A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.

Dipyridamole inhibits TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. (1/504)

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal matrix accumulation is characteristic of peritoneal fibrosis (PF). Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients who had persistent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in their drained effluent had an increased risk of PF. We previously reported that TGF-beta stimulates the expression of types I and III collagen mRNA in cultured human peritoneal mesangial cells (HPMCs), which may predispose them to develop PF. Pharmacological interventions to attenuate TGF-beta-stimulated matrix accumulation in HPMC may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of PF. The SMAD family and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2, p44/p42) pathways have been shown to participate in TGF-beta signaling. Our current study identified these signal pathways in HPMCs and investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of dipyridamole on TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression in HPMCs. METHODS: HPMCs were cultured from human omentum by an enzyme digestion METHOD: Expression of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA was determined by Northern blotting. The SMAD proteins and the ERK1/2 activity were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS: TGF-beta-stimulated collagen alpha1(I) mRNA expression of HPMC was inhibited by dipyridamole in a dose-dependent manner. Smad2 and ERK1/2 were activated in response to TGF-beta; however, TGF-beta had little effect on the protein expression of Smad4. The addition of PD98059, which blocked activation of ERK1/2, suppressed TGF-beta-induced collagen alpha1(I) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration that inhibited collagen gene expression (17 microg/mL), dipyridamole suppressed ERK1/2 activation by TGF-beta. In contrast, the same concentration of dipyridamole had no effect on TGF-beta-induced activation of Smad2. CONCLUSION: Dipyridamole inhibits TGF-beta-induced collagen gene expression in HPMC through modulation of the ERK pathway. Our study of dipyridamole may provide therapeutic basis for clinical applications in the prevention of PF.  (+info)

Haploinsufficiency for one COL3A1 allele of type III procollagen results in a phenotype similar to the vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. (2/504)

Mutations in the COL3A1 gene that encodes the chains of type III procollagen result in the vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), EDS type IV, if they alter the sequence in the triple-helical domain. Although other fibrillar collagen-gene mutations that lead to allele instability or failure to incorporate proalpha-chains into trimers-and that thus reduce the amount of mature molecules produced-result in clinically apparent phenotypes, no such mutations have been identified in COL3A1. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Col3a1 "null" alleles have no identified phenotype. We have now found three frameshift mutations (1832delAA, 413delC, and 555delT) that lead to premature termination codons (PTCs) in exons 27, 6, and 9, respectively, and to allele-product instability. The mRNA from each mutant allele was transcribed efficiently but rapidly degraded, presumably by the mechanisms of nonsense-mediated decay. In a fourth patient, we identified a point mutation, in the final exon, that resulted in a PTC (4294C-->T [Arg1432Ter]). In this last instance, the mRNA was stable but led to synthesis of a truncated protein that was not incorporated into mature type III procollagen molecules. In all probands, the presenting feature was vascular aneurysm or rupture. Thus, in contrast to mutations in genes that encode the dominant protein of a tissue (e.g., COL1A1 and COL2A1), in which "null" mutations result in phenotypes milder than those caused by mutations that alter protein sequence, the phenotypes produced by these mutations in COL3A1 overlap with those of the vascular form of EDS. This suggests that the major effect of many of these dominant mutations in the "minor" collagen genes may be expressed through protein deficiency rather than through incorporation of structurally altered molecules into fibrils.  (+info)

Cardiac remodeling after long term norepinephrine treatment in rats. (3/504)

OBJECTIVE: In this study we have tested the hypothesis that degradation of collagen by matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) precedes the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) after long term norepinephrine (NE) treatment. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats received continuous i.v. infusion of NE (0.1 mg/kg.h) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 14 days. Heart function and weight as well as expression of cardiac colligin and of collagen I and III were examined. Furthermore, we have assessed the degradation pathway of collagen by measuring the mRNA and activity of myocardial MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) as well as the protein level of TIMP-2. RESULTS: NE induced hypertrophy predominantly of the left ventricle (LV) in a time-dependent manner. It increased the mRNAs of colligin, collagen I and III, and of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 as well as MMP-2 activity in two phases: In the initial phase, at 3 and 4 days, the mRNA of colligin and of collagen I and III was elevated predominantly in the LV, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA, as well as TIMP-2 protein and MMP-activity were increased in both ventricles. The second phase, after 14 days, was characterized by a less pronounced increase in colligin, collagen I and III and in MMP-2 activity which occurred exclusively in the LV. Finally, long-term treatment with NE induced a 37% increase in interstitial fibrosis which was shown to occur exclusively in the LV after 14 days. CONCLUSION: NE treatment induced fibrosis exclusively in the LV which was associated with hypertrophy predominantly of the LV. The elevated MMP-2 activity seems to be necessary for the ECM to adapt to the enlargement of myocytes and to reduce overproduction of collagen.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of the C-propeptide trimer from human procollagen III reveals a tri-lobed structure. (4/504)

Procollagen C-propeptide domains direct chain association during intracellular assembly of procollagen molecules. In addition, they control collagen solubility during extracellular proteolytic processing and fibril formation and interact with cell surface receptors and extracellular matrix components involved in feedback inhibition, mineralization, cell growth arrest, and chemotaxis. At present, three-dimensional structural information for the C-propeptides, which would help to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, is lacking. Here we have carried out a biophysical study of the recombinant C-propeptide trimer from human procollagen III using laser light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and small angle x-ray scattering. The results show that the trimer is an elongated molecule, which by modeling of the x-ray scattering data appears to be cruciform in shape with three large lobes and one minor lobe. We speculate that each of the major lobes corresponds to one of the three component polypeptide chains, which come together in a junction region to connect to the rest of the procollagen molecule.  (+info)

Role of protein kinase C-delta in the regulation of collagen gene expression in scleroderma fibroblasts. (5/504)

Working with cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from control individuals and patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we have examined the effects of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) on type I collagen biosynthesis and steady-state levels of COL1A1 and COL3A1 mRNAs. Rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-delta, exerted a powerful, dose-dependent inhibition of type I and type III collagen gene expression in normal and SSc cells. Optimal rottlerin concentrations caused a 70-90% inhibition of type I collagen production, a >80% reduction in COL1A1 mRNA, and a >70% reduction in COL3A1 mRNA in both cell types. In vitro nuclear transcription assays and transient transfections with COL1A1 promoter deletion constructs demonstrated that rottlerin profoundly reduced COL1A1 transcription and that this effect required a 129-bp promoter region encompassing nucleotides -804 to -675. This COL1A1 segment imparted rottlerin sensitivity to a heterologous promoter. Cotransfections of COL1A1 promoter constructs with a dominant-negative PKC-delta expression plasmid showed that suppression of this kinase silenced COL1A1 promoter activity. The results indicate that PKC-delta participates in the upregulation of collagen gene transcription in SSc and suggest that treatment with PKC-delta inhibitors could suppress fibrosis in this disease.  (+info)

Interstitial collagens I, III, and VI sequester and modulate the multifunctional cytokine oncostatin M. (6/504)

The binding of certain growth factors and cytokines to components of the extracellular matrix can regulate their local availability and modulate their biological activities. We show that oncostatin M (OSM), a profibrogenic cytokine and modulator of cancer cell proliferation, specifically binds to collagen types I, III, IV, and VI, immobilized on polystyrene or nitrocellulose. Single collagen chains inhibit these interactions in a dose-dependent manner. Cross-inhibition experiments of collagen-derived peptides point to a limited set of OSM-binding collagenous consensus sequences. Furthermore, this interaction is found for OSM but not for other interleukin-6 type cytokines. OSM binding to collagens is saturable, with dissociation constants around 10(-8) m and estimated molar ratios of 1-3 molecules of OSM bound to one molecule of triple helical collagen. Furthermore, collagen-bound OSM is biologically active and able to inhibit proliferation of A375 melanoma cells. We conclude that abundant interstitial collagens dictate the spatial pattern of bioavailable OSM. This interaction could be exploited for devising collagenous peptide-antagonists that modulate OSM bioactivity in tumor growth and fibrotic disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

Adenosine regulates the IL-1 beta-induced cellular functions of human gingival fibroblasts. (7/504)

In this study we examined the influence of adenosine on the cellular functions of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), such as the production of inflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrices (ECM), and the expression and function of adhesion molecules. Concerning the expression of adenosine receptors, RT-PCR analysis revealed that HGF expressed adenosine receptor A1, A2a and A2b, but not A3 mRNA. Ligation of adenosine receptors by adenosine or its related analogue, 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO), N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or CGS21680 synergistically increased IL-1beta-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. In terms of ECM expression, adenosine and the adenosine receptor agonists, 2-CADO and CPA, enhanced constitutive and IL-1beta-induced expression of hyaluronate synthase mRNA, but not the mRNA levels of other ECM, such as collagen type I, III and fibronectin. Moreover, the adherence of IL-1beta-stimulated HGF to activated lymphocytes was also inhibited by adenosine, which is in part explained by the fact that adenosine down-regulated the IL-1beta-induced expression of ICAM-1 on HGF. These results provide new evidence for the possible involvement of adenosine in the regulation of inflammatory responses in periodontal tissues.  (+info)

Mast cell chymase inhibits smooth muscle cell growth and collagen expression in vitro: transforming growth factor-beta1-dependent and -independent effects. (8/504)

In the vulnerable areas of fibrous caps of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, chymase-containing mast cells are present. In such areas, the numbers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the content of collagen are reduced. In this in vitro study, we found that the addition of chymase, isolated and purified from rat serosal mast cells, to cultured rat aortic SMCs of the synthetic phenotype (s-SMCs) inhibited their proliferation by blocking the G(0)/G(1)-->S transition in the cell cycle. Rat chymase and recombinant human chymase inhibited the expression of collagen type I and type III mRNA in s-SMCs and in human coronary arterial SMCs. The growth-inhibitory effect of chymase was partially reversed by addition to the culture medium of an antibody capable of neutralizing the activity of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Immunocytochemistry showed that the s-SMCs expressed and synthesized extracellular matrix-associated TGF-beta1. On exposure to mast cell chymase, the extracellular matrix-associated latent TGF-beta1 was released and activated, as demonstrated by immunoblotting and by an ELISA with TGF-beta1 type II receptor for capture. When added to s-SMCs, such chymase-released TGF-beta1 was capable of inhibiting their growth. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of chymase on collagen synthesis by s-SMCs did not depend on TGF-beta1. Taken together, the findings support the hypothesis that chymase released from activated mast cells in atherosclerotic plaques contributes to cap remodeling.  (+info)

Collagen Type III, also known as Collagen III Alpha 1 (COL3A1), is a type of collagen that is found in various connective tissues throughout the body. It is a fibrillar collagen that is produced by fibroblasts and is a major component of reticular fibers, which provide structural support to organs such as the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Collagen Type III is also found in the walls of blood vessels, the skin, and the intestinal tract.

Mutations in the COL3A1 gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder called Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, which is characterized by fragile and elastic skin, easy bruising, and spontaneous rupture of blood vessels. Collagen Type III has been studied for its potential role in various other medical conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

Reticulin is a type of protein fiber that forms part of the extracellular matrix in various connective tissues in the body. It is composed of collagenous and non-collagenous proteins, and it has a reticular or network-like structure when viewed under a microscope. In histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues), reticulin fibers are often stained to help identify certain types of cells or structures.

In particular, reticulin fibers are often found in close association with certain types of cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells and neurons. They provide structural support and help regulate the function of these cells. In addition, reticulin fibers play a role in the immune response, wound healing, and tissue repair.

Abnormal accumulations of reticulin fibers can be seen in various disease states, such as fibrosis (excessive scarring) and certain types of cancer. For example, increased reticulin fibers are often found in the liver in patients with cirrhosis, a condition characterized by extensive scarring and damage to the liver. Similarly, abnormal reticulin fiber deposition is seen in some forms of lymphoma, a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.

Platelet adhesiveness refers to the ability of platelets, which are small blood cells that help your body form clots to prevent excessive bleeding, to stick to other cells or surfaces. This process is crucial in hemostasis, the process of stopping bleeding after injury to a blood vessel.

When the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) is damaged, subendothelial structures are exposed, which can trigger platelet adhesion. Platelets then change shape and release chemical signals that cause other platelets to clump together, forming a platelet plug. This plug helps to seal the damaged vessel and prevent further bleeding.

Platelet adhesiveness is influenced by several factors, including the presence of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a protein in the blood that helps platelets bind to damaged vessels, and the expression of glycoprotein receptors on the surface of platelets. Abnormalities in platelet adhesiveness can lead to bleeding disorders or thrombotic conditions.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

Fibronectin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is found in many tissues and body fluids, including plasma, connective tissue, and the extracellular matrix. It is composed of two similar subunits that are held together by disulfide bonds. Fibronectin plays an important role in cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation by binding to various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, and other extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

Fibronectin has several isoforms that are produced by alternative splicing of a single gene transcript. These isoforms differ in their biological activities and can be found in different tissues and developmental stages. Fibronectin is involved in various physiological processes, such as wound healing, tissue repair, and embryonic development, and has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis, tumor metastasis, and thrombosis.

Collagen Type IV is a type of collagen that forms the structural basis of basement membranes, which are thin, sheet-like structures that separate and support cells in many types of tissues. It is a major component of the basement membrane's extracellular matrix and provides strength and flexibility to this structure. Collagen Type IV is composed of three chains that form a distinctive, mesh-like structure. Mutations in the genes encoding Collagen Type IV can lead to a variety of inherited disorders affecting the kidneys, eyes, and ears.

Collagen Type II is a specific type of collagen that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in articular cartilage, which is the connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. It is also found in other tissues such as the vitreous humor of the eye and the inner ear.

Collagen Type II is a triple helix molecule composed of three polypeptide chains that contain a high proportion of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This type of collagen provides structural support and elasticity to tissues, and it also plays a role in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling.

Collagen Type II is a target for autoimmune responses in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own collagen, leading to joint inflammation and damage. It is also a common component of various dietary supplements and therapies used to support joint health and treat osteoarthritis.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

Fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by the excessive accumulation and/or altered deposition of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, in various tissues and organs. This results in the formation of fibrous scar tissue that can impair organ function and structure. Fibrosis can occur as a result of chronic inflammation, tissue injury, or abnormal repair mechanisms, and it is a common feature of many diseases, including liver cirrhosis, lung fibrosis, heart failure, and kidney disease.

In medical terms, fibrosis is defined as:

"The process of producing scar tissue (consisting of collagen) in response to injury or chronic inflammation in normal connective tissue. This can lead to the thickening and stiffening of affected tissues and organs, impairing their function."

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Collagen Type V is a specific type of collagen, which is a protein that provides structure and strength to connective tissues in the body. Collagen Type V is found in various tissues, including the cornea, blood vessels, and hair. It plays a crucial role in the formation of collagen fibers and helps regulate the diameter of collagen fibrils. Mutations in the genes that encode for Collagen Type V can lead to various connective tissue disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta.

Fibrillar collagens are a type of collagen that form rope-like fibrils in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues. They are composed of three polypeptide chains, called alpha chains, which are coiled together in a triple helix structure. The most common types of fibrillar collagens are Type I, II, III, V, and XI. These collagens provide strength and support to tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. They also play important roles in the regulation of cell behavior and tissue development. Mutations in genes encoding fibrillar collagens can lead to a variety of connective tissue disorders, including osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Marfan syndrome.

Collagen Type VI is a type of collagen that is widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle, skin, and blood vessels. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays important roles in maintaining tissue structure and function. Collagen Type VI forms microfilaments that provide structural support to the basement membrane and regulate cell-matrix interactions. Mutations in the genes encoding collagen Type VI can lead to several inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy.

Collagen type XI is a fibrillar collagen that is found in the extracellular matrix of various tissues, including cartilage and the eye. It is a homotrimer made up of three identical alpha 1(XI) chains or a heterotrimer composed of two alpha 1(XI) chains and one alpha 2(XI) chain. Collagen type XI is closely associated with collagen type II fibrils and plays a role in regulating the diameter and organization of these fibrils. Mutations in the genes encoding collagen type XI can lead to skeletal disorders such as stiff skin syndrome and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

Collagen receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to collagen molecules, which are the most abundant proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues. These receptors play important roles in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

Collagen receptors can be classified into two major groups: integrins and discoidin domain receptors (DDRs). Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins that consist of an alpha and a beta subunit. They bind to collagens via their arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif, which is located in the triple-helical domain of collagen molecules. Integrins mediate cell-collagen interactions by clustering and forming focal adhesions, which are large protein complexes that connect the ECM to the cytoskeleton.

DDRs are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that contain a discoidin domain in their extracellular region, which is responsible for collagen binding. DDRs bind to collagens via their non-RGD motifs and induce intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell behavior.

Abnormalities in collagen receptor function have been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and inflammation. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of collagen receptors is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Procollagen is the precursor protein of collagen, which is a major structural protein in the extracellular matrix of various connective tissues, such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Procollagen is synthesized inside the cell (in the rough endoplasmic reticulum) and then processed by enzymes to remove specific segments, resulting in the formation of tropocollagen, which are the basic units of collagen fibrils.

Procollagen consists of three polypeptide chains (two alpha-1 and one alpha-2 chain), each containing a central triple-helical domain flanked by non-helical regions at both ends. These non-helical regions, called propeptides, are cleaved off during the processing of procollagen to tropocollagen, allowing the individual collagen molecules to align and form fibrils through covalent cross-linking.

Abnormalities in procollagen synthesis or processing can lead to various connective tissue disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (a group of disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility).

Collagen type XVIII is a type of collagen that is found in the basement membrane, which is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that separates and supports epithelial and endothelial cells. It is a heterotrimeric protein composed of three different chains, alpha1(XVIII), alpha2(XVIII), and alpha3(XVIII). Collagen XVIII is thought to play a role in the maintenance and organization of the basement membrane, as well as in cell adhesion and migration. It also contains a number of distinct domains that are involved in various biological processes, including angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor growth. Mutations in the gene that encodes collagen XVIII have been associated with eye diseases such as Knobloch syndrome and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

Hydroxyproline is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant component in the medical field, particularly in the study of connective tissues and collagen. Here's a scientific definition:

Hydroxyproline is a modified amino acid that is formed by the post-translational modification of the amino acid proline in collagen and some other proteins. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the proline residue, which alters its chemical properties and contributes to the stability and structure of collagen fibers. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is a crucial component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. The presence and quantity of hydroxyproline can serve as a marker for collagen turnover and degradation, making it relevant to various medical and research contexts, including the study of diseases affecting connective tissues like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Collagen type X is a specific type of collagen that is primarily found in the hypertrophic zone of mature cartilage, which is located near the site of bone formation during endochondral ossification. It plays a crucial role in the mineralization process of the cartilage matrix and is essential for the formation of healthy bones. Collagen type X is composed of three identical alpha chains that form a triple helix structure, and it is synthesized by chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells found in cartilage tissue. Mutations in the gene that encodes collagen type X have been associated with certain skeletal disorders, such as Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

Collagen type XII is a type of collagen that is found in the extracellular matrix of various tissues, including tendons, ligaments, and skin. It is a fibril-associated collagen that is closely associated with collagens type I and III. Collagen type XII has been shown to play a role in regulating the organization and diameter of collagen fibrils. Mutations in the gene for collagen type XII have been associated with certain types of muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy, which are genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and tone. Additionally, it has been suggested to play a role in the development of osteoarthritis.

The basement membrane is a thin, specialized layer of extracellular matrix that provides structural support and separates epithelial cells (which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels) from connective tissue. It is composed of two main layers: the basal lamina, which is produced by the epithelial cells, and the reticular lamina, which is produced by the connective tissue. The basement membrane plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

The basal lamina is composed mainly of type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and proteoglycans, while the reticular lamina contains type III collagen, fibronectin, and other matrix proteins. The basement membrane also contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines that can influence cell behavior.

Defects in the composition or organization of the basement membrane can lead to various diseases, including kidney disease, eye disease, and skin blistering disorders.

Laminin is a family of proteins that are an essential component of the basement membrane, which is a specialized type of extracellular matrix. Laminins are large trimeric molecules composed of three different chains: α, β, and γ. There are five different α chains, three different β chains, and three different γ chains that can combine to form at least 15 different laminin isoforms.

Laminins play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and integrity of basement membranes by interacting with other components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen IV, and cell surface receptors, such as integrins. They are involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, and survival.

Laminin dysfunction has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and muscular dystrophy.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III, also known as Broad Beta Disease or Remnant Hyperlipidemia, is a genetic disorder characterized by an increased level of chylomicron remnants and intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) in the blood. This results in elevated levels of both low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides, and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. The condition can lead to premature atherosclerosis and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by mutations in the APOE gene, which encodes the apolipoprotein E protein, leading to abnormal clearance of lipoproteins from the blood.

Collagen diseases, also known as collagen disorders or connective tissue diseases, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's connective tissues. These tissues provide support and structure for various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, and blood vessels.

Collagen is a major component of connective tissues, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining their strength and elasticity. In collagen diseases, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy collagen, leading to inflammation, pain, and damage to the affected tissues.

There are several types of collagen diseases, including:

1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, and lungs.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): This is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness.
3. Scleroderma: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissues, leading to restricted movement and organ damage.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory muscle disease that can also affect the skin, causing rashes and weakness.
5. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that combines symptoms of several collagen diseases, including SLE, RA, scleroderma, and dermatomyositis.

The exact cause of collagen diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Proteoglycans are complex, highly negatively charged macromolecules that are composed of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. They are a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, regulation of growth factor activity, and maintenance of tissue structure and function.

The GAG chains, which can vary in length and composition, are long, unbranched polysaccharides that are composed of repeating disaccharide units containing a hexuronic acid (either glucuronic or iduronic acid) and a hexosamine (either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine). These GAG chains can be sulfated to varying degrees, which contributes to the negative charge of proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are classified into four major groups based on their core protein structure and GAG composition: heparan sulfate/heparin proteoglycans, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Each group has distinct functions and is found in specific tissues and cell types.

In summary, proteoglycans are complex macromolecules composed of a core protein and one or more GAG chains that play important roles in the ECM and various biological processes, including cell signaling, growth factor regulation, and tissue structure maintenance.

Decorin is a small proteoglycan, a type of protein with a attached sugar chain, that is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues in the body. It is composed of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, specifically dermatan sulfate. Decorin plays important roles in the organization and biomechanical properties of collagen fibrils, regulation of cell proliferation and migration, and modulation of growth factor activity. It has been studied for its potential role in various physiological and pathological processes, including wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer.

Collagen type IX is a type of collagen that is found in the extracellular matrix, particularly in the cartilage and vitreous humor of the eye. It is a heterotrimeric protein made up of three alpha chains (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3), which are encoded by different genes (COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3). Collagen type IX is thought to play a role in the organization and stability of collagen fibrils, as well as in the interaction between collagen and other extracellular matrix components. It has been implicated in various connective tissue disorders, such as Stickler syndrome and Marshall syndrome.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Microbial collagenase is not a medical term per se, but it does refer to an enzyme that is used in various medical and research contexts. Collagenases are a group of enzymes that break down collagen, a structural protein found in connective tissues such as skin, tendons, and ligaments. Microbial collagenase is a type of collagenase that is produced by certain bacteria, such as Clostridium histolyticum.

In medical terms, microbial collagenase is used in various therapeutic and research applications, including:

1. Wound healing: Microbial collagenase can be used to break down and remove necrotic tissue from wounds, which can help promote healing and prevent infection.
2. Dental applications: Collagenases have been used in periodontal therapy to remove calculus and improve the effectiveness of root planing and scaling procedures.
3. Research: Microbial collagenase is a valuable tool for researchers studying the structure and function of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins. It can be used to digest tissue samples, allowing scientists to study the individual components of the extracellular matrix.

It's important to note that while microbial collagenase has many useful applications, it must be used with care, as excessive or improper use can damage healthy tissues and cause adverse effects.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Pepsin A is defined as a digestive enzyme that is primarily secreted by the chief cells in the stomach's fundic glands. It plays a crucial role in protein catabolism, helping to break down food proteins into smaller peptides during the digestive process. Pepsin A has an optimal pH range of 1.5-2.5 for its enzymatic activity and is activated from its inactive precursor, pepsinogen, upon exposure to acidic conditions in the stomach.

Collagen type VIII is a less common type of collagen that is found in the eyes, specifically in the basement membrane of the cornea and the blood vessels of the eye. It is a network-forming collagen and is believed to play a role in maintaining the structural integrity and stability of these tissues. Mutations in the genes encoding for collagen type VIII have been associated with certain eye disorders, such as Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy.

Here is a medical definition from the US National Library of Medicine:

"Collagen, type VIII, alpha-1 (COL8A1) is a gene that provides instructions for making one component of a type VIII collagen protein called collagen VIII alpha-1 chain. Collagen proteins are important building blocks for many tissues in the body, including tendons, ligaments, and the cornea, which is the clear outer covering of the eye.

Collagen VIII is found in the basement membrane, a thin layer of protein that surrounds many types of cells and helps to anchor them to surrounding tissue. In the eye, collagen VIII is produced by cells called endothelial cells, which line the inside surface of the cornea. Collagen VIII forms networks with other proteins that help maintain the structural integrity and stability of the cornea.

Mutations in the COL8A1 gene can cause Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy, a progressive eye disorder characterized by the gradual clouding of the cornea." ()

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Mutations ... "Entrez Gene: COL9A3 collagen, type IX, alpha 3". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Dominant ...
Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ...
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