that NT2 functions as a negative regulator of Col11a2. In situ hybridization analysis of developing mouse cartilage showed that NT2 mRNA is highly expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes but is minimally expressed by resting and proliferating chondrocytes, in an inverse correlation with the expression patterns of Col11a2. Gel shift assays showed that NT2 bound a specific sequence within the 24-bp site of the Col11a2 promoter. We found that Col11a2 promoter activity was inhibited by transfection of the NT2 expression vector in RSC cells, a chondrosarcoma cell line. The expression vector for mutant NT2 lacking the KRAB domain failed to inhibit Col11a2 promoter activity. These results demonstrate that KRAB-zinc finger protein NT2 inhibits transcription of its physiological target gene, suggesting a novel regulatory mechanism of cartilage-specific expression of Col11a2.  (+info)

Adjacent DNA sequences modulate Sox9 transcriptional activation at paired Sox sites in three chondrocyte-specific enhancer elements. (6/125)

Expression of the type XI collagen gene Col11a2 is directed to cartilage by at least three chondrocyte-specific enhancer elements, two in the 5' region and one in the first intron of the gene. The three enhancers each contain two heptameric sites with homology to the Sox protein-binding consensus sequence. The two sites are separated by 3 or 4 bp and arranged in opposite orientation to each other. Targeted mutational analyses of these three enhancers showed that in the intronic enhancer, as in the other two enhancers, both Sox sites in a pair are essential for enhancer activity. The transcription factor Sox9 binds as a dimer at the paired sites, and the introduction of insertion mutations between the sites demonstrated that physical interactions between the adjacently bound proteins are essential for enhancer activity. Additional mutational analyses demonstrated that although Sox9 binding at the paired Sox sites is necessary for enhancer activity, it alone is not sufficient. Adjacent DNA sequences in each enhancer are also required, and mutation of those sequences can eliminate enhancer activity without preventing Sox9 binding. The data suggest a new model in which adjacently bound proteins affect the DNA bend angle produced by Sox9, which in turn determines whether an active transcriptional enhancer complex is assembled.  (+info)

Collagen XI sequence variations in nonsyndromic cleft palate, Robin sequence and micrognathia. (7/125)

Cleft palate is a common birth defect, but its etiopathogenesis is mostly unknown. Several studies have shown that cleft palate has a strong genetic component. Robin sequence consists of three of the following four findings: micrognathia, glossoptosis, obstructive apnea, and cleft palate. While cleft palate is mainly nonsyndromic, about 80 percent of Robin sequence cases are associated with syndromes. Mutations in genes coding for cartilage collagens II and XI, COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2, have been shown to cause chondrodysplasias that are commonly associated with Robin sequence, micrognathia or cleft palate. We therefore analyzed a cohort of 24 patients with nonsyndromic Robin sequence, 17 with nonsyndromic cleft palate and 21 with nonsyndromic micrognathia for mutations in COL11A2. A total of 23 Robin sequence patients were also analyzed for mutations in COL2A1 and COL11A1. We detected two disease-associated mutations in patients with Robin sequence, an Arg to stop codon mutation in COL11A2 and a splicing mutation in COL11A1. Two putatively disease-associated sequence variations were found in COL11A1 in Robin sequence patients, one in COL11A2 in a patient with micrognathia and one in COL2A1 in two patients with Robin sequence. The results showed that sequence variations in these genes can play a role in the etiology of Robin sequence, cleft palate and micrognathia but are not common causes of these phenotypes.  (+info)

Loss of DNA-dependent dimerization of the transcription factor SOX9 as a cause for campomelic dysplasia. (8/125)

Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a semilethal osteochondrodysplasia, characterized by skeletal anomalies that include bending of the long bones, and by XY sex reversal. CD results from haploinsufficiency for the transcription factor SOX9, a key regulator at various steps of cartilage differentiation and of early testis development. Two functional domains are so far recognized for SOX9, a high-mobility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal transactivation domain. We present two CD patients with de novo mutations in a conserved region preceding the HMG domain. A long-term survivor with the acampomelic form of CD has an A76E amino acid substitution, while a severely affected CD patient had an in-frame deletion of amino acid residues 66-75. The conserved domain has been shown to function in the related transcription factor SOX10 as a DNA-dependent dimerization domain. We show that, like SOX10, SOX9 also binds cooperatively as a dimer to response elements in regulatory regions of some target genes such as the cartilage genes Col11a2 and CD-Rap. Dimerization and the resulting capacity to activate promoters via dimeric binding sites is lost in both mutant SOX9 proteins while other features involved in SOX9 function remained unaltered. These findings establish the dimerization domain as the third domain essential for SOX9 function during chondrogenesis.  (+info)

In cartilage collagen type XI exists as heterotrimeric molecules composed of alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI) and alpha 3(XI) subunits. Messenger RNAs for some of the alpha chains of collagen type XI have also been found in non-chondrogenic tissues but the chain composition of the molecule in these sites is not known. Some non-chondrogenic tissues also contain heterotrimers containing collagen alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(XI) chains. We have explored the possibility that collagen type XI could exist in differing trimeric forms in non-chondrogenic tissues and aimed to predict the subunit composition of this collagen in those tissues. The distribution and relative levels of expression of collagen alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI) and alpha 3(XI)/alpha 1(II) mRNAs in different human fetal tissues were studied. Expression of mRNAs for all three genes of collagen type XI is not restricted to cartilage but is widespread. However, in some non-chondrogenic tissues, the mRNAs for all three alpha chains of collagen type XI were ...
This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but…
Antigen specific and cross reacting antibodies to native and denatured types II and XI collagen were detected in the sera of rats immunised with either of these antigens. The antibodies from rats immunised with type XI collagen initially showed the strongest binding to the alpha 2(XI) chain of type XI collagen but later binding to the alpha 3(XI) chain was seen. Sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis had antibodies that bound to both type II and XI collagens. Immunoblotting studies showed that most patients had antibodies which bound to the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen and to the alpha 3(XI) chain of type XI collagen. Some patients also had antibodies which bound to the alpha 1(XI) and to the alpha 2(XI) chains of type XI collagen. Thus antibodies to unique as well as to common epitopes on each of the two types of collagen molecule occur in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis. ...
Collagen type XI is a component of hyaline cartilage consisting of alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI), and alpha 3(XI) chains; with 5-10% of the total collagen content, it is a minor but significant component next to type II collagen, but its function and precise localization in cartilaginous tissues is still unclear. Owing to the homology of the alpha 3(XI) and alpha 1(II) collagen chains, attempts to prepare specific antibodies to native type XI collagen have been unsuccessful in the past. In this study, we report on the preparation and use for immunohistochemistry of a polyclonal antibody specific for alpha 2(XI) denatured collagen chains. The antibody was prepared by immunization with the isolated alpha 2(XI) chain and reacts neither with native type XI collagen nor type I, II, V, or IX by ELISA or immunoblotting, nor with alpha 1(XI) or alpha 3(XI), but with alpha 2(XI) chains. Using this antibody, it was possible to specifically localize alpha 2(XI) in cartilage by pretreating tissue sections with 6 ...
Complete information for COL11A2 gene (Protein Coding), Collagen Type XI Alpha 2 Chain, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Fibrochondrogenesis - Fibrochondrogenesis 1 (FBCG1; MIM 228520) and fibrochondrogenesis 2 (FBCG2; MIM 614524) are short limbed skeletal dysplasias that are usually, but not always lethal. The disorder is named for the disorganized cartilage growth plate in which chondrocytes resemble fibroblasts and there are regions of fibrous extracellular matrix. The patients have been described with frontal bossing, a flat mid face with a small nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, cleft palate and short neck. The chest is small and bell shaped, the ribs are short and wide with metaphyseal cupping, the long bones are short with broad metaphyses, there is platyspondyly with posterior vertebral hypoplasia and a rounded anterior end, the pelvis may appear hypoplastic with small medial spikes. FBCG1 is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in COL11A1. FBCG2 is caused by either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive mutations in COL11A2. Mutations in COL11A1 also cause Stickler syndrome, type II (STL2; MIM ...
Fibrochondrogenesis - Fibrochondrogenesis 1 (FBCG1; MIM 228520) and fibrochondrogenesis 2 (FBCG2; MIM 614524) are short limbed skeletal dysplasias that are usually, but not always lethal. The disorder is named for the disorganized cartilage growth plate in which chondrocytes resemble fibroblasts and there are regions of fibrous extracellular matrix. The patients have been described with frontal bossing, a flat mid face with a small nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, cleft palate and short neck. The chest is small and bell shaped, the ribs are short and wide with metaphyseal cupping, the long bones are short with broad metaphyses, there is platyspondyly with posterior vertebral hypoplasia and a rounded anterior end, the pelvis may appear hypoplastic with small medial spikes. FBCG1 is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in COL11A1. FBCG2 is caused by either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive mutations in COL11A2. Mutations in COL11A1 also cause Stickler syndrome, type II (STL2; MIM ...
It is currently a major scientific and medical goal to identify and characterize genetic defects and their impact in health and disease. For example, mutations in genes that encode collagen alpha chains can cause skeletal dysplasia and lead to premature degenerative joint disease. Collagen is the main structural protein in the ECM of connective tissues such as the cartilage, joints, ligaments and tendons. Therefore, the goal of this research is to define the impact of the alpha one chain of collagen type XI chain, encoded by the COL11A1 gene in humans, on chondrocyte behavior during development of the cartilage. We hypothesize that altered expression of COL11A1 dysregulates chondrocyte behavior during cartilage development by altering β-catenin dependent signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited the expression of the COL11A1 homolog col11a1a in transgenic zebrafish expressing green fluorescence protein in neural crest derived cells and osteoblast. Then, the col11a1a deficient zebrafish
Antibodies binding to cartilage proteins are present in the blood and synovial fluid of early rheumatoid arthritis patients. In order to develop animal models mimicking the human disease, we have characterized the arthritogenic capacity of monoclonal antibodies directed towards different joint proteins in the cartilage. Purified antibodies specific to unmodified or citrullinated collagen type II (CII), collagen type XI (CXI), and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were produced as culture supernatant, affinity purified, pooled as antibody cocktails (Cab3 and Cab4), and injected intravenously into mice to induce arthritis. An adjuvant (lipopolysaccharide or mannan) was subsequently injected intraperitoneally on either day 5 or day 60 to enhance arthritis. Antibody binding and complement activation on the cartilage surface were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods. Bone erosions and joint deformations were analyzed by histological assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and micro-CT.
RefSeq Summary (NM_080680): This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but separate from the gene for retinoid X receptor beta. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a proline/arginine-rich protein that is an amino terminal domain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene is located nearby on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009 ...
Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), Type XI weighs 12 kg/m³ (0.00694 oz/in³) and reference information. Densities of other substances, materials, compounds
This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II ...
What is Stickler Syndrome Stickler syndrome is a genetic condition that is characterized by serious problems in vision, hearing, problems of the joints and
With all the purported evolution, why does everything of consequence happen just thousands of years ago? Could it be that God s word is true and the Earth and its universe are just over 6,000 years old?
Collagen alpha-1(V) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL5A1 gene. This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. Type-V collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130635 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026837 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Greenspan DS, Byers MG, Eddy RL, Cheng W, Jani-Sait S, Shows TB (May 1992). Human collagen gene ...
Sticklers Syndrome is a disorder affecting collagen, characterized by distinctive facial abnormalities, eye problems, hearing loss and joint problems.
Learn more about Stickler Syndrome symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments from experts at Boston Childrens, ranked best Childrens Hospital by US News.
COL11A2 antibody [GT6410] (collagen, type XI, alpha 2) for WB. Anti-COL11A2 mAb (GTX629739) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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There are reasons to classify type II Stickler syndrome as a unique disorder apart from type I (108300). In addition to phenotypic evidence (vitreoretinal disease, amount of hearing loss, and degree of epiphyseal disease), mutation in two different genes are involved. Type II results from a mutation in the COL11A1 (1p21) and type I (108300) in COL2A1. Both types are inherited in autosomal dominant patterns.. Type IV (614234) with vitreoretinal changes, myopia, and a high risk of retinal detachment is inherited in an autsomal recessive pattern.. ...
The information on this website is not intended for direct diagnostic use or medical decision-making without review by a genetics professional. Individuals should not change their health behavior solely on the basis of information contained on this website. Neither the University of Utah nor the National Institutes of Health independently verfies the submitted information. If you have questions about the information contained on this website, please see a health care professional. ...
The information on this website is not intended for direct diagnostic use or medical decision-making without review by a genetics professional. Individuals should not change their health behavior solely on the basis of information contained on this website. Neither the University of Utah nor the National Institutes of Health independently verfies the submitted information. If you have questions about the information contained on this website, please see a health care professional. ...
Collagen V兔多克隆抗体(ab7046)可与小鼠, 牛, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF, sELISA实验严格验证,被5篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。
Nanomateriālu aglomerātu stabilitāte ir kritiska, lai novērtētu aerosola daļiņu lielumu sadalījumu no nano pulveriem vai citiem avotiem. Nanotehnoloģijas darba vietās strādājošie var tikt pakļauti ieelpojot kā potenciāli toksiskas vielas, strādājot ar nanomateriāliem un apstrādājot tos. Nanodaļiņas gaisā bieži veido aglomerātus, pateicoties pievilcīgiem daļiņu spēkiem, piemēram, van der Waalsa spēkam vai elektrostatiskajam spēkam, ja daļiņas tiek uzlādētas. Tā rezultātā aerosola daļiņas parasti novēro kā aglomerātus, nevis atsevišķas daļiņas. Par gaisu saturošu nanodaļiņu iedarbību un riska novērtējumu ir svarīgi zināt aerosola lielumu sadalījumu. Inhalējot cilvēkus, daļiņas ar dažādu diametru tiek novietotas dažādās centrālās un perifērijas elpošanas sistēmas vietās. Ir pierādīts, ka daļiņas nanoskaļiņā iekļūst plaušu gaisa un asins barjerā un cilvēka ķermenī, piemēram, smadzenēs, sirdī un aknās, tiek ...
Podiatrei četrdesmitgadnieces vecumā 8 gadus ir problēmas ar kaklu. Darba specifikas dēļ viņas slimība saasinājās, jo, strādājot ar pacientiem un pārvietojot tos, viņai nācās ieņemt neērtas pozas. Šajā gadījuma izpētē tiek uzsvērtas izmaiņas viņas galvenajos pienākumos, kas ir un vēl tiks veiktas, lai viņa varētu ērti strādāt.
Université de Liège - ULg , Département de langues et littératures romanes , Langues et littératures espagnoles et hispano-américaines ,] ...
ferrassin condimentada televisor autofinances ventilassis Eliana esmaluc maçonaré benzol desinterlineàreu coltellejàreu basculé[email protected] ...
Stickler Syndrome is associated with problems of vision (severe nearsightedness and retinal detachments), hearing (hearing loss and frequent ear infections), craniofacial abnormalities (small noses and chins, cleft palates) musculoskeletal abnormalities (arthritis and loose joints) as well as other problems caused by abnormal collagen [See figure 1]. A particular group of physical features, called Robin sequence, is also common in people with Stickler Syndrome. Robin sequence includes cleft palate, a large tongue (macroglossia), and a small lower jaw (micrognathia).. ...
Stickler syndrome is the group of hereditary conditions characterized by eye abnormalities, a distinctive facial appearance, joint problems and hearing loss. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Stickler syndrome is the group of hereditary conditions characterized by eye abnormalities, a distinctive facial appearance, joint problems and hearing loss. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Louis Blèriot designed and built the original Blèriot Type XI, which was the first heavier-than-air craft to be flown across the English Channel. Blèriot flew the 25 miles from Calais, France to Dover, England on July 25, 1909 and won The Daily Mail prize of £1,000.
Deficit faktoru XI působí vzácnou hemofilii C; většinou se vyskytuje v židovské populaci v Evropě (Aškenázové) a předpokládá se, že postihuje asi 8 % populace - obě pohlaví. V jiných populacích byl tento stav popsán asi u 1 % případů. Jde o autozomálně recesivní poruchu. Ke spontánnímu krvácení dochází málokdy, ale chirurgické zákroky (v oblastech se zvýšenou fibrinolýzou) mohou způsobit nadměrnou krevní ztrátu. Proto se vyžaduje profylaxe - podání koncentrátu faktoru XI nebo plazmy z plné krve. [7] Nízké hladiny faktoru XI se také vyskytují u mnoha dalších onemocnění, včetně Noonanova syndromu. O vysokých hladinách faktoru XI se uvažovalo, že mají za následek trombózu, ačkoliv není jasné, co určuje tyto hladiny, a jak vážný je tento prokoagulační stav. ...
Instructions $\xi$ is a parameter related to your student ID, with $\xi_1$ corresponding to the last digit, $\xi_2$ to the last two digits, $\xi_3$ to the last three digits, etc. For instance, if your ID is 199225962, then $\xi_1=2$, $\xi_2=62$, $\xi_3=962$, $\xi_4=5962$, etc. Keep a copy of the assignment - the assignment will...
They offer 7 tracks of this disturbing brand of cyclonic atmosphere. As XI opens you immediately get a dose of feedback and then are slammed with a dirty spiraled riff. From there on its a dissonant journey into a lightless abyss. You only surface once in the course of this dive: a clearing is found during Sepulus where clean notes and chords emerge - this is soon shattered with a return of the tumultuous blackened discord which continues mounting to the very end. Slower moments in Crux bring an almost sludge heaviness into the mix that helps to vary XI well ...
Buy Race for Pace by XI on VideoHive. Effect consists of hi-tech Alpha sequence, based on the real-time effect. Highly suitable for all kinds of flash &amp...
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Stickler syndrome is a group of hereditary conditions characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and joint problems. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition.
Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Inhibits Fibrillogenesis of Collagen Type 1 Lucy Greetham Mark Nowey Britney Tappen Lauren Canova Casey Pham Learning Objectives • Identify the objectives of the paper (level 1- Remember) • Distinguish the advantages and disadvantages of in-vivo and in-vitro experimentation to study collagen. (level 2 - Understand) • Demonstrate ability to understand SPR techniques and interpret new data. (level 3 - Apply) • Design an experiment to test your hypothesis for the mechanism of cellular response to a change in DDR expression (level 6 - create) Objectives • What are the main objectives of this paper? - Show interaction between DDR2 and collagen type 1 - Study the binding kinetics - Determine how DDR2 effects fibrilogenesis Discoidin Domain Receptors (DDR1 and DDR2) • Widely expressed cell surface receptors, which bind and are activated by collagen • Activation results in downstream signaling which is known to regulates the ECM • Both bond the native triple ...
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Wonder no longer! Haniela has put together a great list of amazing ways to put your leftover egg whites to use...some easier than others, admittedly, but there should be an option for everyone ...
This video is part of the interective film Project XI - Ein Polytop für Iannis Xenakis Check out : http://www.xi11.de 30 Musicians, 20 Locations and 10 Cameras…
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Oftpred Colírio is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Oftpred Colírio is available on the Drugs.com website.
Alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen is the encoded protein. In terms of the diagnosis of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy ... It is associated with variants of type VI collagen, it is commonly associated with muscle weakness and respiratory problems, ... Bushby KM, Collins J, Hicks D (2014) Collagen type VI myopathies. Adv Exp Med Biol 802:185-199 "Congenital Muscular Dystrophy ... via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) "COL6A1 collagen type VI alpha 1 [ ...
Enhanced deposition of predominantly type I collagen in myocardial disease. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1990;22:1157-1165 Table 11-2 in ... Clinical history of ischaemic type chest pain lasting for more than 20 minutes Changes in serial ECG tracings Rise and fall of ... have nearly complete tissue specificity and are now the preferred markers for assessing myocardial damage.Heart-type fatty acid ... Archived 2015-11-21 at the Wayback Machine)" Chute, Michael; Aujla, Preetinder; Jana, Sayantan; Kassiri, Zamaneh (2019). "The ...
Using type I collagen nanofibers produced via electrospinning, Shih et al. found that the engineered collagen scaffold showed ... Shih YR, Chen CN, Tsai SW, Wang YJ, Lee OK (November 2006). "Growth of mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun type I collagen ... Nonmineralized organic component (i.e. type 1 collagen), mineralized inorganic component (i.e. hydroxyapatite), and many other ... PCL is a type of biodegradable polyester that can be prepared via ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone using catalysts ...
DEB is caused by genetic defects (or mutations) within the human COL7A1 gene encoding the protein type VII collagen (collagen ... Type VII collagen mutations and phenotype-genotype correlations in the dystrophic subtypes". Journal of Medical Genetics. 44 (3 ... There are 54 known keratin genes-of which 28 belong to the type I intermediate filament genes and 26 to type II-which work as ... A 2014 study classified cases into three types - EBS, JEB and DEB - and reviewed their times of death. The first two types ...
"Dominant mutations in the type II collagen gene, COL2A1, produce spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type". 11 (1). ... type II collagen) gene. Povinelli was born in Elyria, Ohio, and is the youngest of four children. His parents and siblings are ...
This involved a mutation of the protein collagen, type X, alpha 1, encoded by the COL10A1 gene. In humans a similar mutation ( ... December 2000). "Abnormal growth plate function in pigs carrying a dominant mutation in type X collagen". Mamm. Genome. 11 (12 ... Savarirayan, Ravi (4 July 2019). "C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Analogue Therapy in Children with Achondroplasia". New England ... This protein contributes to the production of collagen and other structural components in tissues and bones. When the FGFR3 ...
Stickler syndrome - affects collagen (primarily type II and XI), and may result in a distinctive facial appearance, eye ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - defect in the synthesis of collagen (Type I or III) causes progressive deterioration of collagens, ... Psoriatic arthritis is also a collagen vascular disease. Peyronie's disease - involving the growth of abnormal collagen (Type I ... Diseases in which inflammation or weakness of collagen tends to occur are also referred to as collagen diseases. Collagen ...
"Type-1 pericytes accumulate after tissue injury and produce collagen in an organ-dependent manner". Stem Cell Research & ... such as the collagen is produced by fibroblasts, leading to the formation of a permanent fibrotic scar. In response to injury, ... including collagen and glycosaminoglycans. The process is initiated when immune cells such as macrophages release soluble ... 135 (11): 2873-6. doi:10.1038/jid.2015.252. PMC 4640976. PMID 26134944. Leask A, Abraham DJ (2004). "TGF-beta signaling and the ...
Kwok HH, Yue PY, Mak NK, Wong RN (August 2012). "Ginsenoside Rb₁ induces type I collagen expression through peroxisome ... "Differences in osteoblast miRNA induced by cell binding domain of collagen and silicate-based synthetic bone". Journal of ... 18 (11): 3054-70. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1078. PMID 22452939. Xu X, Chen Z, Zhao X, Wang J, Ding D, Wang Z, Tan F, Tan X ...
The protein made by the COL11A2 gene is involved in the production of type XI collagen. This type of collagen is important for ... A recessive pattern of inheritance makes OSMED unique among the type II and type XI collagenopathies. The distinctive ... Mutations in the COL11A2 gene lead to a loss of function of this type of collagen, resulting in the signs and symptoms of OSMED ... Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI. Mutations in the COL11A2 gene cause ...
... primarily a collagen-type protein. 1.3% of the slime's dry weight consists of sugars, mainly galactosamine. The slime also ... Two different types of blood cells (or haemocytes) circulate in the fluid: amoebocytes and nephrocytes. The amoebocytes ... The best-known is the type genus Peripatus, which was described as early as 1825 and which, in English-speaking countries, ... Beneath this lies a thick layer of connective tissue, which is composed primarily of collagen fibres aligned either parallel or ...
... or assembly of type II or type XI collagen. Defective collagen molecules or reduced amounts of collagen affect the development ... These genes are involved in the production of type II and type XI collagen. Collagens are complex molecules that provide ... specifically collagen. Stickler syndrome is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI. Stickler syndrome is characterized by ... A metabolic defect concerning the hyaluronic acid and the collagen of the 2-d type is assumed to be the cause of this syndrome ...
Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Types of fibers: Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes ... Although there is no dense collagen network in adipose tissue, groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and ... Type I Collagen". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (6): 4223-31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110709200. PMID 11704682. Archived from ...
Cultures from tendinopathic tendons contain an increased production of type III collagen. Longitudinal sonogram of the lateral ... "Tenocytes from ruptured and tendinopathic achilles tendons produce greater quantities of type III collagen than tenocytes from ... a shift from large to small diameter collagen fibrils, buckling of the collagen fascicles in the tendon extracellular matrix, ... Other types of pain medication, like paracetamol, may be just as useful. Steroid injections have not been shown to have long ...
Relation of alleles of the collagen type 11 gene to bone density and the risk of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women ... 1991;324:1305-11. Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder E. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. Five-year ...
The extracellular matrix contains Elastin, fibrillin, glycoproteins, collagen types II, IX, X, and XI, and the proteoglycan ... It contains elastic fiber networks and collagen type II fibers. The principal protein is elastin. Elastic cartilage is ... Collagen fibers form networks to provide strength and structural framework for the molecules within the extracellular matrix. ... Elastic cartilage or yellow cartilage is a type of cartilage present in the pinnae (auricles) of the ear giving it shape, ...
Aug 2001). "Mammary-type myofibroblastoma of soft tissue: a tumor closely related to spindle cell lipoma". Am J Surg Pathol. 25 ... consist of bland spindle cells arranged in fascicles with interspersed thick bundles of collagen. They typically stain with ... In extra-mammary sites the tumour is known as a mammary-type myofibroblastoma, and may immunohistochemically and ...
Type II collagen is the most common type of collagen present in cartilage though types IX, X, XI, and XIV are also present. ... Collagen: Collagen is a structural protein present in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Collagen is composed of a triple ... Each type of cartilage has varying concentrations of components such as proteoglycans, collagen and water which determine its ... Collagen fibers in the superficial zone are aligned parallel to the surface in order to restrict shear stresses. Similarly, ...
Non-collagenous domain basement membrane collagen type IV is autoantigen (target antigen) of autoantibodies in the autoimmune ... collagen VII (anchoring fibrils) fibrillin (microfibrils) Lamina reticularis collagen III (as reticular fibers) Connective ... In addition to collagen, this supportive matrix contains intrinsic macromolecular components. The lamina lucida layer is made ... The basement membrane is a thin, pliable sheet-like type of extracellular matrix, that provides cell and tissue support and ...
The cartilage matrix is mainly composed of type II collagen (90-95%), although small amounts of type IX and XI collagen are ... type I collagen and versican), and decreased expression of hyaline cartilage proteins (e.g., type II collagen and aggrecan) [9 ... mainly based on type I collagen) running parallel to the cartilage[5]. Articular chondrocytes have typically been the cell type ... and type II collagen as well as the biomechanical properties of the generated constructs [26][21]. Autologous serum has also ...
Diagnostic tests include collagen gene-variant testing, collagen typing via skin biopsy, echocardiogram, and lysyl hydroxylase ... type 5 130080: type 8 - unspecified gene, locus 12p13 225310: type 10 - unspecified gene, locus 2q34 608763: Beasley-Cohen type ... It has two types. Type 1 occurs due to variations in the ZNF469 gene. Type 2 is due to variations in the PRDM5 gene. Classical- ... The first type is the nociceptive type, which is caused by injury sustained to tissues. The second type is neuropathic pain, ...
"Verification of simple hydration/dehydration methods to characterize multiple water compartments on Tendon Type 1 Collagen". ... Like quartz crystal, collagen in the ground substance and the more stable connective tissues (fascia, tendons, bones, etc.). ... Major ordering energy structures in the body are created by the ground substance, such as collagen, which not only conducts ... This is a structured water that provides stability for metabolic functioning, and related to collagen as well, the major ...
COL11A1: collagen, type XI, alpha 1. *CPT2: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. *CRYZ: Crystallin zeta ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... FRA1J encoding protein Fragile site, 5-azacytidine type, common, fra(1)(q12) ... This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the ...
Other collagen derived antiangiogenic factors include arresten, canstatin, tumstatin, α 6 collagen type IV antiangiogenic ... Endostatin is a naturally occurring, 20-kDa C-terminal fragment derived from type XVIII collagen. It is reported to serve as an ... Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a fragment of collagen 18, ... It is produced by proteolytic cleavage of collagen XVIII, a member of the multiplexin family that is characterized by ...
The protein made by the altered COL2A1 gene cannot be used to make type II collagen, resulting in a reduced amount of this type ... Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI. Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is one of a spectrum ... The protein made by this gene forms type II collagen, a molecule found mostly in cartilage and in the clear gel that fills the ... Zabel, B.; Hilbert, K.; Stöß, H.; Superti-Furga, A.; Spranger, J.; Winterpacht, A. (May 1996). "A specific collagen type II ...
The snake C-type lectin convulxin was reported to activate platelets in a similar way to collagen in the late 1970s, but this ... Platelets interact indirectly with collagen, via the von Willebrand Factor (vWF), which connects the collagen to the platelet ... a C-type lectin from Crotalus durissus terrificus (tropical rattlesnake) venom via the p62/GPVI collagen receptor". The Journal ... reduced convulxin subunits still inhibit the effect of collagen since they bind to a common receptor necessary for collagen ...
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... Fibrillar (Type I, II, III, V, XI). *Facit (Type IX, XII, XIV) ... Collagen[edit]. Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ... Other (Type VI, VII, XIII). Elastin[edit]. Elastins, in contrast to collagens, give elasticity to tissues, allowing them to ... Laminins bind other ECM components such as collagens and nidogens.[9] Development[edit]. There are many cell types that ...
In some cases, the defect is linked to mutations of the EMX2, SIX3, and Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 genes. Because having a ... Retrieved 2013-09-11. Tietjen, Ian; Bodell, Adria; Apse, Kira; Mendonza, Ashley M.; Chang, Bernard S.; Shaw, Gary M.; Barkovich ...
Depending on the type of fatty acid attached to the protein, a proteolipid can often contain myristoyl, palmitoyl, or prenyl ... Jones RR, Castelletto V, Connon CJ, Hamley IW (March 2013). "Collagen stimulating effect of peptide amphiphile C16-KTTKS on ... Lipidated peptides are a type of peptide amphiphile that incorporate one or more alkyl/lipid chains, attached to a peptide head ... Katayama K, Armendariz-Borunda J, Raghow R, Kang AH, Seyer JM (May 1993). "A pentapeptide from type I procollagen promotes ...
Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see ... Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR (October 2011). "A role for collagen XXIII in cancer cell ... For instance, higher levels of collagen XXIII have been associated with higher levels of catenins in cells. These heightened ... levels of collagen helped facilitate adhesions and anchorage-independent cell growth and provided evidence of collagen XXIII's ...
Atrophic acne scars have lost collagen from the healing response and are the most common type of acne scar (account for ... microspheres with collagen; human and bovine collagen derivatives, and fat harvested from the person's own body (autologous fat ... Many over-the-counter treatments in many forms are available, which are often known as cosmeceuticals.[168] Certain types of ... Ablative lasers (such as CO2 and fractional types) have also been used to treat active acne and its scars. When ablative lasers ...
List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit ... COL2A1 collagen disease. *Achondrogenesis *type 2. *Hypochondrogenesis. SLC26A2 sulfation defect. *Achondrogenesis *type 1B ...
The dissolution of collagen depends on time, temperature and environmental pH.[8] At high temperatures, the rate of collagen ... The study of diagenesis in rocks is used to understand the geologic history they have undergone and the nature and type of ... The composite nature of bone, comprising one-third organic (mainly protein collagen) and two thirds mineral (calcium phosphate ... The hydrolytic activity plays a key role in the mineral phase transformations that exposes the collagen to accelerated chemical ...
Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Type I Collagen". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (6): 4223-31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110709200. PMID 11704682.. ... TypesEdit. Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, and special connective tissue.[5][6] ... groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression ...
10% of all dislocations are anterior and this is broken down into superior and inferior types.[32] Superior dislocations ... syndrome is genetically inherited disorder that is thought to affect the encoding of the connective tissue protein's collagen ... the most common type of shoulder dislocation (96-98% of the time) occurs when the arm is in external rotation and abduction ( ... Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 11(11), 507-513. *^ a b Skelley, Nathan W.; McCormick, Jeremy J.; Smith, ...
Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[37] ... Together these eleven chemical elements (H, C, N, O, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, S, Mg) make up 99.85% of the body.[citation needed] ... 11; NE Trace A cofactor in enzyme functions Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables, tea, coffee[25] manganese ... 00011.00011 40; 25 Trace Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and ...
Data also proposed a decrease in weight gain as a result of increased consumption lessens the risk of developing diabetes type ... Foundation for strong healthy bones and teeth - majority of the calcium consumed as a child is deposited onto collagen bone ... Vitamin A ensures sufficient collagen is produced to build strong healthy bones and other connecting tissues (Deen & Hark, 2007 ... A 2007 study by Boeing et al., explored common chronic lifestyle diseases including diabetes type 2 mellitus, obesity, ...
Type. Appearance (micrograph). Appearance (illustration). Approx. %. in adults. See also:. Blood values. Diameter (μm)[7]. Main ... It rises in response to allergies, parasitic infections, collagen diseases, and disease of the spleen and central nervous ... This type of white blood cell decreased is usually the neutrophil. In this case the decrease may be called neutropenia or ... Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by ...
There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ... Mice that survive this initial onslaught go on to demonstrate an increase in lung collagen content, and decreased lung ... Type 2 pneumocytes are more resistant to damage, which is important as these cells produce surfactant, transport ions and ... Depending on the type and amount of irritant gas inhaled, victims can experience symptoms ranging from minor respiratory ...
... of which is collagen type 1 and the remaining 10% ground substance, which includes dentine-specific proteins), and 10% water ( ... TypesEdit. There are three types of dentin, primary, secondary and tertiary.[13][14] Secondary dentin is a layer of dentin ... It is of two types, either reactionary, where dentin is formed from a pre-existing odontoblast, or reparative, where newly ... It is unmineralized and consists of collagen, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. It is similar to osteoid in bone and is thickest ...
Types[edit]. General[edit]. Irwin Fridovich and Joe McCord at Duke University discovered the enzymatic activity of superoxide ... insights into heparin and collagen binding". J. Mol. Biol. 388 (2): 310-26. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.03.026. PMID 19289127.. ... Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese), and the Ni type (which binds nickel). ... In wild-type S. cerevisiae, DNA damage rates increased 3-fold with age, but more than 5-fold in mutants deleted for either the ...
collagen trimer. • proteinaceous extracellular matrix. • extracellular region. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. ... 276 (15): 12003-11. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011591200. PMID 11278945.. *. Spessotto P, Cervi M, Mucignat MT, et al. (2003). "beta 1 ...
... as healthy collagen replaces the defective collagen with vitamin C repletion. Treatment can be orally or by intramuscular or ... Yamada H, Yamada K, Waki M, Umegaki K (October 2004). "Lymphocyte and plasma vitamin C levels in type 2 diabetic patients with ... including wound healing and collagen synthesis. In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, ... Hydroxylation allows the collagen molecule to assume its triple helix structure, and thus vitamin C is essential to the ...
Work at the Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, showed that a certain type of autophagy, i.e., chaperone-assisted ... Another study demonstrated that skeletal muscle fibres of collagen VI knockout mice showed signs of degeneration due to an ... 115 (11): 0. Missing or empty ,title=. (help). *^ a b C. A. Lamb, T. Yoshimori, and S. A. Tooze, 'The Autophagosome: Origins ... doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0047.. *^ a b c Tavassoly, I; Parmar, J; Shajahan-Haq, An; Clarke, R; Baumann, Wt; Tyson, Jj (2015 ...
Two types of PDGFRs have been identified: alpha-type and beta-type PDGFRs.[8] The alpha type binds to PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and PDGF ... The addition of PDGF at specific time‐points has been shown to stabilise vasculature in collagen‐glycosaminoglycan scaffolds.[ ... Types and classification[edit]. There are five different isoforms of PDGF that activate cellular response through two different ... The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. ...
The three main types of hyaluronidases are two classes of eukaryotic endoglycosidase hydrolases and a prokaryotic lyase-type of ... "Testicular hyaluronidase induces tubular structures of endothelial cells grown in three-dimensional collagen gel through a CD44 ... 16 (1): 11-21. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwj036. PMID 16166602.. *^ Baba D, Kashiwabara S, Honda A, Yamagata K, Wu Q, Ikawa M, Okabe M ... The role of hyaluronidases in cancer has been historically controversial due to contradictory observations,[11] namely that ...
TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha increases collagen accuulation and proliferation in intestinal myofibrobasts via TNF Receptor ... TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers.[24][25] From ... TNF was thought to be produced primarily by macrophages,[36] but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including ...
Work at the Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, showed that a certain type of autophagy, i.e., chaperone-assisted ... Another study demonstrated that skeletal muscle fibres of collagen VI knockout mice showed signs of degeneration due to an ... There are three main types of autophagy (macroautophagy, microautophagy and Chaperone mediated autophagy), these are mediated ... doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0047. PMC 3170456. PMID 21878654.. *^ a b c Tavassoly I, Parmar J, Shajahan-Haq AN, Clarke R, ...
Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina. The collagen IV C4 domain at the C- ... Collagen IV is the more common usage, as opposed to the older terminology of "type-IV collagen".[citation needed] Collagen IV ... type IV collagen excretion reflects renal morphological alterations and type IV collagen expression in patients with type 2 ... Type III Procollagen, Type IV Collagen, Laminin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase, or Prolyl Hydroxylase?". Alcoholism: ...
... that is caused by a mutation in one of the three genes coding for type VI collagen.[2] These include COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 ... Okada M et al (2007) Primary collagen VI deficiency is the second most common congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. Neurolog ... "Collagen VI related muscle disorders" (PDF). J. Med. Genet. 42 (9): 673-85. doi:10.1136/jmg.2002.002311. PMC 1736127 . PMID ... This page was last edited on 3 April 2018, at 11:52 (UTC). ...
Saad, Mohamed (Oct 1994). Low resolution structure and packing investigations of collagen crystalline domains in tendon using ... Kraft and sulfite (also called sulphite) refer to the type of pulping process used to remove the lignin bonding the original ... Instances are collagen[3] family of proteins, tendon, muscle proteins like actin, cell proteins like microtubules and many ... 70 (11): 887. Bibcode:1993JChEd..70..887K. doi:10.1021/ed070p887.. *^ "synthetic fibre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia ...
Collagen cross-linking by applying riboflavin topically then shining UV light is a method to slow progression of corneal ... One such organism is Micrococcus luteus (American Type Culture Collection strain number ATCC 49442), which develops a yellow ... "Collagen cross-linking: when and how? A review of the state of the art of the technique and new perspectives". Eye and vision ... 82 (1): 11-23. doi:10.1002/ar.1090820103. ISSN 1097-0185. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-02-14.. ...
Platelet activation (through agonists such as thrombin, Type II collagen and ADP) results in "membrane flipping" where the ... The extracellular region of P-selectin is composed of three different domains like other selectin types; a C-type lectin-like ... a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Its activity in tumor metastasis has been probed by the addition of heparin that functions ... The number of CRP repeats is the major feature differentiating the type of selectin in extracellular region. In human, P- ...
ANA type. Target antigen. Sensitivity (%) SLE. Drug-induced LE. Diffuse systemic sclerosis. Limited systemic scleroderma. ... collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin. Binding to these antigens within the kidney could cause inflammation and complement ... Some ANAs appear in several types of disease, resulting in lower specificity of the test. For example, IgM-rheumatoid factor ( ... Type I topoisomerase -[62]. -[62]. 20[62]. 10[62]. -[62]. -. -[62] Anti-centromere Centromeric proteins -[62]. -[62]. 30[62]. ...
"Mapping the Ligand-binding Sites and Disease-associated Mutations on the Most Abundant Protein in the Human, Type I Collagen" ... கொழுப்பிழையங்கள், அவற்றின் மற்ற பணிகளோடு, உடலியக்கத்துக்கு பஞ்சுபோன்ற மெத்தமைவைத் தருகின்றன.[10][11] கொழுப்பிழையத்தில் அடர் ...
July 2002). "D-Amino acid residue in the C-type natriuretic peptide from the venom of the mammal, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, the ... "Extraction and identification of collagen-derived peptides with hematopoietic activity from Colla Corii Asini". Journal of ... B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) - produced in myocardium & useful in medical diagnosis ... 11] These peptides are often cyclic and can have highly complex cyclic structures, although linear nonribosomal peptides are ...
The errors are of four general types: *Variations in the 14. C/12. C ratio in the atmosphere, both geographically and over time ... as well as for different parts of animals such as bone collagen, but when dating a given sample it is better to determine the δ ... both bone minerals and bone collagen typically have a higher concentration of 13. C than is found in the animal's diet, though ... and for some sample types, such as shells, there is the possibility of carbon exchange between the sample and the environment, ...
... dominant call types decrease and subset call types increase. The use of both call types is called biphonation. The increased ... Eleven members (about half) of one resident pod disappeared in the following year. The spill damaged salmon and other prey ... is characterized by a well-developed dermal layer with a dense network of fascicles of collagen fibres.[60] ... Type B is smaller than type A. It has a large white eye patch. Most of the dark parts of its body are medium grey instead of ...
Skeletal (voluntary) muscle is further divided into two broad types: slow twitch and fast twitch:. *Type I, slow twitch, or " ... and each cell is encased within its own endomysium of collagen fibers. Thus, the overall muscle consists of fibers (cells) that ... Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. There are three types of ... The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow- ...
Collagen type XI alpha 1 chainImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... tr,G1L3Z1,G1L3Z1_AILME Collagen type XI alpha 1 chain OS=Ailuropoda melanoleuca OX=9646 GN=COL11A1 PE=4 SV=1 ... IPR008160 Collagen. IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf. IPR000885 Fib_collagen_C. IPR001791 Laminin_G. ... IPR008160 Collagen. IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf. IPR000885 Fib_collagen_C. IPR001791 Laminin_G. ...
Susceptibility of the cartilage collagens types II, IX and XI to degradation by the cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L.. ... types II, IX and XI, to degradation by the cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L. Both enzymes degrade these collagens at ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Since these cathepsins can degrade cartilage collagens at pH values near neutrality, they may contribute to the destruction of ...
Western blot analysis showed collagens type I and III were significantly decreased and collagens α1(XI) and V were ... "Differential Expression of Collagen Type V and XI ?-1 in Human Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms." The Annals of Thoracic ... Differential Expression of Collagen Type V and XI ?-1 in Human Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms. ... Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed collagens type V and α1(XI) were ...
... a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but… ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, ... Background of Collagen type XI alpha 2 chain antibody. This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ...
WK70847 Standard Guide for Characterization of Type I Collagen as Starting Material for Surgical Implants and Substrates for ... biomaterials; characterization; collagen; natural materials; TEMPs; Substrates--surgical implant applications; Surgical ... Revision of F2212 - 11 Standard Guide for Characterization of Type I Collagen as Starting Material for Surgical Implants and ... implants; TEMPs (tissue engineered medical products); Collagen; Rationale. This work item is being initiated to address ...
The CELLBANKER® series of cryopreservation media allows for the stable long-term storage of any cell type, including sensitive ... The CELLBANKER® series of cryopreservation media allows for the stable long-term storage of any cell type, including sensitive ... The CELLBANKER® series of cryopreservation media allows for the stable long-term storage of any cell type, including sensitive ... The CELLBANKER® series of cryopreservation media allows for the stable long-term storage of any cell type, including sensitive ...
Discussion The genes encoding structural and functionally related type XI (COL11A1 and COL11A2) and type V (COL5A1) collagens ... Background Type XI collagen, which is expressed in developing tendons and is encoded by the COL11A1, COL11A2 and COL2A1 genes, ... Association of type XI collagen genes with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in independent populations from South Africa and ... Association of type XI collagen genes with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in independent populations from South Africa and ...
Association of type XI collagen genes with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in independent populations from South Africa and ... Association of type XI collagen genes with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in independent populations from South Africa and ...
XI) chain of type XI collagen. Some patients also had antibodies which bound to the alpha 1(XI) and to the alpha 2(XI) chains ... XI) chain of type XI collagen but later binding to the alpha 3(XI) chain was seen. Sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis ... of type XI collagen. Thus antibodies to unique as well as to common epitopes on each of the two types of collagen molecule ... Antibodies to type II and XI collagens: evidence for the formation of antigen specific as well as cross reacting antibodies in ...
... like many cell types in cartilaginous tissues if type XI collagen was a pericellular component of annulus fibrosus (AF) cells ... and type XI collagen positive. Heparitinase-III pre-digestion abolished the type XI collagen and 10E4 localisation in these ... fibrillar assemblies demonstrating a putative HS mediated interaction which localised the type XI collagen. Type XI collagen ... A type XI collagen mutation leads to increased degradation of type II collagen in articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage ...
XI) and alpha 2(XI) mRNAs were found either singly or without collagen alpha 3(XI) transcripts. Collagen type XI may therefore ... In cartilage collagen type XI exists as heterotrimeric molecules composed of alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI) and alpha 3(XI) subunits ... The distribution of mRNAs for collagen alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(I) were also studied. Co-expression of collagen type XI, alpha 2( ... These findings have implications for the possibility of additional chain associations for collagen types XI and V in cross-type ...
Collagen Alpha-1(XI)chain , Products for research use only! ... ELISA Kit for Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1), COL11-A1; ... ELISA Kit for Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1). COL11-A1; CO11A1; COLL6; STL2; Collagen Alpha-1(XI)chain. *Metabolic pathway ... The concentration of Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples ... Stability of the ELISA Kit for Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1). The stability of kit is determined by the loss rate of ...
Cleaved collagen fibrils [extracellular region] (Canis familiaris) * Cleaved collagen type XI fibril [extracellular region] ( ... Collagen degradation (Canis familiaris) * Gelatin degradation by MMP1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 (Canis familiaris) * ...
The COL11A1 gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a ... XI) collagen cDNA demonstrates that type XI belongs to the fibrillar class of collagens and reveals that the expression of the ... and XI in the growth plate of human rib and fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage: type XI collagen is restricted to thin fibrils ... collagen type XI trimer. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Biological process. • cartilage condensation. • chondrocyte development ...
Collagen Type XI Alpha 2 Chain, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 ...
Product Type(s). Score 11.. LOreal Paris Voluminous Miss Manga Mascara, 376 Black Brown. Mascara. ... Showing 11 - 20 of 87 results See more: ,Back 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Next, ...
Characterization of the antibody response in mice with type II collagen-induced arthritis, using monoclonal anti-type II ... Type II collagen autoimmunity in animals and provocations leading to arthritis. Immunol Rev 1990; 118: 193-232.. Direct Link: ... Analysis of type I and IV collagens by FT-IR spectroscopy and imaging for a molecular investigation of skeletal muscle ... Antibodies to type II collagen in early rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease progression. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: ...
Collagen types I, II, III, V and XI self-assemble into D-periodic cross-striated fibrils. Here the D is approximately 67 nm and ... These form the most abundant collagens in vertebrates. ... There are 29 genetically distinct collagens present in animal ... Type V collagen and type XI collagen are minor components of tissue and occur as fibrils with type I and type II collagen ... These form the most abundant collagens in vertebrates.. Collagen types I - V. *Type I collagen is found throughout the body ...
While you may have collagen peptides on hand, for this recipe youll want to be sure to use actual gelatin to achieve the ... Meal Type, Recipes, Treats Bacon & Cheddar Keto Muffins By Worker Bee , June 09 2018 ... With all the benefits of Primal Kitchen® Collagen Fuel™ and the antioxidant power of Pique Teas Tea Crystals, this is a great ... s Collagen Peptides with Pique Teas Hibiscus Beauty Elixir for that extra kick. Hibiscus is a antioxidant powerhouse thats ...
XI) chain. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... gene provides instructions for making a component of type XI ... Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and width (diameter) of another type of collagen molecule, type II collagen. ... The COL11A1 gene provides instructions for making a component of type XI collagen called the pro-alpha1(XI) chain. Collagens ... When the abnormal chain is incorporated into collagen molecules, it creates defective type XI collagen. The abnormal collagen ...
XI) chain. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... gene provides instructions for making a component of type XI ... Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and width (diameter) of another type of collagen molecule, type II collagen. ... chain of type XI collagen. These mutations are thought to change the structure of type XI collagen, which plays an important ... The COL11A2 gene provides instructions for making a component of type XI collagen called the pro-alpha2(XI) chain. Collagens ...
Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 ... NTRK3 (Neurotrophic tyrosine Kinase, Receptor, Type 3): NTRK3 antibodies NTRK3 ELISA Kits NTRK3 Proteins ... This gene is a member of the MER/AXL/TYRO3 receptor kinase family and encodes a transmembrane protein with two fibronectin type ...
Collagens constitute nearly 30% of all proteins in our body (1). Among the 29 collagen types, type IV collagen is a major and ... collagen types I, II, and III) and networks (collagen types IV and VI) (1). Proper posttranslational modifications of collagen ... C and D) Presence of type IV collagen in both P3H2-null and control embryos at E6 (green) is shown. colIV, type IV collagen. (E ... Type I collagen used for SPR experiments was extracted from mouse skin as previously described (6). Type IV collagen extracted ...
The purified mass is dried to provide the desired Type I collagen product which may be ground into a powder or formed into a ... The enzyme-treated comminuted material which is rich in collagen is dispersed in an organic acid to cause the fibrillar mass to ... source such as poultry feet that incorporates a fibrillar mass of connective tissue as well as bony tissue to yield a collagen ... collagen matrix or sponge, depending on the end use therefor. ... A process for extracting type I collagen from an avian ...
... and collecting the collagen product resulting from the enzyme treatment, where the collected collagen product includes a ... enzymatically-treated human derived collagen having an amount of its natural collagen constituents preserved, and may include ... Purifying human derived collagen from human tissue includes treating harvested human tissue with an enzyme to form a collagen ... preserved amount of its natural collagen constituents. Various medical implants can be formed using the isolated, ...
Activity type: Private for-profit entities (excluding Higher or Secondary Education Establishments) ... exploiting the unique wound healing and antimicrobial properties of human collagen VI. From 2018-08-01 to 2019-01-31, ongoing ... exploiting the unique wound healing and antimicrobial properties of human collagen VI ... wound dressing product that will make use of the newlydiscovered healing and antimicrobial properties of human collagen VI. It ...
The excess accumulation of type I collagen within tissues leads to organ dysfunction and occurs as a result of an imbalance ... The excess accumulation of type I collagen within tissues leads to organ dysfunction and occurs as a result of an imbalance ... This chapter outlines several methods to assess the in vitro production of type I collagen that are employed in our laboratory ... Type I collagen Western immunoblot real-time PCR nuclear run-on assay ...
Side effects of finitro forte plus collagen type - Has any member used this or heard of it , Knee & Hip .... Libido For Her is ... Collagen trials for osteoarthritis... reported side-effects... mg bioactive undenatured type II collagen or glucosamine ... Buy Natural Libido For Her Homeopathic Spray Side effects of finitro forte plus collagen type - Has sex become a chore? Is it ... Side effects of finitro forte plus collagen type - For Order Libido For Her Spray ...
Alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen is the encoded protein. In terms of the diagnosis of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy ... It is associated with variants of type VI collagen, it is commonly associated with muscle weakness and respiratory problems, ... Bushby KM, Collins J, Hicks D (2014) Collagen type VI myopathies. Adv Exp Med Biol 802:185-199 "Congenital Muscular Dystrophy ... via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.) "COL6A1 collagen type VI alpha 1 [ ...
It is caused by an abnormality in collagen, which is a key part of connective tissue. Source for information on Marshall ... The gene name for Marshall syndrome is Collagen, Type XI, alpha 1. The gene symbol is COL11A1. The chromosomal location is 1p21 ... "Entry 120280: Collagen, Type XI, Alpha-1; COL11A1." OMIM-Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. ,http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ... In 1998, a study used genetic testing to establish that a collagen genetic mutation on COL11A1 caused Marshall syndrome and ...
  • These findings have implications for the possibility of additional chain associations for collagen types XI and V in cross-type heterotrimers within heterotypic fibrils. (biochemj.org)
  • May play an important role in fibrillogenesis by controlling lateral growth of collagen II fibrils. (abcam.com)
  • Ultrastructural localization of collagen types II, IX, and XI in the growth plate of human rib and fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage: type XI collagen is restricted to thin fibrils. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Collagen types I, II, III, V and XI self-assemble into D-periodic cross-striated fibrils. (news-medical.net)
  • Type V collagen and type XI collagen are minor components of tissue and occur as fibrils with type I and type II collagen respectively. (news-medical.net)
  • Mature collagen molecules arrange themselves into long, thin fibrils that form stable interactions (cross-links) with one another in the spaces between cells (the extracellular matrix). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The arrangement and size of type II collagen fibrils is essential for the normal structure of these tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • β1 integrin (also known as CD29) is a member of the subfamily of collagen-binding integrins (including α1β1, α2β1, α10β1 and α11β1) which bind to the triple-helical GFOGER sequence on collagen fibrils. (nature.com)
  • A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 12 13 Thus, the scenario was suggested that LDL bound to collagen, became oxidized, and would afterwards be taken up by macrophages gliding along collagen fibrils. (ahajournals.org)
  • The collagen triple-helix consists of a repeating (Gly-X-Y) n sequence, and cartilage contains mixed fibrils of collagen type II, IV, IX, and XI. (mdpi.com)
  • METHODS: We studied how two structurally distinct forms of type I collagen, monomer versus polymerized fibrils, affect cell proliferation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and expression of G1-phase regulatory proteins in cultured rat mesangial cells (MCs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Collagen consists of amino acids wound together to form triple- helices to form of elongated fibrils . (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • These results demonstrate that increased collagen α1(XI) and collagen V mRNA and protein levels are linearly correlated with the size of the aneurysm and provide a potential mechanism for the generation and progression of aneurysmal enlargement. (harvard.edu)
  • Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a proline/arginine-rich protein that is an amino terminal domain. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen is the encoded protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen alpha-1(XI) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL11A1 gene . (omicsgroup.org)
  • COL11A2 (Collagen Type XI Alpha 2 Chain) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In addition to losing collagen, skin also starts to lose elastin, a protein which provides skin with the ability to stretch and snap back. (healthline.com)
  • Collagen is a protein found in the skin's connective tissues. (healthline.com)
  • [10] [11] It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes , angiogenesis , blood coagulation , and tumour metastasis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body [15] [16] and accounts for 90% of bone matrix protein content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) or delete a small number of amino acids from the pro-alpha1(XI) chain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other mutations cause segments of DNA to be skipped when the protein is made, resulting in an abnormally short pro-alpha1(XI) chain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Both of these mutations change a single protein building block (amino acid) in the pro-alpha2(XI) chain of type XI collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that the altered protein causes hearing loss by changing the structure of type XI collagen and impairing its ability to interact with other proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This protein acts a potent mitogenic factor that plays an important role in the growth, proliferation and differentiation of numerous cell types. (antibodies-online.com)
  • For years, the bodybuilding, protein-gorging community has maligned collagen for its inessentiality and lack of input into the muscle-protein synthesis process. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Why bother with "low quality" protein like gelatin/collagen when you can pound the whey, eat the meat, and focus on other sources of the essential amino acids directly involved in building muscle? (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Protein interactions with the collagen triple helix play a critical role in collagen fibril formation, cell adhesion, and signaling. (rcsb.org)
  • A GVMGFO motif in fibrillar collagens (O denotes 4-hydroxyproline) binds 3 unrelated proteins: von Willebrand factor (VWF), discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), and the extracellular matrix protein SPARC/osteonectin/BM-40. (rcsb.org)
  • Type I collagen, the most abundant protein in animals, is a structural protein. (mcponline.org)
  • Fibrillar collagens such as type I, which is the major protein in bone, contain a long uninterrupted triple helix of over 1000 residues. (mcponline.org)
  • Pirfenidone inhibits proliferation, arrests the cell cycle, and downregulates heat shock protein-47 and collagen type I in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, the dose-dependent effects of pirfenidone on the cell cycle, proliferation and expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-47 and collagen type I in a cultured rat hepatic stellate cell line (HSC-T6) were investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, after 24 h, HSC-T6 cells exhibited dose-dependent decreases in HSP-47 protein and collagen I mRNA levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Protein expression of cyclins D1 and E was markedly down-regulated in MCs plated on polymerized type I collagen for eight hours in 5% FCS, as compared with MCs on monomer type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Incubation with 5% FCS reduced expression of the cdk-inhibitor protein p27Kip1 on monomer but not on polymerized type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of this study was to assess the influence of post-exercise protein supplementation with collagen peptides v. placebo on muscle mass and muscle function following resistance training in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. (cambridge.org)
  • Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is caused by genetic defects (or mutations ) within the human COL7A1 gene encoding the protein type VII collagen (collagen VII). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunogen: C terminus [VQLKRSKNDSKPYC] of cardiac elav-type RNA-binding protein (ETR-3) Storage: -20 C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They trigger your body to make more collagen, a protein in your skin, muscles, and bones. (webmd.com)
  • Collagen / ˈ k ɒ l ə dʒ ɪ n / is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background Type XI collagen, which is expressed in developing tendons and is encoded by the COL11A1 , COL11A2 and COL2A1 genes, shares structural and functional homology with type V collagen, which plays an important role in collagen fibril assembly. (bmj.com)
  • Discussion The genes encoding structural and functionally related type XI ( COL11A1 and COL11A2 ) and type V ( COL5A1 ) collagens interact with one another to collectively modulate the risk for AT. (bmj.com)
  • Defects in COL11A2 are the cause of Stickler syndrome type 3 (STL3) [MIM:184840]. (abcam.com)
  • Defects in COL11A2 are the cause of deafness autosomal dominant type 13 (DFNA13) [MIM:601868]. (abcam.com)
  • Defects in COL11A2 are the cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 53 (DFNB53) [MIM:609706]. (abcam.com)
  • 1990). "The human alpha 2(XI) collagen gene (COL11A2) maps to the centromeric border of the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Western Blot: Collagen XI alpha 2 Antibody (473) [NBP2-43728] - Various tissue extracts (50 ug) were separated by 5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with COL11A2 antibody [473] diluted at 1:500. (novusbio.com)
  • The COL11A2 gene mutations that cause fibrochondrogenesis type 2 lead to the production of an abnormal version of the pro-alpha2(XI) chain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the reported COL11A2 gene mutations that cause OSMED lead to the production of an abnormally short version of the pro-alpha2(XI) chain that is probably not incorporated into type XI collagen molecules. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus antibodies to unique as well as to common epitopes on each of the two types of collagen molecule occur in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Messenger RNAs for some of the alpha chains of collagen type XI have also been found in non-chondrogenic tissues but the chain composition of the molecule in these sites is not known. (biochemj.org)
  • The pro-alpha1(XI) chain combines with two other collagen chains, pro-alpha2(XI) and pro-alpha1(II), to form a triple-stranded procollagen molecule. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and width (diameter) of another type of collagen molecule, type II collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to collagen, MMP-13 also degrades the proteoglycan molecule, aggrecan, giving it a dual role in matrix destruction. (bioscience.org)
  • The cellular effects of type IV collagen were studied in pancreatic cancer cell lines by reducing type IV collagen expression through RNA interference and by functional receptor blocking of integrins and their binding-sites on the type IV collagen molecule. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recognition by guinea pig peritoneal-exudate cells of conformationally different states of the collagen molecule. (springer.com)
  • transmembrane collagen, interacts with integrin a1b1, fibronectin and components of basement membranes like nidogen and perlecan. (news-medical.net)
  • We investigated the binding of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) to microtiter plates coated with type I or II collagen, laminin, fibronectin, or poly- d -lysine. (ahajournals.org)
  • Application of the F(ab′) 2 from a monoclonal antibody to ox-LDL revealed a strong competition of the binding of highly ox-LDL to type II collagen (60%), laminin (35%), type I collagen (20%), and poly- d -lysine (15%), whereas the binding to fibronectin was not affected. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to these collagen phenotypes and poly- d -lysine, we investigated for the first time the binding of ox-LDL to laminin and fibronectin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) are widely distributed in connecting tissues such as skin, bone, and cartilage by forming a complex with collagen, fibronectin, laminin, hyaluronic acid, and other glycoproteins [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The early step of corneal wound healing is characterized by the massive production of fibronectin (FN), whose secretion is progressively replaced by collagens from the basal membrane as wound healing proceeds. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes , the multi-domain proteins perlecan , agrin , and collagen XVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate is attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagens constitute nearly 30% of all proteins in our body. (pnas.org)
  • To elucidate the role of extracellular matrix and basement membrane associated proteins at the ectodermal-ectomesenchymal interface of developing salivary glands, human fetal submandibular glands (n=100), gestational age varying from 10 to 40 weeks, were evaluated for expression of tenascin, type IV collagen and laminin by using immunohistochemical methods and the results were compared with their expression in adult glands (n=20). (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2,3 Collagens are proteins that consist of a triple helix of polypeptide chains and globular domains, and comprise a family of proteins of at least 19 genetically distinct types, among which type I and type III constitute two-thirds. (ahajournals.org)
  • Endothelial cells represent a major site of elaboration of fibrinolytic system proteins that affect diverse cell types in concert with other cytokines and small molecules, including t-PA and u-PA and their primary physiological inhibitor, PAI-1, a 50-kD glycoprotein serine protease inhibitor. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 6 IL-1 modulates the expression of u-PA, PAI-1, PAI-2, and collagen in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, 7 8 9 10 but the effects of IL-1 on synthesis of fibrinolytic system proteins in CMECs have not been elucidated. (ahajournals.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the collagen type-I α1 chain was homologous to those of the proteins from other vertebrate species. (bioone.org)
  • 9 10 11 The structure of two scavenger receptors, recently explored by cloning cDNA from bovine lung library and designated type I and type II, was found to contain a collagenous domain, which plays a key role in binding chemically modified proteins, such as acetylated LDL, ox-LDL, and maleylated bovine serum albumin. (ahajournals.org)
  • PDAC tumours are characterised by a voluminous stroma that is rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as collagens, hyaluronan (HA) and matricellular proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Distinct structural forms of type I collagen modulate cell cycle regulatory proteins in mesangial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, recent approaches have explored local delivery of regulatory proteins as an alternative to systemic therapeutic regimens ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Susceptibility of the cartilage collagens types II, IX and XI to degradation by the cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L. (nih.gov)
  • We have investigated the susceptibility of both the helical and non-helical regions of isolated rat chondrosarcoma collagens, types II, IX and XI, to degradation by the cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L. Both enzymes degrade these collagens at temperatures from 20 to 37 degrees C and pH values from 3.5 to 7.0. (nih.gov)
  • Otherwise, without enough antioxidants in the body, oxidative stress can lead to collagen degradation and wrinkle formation. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • 6 Collagen type I accumulation in the heart depends not only on its production, but also on its degradation, which is performed by proteinases, such as matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). (ahajournals.org)
  • The collagenases, MMP-1 and MMP-13, have predominant roles in RA and OA because they are rate limiting in the process of collagen degradation. (bioscience.org)
  • Collagen has been widely used for cartilage repair, but its low stiffness and rapid degradation disfavor chondrogenesis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • At the molecular level, skin aging is characterized by reduced procollagen synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix mainly comprising collagen, glycosaminoglycan, and elastin. (frontiersin.org)
  • In one small study , an oral supplement of collagen peptides, vitamin C, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract , and Aristotelia chilensis extract (Macqui berry) was given to study participants for 3 months. (healthline.com)
  • We're fairly sure there's nothing better than a pretty popsicle that's yummy AND healthy, so we've paired Primal Kitchen®'s Collagen Peptides with Pique Tea's Hibiscus Beauty Elixir for that extra kick. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • While you may have collagen peptides on hand, for this recipe you'll want to be sure to use actual gelatin to achieve the correct thickening. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • When collagen is hydrolyzed , or broken down into collagen peptides , your body is able to absorb it easier. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • From there the peptides travel throughout your body aiding collagen and elastin production by stimulating fibroblasts. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Our study revealed differences between mutant and wild type peptides and provides a theory for how mutations compensate for lost stability. (mcponline.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Autosomal dominant chondrodystrophies, Stickler syndrome type 2 and Marshall syndrome are characterized by facial abnormalities, eye defects, hearing loss, and joint problems caused by mutations in COL11A1. (boisestate.edu)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with type II Stickler syndrome and with Marshall syndrome . (omicsgroup.org)
  • At least seven mutations in the COL11A1 gene have been identified in people with fibrochondrogenesis type 1, a disorder of bone growth characterized by severe skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, and vision loss. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some cases of fibrochondrogenesis type 1 result from a combination of COL11A1 gene mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In at least two reported cases, fibrochondrogenesis type 1 has been caused by combinations of COL11A1 gene mutations that completely eliminate the production of the pro-alpha1(XI) chain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When Stickler syndrome results from COL11A1 gene mutations, it is classified as type II. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations are thought to change the structure of type XI collagen, which plays an important role in the structure and function of the inner ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It also found that other types of mutations could cause overlaps of both syndromes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, the mutations in fbl-1 /fibulin-1 and let-2 /collagen IV that suppress mig-17 mutations also suppressed the mig-18 mutation, suggesting that mig-18 and mig-17 function in a common genetic pathway. (genetics.org)
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease in which the most common mutations result in substitutions for glycine residues in the triple helical domain of the chains of type I collagen. (mcponline.org)
  • In this study, we applied a molecular dynamics method to the analysis of the structural consequences of 57 disease-associated mutations in the α1(I) chain of type I collagen. (mcponline.org)
  • Clinically, mutations in type I collagen genes are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) 1 and some forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (mcponline.org)
  • The majority of identified mutations are single nucleotide substitutions that result in alteration of glycine codons within the triple helical domain of either of the chains of type I procollagen. (mcponline.org)
  • It appears that distinct mutations in the type I collagen genes do cause a lethal phe. (aappublications.org)
  • [11] DEB-causing mutations can be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1). (uscnk.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) and analogues was observed. (uscnk.com)
  • Matrices listed below were spiked with certain level of recombinant Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) and the recovery rates were calculated by comparing the measured value to the expected amount of Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) in samples. (uscnk.com)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (uscnk.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (uscnk.com)
  • The linearity of the kit was assayed by testing samples spiked with appropriate concentration of Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) and their serial dilutions. (uscnk.com)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1). (uscnk.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1). (uscnk.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (uscnk.com)
  • The concentration of Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 (COL11a1) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. (uscnk.com)
  • Stickler syndrome, type II is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a mutation in the COL11A1 gene. (omicsgroup.org)
  • 1989). "Mapping of a human fibrillar collagen gene, pro alpha 1 (XI) (COL11A1), to the p21 region of chromosome 1. (omicsgroup.org)
  • 1997). "A family with Stickler syndrome type 2 has a mutation in the COL11A1 gene resulting in the substitution of glycine 97 by valine in alpha 1 (XI) collagen. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The COL11A1 gene provides instructions for making a component of type XI collagen called the pro-alpha1(XI) chain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 1998, a study used genetic testing to establish that a collagen genetic mutation on COL11A1 caused Marshall syndrome and that a change on COL2A1 caused Stickler syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Expression of mRNAs for all three genes of collagen type XI is not restricted to cartilage but is widespread. (biochemj.org)
  • Publications] Yamazaki M.et al: 'Spatial and temporal expression of fibril-forming minor collagen genes(type V and XI)during fracture healing. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Collagen molecules form a diverse family of 24 types encoded by over 30 genes. (mcponline.org)
  • Nine of 23 human genes encoding MMPs are located in a cluster on chromosome 11, which implicate their haplotype-driven effects. (intechopen.com)
  • Gene profiling on microarrays was used to determine the impact of collagens on the patterns of genes expressed by CECs. (arvojournals.org)
  • Binding of LDL to connective tissue of the arterial intima, such as various types of collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycans, was found to play an important role in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we have investigated the role of β1 integrin and ILK in the activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway, and the role of AKT/mTOR in the subsequent expression and translation of collagen in human tendon cells. (nature.com)
  • However, structural insight into sequence-specific collagen recognition is limited to an integrin-peptide complex. (rcsb.org)
  • This highly restrictive specificity pocket is shared with the collagen-binding integrin I-domains but differs strikingly from the shallow collagen-binding grooves of the platelet receptor glycoprotein VI and microbial adhesins. (rcsb.org)
  • The expression of type IV collagen and its integrin receptors were examined in vivo in human pancreatic cancer tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • We show that type IV collagen is expressed close to the cancer cells in vivo, forming basement membrane like structures on the cancer cell surface that colocalize with the integrin receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • To analyze the possible involvement of collagen-binding integrins in type I collagen-derived growth signals further, distribution patterns of integrin chains were examined by immunocytochemistry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In MCs plated on monomer type I collagen, alpha1, alpha2, and beta1 integrin chains were recruited into focal contacts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, on polymerized type I collagen, alpha2 and beta1, but not alpha1, integrin chains were condensed into focal contacts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The growth-inhibitory effect of polymerized type I collagen is characterized by rapid changes of expression and/or activation of MAPK and G1-phase regulators and could result from the lack of alpha1beta1 integrin signaling in MCs on polymerized type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we examined whether expression of the gene encoding the α5 subunit from the FN-binding integrin α5β1 changes as corneal epithelial cells (CECs) are cultured in the presence of collagen type I (CI) or type IV (CIV). (arvojournals.org)
  • This is the collagen of granulation tissue, and is produced quickly by young fibroblasts before the tougher type I collagen is synthesized. (news-medical.net)
  • Tendons are specialized tissues composed primarily of load-responsive fibroblasts (tenocytes) embedded in a collagen-rich extracellular matrix. (nature.com)
  • Accordingly, we postulated that the PPAR-γ ligand, pioglitazone, which is known to modulate oxidative stress, would alter Ang II-induced formation of collagen type I in cardiac fibroblasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, pioglitazone attenuates Ang II-mediated collagen type I synthesis in cardiac fibroblasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3,4 Fibroblasts are the major source of collagen in the myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3,5 Proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and deposition of collagen are directly associated with both systolic and diastolic (especially the latter) heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, these markers are not considered specific for fibroblasts ( 6 ), and it has not been demonstrated that they are expressed on all fibroblast types. (jci.org)
  • These other cell types are sufficiently numerous that fibroblasts represent a minority cell population in the adult dermis. (jci.org)
  • Histologically, the holes were filled by collagen fiber and fibroblasts in the C group, and by chondroblasts and fibroblasts in the F groups. (mdpi.com)
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor and IGF-1 are Produced by Human Renal Fibroblasts and Cooperate in the Induction of Collagen Production by High Glucose," Diabetes (2003) 52:2975-2983. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mediates adhesion of cells to type 1 collagen and gelatin, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and promotes cell spreading. (uniprot.org)
  • As I've dug deeper into this topic to uncover the many benefits dietary collagen can bestow upon us, I'm convinced collagen/gelatin is an essential part of the human diet. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Collagen has been key in helping my skin, hair, nails and teeth get the nutrition and gelatin it needs to stay solid. (amzn.com)
  • Gelatin , which is used in food and industry, is collagen that has been irreversibly hydrolyzed . (wikipedia.org)
  • this adaptation may occur in part through collagen synthesis or remodeling. (nature.com)
  • Mechanical forces regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and assembly of collagen fibers. (nature.com)
  • In addition to being a powerful antioxidant, " Vitamin C is a necessary cofactor in collagen synthesis," says Brittany Modell, M.S., R.D., CDN . (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated stimulation of fibroblast growth and collagen type I synthesis is believed to be an important component of the cardiac remodeling process in hypertension and chronic ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Connective Tissue Growth Factor Mediates Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Collagen Synthesis: Down-Regulation by cAMP," FASEB J. (1999) 13:1774-1786. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Normal skin contains high concentrations of vitamin C, which supports important and well-known functions, stimulating collagen synthesis and assisting in antioxidant protection against UV-induced photodamage. (mdpi.com)
  • RESULTS: Polymerized type I collagen completely prevented the increase of DNA synthesis and cell replication induced by 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 25 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in MCs on monomer type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to ascertain whether, like many cell types in cartilaginous tissues if type XI collagen was a pericellular component of annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and chondrocytes. (springer.com)
  • Some non-chondrogenic tissues also contain heterotrimers containing collagen alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(XI) chains. (biochemj.org)
  • We have explored the possibility that collagen type XI could exist in differing trimeric forms in non-chondrogenic tissues and aimed to predict the subunit composition of this collagen in those tissues. (biochemj.org)
  • The distribution and relative levels of expression of collagen alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI) and alpha 3(XI)/alpha 1(II) mRNAs in different human fetal tissues were studied. (biochemj.org)
  • However, in some non-chondrogenic tissues, the mRNAs for all three alpha chains of collagen type XI were not co-expressed, but collagen alpha 1(XI) and alpha 2(XI) mRNAs were found either singly or without collagen alpha 3(XI) transcripts. (biochemj.org)
  • Collagen type XI may therefore exist as homotrimers and/or heterotrimers composed of two collagen alpha(XI) chains in some tissues. (biochemj.org)
  • Co-expression of collagen type XI, alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(I) mRNAs was found for many tissues. (biochemj.org)
  • Publications] Sumiyoshi H.et al: 'Ubiquitous expression of the α1(XIX)collagen gene(Col19a1)during mouse embryogenesis becomes restricted to a few tissues in the adult organism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are 29 genetically distinct collagens present in animal tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Type I collagen is found throughout the body except in cartilaginous tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Collagens are molecules that provide structure and strength to the connective tissues that support the body's muscles, joints, organs, and skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The abnormal collagen weakens connective tissues, impairing the formation of bones throughout the skeleton and causing changes in the eye and inner ear that lead to vision and hearing problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Defective collagen disrupts the normal development of connective tissues in many different parts of the body, which leads to the varied signs and symptoms of Stickler syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is selectively expressed in aldosterone target tissues, conferring aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor. (ahajournals.org)
  • A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be either rigid (bone) or compliant (tendon) or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type IV collagen and laminin were observed in the basement membrane of salivary ducts and acini beginning from 16-18 weeks, and the intensity of reaction was more prominent during intermediate developing stages (19-32 weeks). (nii.ac.jp)
  • The present study suggests that tenascin forms an epithelial-ectomesenchymal interface before the organization of collagen IV and laminin in the basement membrane of salivary ducts and acini in developing human submandibular glands. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Junctional epidermolysis bullosa is an inherited disease affecting laminin and collagen . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cross-links result in the formation of very strong type XI collagen fibers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sugar then damages the bonds between collagen fibers , making them difficult to repair. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • reticulate (main component of reticular fibers ), commonly found alongside type I. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers speculate that a loss of this chain changes the structure of type XI collagen molecules and disrupts its ability to form cross-links. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagens considerably suppressed α5 gene expression in CECs, suggesting that during wound healing, they may interfere with the influence FN exerts on CECs by altering their adhesive and migratory properties through a mechanism involving a reduction in α5 gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • 9 10 11 As to the influence of the negative charge of ox-LDL on its binding to various types of collagen, one sort of ox-LDL was used in one investigation, 10 whereas in another study the affinity of type I collagen to ox-LDL modified to different degrees was reported. (ahajournals.org)
  • While I take various types of collagen all day long, she has only been taking this one and it is doing astounding things to make her feel more like herself. (amzn.com)
  • 1998). "An orphan receptor tyrosine kinase family whose members serve as nonintegrin collagen receptors. (omicsgroup.org)
  • 7,8 Most of the known effects of Ang II in the heart are believed to be mediated by the activation of its type 1 (AT 1 ) receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Polymerized type I collagen diminished the PDGF-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p42/p44 MAPK, but did not affect phosphorylation of PDGF beta-receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We hypothesized that alterations in expression levels of specific fibrillar collagens occur during the aneurysmal process. (harvard.edu)
  • Non-fibrillar collagens such as type IV, which is a basement membrane collagen, contain numerous disruptions across the length of the triple helix. (mcponline.org)
  • Besides the calcium-binding sites and the collagen-binding pocket, architecturally important hydrophobic residues and the hydrogen-bonding network around the cis-peptide bond are well conserved within the metallopeptidase subfamily M9B. (rcsb.org)
  • SPARC binding does not distort the canonical triple helix of the collagen peptide. (rcsb.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that compared with placebo, collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training further improved body composition by increasing FFM, muscle strength and the loss in FM. (cambridge.org)
  • In Situ Cytokine Expression and Morphometric Evaluation of Total Collagen and Collagens Type I and Type III in Keloid Scars," Mediators of Inflammation , vol. 2017, Article ID 6573802, 11 pages, 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • Date:4/11/2017). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Immunoblotting studies showed that most patients had antibodies which bound to the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen and to the alpha 3(XI) chain of type XI collagen. (bmj.com)
  • Birk DE, Trelstad RL (1986) Extracellular compartments in tendon morphogenesis: collagen fibril, bundle, and macroaggregate formation. (springer.com)
  • Repetitive stretching of tendon cells activates the AKT and mTOR pathways, which in turn regulates mRNA translation and collagen expression. (nature.com)
  • The Tissue Train 3D Culture System (Flexcell International, USA) was used to apply uniaxial cyclic strain to the cells in a three-dimensional collagen-rich matrix, similar to in vivo tendon conditions. (nature.com)
  • While cartilage is made up of proteoglycans and type II collagen, tendon and bone are composed primarily of type I collagen. (bioscience.org)
  • Tendoactive ® ​​ is a proprietary tendon formula containing mucopolysaccharides and collagen type I. (nutraingredients.com)
  • A process for extracting type I collagen from an avian source such as poultry feet that incorporates a fibrillar mass of connective tissue as well as bony tissue to yield a collagen product having useful medical and biotechnology applications. (google.co.uk)
  • It is caused by an abnormality in collagen, which is a key part of connective tissue . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bones are a type of mineralized connective tissue that comprise a major component of the skeletal system . (thoughtco.com)
  • Pathology of the collagen underpinning of the heart is understood within the category of connective tissue disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • Corrigendum to 'An injectable collagen-genipin-carbon dot hydrogel combined with photodynamic therapy to enhance chondrogenesis' Biomaterials 218 (2019) 119190. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2002). "Immature osteoblastic cells express the pro-alpha2(XI) collagen gene during bone formation in vitro and in vivo. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Richard has successfully trained over 41 PhD and MD students since 2002 and as of 2018-19, directly supervises/co-supervises 11 MD/PhD Graduate Fellows. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Characterization of cellular and humoral immune responses to native types XI, V, and II collagen and constituent alpha-chains. (springer.com)
  • Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis of paraffin-embedded human brain tissue, using Collagen XI alpha2 Antibody. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Collagen XI alpha 2 Antibody (473) [NBP2-43728] - A431 cells were fixed in ice-cold MeOH for 5 min. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Collagen XI alpha 2 Antibody (473) [NBP2-43728] - Analysis of A431 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at RT for 15 min. (novusbio.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD36 Monoclonal Antibody (eBioNL07 (NL07)), FITC, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 11-0369-42, RRID AB_10718972. (thermofisher.com)
  • A separate study found that a nutritional drink containing collagen and other ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, significantly increased skin's elasticity. (healthline.com)
  • This specialization has positioned us as the leading Heparin API manufacturer and a world reference in the research, production and sale of other naturally-derived APIS and ingredients such as Native Type II Collagen, Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin Sulfate, Glucosamine or Thyroid. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Mobilee ® ​​ is a patented ingredient with a high concentration of hyaluronic acid (60-75 %) other polysaccharides and collagen. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Mobilee® is a patented natural ingredient rich in hyaluronic acid and other components, such as collagen and polysaccharides. (nutraingredients.com)
  • 2. The medical implant of claim 1 , wherein the collagen is fibrillar human derived collagen. (google.co.uk)
  • In addition to the above mentioned disorders, excessive deposition of collagen occurs in scleroderma. (news-medical.net)
  • Type XI collagen made with the pro-alpha2(XI) chain is also part of the inner ear and the nucleus pulposus, which is the center portion of the discs between the bones of the spine (vertebrae). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Colzyx aims to address this challenge by developing an innovative wound dressing product that will make use of the newlydiscovered healing and antimicrobial properties of human collagen VI. (europa.eu)
  • This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The antibodies from rats immunised with type XI collagen initially showed the strongest binding to the alpha 2(XI) chain of type XI collagen but later binding to the alpha 3(XI) chain was seen. (bmj.com)
  • Some patients also had antibodies which bound to the alpha 1(XI) and to the alpha 2(XI) chains of type XI collagen. (bmj.com)
  • In cartilage collagen type XI exists as heterotrimeric molecules composed of alpha 1(XI), alpha 2(XI) and alpha 3(XI) subunits. (biochemj.org)
  • The distribution of mRNAs for collagen alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(I) were also studied. (biochemj.org)
  • Pro-alpha 1(XI) collagen. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Alternative mRNA processing occurs in the variable region of the pro-alpha 1(XI) and pro-alpha 2(XI) collagen chains. (omicsgroup.org)
  • 1995). "Structural and functional analysis of the promoter of the human alpha 1(XI) collagen gene. (omicsgroup.org)
  • The gene name for Marshall syndrome is Collagen, Type XI, alpha 1. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A polymorphism of the binding site for the transcription factor Sp1 of the collagen I alpha 1 gene (COLIA1) has shown an association to bone mass and fracture, but the findings have not been consistent, which may be related to population differences. (diva-portal.org)
  • There was no change in the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of collagens type I and III. (harvard.edu)
  • Publications] Kinoshita A.et al: 'A transcription activator with restricted tissue distribution regulates cell-specific expression of α1(XI)collagen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The mechanism of the variable and distinct 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene ( HSD11B2 ) expression in the cortical collecting duct is poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we analyzed for the first time whether the 11β-HSD2 expression is modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). (ahajournals.org)
  • In other experiments, we observed that trolox, the water soluble analog of vitamin E, attenuated the effects of Ang II on the expression of collagen type I and MMP-1, in a manner similar to pioglitazone. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine whether the IL-1 effect was mediated by induction of oxygen-centered free radical production, known to be induced by IL-1, we exposed the cells to the hydroxyl radical scavenger tetramethylthiourea (10 mmol/L) and observed abolition of the IL-1-induced increase in the expression of PAI-1 and collagen (n=6). (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of other MMPs such as MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9, is also elevated in arthritis and these enzymes degrade non-collagen matrix components of the joints. (bioscience.org)
  • To approach the problem, we cloned a cDNA coding for the medaka collagen type-I α1 chain and examined its mRNA expression in the fish ovary. (bioone.org)
  • Our results demonstrated that immune response of splenocytes to collagen stimulation and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in the joints were modulated by oral administration of PG. (hindawi.com)
  • HSP-47 expression was estimated using western blot analysis and collagen type I mRNA was assessed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, pirfenidone inhibited HSC-T6 cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle and reduced the expression of HSP-47 and collagen type I, indicating that pirfenidone may be a promising drug in the treatment of liver fibrosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The feasibility and utility of this non-isotopic method has been demonstrated by using a specific DNA probe to localize Xenopus laevis Type II collagen mRNA expression to areas surrounding the vacuoles of the notochord in Stage 30 embryos. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fallahi A, Kroll B, Warner LR, Oxford RJ, Irwin KM, Mercer LM, Shadle SE, Oxford JT (2005) Structural model of the amino propeptide of collagen XI alpha1 chain with similarity to the LNS domains. (springer.com)
  • In biology , the extracellular matrix ( ECM ) is a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules , such as collagen , enzymes , and glycoproteins , that provide structural and biochemical support of surrounding cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various medical implants can be formed using the isolated, enzymatically-treated human derived collagen having an amount of its natural collagen constituents preserved, and may include implantable sponges, patches, tubes, structural supports and coatings, and which may be used for repair, barrier, support and/or stabilization purposes. (google.co.uk)
  • As the main structural component of the skin, collagen rightly warrants all of the attention it gets. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Type IV collagen is a major and crucial component of basement membranes. (pnas.org)
  • Both human and bovine collagen is widely used as dermal fillers for treatment of wrinkles and skin aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most medical collagen is derived from young beef cattle (bovine) from certified BSE -free animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • When studying the influence of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ (equivalent to their concentrations in the interstitial fluid), native LDL, moderately ox-LDL, and highly ox-LDL showed the same affinity to type I collagen. (ahajournals.org)
  • They enable endothelial cells to attach to underlying extracellular matrix by binding to collagen and they interact with fibrin, heparin, and integrins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the interaction between type IV collagen produced by the cancer cell, and integrins on the surface of the cancer cells, are important for continuous cancer cell growth, maintenance of a migratory phenotype, and for avoiding apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Purifying human derived collagen from human tissue includes treating harvested human tissue with an enzyme to form a collagen product, deactivating the enzyme with a non-alkaline enzyme deactivation solution, and collecting the collagen product resulting from the enzyme treatment, where the collected collagen product includes a preserved amount of its natural collagen constituents. (google.co.uk)
  • By supporting your natural collagen levels, you'll see benefits ranging from better workouts to improved gut health . (mindbodygreen.com)
  • These defects often cause problems in the biosynthesis of the collagen molecules, their assembly and posttranslational modification process that makes them their final end form of collagen. (news-medical.net)
  • Prolyl 3-hydroxylation is a crucial posttranslational modification of collagens. (pnas.org)
  • The three most critical residues for collagen interaction in s3b are conserved in s3. (rcsb.org)
  • OI type I is characterized by multiple bone fractures, usually resulting from minimal trauma, autosomal dominant inheritance, and blue sclera. (mcponline.org)
  • [1] Some types are autosomal dominant while others are autosomal recessive . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to type II and XI collagens: evidence for the formation of antigen specific as well as cross reacting antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Antigen specific and cross reacting antibodies to native and denatured types II and XI collagen were detected in the sera of rats immunised with either of these antigens. (bmj.com)
  • Sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis had antibodies that bound to both type II and XI collagens. (bmj.com)
  • In comparison to nonadministered mice, anti-collagen antibodies in the sera of PG-administered mice did not alter. (hindawi.com)
  • Add egg whites to your dietary rotation, as they are rich in proline, one of the most prevalent amino acids in collagen, says Modell. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Testing certain amino acids as competitors for binding of highly ox-LDL to type I collagen put lysine first, followed by arginine and histidine. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is associated with variants of type VI collagen, it is commonly associated with muscle weakness and respiratory problems, though cardiac issues are not associated with this type of CMD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though cardiac complications are not a concern in this type of CMD, in regards to respiratory issues ventilation via a tracheostomy is a possibility in some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three types of muscle cells are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. (thoughtco.com)
  • Collagen contribution to the measure of cardiac performance summarily represents a continuous torsional force opposed to the fluid mechanics of blood pressure emitted from the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen is layered in variable densities with cardiac muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual cardiac valvular leaflets are folded into shape by specialized collagen under variable pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcified points within collagen matrices show contrast in a moving display of blood and muscle, enabling methods of cardiac imaging technology to arrive at ratios essentially stating blood in ( cardiac input ) and blood out ( cardiac output ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Monolayers of murine hip articular chondrocytes from C57BL/6 and Hspg2 exon 3 null mice also displayed pericellular perlecan localisations, however type XI collagen was only evident in the Wild type mice. (springer.com)
  • Amplification of cDNAs for human cartilage-specific types II, IX and XI collagens from chondrocytes and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Eyre DR, Wu JJ (1995) Collagen structure and cartilage matrix integrity. (springer.com)
  • Although there are no immediate clinical applications, the results of this study provide additional evidence that interindividual variations in collagen fibril assembly might be an important molecular mechanism in the aetiology of chronic AT. (bmj.com)
  • Birk DE (2001) Type V collagen: heterotypic type I/V collagen interactions in the regulation of fibril assembly. (springer.com)
  • Histology, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy demonstrated greater disorganization of extracellular matrix constituents in ATAAs as compared with control with an increase in collagen α1(XI) within regions of cystic medial degenerative lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • A model was prepared to explain these observations between the NPP type XI collagen domain and HS chains of perlecan domain-I in the pericellular matrix of AF cells which likely contributed to cellular communication, tissue stabilization and the regulation of extracellular matrix homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Described below are the different types of proteoglycan found within the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purified mass is dried to provide the desired Type I collagen product which may be ground into a powder or formed into a collagen matrix or sponge, depending on the end use therefor. (google.co.uk)
  • Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I PLOS ONE. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Thanks to its low dose (only 80 mg) and its excellent organoleptic properties, it is very easy to formulate in any type of dietary supplement format or food matrix. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Matrix consists of 70%-80% water, 20%-25% collagen, and 5%-10% proteoglycans (PGs) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Bones are made up of a matrix of collagen and calcium phosphate minerals. (thoughtco.com)