Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Collagen Type V: A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Mice, Inbred DBAJoints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.ArthritisReceptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Collagen Type XII: A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Collagen Type VIII: A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Collagen Type VII: A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.ElastinFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Fibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Collagen Type XIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Quinazolinones: Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Keloid: A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Gelatinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.

GDF5 coordinates bone and joint formation during digit development. (1/1192)

A functional skeletal system requires the coordinated development of many different tissue types, including cartilage, bones, joints, and tendons. Members of the Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of secreted signaling molecules have been implicated as endogenous regulators of skeletal development. This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the skeletal abnormalities present in animals with mutations in BMP family members. One member of this family, Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), is encoded by the mouse brachypodism locus. Mice with mutations in this gene show reductions in the length of bones in the limbs, altered formation of bones and joints in the sternum, and a reduction in the number of bones in the digits. The expression pattern of Gdf5 during normal development and the phenotypes seen in mice with single or double mutations in Gdf5 and Bmp5 suggested that Gdf5 has multiple functions in skeletogenesis, including roles in joint and cartilage development. To further understand the function of GDF5 in skeletal development, we assayed the response of developing chick and mouse limbs to recombinant GDF5 protein. The results from these assays, coupled with an analysis of the development of brachypodism digits, indicate that GDF5 is necessary and sufficient for both cartilage development and the restriction of joint formation to the appropriate location. Thus, GDF5 function in the digits demonstrates a link between cartilage development and joint development and is an important determinant of the pattern of bones and articulations in the digits.  (+info)

Cross sectional evaluation of biochemical markers of bone, cartilage, and synovial tissue metabolism in patients with knee osteoarthritis: relations with disease activity and joint damage. (2/1192)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relations between the urinary levels of type II collagen C-telopeptide (CTX-II) and glucosyl-galactosyl pyridinoline (Glc-Gal-PYD)-two newly developed biochemical markers of type II collagen and synovial tissue destruction respectively-disease activity and the severity of joint destruction in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The clinical performance of these two new markers was compared with that of a panel of other established biochemical markers of connective tissue metabolism. METHODS: The following biochemical markers were measured in a group of 67 patients with knee OA (mean age 64 years, median disease duration eight years ) and in 67 healthy controls: for bone, serum osteocalcin, serum and urinary C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I); for cartilage, urinary CTX-II, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and serum human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40); for synovium, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD, serum type III collagen N-propeptide (PIIINP), serum hyaluronic acid (HA); and for inflammation, serum C reactive protein. Biochemical markers were correlated with pain and physical function (WOMAC index) and with quantitative radiographic evaluation of the joint space using the posteroanterior view of the knees flexed at 30 degrees. RESULTS: All bone turnover markers were decreased in patients with knee OA compared with controls (-36%, -38%, and -52%, p<0.0001 for serum osteocalcin, serum CTX-I and urinary CTX-I, respectively). Serum COMP (+16%, p=0.0004), urinary CTX-II (+25%, p=0.0009), urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (+18%, p=0.028), serum PIIINP (+33%, p<0.0001), and serum HA (+ 233%, p<0.0001) were increased. By univariate analyses, increased urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (r=0.41, p=0.002) and decreased serum osteocalcin (r=-0.30, p=0.025) were associated with a higher total WOMAC index. Increased urinary CTX-II (r=-0.40, p=0.0002) and Glc-Gal-PYD (r=-0.30, p=0.0046) and serum PIIINP (r=-0.29, p=0.0034) were the only markers which correlated with joint surface area. By multivariate analyses, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD and CTX-II were the most important predictors of the WOMAC index and joint damage, respectively. CONCLUSION: Knee OA appears to be characterised by a systemic decrease of bone turnover and increased cartilage and synovial tissue turnover. CTX-II, Glc-Gal-PYD, and PIIINP may be useful markers of disease severity in patients with knee OA.  (+info)

Sp3 represses the Sp1-mediated transactivation of the human COL2A1 gene in primary and de-differentiated chondrocytes. (3/1192)

Sp1 and Sp3 effects on the transcription of the human alpha1(II) procollagen gene (COL2A1) were investigated in both differentiated and de-differentiated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection with constructs of deleted COL2A1 promoter sequences driving the luciferase reporter gene revealed that the region spanning -266 to +121 base pairs showed Sp1-enhancing effects, whatever the differentiation state. In contrast, Sp3 did not influence COL2A1 gene transcription. Concomitant overexpression of the two Sp proteins demonstrated that Sp3 blocked the Sp1 induction of COL2A1 promoter activity. Moreover, inhibition of Sp1/Sp3 binding to their target DNA sequence decreased both COL2A1 gene transcription and Sp1-enhancing effects. DNase I footprinting and gel retardation assays revealed that Sp1 and Sp3 bind specifically to cis-sequences of the COL2A1 gene promoter whereby they exert their transcriptional effects. Sp1 and Sp3 levels were found to be reduced in de-differentiated chondrocytes, as revealed by DNA-binding and immunochemical study. Sp1 specifically activated collagen neosynthesis whatever the differentiation state of chondrocytes, suggesting that this factor exerts a major role in the expression of collagen type II. However, our data indicate that type II collagen-specific expression in chondrocytes depend on both the Sp1/Sp3 ratio and cooperation of Sp1 with other transcription factors, the amounts of which are also modulated by phenotype alteration.  (+info)

IL-10-deficient B10.Q mice develop more severe collagen-induced arthritis, but are protected from arthritis induced with anti-type II collagen antibodies. (4/1192)

IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with stimulatory and inhibitory properties, and is thought to have a protective role in rheumatoid arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In this study, we investigated how IL-10 deficiency affects CIA and anti-collagen type II (CII) Ab-transferred arthritis in C57BL/10.Q (B10.Q) mice. The B10.Q.IL-10(-/-) mice had an 8-cM 129/Ola fragment around the IL-10 gene. The mice were treated with antibiotics, appeared healthy, and had no colitis. T cells from IL-10(-/-) mice expressed similar levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 after mitogen stimulation; however, macrophages showed a reduced TNF-alpha production compared with IL-10(+/-) littermates. IL-10(-/-) mice had an increased incidence, and a more severe CIA disease than the IL-10(+/-) littermates. To study the role of IL-10 in T cell tolerance, IL-10(-/-) were crossed into mice carrying the immunodominant epitope, CII(256-270), in cartilage (MMC) or in skin (TSC). Both IL-10(-/-) and IL-10(+/-) MMC and TSC mice were completely tolerized against CIA, indicating that lack of IL-10 in this context did not break tolerance. To investigate whether IL-10 was important in the effector phase of CIA, arthritis was induced with anti-CII Abs. Surprisingly, IL-10(-/-) were less susceptible to Ab-transferred arthritis, as only 30% showed signs of disease compared with 90% of the littermates. Therefore, IL-10 seemed to have a protective role in CIA, but seemed to exacerbate the arthritogenicity of anti-CII Abs. These data emphasize the importance of studying IL-10 in a defined genetic context in vivo, to understand its role in a complex disease like arthritis.  (+info)

AMD3100, a potent and specific antagonist of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 chemokine receptor CXCR4, inhibits autoimmune joint inflammation in IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice. (5/1192)

Autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in IFN-gammaR-deficient DBA/1 mice was shown to be reduced in severity by treatment with the bicyclam derivative AMD3100, a specific antagonist of the interaction between the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4. The beneficial effect of the CXCR4 antagonist was demonstrable when treatment was initiated between the time of immunization and appearance of the first symptoms. Treatment also reduced the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the autoantigen, collagen type II. These observations are indicative of an action on a late event in the pathogenesis, such as chemokine-mediated attraction of leukocytes toward joint tissues. The notion of SDF-1 involvement was further supported by the observation that exogenous SDF-1 injected in periarthritic tissue elicited an inflammatory response that could be inhibited by AMD3100. The majority of leukocytes harvested from inflamed joints of mice with CIA were found to be Mac-1(+) and CXCR4(+), and AMD3100 was demonstrated to interfere specifically with chemotaxis and Ca(2+) mobilization induced in vitro by SDF-1 on Mac-1(+)/CXCR4(+) splenocytes. We conclude that SDF-1 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of murine CIA, by attracting Mac-1(+)/CXCR4(+) cells to the inflamed joints.  (+info)

Chondrocyte phenotype and cell survival are regulated by culture conditions and by specific cytokines through the expression of Sox-9 transcription factor. (6/1192)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of culture conditions, serum and specific cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and interleukin (IL) 1alpha on phenotype and cell survival in cultures of Syrian hamster embryonic chondrocyte-like cells (DES4(+).2). METHODS: Proteins and RNA extracted from subconfluent and confluent early- and late-passage DES4(+).2 cells cultured in the presence or absence of serum and IL-1alpha or IGF-1 or both cytokines together were analysed for the expression of chondrocyte-specific genes and for the chondrogenic transcription factor Sox-9 by Western and Northern blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis of labelled low-molecular weight DNA extracted from DES4(+).2 cells and another Syrian hamster embryonic chondrocyte-like cell line, 10W(+).1, cultured under the different conditions and treatments. RESULTS: Early passage DES4(+).2 cells expressed chondrocyte-specific molecules such as collagen types alpha1(II) and alpha1(IX), aggrecan, biglycan and link protein and collagen types alpha1(I) and alpha1(X) mRNAs, suggesting a prehypertrophic chondrocyte-like phenotype. The expression of all genes investigated was cell density- and serum-dependent and was low to undetectable in cell populations from later passages. Early-passage DES4(+).2 and 10W(+).1 cells survived when cultured at low cell density, but died by apoptosis when cultured at high cell density in the absence of serum or IGF-1. IGF-1 and IL-1alpha had opposite and antagonistic effects on the chondrocyte phenotype and survival. Whereas IL-1alpha acting alone suppressed cartilage-specific gene expression without significantly affecting cell survival, IGF-1 increased the steady-state mRNA levels and relieved the IL-1alpha-induced suppression of all the chondrocyte-specific genes investigated; it also enhanced chondrocyte survival. Suppression of the chondrocyte phenotype by the inflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha correlated with marked down-regulation of the transcription factor Sox-9, which was relieved by IGF-1. The expression of the Sox9 gene was closely correlated with the expression of the chondrocyte-specific genes under all conditions and treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the effects of cartilage anabolic and catabolic cytokines IGF-1 and IL-1alpha on the expression of the chondrocyte phenotype are mediated by Sox-9. As Sox-9 appears to be essential for matrix production, the potent effect of IL-1alpha in suppressing Sox-9 expression may limit the ability of cartilage to repair during inflammatory joint diseases.  (+info)

Msx2 is a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation in migratory cranial neural crest cells. (7/1192)

During early mouse embryogenesis, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) emigrate from the posterior midbrain and rhombomeres 1 and 2 of the anterior hindbrain into the first branchial arch-derived maxillary and mandibular processes and there provide cell lineages for several phenotypes, including cartilage, bone, and tooth. Here, we report that Sox9 and Msx2 were coexpressed in a subpopulation of CNCC during their migration. Because Sox9 is a transactivator of chondrogenesis, and Msx genes can act as transcriptional repressors, we hypothesized that Sox9 expression indicates the determination of CNCC-derived chondrogenic cell lineage and that Msx2 represses chondrogenic differentiation until CNCC migration is completed within the mandibular processes. To test whether Msx2 represses chondrogenesis, we designed experiments to inhibit Msx2 function in migratory CNCC in primary cultures through the expression of loss-of-function Msx2 mutants. We showed that infection of migratory CNCC with adenovirus Msx2 mutants accelerated the rate and extent of chondrogenesis, as indicated by the expression level of type II collagen and aggrecan, and the amount of alcian blue staining. Adenovirus infections did not apparently interfere with CNCC proliferation or migration. These findings suggest that an important early event in craniofacial morphogenesis is a transient expression of both Sox9 and Msx2 during emigration into the forming mandibular processes followed by restricted expression of Sox9 within CNCC- derived chondroprogenitor cells. We conclude that Msx2 serves as a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation during CNCC migration.  (+info)

Contacts with fibrils containing collagen I, but not collagens II, IX, and XI, can destabilize the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. (8/1192)

OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of cellular functions, including matrix synthesis, proliferation and differentiation. This is well exemplified by the characteristically labile phenotype of chondrocytes that is lost in monolayer culture but is stabilized in suspension under appropriate conditions. We were interested in the role of collagen suprastructures in maintaining or destabilizing the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Primary sternal chondrocytes from 17-day-old chick embryos were cultured in gels of fibrils reconstituted from soluble collagen I from various sources. The culture media either contained or lacked FBS. Cells were cultured for up to 28 days and the evolution of the phenotype of the cells was assessed by their collagen expression (collagens II and X for differentiated chondrocytes and hypertrophic chodrocytes, repectively; collagen I for phenotypically modulated cells), or by their secretion of alkaline phosphatase (hypertrophic cartilage phenotype). RESULTS: The cells often retained their differentiated phenotype only if cultured with serum. Under serum-free conditions, cartilage characteristics were lost. The cells acquired a fibroblast-like shape and, later, synthesized collagen I instead of cartilage collagens. Shape changes were influenced by beta1-integrin-activity, whereas other matrix receptors were important for alterations of collagen patterns. Heterotypic fibrils reconstituted from collagens II, IX, and XI did not provoke this phenotypic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Chondrocytes sensitively recognize the suprastructures of collagen fibrils in their environment. Cellular interactions with fibrils with appropriate molecular organizations, such as that in cartilage fibrils, result in the maintenance of the differentiated cartilage phenotype. However, other suprastructures, e.g. in reconstituted fibrils mainly containing collagen I, lead to cell-matrix interactions incompatible with the cartilage phenotype. The maintenance of the differentiated traits of chondrocytes is pivotal for the normal function of, e.g., articular cartilage. If pathologically altered matrix suprastructures lead to a dysregulation of collagen production also in vivo compromised cartilage functions inevitably will be propagated further.  (+info)

*Collagen, type II, alpha 1

II) chain of type II collagen. This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage ... "A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in ... II) chain that cannot be incorporated into type II collagen fibers. As a result, cells make a reduced amount of type II ... chain that cannot be incorporated into type II collagen fibers. As a result, cells make a reduced amount of type II collagen. ...

*Type II collagen

... does form fibrils. This fibrillar network of collagen allows cartilage to entrap the proteoglycan aggregate as ... Type I collagen Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Park, Kyung-Su; Park, Min-Jung; Cho, Mi-La; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Ko, Hyeok ... "Type II collagen oral tolerance; mechanism and role in collagen-induced arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis". Modern ... Type II collagen is the basis for articular cartilage and hyaline cartilage. It makes up 50% of all protein in cartilage and 85 ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 2

Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A2 collagen, type IV, alpha 2". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C- ...

*Collagen, type I, alpha 2

... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... This gene encodes one of the chains for type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues. Mutations in ... Type-I collagen Collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: COL1A2 collagen, type I, alpha 2". GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Osteogenesis Imperfecta Byers PH, Wallis GA, ...

*Collagen, type VI, alpha 2

"Type VI collagen anchors endothelial basement membranes by interacting with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26522-9 ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective ... 1996). "Type VI collagen mutations in Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures". Nat. Genet. 14 (1): ... type VI collagen reveals internal triplication of globular domains similar to the A domains of von Willebrand factor and two ...

*Collagen, type V, alpha 2

... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type, formerly known as types I and II. Type-V ... Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Classic Type. Includes: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type I, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type II. ...

*Collagen, type XI, alpha 2

Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and diameter of type II collagen fibrils. Type II collagen is an important ... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 ...

*Collagen, type VIII, alpha 2

... the gene encoding the alpha2 chain of type VIII collagen, cause two forms of corneal endothelial dystrophy". Hum Mol Genet. 10 ... "Entrez Gene: COL8A2 collagen, type VIII, alpha 2". Shuttleworth CA (1998). "Type VIII collagen". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 ... Illidge C, Kielty C, Shuttleworth A (1998). "The alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains of type VIII collagen can form stable ... Greenhill NS, Rüger BM, Hasan Q, Davis PF (2000). "The alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) collagen chains form two distinct ...

*Collagen, type IX, alpha 2

Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... "Collagen II containing a Cys substitution for Arg-alpha1-519: abnormal interactions of the mutated molecules with collagen IX ...

*Elastic cartilage

It contains elastic fiber networks and collagen type II fibers. The principal protein is elastin. Elastic cartilage is ... Elastic cartilage or yellow cartilage is a type of cartilage present in the outer ear, Eustachian tube and epiglottis. ...

*Spondyloperipheral dysplasia

The protein made by the altered COL2A1 gene cannot be used to make type II collagen, resulting in a reduced amount of this type ... The protein made by this gene forms type II collagen, a molecule found mostly in cartilage and in the clear gel that fills the ... Zabel, B.; Hilbert, K.; Stöß, H.; Superti-Furga, A.; Spranger, J.; Winterpacht, A. (May 1996). "A specific collagen type II ... Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues (the tissues that form the ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 4

Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A4 collagen, type IV, alpha 4". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 3

Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... Collagen alpha-3(IV) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A3 gene. Type IV collagen, the major structural ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 5

Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... ARUP COL4A5 gene variant database LOVD Alport gene variant databases (COL4A5, COL4A3, COL4A4) Collagen Type-IV collagen Alport ... of type IV collagen in synovial capillaries by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against human type IV collagen ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ...

*Collagen, type IV, alpha 6

Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene, alpha 5 type IV collagen, so that the ... of type IV collagen in synovial capillaries by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against human type IV collagen ... collagen chain and comparison with other type IV collagen genes". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 26863-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.45. ...

*Chondroblast

Collagen Type II fibers are responsible for giving the future cartilage matrix its tensile strength. The structure of these ... The type of growth maintained by chondroblasts is called appositional bone growth and increases the girth of the affected ... Within finished cartilage, collagen fibers compose 10-20% of the volume, water 65-80%, and the proteoglycan-hyaluronic acid ... Chondrosarcoma is a more malignant type of tumor, but most are low grade tumors and often appear in the axial skeletal region. ...

*Osteoblast

Cartilage is composed of a network of collagen type II held in tension by water-absorbing proteins, hydrophilic proteoglycans. ... The active osteoblast produces substantial collagen type I. About 10% of the bone matrix is collagen with the balance mineral. ... 1977) "Transitions in collagen types during matrix-induced cartilage, bone, and bone marrow formation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Defects in collagen type I cause the commonest inherited disorder of bone, called osteogenesis imperfecta. Minor, but important ...

*MMP3

The MMP-3 enzyme degrades collagen types II, III, IV, IX, and X, proteoglycans, fibronectin, laminin, and elastin. In addition ... The catalytic domain contains two zinc ions and at least one calcium ion coordinated to various residues. One of the two zinc ... In a study conducted using MMP-3 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, MMP-3 was shown to increase BBB permeability after ... Pelmenschikov V, Siegbahn PE (Nov 2002). "Catalytic mechanism of matrix metalloproteinases: two-layered ONIOM study". Inorganic ...

*Type XXVII collagen

It is related to the fibrillar collagens: type II, type XI, and type XXIV. Current research suggests that it is made by ... Type XXVII collagen is the protein predicted to be encoded by COL27A1. It was first described by Dr. James M. Pace and his ...

*ITGA10

The I-domain containing alpha 10 combines with the integrin beta 1 chain (ITGB1) to form a novel collagen type II-binding ... a beta1-associated collagen binding integrin expressed on chondrocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (32): 20383-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... a beta1-associated collagen binding integrin expressed on chondrocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (32): 20383-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... 43 (2): 111-22. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0029(19981015)43:2. 3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 9822998. Bengtsson T, Aszodi A, Nicolae C, et al. ( ...

*Fibronectin type II domain

... is a collagen-binding protein domain. Fibronectin is a multi-domain glycoprotein, found in a soluble ... Type II domains occur two times in fibronectin. Type II domains have also been found in a range of proteins including blood ... which are called type I, II, and III. Type II domain is approximately sixty amino acids long, contains four conserved cysteines ... Fibronectin type-II collagen-binding domain in PROSITE. ... Homology to PDC-109 and to the collagen-binding domain of ...

*Implantation (human embryo)

These collagenases digest Type-I collagen, Type-II collagen, Type-III collagen, Type-VII collagen and Type-X collagen. The ... gelatinases exist in two forms; one digesting Type-IV collagen and one digesting gelatin. The embryo differs from the cells of ... As these trophoblast cells penetrate, they differentiate to become a new type of cells, syncytiotrophoblast. The prefix syn- ... 17 (2): 242-253. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmq037. PMC 3039220 . PMID 20729534. Potdar, N.; Gelbaya, T. A.; Konje, J. C.; Nardo, L. G ...

*Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

Type II collagen can help distinguish it from other tumors. Mesenchyme sarcoma Hoang MP, Suarez PA, Donner LR, et al. (October ... 1 (6). Müller S, Söder S, Oliveira AM, Inwards CY, Aigner T (August 2005). "Type II collagen as specific marker for mesenchymal ...

*Kniest dysplasia

The COL2A1 gene results in malformed type II collagen, which is essential in the transition from collagen to bone. This is the ... The COL2A1 gene is responsible for producing type II collagen. The mutation of COL2A1 gene leads to abnormal skeletal growth ... Hypochondrogenesis is caused when type II collagen is abnormally formed due to a mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Normally, the ... or Metatrophic Dwarfism Type II. Because collagen plays an important role in the development of the body, people with Kniest ...

*Mir-675 microRNA precursor family

It has been proposed that miR-675 may modulate collagen type II levels via an unknown target molecule, and there is potential ... Dudek, K. A.; Lafont, J. E.; Martinez-Sanchez, A.; Murphy, C. L. (2010). "Type II Collagen Expression is Regulated by Tissue- ... Indeed, there is co-regulation of these two RNAs. The COL2A1 gene associated with osteoarthritis through altered expression ... 287 (2): 916-924. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.302430. PMC 3256897 . PMID 22102413. Schmitz, K. J.; Helwig, J.; Bertram, S.; Sheu, S. Y ...

*Catenin

The first two catenins that were identified became known as α-catenin and β-catenin. A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can ... Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see ... Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR (October 2011). "A role for collagen XXIII in cancer cell ... For instance, higher levels of collagen XXIII have been associated with higher levels of catenins in cells. These heightened ...
One question that remains unresolved is which enzyme or enzymes are responsible for the type II collagen breakdown products we found by Western blot analysis. Cleavage of type II collagen by MMP-1 and MMP-8, both known to be present in the vitreous, did not produce these type II collagen breakdown products, and a combination of MMP-8 with MMP-2 or MMP-9, or both, produced such extensive breakdown that clear fragments were no longer detectable by Western blot analysis. The weakly stained band that was formed on degradation by MMP-2 alone could correspond to one of the naturally occurring breakdown products in the vitreous, but MMP-2 cannot explain the range of other breakdown products that we repeatedly found. Although MMP-9 was able to digest some of the type II collagen, we did not find any larger fragments. MMP-9, though, is not supposed to be able to cleave the collagen triple helix. 29 It is possible that our type II collagen, which was isolated from diseased osteoarthritic cartilage, ...
phdthesis{53a36616-ce7f-4122-8084-e7c13dc6a8da, abstract = {The molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of rheumatoid,br/,,br, arthritis are not known in fine details. Both humoral and cellular responses against,br/,,br, collagen type II in joint cartilage seems to be important for the disease development.,br/,,br, Especially posttranslational modifications on collagen type II are important in regulation,br/,,br, of molecular mechanisms implicated in the disease. In this thesis we tried to identify,br/,,br, molecular principles of anti-collagen immunity and its relation with pathogenicity by,br/,,br, mainly X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of anti-collagen antibody CIIC1,br/,,br, showed that it not only binds to collagen type II but also cross reacts with other,br/,,br, immunoglobulins which is the typical behavior of rheumatoid factors. The arthritogenic,br/,,br, and collagen specific antibody CIIC1 with this dual behavior suggests that RFs specific,br/,,br, for ...
Collagen Type II is a major constituent of hyaline and elastic cartilage protein. Collagen Type II Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 20G-12E) specifically recognizes rat and mouse type-II collagen and is suitable for immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded cartilage protein tissue sections as well as immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions. The Rat Collagen Type 2 Monoclonal Antibody specifically recognizes rat type-II collagen. It is validated for immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry applications.. ...
There is considerable interest in the possible use of cAMP-elevating agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cAMP-elevating agents on the T-cell response to type II collagen within the context of collagen-induced arthritis, a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Spleen cells or lymph node cells from type-II-collagen-immunized DBA/1 mice were cultured in the presence of type II collagen plus one of five different cAMP-elevating agents: rolipram, forskolin, prostaglandin E2, 8-bromo-cAMP, or cholera toxin. Levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All of the cAMP-elevating agents tested were found to profoundly suppress IFN-gamma production in a dose-dependent manner. IL-4 and IL-5 production was slightly up-regulated at low concentrations of the cAMP-elevating agents and was modestly suppressed at
Decreased production of anti-CII antibodies in mice treated with anti-IL-23p19.At day 35, at the end of the experiment as shown in Figure 2A, serum was collecte
Improved Collagen Type I ELISA. (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Offers increased sensitivity and reproducibility with accurate & reliable results.
Collagen list and information including what is Collagen, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
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Twinlab MaxiLife Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid Dietary Supplement Capsules at Walgreens. Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Twinlab MaxiLife Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid Dietary Supplement Capsules
In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) of mouse, self-reactive T cells recognize a peptide antigen from type II collagen (CII). CII is of particular interest, as an autoimmune response to this protein leads to CIA in mice, rats, and primates. Activation of T cells is believed to be an important pathogenic factor in autoimmune disease. So, T cells have become a focal point of study for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of autoimmune disease. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of recombinant MHC II molecules in regulation of the antigen-specific T cell clones by using mouse I-Aq, combined with an auto-antigen peptide from type II collagen (CII260-274) in CIA model. It was found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules not only activate CII-specific T cell clone but also inhibit the same clone in vitro according to the condition of stimulation. Furthermore, development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by the in vivo injection of a ...
A rapid and synchronized alternative to the CIA and K/BxN models that reduces variability, eliminates the need for expensive colonies and conserves test compound, controls and vivarium space.
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BLM support normal bone and joint health with type II collagen, MSM, glucosamine sulfate, and manganese citrate, enhanced with essential oils.
2150-0060 recognizes human Collagen type II, an extracellular matrix protein found mainly in cartilaginous tissue. The antibody reacts with both native and
Aigner, Thomas, Gebhard, Pia Margarethe, Schmid, Erik, Bau, Brigitte, Harley, Vincent and Poschl, Ernst (2003) SOX9 expression does not correlate with type II collagen expression in adult articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biology, 22 (4). pp. 363-372. ISSN 1569-1802 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Recent studies of OA cartilage have identified both messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein for specific MMPs as well as a collagenase mediated type II collagen degradation product, suggesting that MMPs contribute to the intrinsic chondrocyte mediated degenerative changes of the cartilage matrix in OA.8,12,13 As yet the factors responsible for their expression remain uncertain, although the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL1) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been implicated.1,8 The increased levels of histamine found in OA synovial fluids3 have suggested a role for this mediator in the pathophysiology of this disease. Evidence presented here shows that histamine up regulates both MMP-13 and MMP-3 production by chondrocytes. Both these MMPs are important in the degradation of articular cartilage; MMP-13 can degrade collagen type II, and MMP-3 can degrade proteoglycan and collagen types IX and XI, and activate procollagenase-1.14 Earlier studies have shown that chondrocytes ...
Objectives: Biochemical markers reflecting the degradation of the type II collagen helical (Helix-II) and type II collagen C telopeptides (CTX-II) have been developed.. Aim: To investigate the association of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis with urinary Helix-II and urinary CTX-II.. Patients and methods: 12 patients (mean age 70 years) meeting the criteria for rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis and 28 patients with slowly progressive hip osteoarthritis (mean age 63 years) defined as ,0.20 mm joint space loss/year were included in a case-control study. In each patient, urinary Helix-II and CTX-II were measured at the end of the follow-up period, with retrospective evaluation of x rays.. Results: Helix-II levels were 41% (p = 0.002) higher in the 40 patients with hip osteoarthritis than in 75 healthy controls. Increased Helix-II levels were associated with decreased minimum joint space width of the hip (r = −0.57, p = 0.001). Mean urinary Helix-II levels were 71% higher in rapidly ...
The pattern of type II collagen expression during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis has been established after isolating specific cDNA and genomic clones. Evidence is presented suggesting that in X. laevis there are two transcriptionally active copies of the type II procollagen gene. Both genes are activated at the beginning of neurula stage and steady-state mRNA levels progressively increase thereafter. Initially, the transcripts are localized to notochord, somites, and the dorsal region of the lateral plate mesoderm. At later stages of development and parallel to increased mRNA accumulation, collagen expression becomes progressively more confined to chondrogenic regions of the tadpole. During the early period of mRNA accumulation, there is also a transient pattern of expression in localized sites that will later not undergo chondrogenesis, such as the floor plate in the ventral neural tube. At later times and coincident with the appearance of chondrogenic tissues in the developing embryo, ...
Studies have shown that both Type I and Type II Collagen undergo fibrillogenesis under similar conditions, namely at near normal body temperature and pH. It is understood that accessory proteins or chaperone proteins can either speed up or slow down fibrillogenesis in Type I Collagen. However, there is a lack of research on how these same proteins can regulate the kinetics of fibril formation in Type II Collagen. If certain proteins are found to speed up Type II fibril formation, they could greatly decrease the time required for healing in cartilage injuries or diseases, especially those due to the inherent lack of vascularity in cartilage. On the other hand, some proteins may slow down Type II fibril formation and have applications in diseases that are caused by excessive fibril formation such as fibrosis or scar formation. To test the effects of specific accessory proteins, recombinant forms of these proteins were added with Collagen Type II in a buffered solution at 7.4 pH, and a temperature of 25⁰
article{9a5c9918-f28d-42f7-9e4a-e617d47af020, abstract = {Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. However, it is still unclear if B cells can present CII to T cells. To investigate the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for CII, we purified B cells from lymph nodes of immunized and nonimmunized mice. These B cells were used as APC for antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. B cells from naïve mice did present native, triple-helical, CII (nCII) but also ovalbumin (OVA) and denatured CII (dCII) to antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. In addition, B cells primed with nCII or OVA, but not dCII, activated the antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas two to three times better than naïve B cells. We conclude that antigen-primed B cells have the capacity to process and present CII to primed T cells, and antigen-primed antigen-specific B cells are more efficient as APC than naïve B cells. We further ...
In some RA patients antibodies are formed that target collagen II, an important protein in joint cartilage. These antibodies drive the inflammation early in the disease and the highest amounts of collagen antibodies have been detected at the time of diagnosis, after which the levels decrease during the first year.. In the present paper researchers at the Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, in collaboration with colleagues at Karolinska Institutet, have followed a large group of RA patients during five years to see if there is a correlation between the collagen antibodies and disease development.. We found that patients with collagen antibodies showed increased signs of inflammation during the first six months after diagnosis, after this there was no difference compared to patients without any collagen antibodies. We also discovered that the presence of collagen antibodies at the time of diagnosis was associated with a better prognosis, says Vivek Anand Manivel, ...
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ImmuCell is a naturally complete joint support supplement made of 100 percent pure Kolla2 unhydrolyzed collagen type II from chicken sternal cartilage.
Hyaluronic acid is a major component of joint tissue. It helps to hold lubricating moisture in joints and cartilage, which affects their resilience, elasticity, and strength. Source Naturals Hyaluronic Acid is made from patented BioCell Collagen II which has undergone an absorption enhancing hydrolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements make it a multifaceted ingredient, which may help support joint function and the appearance of healthy skin.
(a)-(c) Typical histological appearance of CIA mouse paws: (a) severe inflammatory cellular infiltration-synovitis and pannus formation; (b) bone and cartil
Dont let sore joints, tendons, or torn ligaments derail your fitness program-get superior protection from Joint Support Super Formula before its too late.. Our powerful blend of glucosamine, collagen type II, and MSM provides your body with the very best ingredients to maximize joint and cartilage support. And because its 100% natural, its one of the safest and most effective ways to naturally provide relief from the symptoms of joint and connective tissue wear and tear.. Click here for ingredients and nutrition information.. WARNING: Consult with a healthcare professional if pregnant, breast feeding, providing to a child, or if you have any other unique or special needs. Keep out of reach of children.. **With Home Direct, youll receive this item every 30 days, shipped directly to your door and billed to the credit card used today. You may cancel at any time.. Our Price: $22.95. ...
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I-A(q)-bCII257-270 protein: a monomeric murine I-A(q)-derived RTL construct linked to bovine collagen type II peptide bCII257-270
Hyaluronic Acid Biocell Collagen II 50 mg 30 Tablets Supports Skin Fitness Hyaluronic acid and collagen are vital components of skin structure that decline as we age. They are responsible for the skins moisture, suppleness, and elasticity. Patented BioCell Collagen II is made from 100% pure cartilage, which has undergone an absorption enhancing hyrdolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements found in BioCell Collagen II make it a multifaceted ingredient which may help support healthy skin function and appearance, as well as help support joint comfort and function. Supplemental Facts Serving size: 2 tablets Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Protein 1 g 2% Calcium 140 mg 15% BioCell Collagen II 1 g Type II Collagen 600 mg Chondroitin Sulfate 200 mg Hyaluronic Acid 100 mg Other Ingredients: dibasic calcium phosphate, stearic acid, hydroxypropyl cellulose, modified cellulose gum, natural peppermint
Animals, Antibodies; Monoclonal/pharmacology, Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology, Arthritis; Experimental/genetics/*immunology, Collagen Type II/immunology, Comparative Study, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Immunoglobulin G/*metabolism, Macrophages; Peritoneal/*immunology, Mice, Mice; Mutant Strains, Receptors; IgG/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt ...
Skin Eternal Hyaluronic Acid Supports Skin Fitness Hyaluronic acid and collagen are vital components of skin structure that decline as we age. They are responsible for the skins moisture, suppleness, and elasticity. Patented BioCell Collagen II is made from 100% pure cartilage, which has undergone an absorption-enhancing hydrolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements found in BioCell Collagen II make it a multifaceted ingredient which may help support healthy skin function and appearance, as well as help support joint comfort and function. Supplement Facts for 50 mg Tablet Serving Size: 2 tablet(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Calories 5 Protein 1 g less than 2% BioCell Collagen II 1 g Yielding: Type II Collagen 600 mg Chondroitin Sulfate 200 mg Hyaluronic Acid 100 mg Other Ingredients: stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, natural peppermint, modified
In both collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and rheumatoid arthritis, T cells recognize a galactosylated peptide from type II collagen (CII). In this study, we demonstrate that the CII259-273 peptide, galactosylated at lysine 264, in complex with Aq molecules prevented development of CIA in mice and ameliorated chronic relapsing disease. In contrast, nonglycosylated CII259-273/Aq complexes had no such effect. CIA dependent on other MHC class II molecules (Ar/Er) was also down-regulated, indicating a bystander vaccination effect. T cells could transfer the amelioration of CIA, showing that the protection is an active process. Thus, a complex between MHC class II molecules and a posttranslationally modified peptide offers a new possibility for treatment of chronically active autoimmune inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The immunodominant epitope of bovine type II collagen (CII256-270) in Aq mice carries a hydroxylysine-264 linked galactose (Gal-Hyl264), the recognition of which is central to the development of collagen-induced arthritis. This study explores the molecular interactions involved in the engagement of T-cell receptors (TCRs) with such epitopes. Responses of three anti-CII T-cell hybridomas and clone A9.2 (all sharing close TCR sequences) to a panel of CII256-270 analogues incorporating Gal-Hyl264 with a modified side chain were determined. Recognition of naturally occurring CII256-270 peptides by either group of T cells depended strictly upon the presence of the carbohydrate and, more precisely, its intact HO-4 group. Modifications of primary amino group on the hydroxylysine side chain eliminated T-cell reactivity, notwithstanding the presence of the galactosyl moiety. Moderate stereochemical changes, such as altered sugar orientation and methylation at the galactose anchor position, were still permissive.
The administration of antigens into the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye induces a special form of antigen-specific peripheral immune tolerance termed AC-associated immune deviation (ACAID), which prevents delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and other inflammatory responses. Type-II collagen (CII) is highly expressed in cartilage tissues and has been linked to Rheumatoid arthritis, aging, and osteoarthritis. To explore the potential for ACAID induction via CII, we checked for different signs of ACAID generation following the AC injection of CII in BALB/c mice. We hypothesized that the mechanism of ACAID induction involves efferent T regulatory cells (Tregs). Both local adoptive transfer (LAT) assays and DTH assays were performed. Results indicated that ACAID induction was driven by the AC injection of CII. Spleen cells of mice injected with CII in the AC significantly suppressed DTH responses. ACAID induction was mediated by efferent Tregs in the spleen. CII-mediated ACAID induction ...
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Identification of the molecular defect in patients with type II collagen disorders is usually a challenge because of the relatively large size and complexity of the COL2A1 gene and its main expression in cartilage. Cartilage is not easily accessible, relatively acellular, and therefore a poor source of mRNA for cDNA synthesis and analysis. Furthermore, sufficient amounts of mRNA can often not be obtained from cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphocytes owing to low basal transcription of the gene. Therefore, mutation analysis of the COL2A1 gene is often performed in the genomic DNA in a "head to tail" fashion, which is time consuming and laborious. In this study, we used the opportunity of having cartilage tissue for exploring the genetic defect in the COL2A1 gene in seven patients with a lethal type II collagen disorder. Those regions of theCOL2A1 gene in which a mutation was likely to reside, based on the overmodification pattern of the type II collagen CB peptides, were screened first with SSCP ...
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Amino Shape is a blend of hydrolyzed collagen with type II Collagen combined with Silica, Biotin and caffeine free Green Tea extract to create a unique formula that may promote fat metabolism, preserve lean muscle, build healthy lustrous hair, youthf
Each scoop of NativePath Grass-Fed Collagen is formulated with 10 grams of the purest, most digestible, keto-friendly, and paleo approved collagen peptide protein, to help enhance the body
ProCollagen Extrema膠原蛋白防曬日霜 SPF30 PA+++質地清爽,為肌膚注入微膠原分子同時有效阻截紫外線UVA及UVB,在日間為肌膚建起最強屏障,激發肌膚活躍再生。
Hi, Remi here… I just got my Type II diagnosis 2 weeks ago. Ive been sort of flying blind and doing what I can to learn more about this. Im a recovering a...
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Häuselmann, H J; Caravatti, M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Wang, K; Bruckner, P; Stucki, G; Michel, B A (1998). Can collagen type II sustain a methotrexate-induced therapeutic effect in patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis? A double-blind, randomized trial. British Journal of Rheumatology, 37(10):1110-1117. ...
Abstract: A novel collagen sponge that can protect cell leakage during cell seeding was developed by wrapping all the surfaces except the upside of a collagen sponge with membrane that has pores smaller than cell. The collagen sponge was used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The cells adhered to the collagen, and proliferated to fill the spaces in the sponge. The cell seeding efficiency was higher than 95%. The MSCs cultured in the collagen sponge in the chondrogenic induction medium supplemented with TGF-β3 and BMP6 expressed genes encoding type II collagen, SOX9 and aggrecan. HE staining indicated the round morphology of differentiated cells and the extracelluler matrices were positively stained by safranin O and toluidine blue. Type II collagen and cartilage proteoglycan were detected by immunostaining with anti-type II collagen and anti-cartilage proteoglycan. These results suggest the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. The ...
Rhomboid family member 2 gene (Rhbdf2) is an inactive homologue lacking essential catalytic residues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases. The protein is necessary for maturation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) converting enzyme, which is the molecule responsible for the release of TNF-α. In this study, Rhbdf2 knockout (KO) mice were produced by CRISPR/CAS9. To see the effects of the failure of TNF-α release induced by Rhbdf2 gene KO, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is the representative TNF-α related disease, was induced in the Rhbdf2 mutant mouse using chicken collagen type II. The severity of the CIA was measured by traditional clinical scores and histopathological analysis of hind limb joints. A rota-rod test and grip strength test were employed to evaluate the severity of CIA based on losses of physical functions. The results indicated that Rhbdf2 mutant mice showed clear alleviation of the clinical severity of CIA as demonstrated by the significantly lower severity ...
Introduction: We have previously reported that bacterial toxins, especially endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), might be important causative agents in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in an in vitro model that simulates the potential effects of residing in damp buildings. Since numerous inflammatory processes are linked with the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), we investigated in detail the effects of LPS on the NF-kappa B pathway and the postulated formation of procollagen-endotoxin complexes. Methods: An in vitro model of human chondrocytes was used to investigate LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. Results: Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LPS physically interact with collagen type II in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and anti-collagen type II significantly reduced this interaction. BMS-345541 (a specific inhibitor of I kappa B kinase (IKK)) or wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)) inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of ...
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Collagen II antibody [CIIC1] (collagen, type II, alpha 1) for IA, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, Functional Assay. Anti-Collagen II mAb (GTX54398) is tested in Mouse, Chicken, Rat, Baboon, Horse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Collagen I antibody [COL-1] (ab6308) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry & immunofluorescence…
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Collagen VIII alpha 1兔多克隆抗体(ab100988)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
This synergistic formula contains powerful joint support compounds including glucosamine sulfate, type II collagen, cetyl myristoleate (CMO), green-lipped mussel, MSM, hyaluronic acid, and niacinamide. Supportive nutrients were added including zinc, [...] ...
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Kremowy żel do mycia ciała marki Sylveco delikatnie myje i pielęgnuje, wspomaga regenerację skóry oraz chroni przed wysuszeniem. Jest hypoalergiczny.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common debilitating disease resulting from the degeneration of articular cartilage. The major protein of cartilage is type II collagen, which is encoded by the COL2A1 gene. Mutations at this locus have been discovered in several individuals with inherited disorders of cartilage. We have identified 27 primary OA patients who are heterozygous for sequence dimorphisms located in the coding region of COL2A1. These dimorphisms were used to distinguish the mRNA output from each of the two COL2A1 alleles in articular cartilage obtained from each patient. Three patients demonstrated differential allelic expression and produced | 12% of the normal level of mRNA from one of their COL2A1 alleles. The same allele shows reduced expression in all three patients, and this allele is more frequent in a well-defined OA population than in a control group, suggesting the possible existence of a rare COL2A1 allele that predisposes to OA.
This project established an in vivo method to identify and manipulate expression of markers of osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, strategies that predictably induce joint inflammation to evaluate dietary methods of OA prevention in young horses have yet to be accomplished. Therefore, the 3 studies described herein were conducted to determine effectiveness of an intra-articular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on markers of inflammation and cartilage metabolism in young horses and potential of dietary glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) to mitigate these alterations. In the first study, horses were challenged with 0.25 ng or 0.50 ng of intra-articular LPS solution or lactated ringers solution (control). Injection of LPS increased inflammation based on synovial prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations. Carboxypeptide of type II collagen (CPII), a maker of type II collagen synthesis, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, clinical parameters of health were not influenced and remained ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which affects 0.5-1% of the world population and is characterised by joint erosions and presence of the autoantibodies anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor. Collagen II (CII) is a joint-specific antigen and we have shown that antibodies against CII (anti-CII) are present in around 8% of RA patients. RA patients with anti-CII are characterized by acute RA onset with elevated CRP and early joint erosions at the time of RA onset. Polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are abundant in RA synovial fluids, where they can interact with anti-CII, thus forming immune complexes (IC) with CII. In my thesis I have shown that PMN upregulated the cell surface markers CD66b and CD11b and downregulated CD16 and CD32 after stimulation with anti-CII IC. These changes in CD66b and CD16 associated to joint erosions to a larger extent than did PBMC responses to anti-CII IC. PMN cocultured with PBMC and stimulated with ...
Collagen peptides, a long-time staple of Paleo enthusiasts, have gone mainstream. From celebrity magazines to medical journals, the benefits of this supplement seem to be showing up everywhere. Better digestion, improved bone and joint health, and clearer skin are just a few of the claims collagen-peptide users swear by. If you havent heard of collagen peptides, or dont fully understand them, this overview can help get you started.. What are collagen peptides?. Collagen peptides are an easily digestible form of collagen. Available as a supplemental powder or capsule, collagen peptides contain short-chain amino acids that are derived from (usually) pasture-raised animal collagen. Theyre the gelatin that comes from collagen after it gets further broken down through a process called hydrolysis. This level of processing makes collagen-peptide supplements easy to consume and digest.. "Taking collagen as a supplement has many of the same benefits as drinking bone broth, but in a more isolated ...
Collagen peptides are extremely readily available. They serve as work as foundation, restoring cells, such as skin, bones and joints. It has actually been recommended that collagen peptides might serve as carrier to the cells and activate the synthesis and reconstruction of brand-new collagen fibers, therefore sustaining our cells framework. Many clinical researches have actually shown collagen peptides health and wellness advantages. Key areas of advantage consist of healthy and balanced aging, joints and bones health and wellness,sporting activities nourishment and skin beauty. Collagen peptides are cool water-soluble and extremely bio readily available and bio active. This makes them a far better alternative for practical foods
Anti-CII associated with elevated CRP, ESR, SJC, DAS28 and DAS28CRP at diagnosis and up to 6 months, whereas anti-CCP2 associated with SJC and DAS28 from 6 months to 5 years, but not earlier. The anti-CII-associated phenotype was strong, and predominated in anti-CII/anti-CCP2 double-positive patients. Anti-CII was associated with improvements in CRP, ESR, SJC, TJC and DAS28, whereas anti-CCP2 was associated with deteriorations in SJC and DAS28 over time. Anti-CII-positive patients achieved European League Against Rheumatism good or moderate response more often than negative patients. Anti-CII was positively associated with HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*03, with significant interaction, and double-positive individuals had >14 times higher mean anti-CII levels than HLA double negatives. Whereas smoking was associated with elevated anti-CCP2 levels, smokers had lower anti-CII levels.. CONCLUSIONS ...
Collagens are the fundamental structural proteins in vertebrates, where they fulfill a variety of critical roles in connective tissue structure and mechanics. As such, alterations in collagens composition, resulting from genetic modifications, aging, and diabetes, have been identified with an extensive list of diseases [1, 2]. Additionally, due to their natural role as the structural component in the extracellular matrix, collagens have found widespread use in biomaterials, used for cellular and tissue engineering, drug delivery, and a wide range of other applications [3-5].. Most studies on collagens use protein extracted from animal tissues. While this provides a large-scale supply of the protein, the lack of control over protein composition has its drawbacks. For example, there is minimal ability to select protein sequence, since generally type I collagen is most easy to extract and its sequence varies little among different animal species. Furthermore, because posttranslational ...
Second, in order to investigate whether other MHC genes also contribute to arthritis susceptibility, we assessed arthritis development in congenic strains mapped to other parts of the MHC region. We identified a second arthritis-regulatory QTL in the MHC class III region, that regulates not only the onset and severity, but also chronicity of arthritis. We subsequently mapped this effect to a conserved, 33-kb large haplotype Ltab-Ncr3 comprising five polymorphic genes. Interestingly, unlike other positionally-identified arthritis genes in rats, Ltab-Ncr3 regulates only adjuvant arthritis models but not autoimmunity triggered by specific tissue antigens, such as type II collagen. Furthermore, we found that gene expression and alternative splicing of the Ltab-Ncr3 genes correlate remarkably with arthritis severity and some of the gene expression differences were reproduced in a cohort of RA patients and healthy controls ...
20 Grams of Collagen. 1 Simple Ingredient. 0 Flavors, Colors, or Sweeteners. 0 Banned Substances. Hair, Skin, Nails, and Joints. Made Form Grass-Fed Bovine Hide, Rivalus Collagen Peptides Are A Premium Source Of The Emerging Nutritional Ingredient. Collagen Is The Most Abundant Protein In The Body, Supporting The Vitality Of Skin, Hair, Nails, Bones, And Joints. Why Rivalus Collagen Peptides? Sugar Free. Gluten Free. Keto Friendly. Paleo Friendly. Filler Free ...
Collagen on the go - perfect for your handbag and travelling!. O Nutricia collagen helps plump the outer layer of your skin naturally, thus reducing the appearance of ne lines and other aws. Hair is improved by replenishing the hair follicles with collagen.. Cartilage is regenerated by stimulating chondrocytes. Stimulating osteoblasts, improves bone density. Collagen contains Proline and Glycine, that can help repair damaged cells in the intestinal wall.. The health conscious, athletes, Banters and those following Paleolithic Nutrition principles can use O Nutricia Collagen. Improved results may be seen when used in conjunction with a low carbohydrate lifestyle. Whilst our body produces sufcient amounts of amino acids, during times of stress or sickness these levels drop and so supplementation is essential. Collagen peptides have a higher rate of absorption and bio-availability, than Gelatine and work on a cellular level.. ...
Unilever Collagen Pills Phytoceramides offer dietary support for aging skin. Ahc Collagen Cleansing Cream 1 Type stop the problem before its too late. only collagen itself can restore the collagen layer.. Blocked sinuses can lead to swelling temporarily causing dark circles. Commonly reported side effects and conditions associated with Undenatured Type II Collagen laser wrinkle removal ireland Cartagena was signed phytoceramides review info to relativity records phytoceramides review info the sexual seeds recording ine and Botox Treatments for Bruxism now available in our Harley Street clinic. Revitaliserende planteekstrakter fr Bone oth is considered to be most full of nutrient-dense goodness if it gels. 4.3 Stars out of 73 reviews. phytoceramide capsules plant derived Differences allegedly worked means munitions 1990s and shares Proflex also effectively stimulate collagen production by adding collagen alpha II hydrolysate to its composition.. Do you experience leakage due to an overactive ...
Europe is the major producer of collagen ingredients and the major supplier to Asian markets. Health awareness and sports nutrition bandwagons have influenced the growth of collagen peptide in the North...
Enhance your natural beauty from the inside out. Isagenix Collagen Bone Broth can positively support collagen production, that naturally declines as we age and keeps you feeling satisfied on cleanse days. Our Collagen Bone Broth is infused with collagen peptides and Vitamin C --both crucial components the body needs to produce collagen and boost the vitality of skin, when taken on a regular basis. Indulge in the restorative experience you deserve. 8g of high-quality collagen peptides and bone broth protein from grass fed cows never treated with hormones or routine antibiotics.
Collagen is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) acting as a scaffold for cells and is involved with cell differentiation, proliferation and signaling cascades. Due to its role in the ECM, collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals and is found ubiquitously throughout the body, including bones, organs, skin, and blood vessels. In natural tissue homeostasis, collagen synthesis and degradation is delicately controlled as collagen turnover is required for growth and upkeep, but excessive collagen degradation is often associated with numerous pathologic diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and arthritis. These denatured collagen fragments offer a unique opportunity for targeted therapeutics, as the ability to target excessive collagen remodeling may offer insight into the disease state and its medical intervention. Collagen hybridizing peptides (CHPs) can target degraded or denatured collagen, from multiple collagen types, with high specificity and have negligible affinity to ...
Zenwise Health Collagen Peptides are derived from grass-fed, pasture-raised Brazilian bovine hide to provide a pure source of Type I and III Collagen for the body. Formulated with 100% pure hydrolyzed Gelatin using advanced enzymatic processing technology, the essential amino acids and 18g of protein in this nutrient-rich powder can help men and women achieve wellness and longevity throughout the aging process. ✝ ...
Collagen peptides are naturally derived amino acids (proteins) that can add to or replace your bodys available collagen supply and provides the following benefits
collagen peptides Unflavored Hair / Skin / Nails / Joints & Bones / Gut This powerhouse is sourced from grass-fed, pasture-raised bovine hides to ensure a natural, high quality, and sustainable source of the powerful ingredient.
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Vital Proteins Collagen Peptides are sourced from grass-fed, pasture-raised bovine hides to ensure a natural, sustainable source of this ancient nutrient.
Sports Research® Hydrolyzed Collagen Peptides with Matcha contains a full 2 gram serving of premium grade, Organic Japanese Matcha Green Tea with naturally occurring Caffeine and L-Theanine.
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Dietary supplement 100% Hydrolyzed Collagen from France and Tripeptide Collagen from Japan, supplies protein and collagen to the body.
INTRO. NPI(Nimble Plus I )is a natural nutritional and joint care supplement developed by Dr. Wang Kai-Hua. It is composed of natural Mucopolysaccharide and trace elements for joint protection with US patents of Type II Collagen. You can enjoy consumingNPI whenever and wherever you are. NPIcontains patented BioCell Collagen II from BioCell Technology LLC, California USA and has been awarded 3 U.S. patents: Process, Formulation, and Manufacturing. US Patents No.6025327; 6323319; 6780841.. ...
The extract of Siegesbeckiae herba of the present invention showed potent inhibitory effect on the dissociation of proteoglycan and type II collagen in chondrocyte and cartilage tissue and protecting
以人類疾病動物模式探討微環境對幹細胞命運之影響--探討玻尿酸與軟骨素在聚乳酸立體培養架構中之軟骨分化的影響The effects of hyaluronic acid and chondrotin on chondrogenesis in 3D-PLGA scaffold (國科會), 2011.8- ...
List of words make out of Chondrogenesis. All anagrams of Chondrogenesis. Words made after unscrambling Chondrogenesis. Scrabble Points. Puzzle Solver. Word Creation.
A Unique whitening formula to Help you to regain fair, luminous skin. MCP-EX Marine Collagen Peptides from Japan for 1.5 times better absorption than regular collagen
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In order to be able to use second-generation ACT techniques for the repair of cartilage defects in patients with OA, it is highly important to investigate whether OA chondrocytes have an irreversibly altered phenotype or if these cells can differentiate towards a hyaline cartilage phenotype after in vitro expansion. Today, there are conflicting data whether OA chondrocytes fulfill the prerequisites for ACT treatment or not [12, 13, 15, 21]. This encouraged us to investigate more thoroughly the chondrogenic differentiation potential of human OA chondrocytes using microarray technology in order to determine whether OA chondrocytes might possibly be used in second-generation ACT.. Microarray analysis of human OA and ND chondrocytes cultured in ML indicated that the OA chondrocytes were in a less differentiated state compared with the ND chondrocytes. This is thus in accordance with the differences detected in vivo between OA and ND cartilage [10, 22]. Re-differentiation in scaffold cultures ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rheumatoid arthritis is auto-immunoreaction to collagen II in cartilage happened in synovial tissue. AU - Wang, Jicun. AU - Liu, Xinping. AU - Li, Fuyang. AU - Yao, Libo. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Rheumatoid arthritis is complex and not clear on the mechanism of pathogenesis. On the basis of analysis of the symptom and pathology of rheumatoid arthritis patients, we raised a new hypothesis. The content of the hypothesis is as follows: (A) Collagen II or collagen II-like substance in human cartilage is the cross-autoantigen of some infecting virus or bacteria because of the structures similarity. (B) The inflammation in synovial tissue is auto-immunoreaction to collagen II in cartilage. (C) The proliferation and attachment of synovial tissue to the surface of cartilage is due to the chemotaxis of collagen II in cartilage for the immunocytes in synovial tissue. (D) The collagenase secreted from synovial cells and immunocytes are the direct elements in the destruction of ...
Background: Recent studies have provided evidence that integrins play roles in recognition of mechanical stimuli and its translation into a cellular response. Integrin signaling may be regulated by a number of mechanisms including accessory proteins such as CD98 (4F2 antigen). Objectives: To determine CD98 expression by human articular chondrocytes and its involvement in human articular mechanotransduction. Methods: CD98 expression was assessed by immunostaining of cryostat sections of snap frozen articular cartilage and in cultured cells by western blotting. Chondrocytes enzymatically isolated from macroscopically normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage were grown in short term, primary monolayer culture and used in a resting state or following mechanical stimulation at 0.33Hz. Results: Human articular chondrocytes express CD98 and immunoreactivity revealed a similar heterogeneous pattern of CD98 in both normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human articular cartilage. No role of CD98 was detected
Background A long-term existing schistosome infection can certainly help in keeping immuno-homeostasis, thus providing protection against various types of autoimmune diseases to the infected sponsor. human rheumatoid arthritis. Illness by Schistosoma japonicum significantly reduced the severity and the incidence of experimental autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis. However, this beneficial effect can only be provided by a pre-established acute stage of illness but not by a pre-established early stage of the illness. The safety against collagen-induced arthritis correlated with reduced levels of anti-collagen II IgG, especially the subclass of IgG2a. Moreover, in safeguarded mice increased levels of IL-4 were present at the time of collagen II injection together with sustained higher IL-4 levels during the course of arthritis development. In contrast, in unprotected mice minimal levels of IL-4 were ITF2357 present at the initial stage of collagen II challenge together with lack of IL-4 induction ...
Collagen Peptides Benefits:. - Promotes youthful skin, healthier hair, and stronger nails. - Improves skin smoothness. - Helps keep bones healthy and strong. - Supports joint health. - Contributes to a balanced diet and helps maintain weight. - Natural glycine promotes healthy immune, digestive, and central nervous systems. What are Collagen Peptides?. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body and is a key constituent of all connective tissues. Collagen provides the infrastructure of the musculoskeletal system, essential for mobility. Peptides are short chain amino acids naturally derived from collagen protein. These natural peptides are highly bio-available, digestible and soluble in cold water. The intake of collagen ensures the cohesion, elasticity and regeneration of skin, hair, tendon, cartilage, bones, and joints.. Collagen is a natural and healthy ingredient that has been used for centuries. Collagen-rich foods are a large part of traditional diets. Our ancestors utilized ...
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Johansson AC, Sundler M, Kjellen P, Johannesson M, Cook A, Lindqvist AK, et al. Genetic control of collagen-induced arthritis in a cross with NOD and C57BL/10 mice is dependent on gene regions encoding complement factor 5 and FcγRIIb and is not associated with loci controlling diabetes. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 1847-56 ...
H.A. Joint Formula represents yet another advance in natural joint support. By combining the shock absorbing properties of H.A. with HIDROX (Hydroxytyrosol), a highly potent and protective polyphenol found in olives, Puritys H.A. Joint Formula is truly revolutionary.. CUTTING EDGE INGREDIENTS. HYALURONIC ACID FROM BIOCELL COLLAGEN. Puritys H.A. Joint Formula provides cutting edge support for joint flexibility and mobility and features BioCell Collagen II, which is carefully manufactured through a patented process. This process contain high concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen type II protein and low molecular weight GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), such as Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and other proteoglycans that readily absorb through the gastrointestinal tract to allow superior bioavailabilty.. With this greater absorption rate, the H.A. nourishes and revitalizes your joints and tissues. Whats more, H.A. also helps support healthy enzymatic behavior as it relates to joint health, ...
H.A. Joint Formula represents yet another advance in natural joint support. By combining the shock absorbing properties of H.A. with HIDROX (Hydroxytyrosol), a highly potent and protective polyphenol found in olives, Puritys H.A. Joint Formula is truly revolutionary.. CUTTING EDGE INGREDIENTS. HYALURONIC ACID FROM BIOCELL COLLAGEN. Puritys H.A. Joint Formula provides cutting edge support for joint flexibility and mobility and features BioCell Collagen II, which is carefully manufactured through a patented process. This process contain high concentrations of hydrolyzed collagen type II protein and low molecular weight GAGs (glycosaminoglycans), such as Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and other proteoglycans that readily absorb through the gastrointestinal tract to allow superior bioavailabilty.. With this greater absorption rate, the H.A. nourishes and revitalizes your joints and tissues. Whats more, H.A. also helps support healthy enzymatic behavior as it relates to joint health, ...
The physical properties of cartilage depend on electrostatic bonds between type II collagen fibrils, hyaluronan, and the sulfated GAGs on densely packed proteoglycans. Its semi-rigid consistency is attributable to water bound to the negatively charged hyaluronan and GAG chains extending from proteoglycan core proteins, which in turn are enclosed within a dense meshwork of thin type II collagen fibrils. The high content of bound water allows cartilage to serve as a shock absorber, an important functional role. ...
Ashfaq UA, Javed T, Rehman S, Nawaz Z, RiazuddinS. Lysosomotropic agents as HCV entry inhibitors. Virol J. 2011; 8: 163-68. Brondello JM, Philipot D, Djouad F, Jorgensen C, Noël D. Cellular senescence is a common characteristic shared by preneoplasic and osteo-arthritic tissue. Open Rheumatol J. 2010; 4: 10-14. Cawston T, Billington C, Cleaver C, Elliott S, Hui W, Koshy P, Shingleton B, Rowan A. The regulation of MMPs and TIMPs in cartilage turnover. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999; 878: 120-29. Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Leroux G, Piette J-P, AmouraZ. Why all systemic lupus erythematosus patients should begiven hydroxychloroquine treatment? Joint Bone Spine. 2010; 77: 4-5. Eyre D. Collagen of articular cartilage. Arthritis Res. 2002; 4: 30-35. Gentili C, Cancedda R. Cartilage and bone extracellular matrix. Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15: 1334-48. Guzman-Morales J, Lafantaisie-Favreau CH, Chen G, Hoemann CD. Subchondral chitosan/blood implant-guided bone plate resorption and woven bone repair is coupled to hya-line ...
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Morus bombycis Koidzumi is widely distributed in Asia. In Korea, it has been used in traditional medicine because of its apparent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. AIM OF THE STUDY Although the extract of Morus bombycis Koidzumi (MB) has long since been used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Korea, its effect on arthritis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the anti-arthritis activity of MB and the mechanism underlying it. MATERIALS AND METHODS The anti-arthritis activity of MB was assessed by using mouse models of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The clinical arthritis index and histopathological changes were evaluated in mice. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and other biologic approaches were used for measuring the effect of MB on arthritis and understanding the underlying mechanism. RESULTS MB significantly decreased the clinical
in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (2017), 18(1), Background: Viscosupplementation is a symptomatic treatment of the knee osteoarthritis based on the intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (IAHA). Although many studies have investigated its effect ... [more ▼]. Background: Viscosupplementation is a symptomatic treatment of the knee osteoarthritis based on the intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (IAHA). Although many studies have investigated its effect on symptoms, few clinical studies have focused on its effects on biologicals markers of cartilage metabolism. In this study, we assessed the effect of an intra-articular injection of a reticulated hyaluronic acid compound on the level of a specific biomarker of type II collagen degradation. Methods: Eighty one patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were included in this randomized placebo controlled trial testing a reticulated hyaluronic acid (HA) with mannitol (KARTILAGE® CROSS, 16 mg/ml, one single injection of 2.2 mL; ...

Collagen type XI alpha 2 chain antibody | acris-antibodies.comCollagen type XI alpha 2 chain antibody | acris-antibodies.com

... a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but… ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/collagen-type-xi-alpha-2-chain-antibody.htm

Exhaustion of nucleus pulposus progenitor cells with ageing and degene by Daisuke Sakai, Yoshihiko Nakamura et al."Exhaustion of nucleus pulposus progenitor cells with ageing and degene" by Daisuke Sakai, Yoshihiko Nakamura et al.

These cells form spheroid colonies that express type II collagen and aggrecan. They are clonally multipotent and differentiated ... Here we identify populations of progenitor cells that are Tie2 positive (Tie2+) and disialoganglioside 2 positive (GD2+), in ... These cells form spheroid colonies that express type II collagen and aggrecan. They are clonally multipotent and differentiated ... Here we identify populations of progenitor cells that are Tie2 positive (Tie2+) and disialoganglioside 2 positive (GD2+), in ...
more infohttp://jdc.jefferson.edu/orthofp/52/

7. Regulation of growth plate chondrocytes and bone cells7. Regulation of growth plate chondrocytes and bone cells

... increasing the synthesis of type I relative to type II collagen (Rosen et al., 1988; Sandell et al., 1989); it may therefore ... and decreases types II and IX collagen synthesis, it may suppress the cartilage phenotype in the hypertrophic zone that ... Osteoblasts synthesise IGFs; with human bone cells producing more IGF-II relative to IGF-I, and in human bone matrix IGF-II is ... FGF is a heparin binding peptide that exists in two forms, acidic and basic, with 55% sequence homology between the two ( ...
more infohttp://archive.unu.edu/unupress/food2/UID06E/UID06E0V.HTM

Osteogenesis imperfecta facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Osteogenesis imperfectaOsteogenesis imperfecta facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Osteogenesis imperfecta

It may direct cells to make an altered collagen protein and the presence of this altered collagen causes OI type II, III, or IV ... Type II Sometimes called the lethal form, Type II is the most severe form of OI. Among the common features of Type II are the ... Type II. Sometimes called the lethal form, type II is the most severe form of OI. Among the common features of type II are the ... collagen is formed improperly. Type IV OI Type IV falls between Type I and Type III in severity. Among the common features of ...
more infohttp://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/osteogenesis-imperfecta

The mRNAs for the three chains of human collagen type XI are widely distributed but not necessarily co-expressed: implications...The mRNAs for the three chains of human collagen type XI are widely distributed but not necessarily co-expressed: implications...

Collagen type XI may therefore exist as homotrimers and/or heterotrimers composed of two collagen alpha(XI) chains in some ... These findings have implications for the possibility of additional chain associations for collagen types XI and V in cross-type ... II) mRNAs in different human fetal tissues were studied. Expression of mRNAs for all three genes of collagen type XI is not ... the mRNAs for all three alpha chains of collagen type XI were not co-expressed, but collagen alpha 1(XI) and alpha 2(XI) mRNAs ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/311/2/511

Osteogenesis imperfecta | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.orgOsteogenesis imperfecta | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital, non-sex-linked, genetic disorders of collagen type ... Osteogenesis Imperfecta is the result of a mutation in one of the two genes that carry instructions for making type 1 collagen ... Prognosis is very variable dependent on type ranging from being uniformly lethal from type II to a slight reduction in life ... The prenatal sonographic features are often useful in the type II (perinatal) and type III forms. ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/osteogenesis-imperfecta-1

Osteogenesis imperfecta, type V | Connective Tissue Gene TestsOsteogenesis imperfecta, type V | Connective Tissue Gene Tests

Mutations in these genes cause autosomal dominant OI; OI types I (MIM 166200), II (MIM 166210), III (MIM 259420) and IV (MIM ... It binds to collagen I and other matrix proteins. Mutations in PLS3, encoding plastin 3, are a cause of X-linked recessive ... Mutations in SERPINH1 cause OI type X (MIM 613848). Mutations in FKBP10 cause OI type XI (MIM 610968), an OI type with ... OI type XV (MIM 615220), a moderately severe to progressive form of OI, is caused by mutations in WNT1. OI type XVI, a severe ...
more infohttp://ctgt.net/disorder/osteogenesis-imperfecta-type-v

Collagen Type IICollagen Type II

Now Foods, UC-II Joint Health, Undenatured Type II Collagen, 120 Veg Capsules. 86 ... Healthy Origins, Natural, UC-II with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 40 mg, 120 Veggie Caps. 6 ... Healthy Origins, Natural, UC-II with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 40 mg, 60 Veggie Caps. 3 ... Life Extension, Bio-Collagen with Patented UC-II, 40 mg, 60 Small Caps. 20 ...
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Collagen Type Ii Wholesale, Collagen Suppliers - AlibabaCollagen Type Ii Wholesale, Collagen Suppliers - Alibaba

About 47% of these are collagen, 18% are anti-aging, and 12% are animal extract. A wide variety of collagen type ii options are ... Related Searches for collagen type ii: chicken collagen type ii amino collagen c collagen granule firm up collagen cartilage ... Tags: Food Addtive Ucii/collagen Type Ii , Hot Sell Ucii/collagen Type Ii , Ucii/collagen Type Ii ... Sell Best Bulk Collagen Powder/bovine Collagen Hydrolysate Powder , Collagen Type Ii / Cas 9064-67-9 Type Ii Collagen Powder ...
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Collagen Type II Detection: AntibodiesCollagen Type II Detection: Antibodies

Collagen Type II Detection. Collagen Type II is a major constituent of hyaline and elastic cartilage protein. Collagen Type II ... II collagen and weakly reacts with bovine type-II collagen. Does not react with mouse collagen type I, rat type-I or type-III ... Weakly reacts with bovine type-II collagen. Does not cross‑react with rat type‑I & type-III collagen or with mouse type-II ... Monoclonal Anti-Rat Collagen type II (Clone Col II 2B-11F) 0.1 mg $389.00 ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Bone_Research/Collagen_Type_2?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=2y3Oyg1WlbAbrSZz3pxZTpc5Nv&PEBCL1_pses=ZG8B0119934F2A41F06D6EB85DAA06C7A1D2AEFC6058DC835A20AD9A2D3634CDB63B91897FAF88FB0CCC6B565B1FE85C37571382D10FDC5883

Collagen Type II Detection: AntibodiesCollagen Type II Detection: Antibodies

Collagen Type II Detection. Collagen Type II is a major constituent of hyaline and elastic cartilage protein. Collagen Type II ... II collagen and weakly reacts with bovine type-II collagen. Does not react with mouse collagen type I, rat type-I or type-III ... Weakly reacts with bovine type-II collagen. Does not cross‑react with rat type‑I & type-III collagen or with mouse type-II ... Monoclonal Anti-Rat Collagen type II (Clone Col II 2B-11F) 0.1 mg $389.00 ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Bone_Research/Collagen_Type_2?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=Jx2kNTFDblfvncMY8CX9nq3Pn6&PEBCL1_pses=ZG5220CEBAFA3FC44AB9E7940646171A4AE4C632F2A7E0C02EB09E6284FD5EE5BD6CA1443DCAD93A4898DE61A6CA158E7708740248E39DE85A

Collagen Type II - 60 CapsulesCollagen Type II - 60 Capsules

BioCell Collagen® 1000mg / *. Hyaluronic Acid 100mg. Chondroitin Sulfate 200mg. Hydrolyzed Collagen Type II 600mg. *Daily Value ... Only 2 In Stock - ORDER NOW. This item will ship today if ordered within 16 hr 56 min ... 2 capsules‚ 2 to 3 times daily or as directed by a healthcare professional. ... Serving Size: 2 Capsules. Servings Per Container: 30. Amount Per Serving / % DV. ...
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Twinlab MaxiLife Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid Dietary Supplement Capsules | WalgreensTwinlab MaxiLife Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid Dietary Supplement Capsules | Walgreens

Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Twinlab MaxiLife Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid Dietary ... Twinlab MaxiLife Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid Dietary Supplement Capsules at Walgreens. ... productModel.jsonData.ruleMessage.prefix}} Add 2 of same item to cart or {{productModel.jsonData.ruleMessage.link.name}} ...
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Collagen Type 2 120 Capsule by NeoCellCollagen Type 2 120 Capsule by NeoCell

ImmuCell is a naturally complete joint support supplement made of 100 percent pure Kolla2 unhydrolyzed collagen type II from ... DENATURED COLLAGEN TYPE II. Undenatured collagen Type II is native collagen purified from raw sternum without changing its ... COLLAGEN TYPE II :. Collagen Type II is the major component of hyaline joint cartilage. The protein content is between 65% to ... COLLAGEN TYPE I & III:. Scientific studies show that more than 90% of the collagen found in the body is Collagen Type I & III. ...
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Collagen Type II Supplements: Information and Products from AllStarHealth.comCollagen Type II Supplements: Information and Products from AllStarHealth.com

Collagen list and information including what is Collagen, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list ... Health Benefits of Collagen. Collagen supplements usually contain predigested or hydrolyzed collagen. Collagen has been ... Collagen. Collagen Supplements: Information. Collagen refers to a group of structural proteins found throughout the body, but ... Using Collagen Supplements. Collagen supplements should be used as directed.. Side-effects and Cautions:. None-noted. Pregnant ...
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Customer Reviews - Neocell, Collagen Type 2 Joint Complex, 120 Capsules - iHerb.comCustomer Reviews - Neocell, Collagen Type 2 Joint Complex, 120 Capsules - iHerb.com

iHerb.com © Copyright 1997-2019 iHerb, LLC. All rights reserved. iHerb® is a registered trademark of iHerb, LLC. Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. and the iHerb.com Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. Logo are trademarks of iHerb, LLC. *Disclaimer: Statements made, or products sold through this website, have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Read More » ...
more infohttps://www.iherb.com/r/Neocell-Collagen-2-Joint-Complex-2-400-mg-120-Capsules/8368?p=1

MD Biosciences Releases New - Improved Collagen Type II ELISAMD Biosciences Releases New - Improved Collagen Type II ELISA

Improved Collagen Type I ELISA. (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Offers increased sensitivity and reproducibility with ... accounces the launch of its new and improved Collagen Type II (CII) ELISA for the study of collagen metabolism. CII is a triple ... MD Biosciences Releases New - Improved Collagen Type II ELISA Posted by Amy Clausen on Feb 28, 2007 11:36:00 AM ... The ELISA is designed to quantify the amount of collagen type II produced by cells or present in tissue across a variety of ...
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Neocell Collagen Type 2 Joint Complex 120 Capsules | Puritans PrideNeocell Collagen Type 2 Joint Complex 120 Capsules | Puritan's Pride

Collagen Type 2 provides essential nutrients for joint support & youthful skin. ... Buy Collagen Type II Joint Complex with Hyaluronic Acid & other Joint Support Supplements. ... Protein (from collagen) 2,400 mg 4%. Sternal Chicken Collagen Natural Chicken collagen Type 2 protein containing Hyaluronic ... Collagen Type II Joint Complex with Hyaluronic Acid Item #008656 / Add to favorites ...
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Collagen Type II 500 mg 60 vcaps | Complementary PrescriptionsCollagen Type II 500 mg 60 vcaps | Complementary Prescriptions

... collagen Type II, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid) that support joint and skin health. ... natural hydrolyzed Type II collagen ingredient that provides a complex matrix of elements ( ... Collagen Type II 500 mg 60 vcaps , Complementary Prescriptions. BioCell Collagen II® is a natural hydrolyzed Type II collagen ... BioCell Collagen II® 500 mg (hydrolyzed chicken collagen type II, providing Chondroitin Sulfate 100 mg and Hyaluronic Acid 50 ...
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Joint Collagen Type 2 Advanced Formula 120 TabsJoint Collagen Type 2 Advanced Formula 120 Tabs

Product Page for Joint Collagen Type 2 Advanced Formula 120 Tabs offering price, ingredients and full item description from ... Type 2 collagen is the main component of healthy joint cartilage, which acts as a cushion between bones. Youtheory® Joint ... Hydrolyzed Collagen (chicken) 600 mg Proprietary Advanced Joint Blend 500 mg Boswellia (Indian Frankincense) (gum) extract (65 ... This targeted formula delivers high-grade collagen that is specially processed to improve digestibility and absorption into the ...
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Anti-Collagen Type 2 | NSJ Bioreagents | Biomol.deAnti-Collagen Type 2 | NSJ Bioreagents | Biomol.de

This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage and the vitreou... ... Collagen type 2 alpha 1, also known as COL2A1, is a human gene which is the major collagen synthesized by chondrocytes. COL2A1 ... This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage and the vitreous humor of the ... Protein function: Type II collagen is specific for cartilaginous tissues. It is essential for the normal embryonic development ...
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COL2A1 - Collagen type II alpha 1 chain - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating macaque) - COL2A1 gene & proteinCOL2A1 - Collagen type II alpha 1 chain - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating macaque) - COL2A1 gene & protein

Collagen type II alpha 1 chainImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... tr,A0A2K5UUF6,A0A2K5UUF6_MACFA Collagen type II alpha 1 chain OS=Macaca fascicularis OX=9541 GN=COL2A1 PE=4 SV=1 ... Fibrillar collagen NC1InterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system ... It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2K5UUF6

Reactome | VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region]Reactome | VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region]

VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Bos taurus) VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Canis ... VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Danio rerio) VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Gallus ... VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Mus musculus) VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Rattus ... VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Sus scrofa) VTN:Collagen types II,III,V [extracellular region] (Taeniopygia ...
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Lindberg - BioCell Collagen Type 2 120 Capsules - Save 25%Lindberg - BioCell Collagen Type 2 120 Capsules - Save 25%

Increases Skin Collagen* Reduces Skin Dryness* BioCell Collagen® Type 2 is a patented, clinically-studied complex that provides ... naturally-occurring collagen type 2 peptides, chondroitin sulfate and bioavailable, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. It ... Type 2 Joint and Skin Support* Supports Joint Comfort* Reduces Facial Wrinkles* ... BioCell Collagen® Type 2 is a patented, clinically-studied complex that provides naturally-occurring collagen type 2 peptides, ...
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VitaminLife.com: 
                Maxilife Chicken Collagen Type IIVitaminLife.com: Maxilife Chicken Collagen Type II

Maxilife Chicken Collagen Type II by Twinlab, Inc 02743401266. We carry every Twinlab, Inc product at discount prices. 60 ... pure Type II Collagen extracted from chicken cartilage. Though there are over 14 different types of collagen, only Type II ... Maxilife Chicken Collagen Type II 60 Capsule. How It Works: Collagen is the glue that holds the body together. It connects and ... Twinlab, Inc Maxilife Chicken Collagen Type II. Form: Capsule. Size: 60. Price: $23.88 $19.10 (0) ...
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  • Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In this thesis we tried to identify molecular principles of anti-collagen immunity and its relation with pathogenicity by mainly X-ray crystallography. (lu.se)
  • SDS and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, collagenase digestion, Immunoblotting with anti-collagen, type I/II/III, rat (Rabbit). (creativebiomart.net)
  • In addition, defects in processing chondrocalcin, a calcium binding protein that is the C-propeptide of this collagen molecule, are also associated with chondrodysplasia. (biomol.com)
  • Three pro-alpha1(II) chains twist together to form a triple-stranded, ropelike procollagen molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition by guinea pig peritoneal-exudate cells of conformationally different states of the collagen molecule. (springer.com)
  • ImmuCell Collagen II is taken orally as a dietary supplement working naturally within the body as a food source that is bioavailable, meaning it is a ready source of nutrition. (taoofherbs.com)
  • Type II collagen, which adds structure and strength to connective tissues, is found primarily in cartilage, the jelly-like substance that fills the eyeball (the vitreous), the inner ear, and the center portion of the discs between the vertebrae in the spine (nucleus pulposus). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, we reported, in paper III, the experimental procedure that resulted in successful crystallization of MHC class II Aq presenting immunodominant CII peptide. (lu.se)
  • Suggested Use: Take 1-2 servings 1-2 times daily preferably prior to breakfast and dinner. (supplementdirect.com)
  • We have investigated the susceptibility of both the helical and non-helical regions of isolated rat chondrosarcoma collagens, types II, IX and XI, to degradation by the cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B and L. Both enzymes degrade these collagens at temperatures from 20 to 37 degrees C and pH values from 3.5 to 7.0. (nih.gov)