A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.

GDF5 coordinates bone and joint formation during digit development. (1/1192)

A functional skeletal system requires the coordinated development of many different tissue types, including cartilage, bones, joints, and tendons. Members of the Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of secreted signaling molecules have been implicated as endogenous regulators of skeletal development. This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the skeletal abnormalities present in animals with mutations in BMP family members. One member of this family, Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), is encoded by the mouse brachypodism locus. Mice with mutations in this gene show reductions in the length of bones in the limbs, altered formation of bones and joints in the sternum, and a reduction in the number of bones in the digits. The expression pattern of Gdf5 during normal development and the phenotypes seen in mice with single or double mutations in Gdf5 and Bmp5 suggested that Gdf5 has multiple functions in skeletogenesis, including roles in joint and cartilage development. To further understand the function of GDF5 in skeletal development, we assayed the response of developing chick and mouse limbs to recombinant GDF5 protein. The results from these assays, coupled with an analysis of the development of brachypodism digits, indicate that GDF5 is necessary and sufficient for both cartilage development and the restriction of joint formation to the appropriate location. Thus, GDF5 function in the digits demonstrates a link between cartilage development and joint development and is an important determinant of the pattern of bones and articulations in the digits.  (+info)

Cross sectional evaluation of biochemical markers of bone, cartilage, and synovial tissue metabolism in patients with knee osteoarthritis: relations with disease activity and joint damage. (2/1192)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relations between the urinary levels of type II collagen C-telopeptide (CTX-II) and glucosyl-galactosyl pyridinoline (Glc-Gal-PYD)-two newly developed biochemical markers of type II collagen and synovial tissue destruction respectively-disease activity and the severity of joint destruction in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The clinical performance of these two new markers was compared with that of a panel of other established biochemical markers of connective tissue metabolism. METHODS: The following biochemical markers were measured in a group of 67 patients with knee OA (mean age 64 years, median disease duration eight years ) and in 67 healthy controls: for bone, serum osteocalcin, serum and urinary C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I); for cartilage, urinary CTX-II, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and serum human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40); for synovium, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD, serum type III collagen N-propeptide (PIIINP), serum hyaluronic acid (HA); and for inflammation, serum C reactive protein. Biochemical markers were correlated with pain and physical function (WOMAC index) and with quantitative radiographic evaluation of the joint space using the posteroanterior view of the knees flexed at 30 degrees. RESULTS: All bone turnover markers were decreased in patients with knee OA compared with controls (-36%, -38%, and -52%, p<0.0001 for serum osteocalcin, serum CTX-I and urinary CTX-I, respectively). Serum COMP (+16%, p=0.0004), urinary CTX-II (+25%, p=0.0009), urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (+18%, p=0.028), serum PIIINP (+33%, p<0.0001), and serum HA (+ 233%, p<0.0001) were increased. By univariate analyses, increased urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (r=0.41, p=0.002) and decreased serum osteocalcin (r=-0.30, p=0.025) were associated with a higher total WOMAC index. Increased urinary CTX-II (r=-0.40, p=0.0002) and Glc-Gal-PYD (r=-0.30, p=0.0046) and serum PIIINP (r=-0.29, p=0.0034) were the only markers which correlated with joint surface area. By multivariate analyses, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD and CTX-II were the most important predictors of the WOMAC index and joint damage, respectively. CONCLUSION: Knee OA appears to be characterised by a systemic decrease of bone turnover and increased cartilage and synovial tissue turnover. CTX-II, Glc-Gal-PYD, and PIIINP may be useful markers of disease severity in patients with knee OA.  (+info)

Sp3 represses the Sp1-mediated transactivation of the human COL2A1 gene in primary and de-differentiated chondrocytes. (3/1192)

Sp1 and Sp3 effects on the transcription of the human alpha1(II) procollagen gene (COL2A1) were investigated in both differentiated and de-differentiated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection with constructs of deleted COL2A1 promoter sequences driving the luciferase reporter gene revealed that the region spanning -266 to +121 base pairs showed Sp1-enhancing effects, whatever the differentiation state. In contrast, Sp3 did not influence COL2A1 gene transcription. Concomitant overexpression of the two Sp proteins demonstrated that Sp3 blocked the Sp1 induction of COL2A1 promoter activity. Moreover, inhibition of Sp1/Sp3 binding to their target DNA sequence decreased both COL2A1 gene transcription and Sp1-enhancing effects. DNase I footprinting and gel retardation assays revealed that Sp1 and Sp3 bind specifically to cis-sequences of the COL2A1 gene promoter whereby they exert their transcriptional effects. Sp1 and Sp3 levels were found to be reduced in de-differentiated chondrocytes, as revealed by DNA-binding and immunochemical study. Sp1 specifically activated collagen neosynthesis whatever the differentiation state of chondrocytes, suggesting that this factor exerts a major role in the expression of collagen type II. However, our data indicate that type II collagen-specific expression in chondrocytes depend on both the Sp1/Sp3 ratio and cooperation of Sp1 with other transcription factors, the amounts of which are also modulated by phenotype alteration.  (+info)

IL-10-deficient B10.Q mice develop more severe collagen-induced arthritis, but are protected from arthritis induced with anti-type II collagen antibodies. (4/1192)

IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with stimulatory and inhibitory properties, and is thought to have a protective role in rheumatoid arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In this study, we investigated how IL-10 deficiency affects CIA and anti-collagen type II (CII) Ab-transferred arthritis in C57BL/10.Q (B10.Q) mice. The B10.Q.IL-10(-/-) mice had an 8-cM 129/Ola fragment around the IL-10 gene. The mice were treated with antibiotics, appeared healthy, and had no colitis. T cells from IL-10(-/-) mice expressed similar levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 after mitogen stimulation; however, macrophages showed a reduced TNF-alpha production compared with IL-10(+/-) littermates. IL-10(-/-) mice had an increased incidence, and a more severe CIA disease than the IL-10(+/-) littermates. To study the role of IL-10 in T cell tolerance, IL-10(-/-) were crossed into mice carrying the immunodominant epitope, CII(256-270), in cartilage (MMC) or in skin (TSC). Both IL-10(-/-) and IL-10(+/-) MMC and TSC mice were completely tolerized against CIA, indicating that lack of IL-10 in this context did not break tolerance. To investigate whether IL-10 was important in the effector phase of CIA, arthritis was induced with anti-CII Abs. Surprisingly, IL-10(-/-) were less susceptible to Ab-transferred arthritis, as only 30% showed signs of disease compared with 90% of the littermates. Therefore, IL-10 seemed to have a protective role in CIA, but seemed to exacerbate the arthritogenicity of anti-CII Abs. These data emphasize the importance of studying IL-10 in a defined genetic context in vivo, to understand its role in a complex disease like arthritis.  (+info)

AMD3100, a potent and specific antagonist of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 chemokine receptor CXCR4, inhibits autoimmune joint inflammation in IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice. (5/1192)

Autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in IFN-gammaR-deficient DBA/1 mice was shown to be reduced in severity by treatment with the bicyclam derivative AMD3100, a specific antagonist of the interaction between the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4. The beneficial effect of the CXCR4 antagonist was demonstrable when treatment was initiated between the time of immunization and appearance of the first symptoms. Treatment also reduced the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the autoantigen, collagen type II. These observations are indicative of an action on a late event in the pathogenesis, such as chemokine-mediated attraction of leukocytes toward joint tissues. The notion of SDF-1 involvement was further supported by the observation that exogenous SDF-1 injected in periarthritic tissue elicited an inflammatory response that could be inhibited by AMD3100. The majority of leukocytes harvested from inflamed joints of mice with CIA were found to be Mac-1(+) and CXCR4(+), and AMD3100 was demonstrated to interfere specifically with chemotaxis and Ca(2+) mobilization induced in vitro by SDF-1 on Mac-1(+)/CXCR4(+) splenocytes. We conclude that SDF-1 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of murine CIA, by attracting Mac-1(+)/CXCR4(+) cells to the inflamed joints.  (+info)

Chondrocyte phenotype and cell survival are regulated by culture conditions and by specific cytokines through the expression of Sox-9 transcription factor. (6/1192)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of culture conditions, serum and specific cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and interleukin (IL) 1alpha on phenotype and cell survival in cultures of Syrian hamster embryonic chondrocyte-like cells (DES4(+).2). METHODS: Proteins and RNA extracted from subconfluent and confluent early- and late-passage DES4(+).2 cells cultured in the presence or absence of serum and IL-1alpha or IGF-1 or both cytokines together were analysed for the expression of chondrocyte-specific genes and for the chondrogenic transcription factor Sox-9 by Western and Northern blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis of labelled low-molecular weight DNA extracted from DES4(+).2 cells and another Syrian hamster embryonic chondrocyte-like cell line, 10W(+).1, cultured under the different conditions and treatments. RESULTS: Early passage DES4(+).2 cells expressed chondrocyte-specific molecules such as collagen types alpha1(II) and alpha1(IX), aggrecan, biglycan and link protein and collagen types alpha1(I) and alpha1(X) mRNAs, suggesting a prehypertrophic chondrocyte-like phenotype. The expression of all genes investigated was cell density- and serum-dependent and was low to undetectable in cell populations from later passages. Early-passage DES4(+).2 and 10W(+).1 cells survived when cultured at low cell density, but died by apoptosis when cultured at high cell density in the absence of serum or IGF-1. IGF-1 and IL-1alpha had opposite and antagonistic effects on the chondrocyte phenotype and survival. Whereas IL-1alpha acting alone suppressed cartilage-specific gene expression without significantly affecting cell survival, IGF-1 increased the steady-state mRNA levels and relieved the IL-1alpha-induced suppression of all the chondrocyte-specific genes investigated; it also enhanced chondrocyte survival. Suppression of the chondrocyte phenotype by the inflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha correlated with marked down-regulation of the transcription factor Sox-9, which was relieved by IGF-1. The expression of the Sox9 gene was closely correlated with the expression of the chondrocyte-specific genes under all conditions and treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the effects of cartilage anabolic and catabolic cytokines IGF-1 and IL-1alpha on the expression of the chondrocyte phenotype are mediated by Sox-9. As Sox-9 appears to be essential for matrix production, the potent effect of IL-1alpha in suppressing Sox-9 expression may limit the ability of cartilage to repair during inflammatory joint diseases.  (+info)

Msx2 is a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation in migratory cranial neural crest cells. (7/1192)

During early mouse embryogenesis, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) emigrate from the posterior midbrain and rhombomeres 1 and 2 of the anterior hindbrain into the first branchial arch-derived maxillary and mandibular processes and there provide cell lineages for several phenotypes, including cartilage, bone, and tooth. Here, we report that Sox9 and Msx2 were coexpressed in a subpopulation of CNCC during their migration. Because Sox9 is a transactivator of chondrogenesis, and Msx genes can act as transcriptional repressors, we hypothesized that Sox9 expression indicates the determination of CNCC-derived chondrogenic cell lineage and that Msx2 represses chondrogenic differentiation until CNCC migration is completed within the mandibular processes. To test whether Msx2 represses chondrogenesis, we designed experiments to inhibit Msx2 function in migratory CNCC in primary cultures through the expression of loss-of-function Msx2 mutants. We showed that infection of migratory CNCC with adenovirus Msx2 mutants accelerated the rate and extent of chondrogenesis, as indicated by the expression level of type II collagen and aggrecan, and the amount of alcian blue staining. Adenovirus infections did not apparently interfere with CNCC proliferation or migration. These findings suggest that an important early event in craniofacial morphogenesis is a transient expression of both Sox9 and Msx2 during emigration into the forming mandibular processes followed by restricted expression of Sox9 within CNCC- derived chondroprogenitor cells. We conclude that Msx2 serves as a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation during CNCC migration.  (+info)

Contacts with fibrils containing collagen I, but not collagens II, IX, and XI, can destabilize the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. (8/1192)

OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of cellular functions, including matrix synthesis, proliferation and differentiation. This is well exemplified by the characteristically labile phenotype of chondrocytes that is lost in monolayer culture but is stabilized in suspension under appropriate conditions. We were interested in the role of collagen suprastructures in maintaining or destabilizing the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Primary sternal chondrocytes from 17-day-old chick embryos were cultured in gels of fibrils reconstituted from soluble collagen I from various sources. The culture media either contained or lacked FBS. Cells were cultured for up to 28 days and the evolution of the phenotype of the cells was assessed by their collagen expression (collagens II and X for differentiated chondrocytes and hypertrophic chodrocytes, repectively; collagen I for phenotypically modulated cells), or by their secretion of alkaline phosphatase (hypertrophic cartilage phenotype). RESULTS: The cells often retained their differentiated phenotype only if cultured with serum. Under serum-free conditions, cartilage characteristics were lost. The cells acquired a fibroblast-like shape and, later, synthesized collagen I instead of cartilage collagens. Shape changes were influenced by beta1-integrin-activity, whereas other matrix receptors were important for alterations of collagen patterns. Heterotypic fibrils reconstituted from collagens II, IX, and XI did not provoke this phenotypic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Chondrocytes sensitively recognize the suprastructures of collagen fibrils in their environment. Cellular interactions with fibrils with appropriate molecular organizations, such as that in cartilage fibrils, result in the maintenance of the differentiated cartilage phenotype. However, other suprastructures, e.g. in reconstituted fibrils mainly containing collagen I, lead to cell-matrix interactions incompatible with the cartilage phenotype. The maintenance of the differentiated traits of chondrocytes is pivotal for the normal function of, e.g., articular cartilage. If pathologically altered matrix suprastructures lead to a dysregulation of collagen production also in vivo compromised cartilage functions inevitably will be propagated further.  (+info)

One question that remains unresolved is which enzyme or enzymes are responsible for the type II collagen breakdown products we found by Western blot analysis. Cleavage of type II collagen by MMP-1 and MMP-8, both known to be present in the vitreous, did not produce these type II collagen breakdown products, and a combination of MMP-8 with MMP-2 or MMP-9, or both, produced such extensive breakdown that clear fragments were no longer detectable by Western blot analysis. The weakly stained band that was formed on degradation by MMP-2 alone could correspond to one of the naturally occurring breakdown products in the vitreous, but MMP-2 cannot explain the range of other breakdown products that we repeatedly found. Although MMP-9 was able to digest some of the type II collagen, we did not find any larger fragments. MMP-9, though, is not supposed to be able to cleave the collagen triple helix. 29 It is possible that our type II collagen, which was isolated from diseased osteoarthritic cartilage, ...
phdthesis{53a36616-ce7f-4122-8084-e7c13dc6a8da, abstract = {The molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of rheumatoid,br/,,br, arthritis are not known in fine details. Both humoral and cellular responses against,br/,,br, collagen type II in joint cartilage seems to be important for the disease development.,br/,,br, Especially posttranslational modifications on collagen type II are important in regulation,br/,,br, of molecular mechanisms implicated in the disease. In this thesis we tried to identify,br/,,br, molecular principles of anti-collagen immunity and its relation with pathogenicity by,br/,,br, mainly X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of anti-collagen antibody CIIC1,br/,,br, showed that it not only binds to collagen type II but also cross reacts with other,br/,,br, immunoglobulins which is the typical behavior of rheumatoid factors. The arthritogenic,br/,,br, and collagen specific antibody CIIC1 with this dual behavior suggests that RFs specific,br/,,br, for ...
Collagen Type II is a major constituent of hyaline and elastic cartilage protein. Collagen Type II Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 20G-12E) specifically recognizes rat and mouse type-II collagen and is suitable for immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded cartilage protein tissue sections as well as immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions. The Rat Collagen Type 2 Monoclonal Antibody specifically recognizes rat type-II collagen. It is validated for immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry applications.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Collagen-induced arthritis and TCRs in SWR and B10.Q mice expressing an E(α)/(k) transgene. AU - Griffiths, M. M.. AU - Nabozny, G. H.. AU - Hanson, J.. AU - Harper, D. S.. AU - McCall, S.. AU - Moder, K. G.. AU - Cannon, G. W.. AU - Luthra, H. S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - B10.E(α)/(k) transgenic mice were mated with H2-E- B10.Q and SWR mice. F1 and F1 x parental strain backcross progeny were tested for arthritis and autoimmune reactivity to mouse type II collagen (MII) after immunization with bovine, chick, deer, or human type II collagen. The results were correlated with the H-2 haplotype (b/q vs q/q) and the TCR Vβ profile of peripheral blood T cells in each mouse. Hybrid progeny expressed TCR profiles different from either parent because of the TCR Vβ genomic deletions of SWR mice (Vβa), the wild-type TCR allele of C57Bl/10 (B10) mice (Vβb), and the intrathymic negative selection processes resulting from cell surface expression of ...
Introduction: The Vbeta12-transgenic mouse was previously generated to investigate the role of antigen-specific T cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model for rheumatoid arthritis. This mouse expresses a transgenic collagen type II (CII)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain and consequently displays an increased immunity to CII and increased susceptibility to CIA. However, while the transgenic Vbeta12 chain recombines with endogenous alpha-chains, the frequency and distribution of CII-specific T cells in the Vbeta12-transgenic mouse has not been determined. The aim of the present report was to establish a system enabling identification of CII-specific T cells in the Vbeta12-transgenic mouse in order to determine to what extent the transgenic expression of the CII-specific beta-chain would skew the response towards the immunodominant galactosylated T-cell epitope and to use this system to monitor these cells throughout development of CIA. Methods: We have generated and ...
There is considerable interest in the possible use of cAMP-elevating agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cAMP-elevating agents on the T-cell response to type II collagen within the context of collagen-induced arthritis, a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Spleen cells or lymph node cells from type-II-collagen-immunized DBA/1 mice were cultured in the presence of type II collagen plus one of five different cAMP-elevating agents: rolipram, forskolin, prostaglandin E2, 8-bromo-cAMP, or cholera toxin. Levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All of the cAMP-elevating agents tested were found to profoundly suppress IFN-gamma production in a dose-dependent manner. IL-4 and IL-5 production was slightly up-regulated at low concentrations of the cAMP-elevating agents and was modestly suppressed at
Decreased production of anti-CII antibodies in mice treated with anti-IL-23p19.At day 35, at the end of the experiment as shown in Figure 2A, serum was collecte
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the lesions of a mouse collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model using fluorescence bioimaging and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and to compare it with histopathological examination. Twelve mice were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) as control, group 2 (G2) as fluorescence probe control and group 3 (G3) as collagen antibody-induced arthritis. The mice of G3 intravenously received anti-type II collagen 5-clone antibody cocktail (2 mg/mouse) on day 0 and intraperitoneally received lipopolysaccharide (|TEX|$50{\mu}g/mouse$|/TEX|) on day 3. On the while, the mice of G1 and G2 received 0.9% saline in equal volumes at equivalent times. Fluorescence bioimaging and micro-CT analysis were carried out to assess arthritis. Treatment with the collagen antibody cocktail increased the paw thickness of mice compared to those in both the control and probe-treated groups. Fluorescence bioimaging using a near infrared imaging agent showed high
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In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) of mouse, self-reactive T cells recognize a peptide antigen from type II collagen (CII). CII is of particular interest, as an autoimmune response to this protein leads to CIA in mice, rats, and primates. Activation of T cells is believed to be an important pathogenic factor in autoimmune disease. So, T cells have become a focal point of study for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of autoimmune disease. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of recombinant MHC II molecules in regulation of the antigen-specific T cell clones by using mouse I-Aq, combined with an auto-antigen peptide from type II collagen (CII260-274) in CIA model. It was found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules not only activate CII-specific T cell clone but also inhibit the same clone in vitro according to the condition of stimulation. Furthermore, development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by the in vivo injection of a ...
A rapid and synchronized alternative to the CIA and K/BxN models that reduces variability, eliminates the need for expensive colonies and conserves test compound, controls and vivarium space.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased TGF-β and BMP Levels and Improved Chondrocyte-Specific Marker Expression In Vitro under Cartilage-Specific Physiological Osmolarity. AU - Timur, Ufuk Tan. AU - Caron, Marjolein. AU - van den Akker, Guus. AU - van der Windt, Anna. AU - Visser, Jenny. AU - van Rhijn, Lodewijk. AU - Weinans, Harrie. AU - Welting, Tim. AU - Emans, Pieter. AU - Jahr, Holger. PY - 2019/2/2. Y1 - 2019/2/2. KW - chondrocyte. KW - osmolarity. KW - TGF- superfamily. KW - signalling. KW - collagen type II. KW - bone morphogenetic proteins. KW - HUMAN ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES. KW - EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX. KW - CELL-MEMBRANE. KW - BETA. KW - PHENOTYPE. KW - OSTEOARTHRITIS. KW - STIMULATION. KW - HYPERTROPHY. KW - ELEMENTS. KW - ENDOGLIN. U2 - 10.3390/ijms20040795. DO - 10.3390/ijms20040795. M3 - Article. VL - 20. JO - International Journal of Molecular Sciences. JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences. SN - 1422-0067. IS - 4. M1 - 795. ER - ...
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2150-0060 recognizes human Collagen type II, an extracellular matrix protein found mainly in cartilaginous tissue. The antibody reacts with both native and
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Aigner, Thomas, Gebhard, Pia Margarethe, Schmid, Erik, Bau, Brigitte, Harley, Vincent and Poschl, Ernst (2003) SOX9 expression does not correlate with type II collagen expression in adult articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biology, 22 (4). pp. 363-372. ISSN 1569-1802 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Recent studies of OA cartilage have identified both messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein for specific MMPs as well as a collagenase mediated type II collagen degradation product, suggesting that MMPs contribute to the intrinsic chondrocyte mediated degenerative changes of the cartilage matrix in OA.8,12,13 As yet the factors responsible for their expression remain uncertain, although the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL1) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been implicated.1,8 The increased levels of histamine found in OA synovial fluids3 have suggested a role for this mediator in the pathophysiology of this disease. Evidence presented here shows that histamine up regulates both MMP-13 and MMP-3 production by chondrocytes. Both these MMPs are important in the degradation of articular cartilage; MMP-13 can degrade collagen type II, and MMP-3 can degrade proteoglycan and collagen types IX and XI, and activate procollagenase-1.14 Earlier studies have shown that chondrocytes ...
Objectives: Biochemical markers reflecting the degradation of the type II collagen helical (Helix-II) and type II collagen C telopeptides (CTX-II) have been developed.. Aim: To investigate the association of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis with urinary Helix-II and urinary CTX-II.. Patients and methods: 12 patients (mean age 70 years) meeting the criteria for rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis and 28 patients with slowly progressive hip osteoarthritis (mean age 63 years) defined as ,0.20 mm joint space loss/year were included in a case-control study. In each patient, urinary Helix-II and CTX-II were measured at the end of the follow-up period, with retrospective evaluation of x rays.. Results: Helix-II levels were 41% (p = 0.002) higher in the 40 patients with hip osteoarthritis than in 75 healthy controls. Increased Helix-II levels were associated with decreased minimum joint space width of the hip (r = −0.57, p = 0.001). Mean urinary Helix-II levels were 71% higher in rapidly ...
The Rho family GTPase Rac1 regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements crucial for the recruitment, extravasation and activation of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. Rac1 signaling also promotes the activation and survival of lymphocytes and osteoclasts. Therefore, we assessed the ability of a cell-permeable Rac1 carboxy-terminal inhibitory peptide to modulate disease in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice, and in either early or chronic disease, mice were treated three times per week by intraperitoneal injection with control peptide or Rac1 inhibitory peptide. Effects on disease progression were assessed by measurement of paw swelling. Inflammation and joint destruction were examined by histology and radiology. Serum levels of anti-collagen type II antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-cell phenotypes and activation were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Results were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and unpaired Student
The pattern of type II collagen expression during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis has been established after isolating specific cDNA and genomic clones. Evidence is presented suggesting that in X. laevis there are two transcriptionally active copies of the type II procollagen gene. Both genes are activated at the beginning of neurula stage and steady-state mRNA levels progressively increase thereafter. Initially, the transcripts are localized to notochord, somites, and the dorsal region of the lateral plate mesoderm. At later stages of development and parallel to increased mRNA accumulation, collagen expression becomes progressively more confined to chondrogenic regions of the tadpole. During the early period of mRNA accumulation, there is also a transient pattern of expression in localized sites that will later not undergo chondrogenesis, such as the floor plate in the ventral neural tube. At later times and coincident with the appearance of chondrogenic tissues in the developing embryo, ...
Studies have shown that both Type I and Type II Collagen undergo fibrillogenesis under similar conditions, namely at near normal body temperature and pH. It is understood that accessory proteins or chaperone proteins can either speed up or slow down fibrillogenesis in Type I Collagen. However, there is a lack of research on how these same proteins can regulate the kinetics of fibril formation in Type II Collagen. If certain proteins are found to speed up Type II fibril formation, they could greatly decrease the time required for healing in cartilage injuries or diseases, especially those due to the inherent lack of vascularity in cartilage. On the other hand, some proteins may slow down Type II fibril formation and have applications in diseases that are caused by excessive fibril formation such as fibrosis or scar formation. To test the effects of specific accessory proteins, recombinant forms of these proteins were added with Collagen Type II in a buffered solution at 7.4 pH, and a temperature of 25⁰
article{9a5c9918-f28d-42f7-9e4a-e617d47af020, abstract = {Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. However, it is still unclear if B cells can present CII to T cells. To investigate the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for CII, we purified B cells from lymph nodes of immunized and nonimmunized mice. These B cells were used as APC for antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. B cells from naïve mice did present native, triple-helical, CII (nCII) but also ovalbumin (OVA) and denatured CII (dCII) to antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. In addition, B cells primed with nCII or OVA, but not dCII, activated the antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas two to three times better than naïve B cells. We conclude that antigen-primed B cells have the capacity to process and present CII to primed T cells, and antigen-primed antigen-specific B cells are more efficient as APC than naïve B cells. We further ...
In some RA patients antibodies are formed that target collagen II, an important protein in joint cartilage. These antibodies drive the inflammation early in the disease and the highest amounts of collagen antibodies have been detected at the time of diagnosis, after which the levels decrease during the first year.. In the present paper researchers at the Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, in collaboration with colleagues at Karolinska Institutet, have followed a large group of RA patients during five years to see if there is a correlation between the collagen antibodies and disease development.. We found that patients with collagen antibodies showed increased signs of inflammation during the first six months after diagnosis, after this there was no difference compared to patients without any collagen antibodies. We also discovered that the presence of collagen antibodies at the time of diagnosis was associated with a better prognosis, says Vivek Anand Manivel, ...
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ImmuCell is a naturally complete joint support supplement made of 100 percent pure Kolla2 unhydrolyzed collagen type II from chicken sternal cartilage.
Hyaluronic acid is a major component of joint tissue. It helps to hold lubricating moisture in joints and cartilage, which affects their resilience, elasticity, and strength. Source Naturals Hyaluronic Acid is made from patented BioCell Collagen II which has undergone an absorption enhancing hydrolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements make it a multifaceted ingredient, which may help support joint function and the appearance of healthy skin.
(a)-(c) Typical histological appearance of CIA mouse paws: (a) severe inflammatory cellular infiltration-synovitis and pannus formation; (b) bone and cartil
We supply the best natural herbal extract products in India. We have extensive experience to offer the high quality of undenatured chicken collagen type ii, Quillaja Extract, Yucca extract powder, Fish collagen peptide etc products to our customers.
Dont let sore joints, tendons, or torn ligaments derail your fitness program-get superior protection from Joint Support Super Formula before its too late.. Our powerful blend of glucosamine, collagen type II, and MSM provides your body with the very best ingredients to maximize joint and cartilage support. And because its 100% natural, its one of the safest and most effective ways to naturally provide relief from the symptoms of joint and connective tissue wear and tear.. Click here for ingredients and nutrition information.. WARNING: Consult with a healthcare professional if pregnant, breast feeding, providing to a child, or if you have any other unique or special needs. Keep out of reach of children.. **With Home Direct, youll receive this item every 30 days, shipped directly to your door and billed to the credit card used today. You may cancel at any time.. Our Price: $22.95. ...
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The Flexcin Joint Maintenance Formula is specifically designed to promote long term joint health by supporting stronger cartilage, lubricating the joints and minimizing inflammation. The primary component, Cetyl Myristoleate (CM8), works to lubricate the joints and muscles and reduce inflammation throughout the body. The proprietary blend of CM8, Glucosamine, MSM, and Hydrolyzed Collagen Type II works to facilitate maximum mobility and flexibility. The Joint Maintenance Formula helps to regulate continuous joint health and functionality for enhanced mobility and flexibility. Guaranteed. Made in the USA.. Package Contains:. (1) Bottle Flexcin Joint Maintenance Formula (90 capsules/bottle). (Bottle is a 30-day supply when taken as recommended). ...
I-A(q)-bCII257-270 protein: a monomeric murine I-A(q)-derived RTL construct linked to bovine collagen type II peptide bCII257-270
Vital Proteins has a great line of collagen products for a variety of uses. Why collagen you ask? Collagen has been on the rise in the sports nutrition realm and some of its benefits include: It may help improve tissue and cartilage repair (especially when taken before exercise or strength training) It can improve gut
Deroyal part numbers 71-5046 81-010003 71-6515 M3044-B A9916-12 46-IV22 V81-010400 71-1101 72-7000 204401 1030197 72-8000 23-310 15590067 71-3001 15590005 V71-6515 M3070-M 28-0102 13662067 V71-3001 31-249 30-106 35-409 D4511
Hyaluronic Acid Biocell Collagen II 50 mg 30 Tablets Supports Skin Fitness Hyaluronic acid and collagen are vital components of skin structure that decline as we age. They are responsible for the skins moisture, suppleness, and elasticity. Patented BioCell Collagen II is made from 100% pure cartilage, which has undergone an absorption enhancing hyrdolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements found in BioCell Collagen II make it a multifaceted ingredient which may help support healthy skin function and appearance, as well as help support joint comfort and function. Supplemental Facts Serving size: 2 tablets Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Protein 1 g 2% Calcium 140 mg 15% BioCell Collagen II 1 g Type II Collagen 600 mg Chondroitin Sulfate 200 mg Hyaluronic Acid 100 mg Other Ingredients: dibasic calcium phosphate, stearic acid, hydroxypropyl cellulose, modified cellulose gum, natural peppermint
Animals, Antibodies; Monoclonal/pharmacology, Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology, Arthritis; Experimental/genetics/*immunology, Collagen Type II/immunology, Comparative Study, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Immunoglobulin G/*metabolism, Macrophages; Peritoneal/*immunology, Mice, Mice; Mutant Strains, Receptors; IgG/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt ...
Skin Eternal Hyaluronic Acid Supports Skin Fitness Hyaluronic acid and collagen are vital components of skin structure that decline as we age. They are responsible for the skins moisture, suppleness, and elasticity. Patented BioCell Collagen II is made from 100% pure cartilage, which has undergone an absorption-enhancing hydrolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements found in BioCell Collagen II make it a multifaceted ingredient which may help support healthy skin function and appearance, as well as help support joint comfort and function. Supplement Facts for 50 mg Tablet Serving Size: 2 tablet(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Calories 5 Protein 1 g less than 2% BioCell Collagen II 1 g Yielding: Type II Collagen 600 mg Chondroitin Sulfate 200 mg Hyaluronic Acid 100 mg Other Ingredients: stearic acid, microcrystalline cellulose, natural peppermint, modified
In both collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and rheumatoid arthritis, T cells recognize a galactosylated peptide from type II collagen (CII). In this study, we demonstrate that the CII259-273 peptide, galactosylated at lysine 264, in complex with Aq molecules prevented development of CIA in mice and ameliorated chronic relapsing disease. In contrast, nonglycosylated CII259-273/Aq complexes had no such effect. CIA dependent on other MHC class II molecules (Ar/Er) was also down-regulated, indicating a bystander vaccination effect. T cells could transfer the amelioration of CIA, showing that the protection is an active process. Thus, a complex between MHC class II molecules and a posttranslationally modified peptide offers a new possibility for treatment of chronically active autoimmune inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between markers of collagen II synthesis and degradation with disease activity measures, autoantibodies, and radiographic outcomes in a 4-year protocol on patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are naïve to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS: One hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated RA entered the Cyclosporine, Methotrexate, Steroid in RA (CIMESTRA) trial. Disease activity and radiograph status were measured at baseline and 4 years. The N-terminal propeptide of collagen IIA (PIIANP) and the cross-linked C-telopeptide of collagen II (CTX-II) were quantified at baseline by ELISA. PIIANP was also assayed at 2 and 4 years. Anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) was recorded at baseline. An uncoupling index for cartilage collagen metabolism was calculated from PIIANP and CTX-II measurements. RESULTS: PIIANP was low at diagnosis and 4 years on (p | 0.001), irrespective of treatment and disease activity. PIIANP was lowest
The immunodominant epitope of bovine type II collagen (CII256-270) in Aq mice carries a hydroxylysine-264 linked galactose (Gal-Hyl264), the recognition of which is central to the development of collagen-induced arthritis. This study explores the molecular interactions involved in the engagement of T-cell receptors (TCRs) with such epitopes. Responses of three anti-CII T-cell hybridomas and clone A9.2 (all sharing close TCR sequences) to a panel of CII256-270 analogues incorporating Gal-Hyl264 with a modified side chain were determined. Recognition of naturally occurring CII256-270 peptides by either group of T cells depended strictly upon the presence of the carbohydrate and, more precisely, its intact HO-4 group. Modifications of primary amino group on the hydroxylysine side chain eliminated T-cell reactivity, notwithstanding the presence of the galactosyl moiety. Moderate stereochemical changes, such as altered sugar orientation and methylation at the galactose anchor position, were still permissive.
The administration of antigens into the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye induces a special form of antigen-specific peripheral immune tolerance termed AC-associated immune deviation (ACAID), which prevents delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and other inflammatory responses. Type-II collagen (CII) is highly expressed in cartilage tissues and has been linked to Rheumatoid arthritis, aging, and osteoarthritis. To explore the potential for ACAID induction via CII, we checked for different signs of ACAID generation following the AC injection of CII in BALB/c mice. We hypothesized that the mechanism of ACAID induction involves efferent T regulatory cells (Tregs). Both local adoptive transfer (LAT) assays and DTH assays were performed. Results indicated that ACAID induction was driven by the AC injection of CII. Spleen cells of mice injected with CII in the AC significantly suppressed DTH responses. ACAID induction was mediated by efferent Tregs in the spleen. CII-mediated ACAID induction ...
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Identification of the molecular defect in patients with type II collagen disorders is usually a challenge because of the relatively large size and complexity of the COL2A1 gene and its main expression in cartilage. Cartilage is not easily accessible, relatively acellular, and therefore a poor source of mRNA for cDNA synthesis and analysis. Furthermore, sufficient amounts of mRNA can often not be obtained from cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphocytes owing to low basal transcription of the gene. Therefore, mutation analysis of the COL2A1 gene is often performed in the genomic DNA in a head to tail fashion, which is time consuming and laborious. In this study, we used the opportunity of having cartilage tissue for exploring the genetic defect in the COL2A1 gene in seven patients with a lethal type II collagen disorder. Those regions of theCOL2A1 gene in which a mutation was likely to reside, based on the overmodification pattern of the type II collagen CB peptides, were screened first with SSCP ...
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Zamani, S. and Dehghani, Leila. and Drummen, G. and esfandiari, Ebrahim. and Abutorabi, Roshanak. and Rabbani, Hossein. and Tahani, Soheil. and Hashemi beni, Batool. (2016) Comparison of cartilage specific markers in articular and differentiated chondrocytes in pellet system. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 6 (6). Zamani, Saeed. and Hashemibeni, Batool. and esfandiari, Ebrahim. and Kabiri, Azadeh. and Rabbani, Hossein. and Abutorabi, Roshanak. (2014) Assessment of TGF-β3 on production of aggrecan by human articular chondrocytes in pellet culture system. Advanced Biomedical Research. ...
Amino Shape is a blend of hydrolyzed collagen with type II Collagen combined with Silica, Biotin and caffeine free Green Tea extract to create a unique formula that may promote fat metabolism, preserve lean muscle, build healthy lustrous hair, youthf
SPLCoat™ Collagen Type I Coated Ware - SPLCoatTM offers a number of technologies optimized for enhanced cell attachment and growth of fastidious cells, (e.g., primary cells, neuronal cells, end...
Schiff Move Free Ultra Triple Action, 75 Tablets(一組6瓶). Schiff Move Free Ultra Triple Action, 75 顆為加強型迷你錠結合最佳科學及自然的健康產品, 用來促進健康的關節, 每日服用可幫助維護關節活動力及柔軟度。. 非變性二型膠原蛋白膠囊(UCII/UC2),是更優於葡萄糖胺及軟骨素的保健食品。UC-II 的主要功能:減緩關節疼痛與發炎,停止軟骨骨骼遭侵蝕,改善關節靈活性,修復及重建軟骨,促進骨關節長期健康. 硼是人體必需的微量元素之一,對健康非常重要。最近的研究顯示,硼可以促進鈣、鎂、鉀、磷的吸收和代謝,因此能促進骨骼合成並且預防骨質疏鬆,對骨骼發育和維護有重要影響。. Hyaluronic Acid 膠原蛋白可補充關節液,讓關節活動更加順暢。. 主要成份: 每1顆含. Undenatured Type II Collagen UC-II非變性二型膠原蛋白 40mg. 硼 5mg. Hyaluronic Acid 膠原蛋白 3.3mg. ...
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Hi, Remi here… I just got my Type II diagnosis 2 weeks ago. Ive been sort of flying blind and doing what I can to learn more about this. Im a recovering a...
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The collagen, mostly collagen type II, constrains the proteoglycans. The ECM responds to tensile and compressive forces that ... aggrecan and collagen type II) that form the extracellular matrix. Following the initial chondrification that occurs during ... They present two distinct extracellular matrix regions. These regions are an acellular fibrous region with a high collagen ... Other type of cartilage found in Limulus polyphemus is the endosternite cartilage, a fibrous-hyaline cartilage with ...
The COL2A1 gene results in malformed type II collagen, which is essential in the transition from collagen to bone. This is the ... The COL2A1 gene is responsible for producing type II collagen. The mutation of COL2A1 gene leads to abnormal skeletal growth ... Hypochondrogenesis is caused when type II collagen is abnormally formed due to a mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Normally, the ... or metatrophic dwarfism type II. Because collagen plays an important role in the development of the body, people with Kniest ...
II. Type VII collagen mutations and phenotype-genotype correlations in the dystrophic subtypes". Journal of Medical Genetics. ... DEB is caused by genetic defects (or mutations) within the human COL7A1 gene encoding the protein type VII collagen (collagen ... In the absence of mutations of the COL7A1 gene, an autoimmune response against type VII collagen can result in an acquired form ... which are not related to type VII collagen deficiency. These arise from mutations in the genes encoding other proteins of the ...
The protein made by the altered COL2A1 gene cannot be used to make type II collagen, resulting in a reduced amount of this type ... The protein made by this gene forms type II collagen, a molecule found mostly in cartilage and in the clear gel that fills the ... Zabel, B.; Hilbert, K.; Stöß, H.; Superti-Furga, A.; Spranger, J.; Winterpacht, A. (May 1996). "A specific collagen type II ... Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues (the tissues that form the ...
II. Type VII collagen mutations and phenotype-genotype correlations in the dystrophic subtypes". Journal of Medical Genetics. ... There are 54 known keratin genes-of which 28 belong to the type I intermediate filament genes and 26 to type II-which work as ... A 2014 study classified cases into three types - EBS, JEB and DEB - and reviewed their times of death. The first two types ... DEB is caused by genetic defects (or mutations) within the human COL7A1 gene encoding the protein type VII collagen (collagen ...
The protein made by this gene forms type II collagen, a molecule found mostly in cartilage and in the clear gel that fills the ... Mutations in the COL2A1 gene interfere with the assembly of type II collagen molecules, which prevents bones from developing ... Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues. ... Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI. People with spondyloepiphyseal ...
Collagen Type II fibers are responsible for giving the future cartilage matrix its tensile strength. The structure of these ... The type of growth maintained by chondroblasts is called appositional bone growth and increases the birth of the affected ... Within finished cartilage, collagen fibers compose 10-20% of the volume, water 65-80%, and the proteoglycan-hyaluronic acid ... Chondrosarcoma is a more malignant type of tumor, but most are low grade tumors and often appear in the axial skeletal region. ...
... is a cartilage matrix protein that specifically mediates the attachment of chondrocytes to type II collagen. ...
Chondrogenic differentiation was evident in the development of type II collagen that is seen in articular cartilage. Lastly, ... The two mammals share common similarities because they are derived from a common ancestor that dates back 75 million years ago ... Stem cells found in human adult bone marrow also possess the ability to differentiate into different cell types as well. These ... These were taken from three different adult donors and compared to two human fibroblasts. After 1 to 3 week, the cells had ...
Class A receptors are a type II membrane protein who use their collagen-like domain for ligand binding. Members include: ... collagen-like domain, and 6) cysteine-rich domain. Class B has two transmembrane regions. Class C is a transmembrane protein ... The Kupffer cells in the liver are particularly rich in scavenger receptors, includes SR-A I, SR-A II, and MARCO. The scavenger ... Scavenger receptors type 1 (SR-A1), which is a trimer with a molecular weight of about 220-250 kDa (the molecular weight of ...
Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Transcriptional Activation by Wild-Type But Not Transforming Mutants of the p53 Anti- ... from characterising p53 as a transcriptional activator to revealing the importance of two inhibitors of p53, Mdm2 and Mdm4. ... Lozano's dissertation was titled Isolation, characterization and analysis of the gene encoding the Alpha 2 type IX collagen ... Lozano, Guillermina (1986). "Isolation, characterization and analysis of the gene encoding the Alpha 2 type IX collagen ...
Cartilage is composed of a network of collagen type II held in tension by water-absorbing proteins, hydrophilic proteoglycans. ... The active osteoblast produces substantial collagen type I. About 10% of the bone matrix is collagen with the balance mineral. ... Defects in collagen type I cause the commonest inherited disorder of bone, called osteogenesis imperfecta. Minor, but important ... Almost all of the organic (non-mineral) component of bone is dense collagen type I, which forms dense crosslinked ropes that ...
"Stimulation of type II collagen biosynthesis and secretion in bovine chondrocytes cultured with degraded collagen". Cell and ... Cazzola M, Antivalle M, Sarzi-Puttini P, Dell'Acqua D, Panni B, Caruso I (2000). "Oral type II collagen in the treatment of ... "Oral type II collagen treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial". Arthritis ... The amino acid content of hydrolyzed collagen is the same as collagen. Hydrolyzed collagen contains 19 amino acids, ...
These include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, ... type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, and type X collagen in ... Fukuta, S.; Oyama, M.; Kavalkovich, K.; Fu, F. H.; Niyibizi, C. (1998). "Identification of types II, IX and X collagens at the ... While collagen I makes up most of the collagen in tendon, many minor collagens are present that play vital roles in proper ...
... or assembly of type II or type XI collagen. Defective collagen molecules or reduced amounts of collagen affect the development ... These genes are involved in the production of type II and type XI collagen. Collagens are complex molecules that provide ... specifically collagen. Stickler syndrome is a subtype of collagenopathy, types II and XI. Stickler syndrome is characterized by ... Whether there are two or three types of Stickler syndrome is controversial. Each type is presented here according to the gene ...
Type II Collagen is an example of homo-trimeric protein. Porins usually arrange themselves in membranes as trimers. ...
... is the N-terminal telopeptide of fibrillar collagens such as collagen type I and type II. It is used as a biomarker to measure ... The N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), also known as amino-terminal collagen crosslinks, ... 66 (2): 100-3. doi:10.1007/pl00005830. PMID 10652955. Rosen, HN; Moses, AC; Garber, J; Ross, DS; Lee, SL; Greenspan, SL ( ...
Horton, WA, Campbell, D, Machado, MA & Chou, J; Campbell; Machado; Chou (1989). "Type II collagen screening in the human ... Gajko-Galicka, A (2002). "Mutations in type I collagen genes resulting in osteogenesis imperfecta in humans". Acta biochimica ... "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and type III collagen abnormalities: a variable clinical spectrum". Clinical Genetics 53 (6): 440-446. ... Type 2: brusk (hovedkomponent). Sykdommer[rediger , rediger kilde]. Ett tusen mutasjoner er blitt identifisert i tolv av mer ...
... and homocitrulline-containing peptides related to type I and II collagen telopeptides. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 17(1):2 ... 1989;12(2):157-61. Kato T, Sano M, Mizutani N: Inhibitory effect of intravenous lysine infusion on urea cycle metabolism. Eur J ... 1989;12(2):157-61. Koshiishi I, Kobori Y, Imanari T: Determination of citrulline and homocitrulline by high-performance liquid ...
... and coexpresses with type II collagen during chondrogenesis in the mouse, Elsevier, 1997 Depletion of definitive gut endoderm ... SOX9 directly regulates the type-ll collagen gene, Nature, 1997 SOX9 binds DNA, activates transcription, ...
... type IV collagen, (2) anchoring fibrils made of type VII collagen, and (3) dermal microfibrils. Basal lamina James, William; ...
... type I, alpha 1 collagen, type II, alpha 1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 Collagen, type V, alpha 1 ... Collagen, type VI, alpha 1 Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 Collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type IX, alpha 1 Collagen, type X ... type XI, alpha 1 Collagen, type XII, alpha 1 Collagen, type XIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type XIV, alpha 1 Collagen, type XV, alpha ... type XVI, alpha 1 Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 Collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type XIX, alpha 1 Collagen, type XXV, ...
... a type of collagen), a network of collagen type II fibrils with glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, opticin, and a wide array of ... Collagen fibrils attach the vitreous at the optic nerve disc and the ora serrata (where the retina ends anteriorly), at the ... The vitreous humour has a viscosity two to four times that of water, giving it a gelatinous consistency. It has a refractive ... It is surrounded by a layer of collagen called the vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) separating it ...
There are two types of cystocele. The first is distension. This is thought to be due to the overstretching of the vaginal wall ... The tissues tensile strength of the vaginal wall decreases when the structure of the collagen fibers change and become weaker. ... The type of cystocele that can develop can be due to one, two or three vaginal wall attachment failures: the midline defect, ... The type of surgery will also depend on the type of damage that exists between supporting structures and the vaginal wall. One ...
The collagen can be divided into several families according to the types of structure they form: Fibrillar (Type I, II, III, V ... Type VIII, X) Basement membrane (Type IV) Other (Type VI, VII, XIII) Elastins, in contrast to collagens, give elasticity to ... Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... Laminins bind other ECM components such as collagens and nidogens. There are many cell types that contribute to the development ...
Binds fibril-forming collagens, collagen of types I, II, III and X. A specific binding site in collagen II has been identified ... A ligand of Lair-1 receptor is type XVII transmembrane collagen, it binds type I and III collagen as well. Collagen binding ... It binds fibril-forming collagens and primarily type IV collagen, but also collagen of types I, VI, VIII. It is expressed ... It preferentially binds collagens IV, VI and type XIII collagen, but also fibril-forming collagens. Specific binding sites in ...
Collagen, type I, alpha 1 Collagen, type II, alpha 1 Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Collagen, type IV, alpha 1 Collagen, type V, ... type VI, alpha 1 Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 Collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 Collagen, type IX, alpha 1 Collagen, type X, alpha 1 ... collagen (type I, II, VI, X collagen fibrils) and proteoglycans. The ratio and the proportion of collagen play an important ... "Stimulation of type II collagen biosynthesis and secretion in bovine chondrocytes cultured with degraded collagen". Cell and ...
Type I collagen Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Park KS, Park MJ, Cho ML, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Ko HJ, Park SH, Kim HY (2009). "Type II ... Type II collagen is the basis for articular cartilage and hyaline cartilage, formed by homotrimers of collagen, type II, alpha ... Type II collagen does form fibrils. This fibrillar network of collagen allows cartilage to entrap the proteoglycan aggregate as ... Collagen+type+II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ...
See Collagen, type I, alpha 1#Clinical significance Collagen Type II collagen Collagen, type III, alpha 1 COL1A1 COL1A2 Mescher ... Type I collagen is the most abundant collagen of the human body. It forms large, eosinophilic fibers known as collagen fibers. ... to make a molecule of type I pro-collagen. These triple-stranded, rope-like pro-collagen molecules must be processed by enzymes ... ISBN 978-1-260-02618-4. Collagen+type+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ...
The first two catenins that were identified became known as α-catenin and β-catenin. A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can ... Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see ... Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR (October 2011). "A role for collagen XXIII in cancer cell ... For instance, higher levels of collagen XXIII have been associated with higher levels of catenins in cells. These heightened ...
... iPledge requires the woman to have two negative pregnancy tests and to use two types of birth control for at least one month ... Atrophic acne scars have lost collagen from the healing response and are the most common type of acne scar (account for ... microspheres with collagen; human and bovine collagen derivatives, and fat harvested from the person's own body (autologous fat ... Shelley WB, Shelley ED (2001). Advanced Dermatologic Therapy II. W. B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8258-7. .. ...
type 1B. *Autosomal recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. *Atelosteogenesis, type II. *Diastrophic dysplasia ... COL2A1 collagen disease. *Achondrogenesis *type 2. *Hypochondrogenesis. SLC26A2 sulfation defect. *Achondrogenesis * ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers. References[edit]. *^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit ... Oka, Kyoko; Oka, Shoji; Hosokawa, Ryoichi; Bringas, Pablo, Jr.; Brockhoff, Hans Cristian II; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Chai, Yang (15 ...
The composite nature of bone, comprising one-third organic (mainly protein collagen) and two thirds mineral (calcium phosphate ... The study of diagenesis in rocks is used to understand the geologic history they have undergone and the nature and type of ... The dissolution of collagen depends on time, temperature and environmental pH.[8] At high temperatures, the rate of collagen ... 2006). "Diagenesis, not biogenesis: Two late Roman skeletal examples". Science of the Total Environment. 369: 357-368. Bibcode: ...
Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Type I Collagen". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (6): 4223-31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110709200. PMID 11704682.. ... TypesEdit. Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, and special connective tissue.[5][6] ... groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression ...
Diagnostic plates: intended to determine the type of color vision defect (protanopia or deuteranopia) and the severity of it. ... Corneal collagen cross-linking. Iris, ciliary body,. sclera, and anterior chamber. *Glaucoma surgery: Trabeculectomy ... 2] Within the pattern are dots which form a number or shape clearly visible to those with normal color vision, and invisible, ... http://www.dfisica.ubi.pt/~hgil/p.v.2/Ishihara/Ishihara.24.Plate.TEST.Book.pdf ...
A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones ... 10% of all dislocations are anterior and this is broken down into superior and inferior types.[32] Superior dislocations ... syndrome is genetically inherited disorder that is thought to affect the encoding of the connective tissue protein's collagen ... the most common type of shoulder dislocation (96-98% of the time) occurs when the arm is in external rotation and abduction ( ...
Both types of plants occur in tropical areas, but only C3 plants occur naturally in colder areas. 12C and 13C occur in a ratio ... The female pelvis is generally broader than the male pelvis, and the angle between the two inferior pubic rami (the sub-pubic ... Nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen are ultimately derived from dietary protein, while carbon can be contributed by protein, ... This references the variety of types of labor (e.g., domestic vs. carrying heavy loads) labor that enslaved individuals were ...
Possibly important to basement membrane architecture and tissue development, as a needed catalyst to make collagen IV.[37] ... 193 (2): 199-208. doi:10.1023/A:1004276311956. ISSN 0032-079X.. *^ "Some Facts about Lithium". ENC Labs. Retrieved 2010-10-15. ... 2; 0.6 Trace The oxidases xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase[31] Legumes, whole grains, nuts[25] ... 2 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.. *^ Chromium. IN: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, ...
Children aged between 4 and 11 need to be consuming at least five pieces of vegetables and two pieces of fruit each day ... Data also proposed a decrease in weight gain as a result of increased consumption lessens the risk of developing diabetes type ... Foundation for strong healthy bones and teeth - majority of the calcium consumed as a child is deposited onto collagen bone ... When activated by light Rhodopsin slips into two proteins (Opsin and All Trans Retinal), in the dark the reverse process occurs ...
Two types of beta sheet structures exist; a beta bridge has symbol B while longer sets of hydrogen bonds and beta bulges have ... 2. α. →. {\displaystyle {\overrightarrow {C_{i}^{\alpha }C_{i+2}^{\alpha }}}}. and C. i. −. 2. α. C. i. α. →. {\displaystyle {\ ... Based on this, eight types of secondary structure are assigned. The 310 helix, α helix and π helix have symbols G, H and I and ... is at least 70°), and a blank (or space) is used if no other rule applies, referring to loops.[3] These eight types are usually ...
Types of white blood cells can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by ... It rises in response to allergies, parasitic infections, collagen diseases, and disease of the spleen and central nervous ... Types of leukocytes can be classified in standard ways. Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by structure ( ... Type. Appearance (micrograph). Appearance (illustration). Approx. %. in adults. See also:. Blood values. Diameter (μm)[7]. Main ...
There are two types of alveolar epithelial cells - Type 1 pneumocytes represent 90% of the cell surface area, and are easily ... Mice that survive this initial onslaught go on to demonstrate an increase in lung collagen content, and decreased lung ... Type 2 pneumocytes are more resistant to damage, which is important as these cells produce surfactant, transport ions and ... Depending on the type and amount of irritant gas inhaled, victims can experience symptoms ranging from minor respiratory ...
It is of two types, either reactionary, where dentin is formed from a pre-existing odontoblast, or reparative, where newly ... of which is collagen type 1 and the remaining 10% ground substance, which includes dentine-specific proteins), and 10% water ( ... TypesEdit. There are three types of dentin, primary, secondary and tertiary.[13][14] Secondary dentin is a layer of dentin ... In the root of the tooth there are two morphologically distinguishable outer layers; the hyaline layer on the periphery of ...
Types[edit]. General[edit]. Irwin Fridovich and Joe McCord at Duke University discovered the enzymatic activity of superoxide ... holo SOD1 unfolds by a two-state mechanism: from dimer to two unfolded monomers.[24] In chemical denaturation experiments, holo ... insights into heparin and collagen binding". J. Mol. Biol. 388 (2): 310-26. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.03.026. PMID 19289127.. ... Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese), and the Ni type (which binds nickel). ...
2006). "A two-dimensional electrophoresis reference map of human ovary". J. Mol. Med. 83 (10): 812-21. doi:10.1007/s00109-005- ... collagen trimer. • proteinaceous extracellular matrix. • extracellular region. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 2 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... 275 (2): 785-92. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.2.785. PMID 10625608.. *. Mongiat M, Mungiguerra G, Bot S, et al. (2000). "Self-assembly ...
Tyrosinemia type II. *punctate: Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa. *Focal acral hyperkeratosis. *Keratosis punctata palmaris et ... organelles which are present in many cellular types throughout the human body. The cilia defects adversely affect "numerous ... is a rare genetic disorder of the skeletal dysplasia type. ... COL2A1 collagen disease. *Achondrogenesis *type 2. * ...
"Listing of Food Additives Status Part II". Retrieved October 27, 2011.. *^ Prockop DJ, Kivirikko KI (1995). "Collagens: ... Yamada H, Yamada K, Waki M, Umegaki K (October 2004). "Lymphocyte and plasma vitamin C levels in type 2 diabetic patients with ... as healthy collagen replaces the defective collagen with vitamin C repletion. Treatment can be orally or by intramuscular or ... including wound healing and collagen synthesis. In humans, vitamin C deficiency leads to impaired collagen synthesis, ...
C. M. Fader, D. G. Sanchez, M. B. Mestre, and M. I. Colombo, 'Ti-Vamp/Vamp7 and Vamp3/Cellubrevin: Two V-Snare Proteins ... Work at the Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, showed that a certain type of autophagy, i.e., chaperone-assisted ... Another study demonstrated that skeletal muscle fibres of collagen VI knockout mice showed signs of degeneration due to an ... 441 (2): 523-40. doi:10.1042/BJ20111451. PMC 3258656 . PMID 22187934.. *^ a b c d Mizushima N, Ohsumi Y, Yoshimori T (December ...
Two types of PDGFRs have been identified: alpha-type and beta-type PDGFRs.[8] The alpha type binds to PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and PDGF ... The addition of PDGF at specific time‐points has been shown to stabilise vasculature in collagen‐glycosaminoglycan scaffolds.[ ... Types and classification[edit]. There are five different isoforms of PDGF that activate cellular response through two different ... Platelet-derived growth factor is a dimeric glycoprotein that can be composed of two A subunits (PDGF-AA), two B subunits (PDGF ...
The three main types of hyaluronidases are two classes of eukaryotic endoglycosidase hydrolases and a prokaryotic lyase-type of ... "Testicular hyaluronidase induces tubular structures of endothelial cells grown in three-dimensional collagen gel through a CD44 ... On December 2, 2005, the United States FDA approved a synthetic (recombinant or rDNA) "human" hyaluronidase, Hylenex (Halozyme ... HYAL1/2) are increased in some cancers (colorectal,[12] bladder, prostate, breast and brain), whereas low expression of HYAL1 ...
TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha increases collagen accuulation and proliferation in intestinal myofibrobasts via TNF Receptor ... TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers.[24][25] From ... TNF was thought to be produced primarily by macrophages,[36] but it is produced also by a broad variety of cell types including ...
C. M. Fader, D. G. Sanchez, M. B. Mestre, and M. I. Colombo, 'Ti-Vamp/Vamp7 and Vamp3/Cellubrevin: Two V-Snare Proteins ... Work at the Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, showed that a certain type of autophagy, i.e., chaperone-assisted ... Another study demonstrated that skeletal muscle fibres of collagen VI knockout mice showed signs of degeneration due to an ... The first of the two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems involved in autophagy covalently binds the ubiquitin-like protein Atg12 ...
These two features cause the collagen to form in a sheet, the form of the basal lamina. Collagen IV is the more common usage, ... Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina. The collagen IV C4 domain at the C- ... type IV collagen excretion reflects renal morphological alterations and type IV collagen expression in patients with type 2 ... as opposed to the older terminology of "type-IV collagen".[citation needed] Collagen IV exists in all metazoan phyla.[1] ...
... that is caused by a mutation in one of the three genes coding for type VI collagen.[2] These include COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 ... Okada M et al (2007) Primary collagen VI deficiency is the second most common congenital muscular dystrophy in Japan. Neurolog ... "Collagen VI related muscle disorders" (PDF). J. Med. Genet. 42 (9): 673-85. doi:10.1136/jmg.2002.002311. PMC 1736127 . PMID ... Repeated surgeries to lengthen the heel cords may be needed as the child grows to adulthood.[2] ...
Saad, Mohamed (Oct 1994). Low resolution structure and packing investigations of collagen crystalline domains in tendon using ... Coextruded fibers have two distinct polymers forming the fiber, usually as a core-sheath or side-by-side. Coated fibers exist ... Kraft and sulfite (also called sulphite) refer to the type of pulping process used to remove the lignin bonding the original ... Instances are collagen[3] family of proteins, tendon, muscle proteins like actin, cell proteins like microtubules and many ...
After CGPD resolves, the skin may return to normal without scarring or may have small atrophic depressions with collagen loss, ... Gianotti-type perioral dermatitis or Facial Afro-Caribbean childhood eruption Specialty. Dermatology. ... The approach to diagnosing CGPD is controversial.[2] Certain dermatologists suggest that ruling out infectious and allergic ... 2] Topical antibiotics such as metronidazole and erythromycin have been used for CGPD.[2] Oral antibiotics of the tetracycline ...
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... Possibly collagen and/or citrullinated self proteins. Chronic arthritis, inflammation, destruction of articular cartilage and ... Type V hypersensitivity. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Aster, Jon C. (2012-05-01). Robbins ... Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop. Unlike the ...
A 473 nm 200 mW blue laser beam is directed into the two beakers from the left. The detergent shows the path of the beam by ... Collagen cross-linking by applying riboflavin topically then shining UV light is a method to slow progression of corneal ... One such organism is Micrococcus luteus (American Type Culture Collection strain number ATCC 49442), which develops a yellow ... Vitamin B was originally considered to have two components, a heat-labile vitamin B1 and a heat-stable vitamin B2. In the 1920s ...
Platelet activation (through agonists such as thrombin, Type II collagen and ADP) results in "membrane flipping" where the ... The extracellular region of P-selectin is composed of three different domains like other selectin types; a C-type lectin-like ... In human, P-selectin has nine repeats while E-selectin contains six and L-selectin has only two. P-selectin is anchored in ... a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Its activity in tumor metastasis has been probed by the addition of heparin that functions ...
Type I collagen Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Park KS, Park MJ, Cho ML, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Ko HJ, Park SH, Kim HY (2009). "Type II ... Type II collagen is the basis for articular cartilage and hyaline cartilage, formed by homotrimers of collagen, type II, alpha ... Type II collagen does form fibrils. This fibrillar network of collagen allows cartilage to entrap the proteoglycan aggregate as ... Collagen+type+II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ...
About 47% of these are collagen, 18% are anti-aging, and 12% are animal extract. A wide variety of collagen type ii options are ... Related Searches for collagen type ii: chicken collagen type ii amino collagen c collagen granule firm up collagen cartilage ... Tags: Food Addtive Ucii/collagen Type Ii , Hot Sell Ucii/collagen Type Ii , Ucii/collagen Type Ii ... Sell Best Bulk Collagen Powder/bovine Collagen Hydrolysate Powder , Collagen Type Ii / Cas 9064-67-9 Type Ii Collagen Powder ...
Now Foods, UC-II Joint Health, Undenatured Type II Collagen, 120 Veg Capsules. 86 ... Healthy Origins, Natural, UC-II with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 40 mg, 120 Veggie Caps. 6 ... Healthy Origins, Natural, UC-II with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 40 mg, 60 Veggie Caps. 3 ... Life Extension, Bio-Collagen with Patented UC-II, 40 mg, 60 Small Caps. 20 ...
b-2Cool®​ is a natural ingredient supplying native (undenatured) type II collagen, whose efficacy in joint health improvement ... Discover b-2Cool, Bioibericas native type II collagen. Published 07-Nov-2017. ... is able to modulate the immune response against endogenous type II collagen in the cartilage. ...
Collagen Type II Detection. Collagen Type II is a major constituent of hyaline and elastic cartilage protein. Collagen Type II ... II collagen and weakly reacts with bovine type-II collagen. Does not react with mouse collagen type I, rat type-I or type-III ... Weakly reacts with bovine type-II collagen. Does not cross‑react with rat type‑I & type-III collagen or with mouse type-II ... Monoclonal Anti-Rat Collagen type II (Clone Col II 2B-11F) 0.1 mg $389.00 ...
Discover the benefits of native type II collagen for convenient and low-dose supplements. ... Collagen is becoming increasingly popular in the joint health market. ... This is why hydrolysed collagen is also known as collagen peptides, or denatured type II collagen. Native type II collagen is ... Native type II collagen has been shown to help modulate the immune response against endogenous type II collagen through its ...
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Enhanced cleavage of type II collagen by collagenases in osteoarthritic articular cartilage.. ... We demonstrate the direct involvement of increased collagenase activity in the cleavage of type II collagen in osteoarthritic ... involved in the cleavage and denaturation of type II collagen in articular cartilage, that this is increased in OA, and that ... neoepitopes generated by cleavage of native human type II collagen by collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (collagenase ...
BioCell Collagen has clinically documented bioavailability, and has been shown to support joint health and skin hydration.* For ... Jarrow Formulas Type ll Collagen Complex providesBioCell Collagen, a low molecular weight, water-soluble glycosaminoglycan ... What Does Type II Collagen Complex Do? Jarrow Formulas® Type ll Collagen Complex provides BioCell Collagen®, a low molecular ... Made with BioCell Collagen®. BioCell Collagen® is a registered trademark of BioCell Technology, LLC, Newport Beach, CA and is ...
... containing 10 mg bioactive undenatured type II collagen).. In addition to the bioactive UC·II undenatured type II collagen, ... Suppression of type II collagen-induced arthritis by intragastric administration of soluble type II collagen. Proc Natl Acad ... Efficacy and safety of glycosylated undenatured type-II collagen (UC-II) in therapy of arthritic dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Therap. ... Taken from the chickens sternum cartilage, UC·II is an innovative, patented form of undenatured type II collagen that works ...
As we age, the body produces less collagen naturally resulting in the aches, pains, weakness, dry and wrinkled skin. As an ... abundant protein in the body, collagen plays an essential role in the structural integrity of the skin and connective tissues, ... Collagen is the an abundant protein in the body. ... Multi Collagen Peptides-180 Capsules-Type I,II,III,V,X Anti- ... Details about Premium Collagen Peptides 1500 MG Hydrolyzed Anti-Aging (Types I,II,III,V,X). #1 COLLAGEN PEPTIDE (90 CAPSULES) ...
Ang II and the Expression of Collagen Type I and MMP-1 in Cardiac Fibroblasts. Ang II treatment increased the expression of ... Modulation of Ang II-Induced Expression of Collagen Type I and MMP-1 by Pioglitazone. As mentioned above, Ang II treatment ... Figure 1. Top left panel, Ang II and expression of collagen type I. Incubation with Ang II (10−8 to 10−6 M for 12 hours) ... Angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated stimulation of fibroblast growth and collagen type I synthesis is believed to be an important ...
BioCell Collagen® 1000mg / *. Hyaluronic Acid 100mg. Chondroitin Sulfate 200mg. Hydrolyzed Collagen Type II 600mg. *Daily Value ... Only 2 In Stock - ORDER NOW. This item will ship today if ordered within 16 hr 56 min ... 2 capsules‚ 2 to 3 times daily or as directed by a healthcare professional. ... Serving Size: 2 Capsules. Servings Per Container: 30. Amount Per Serving / % DV. ...
Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides. A E Postlethwaite, ... The chemotactice response of human dermal fibroblasts of type I, II, and III human collagens and collagen-derived peptides was ... Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides ... Chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to type I, II, and III collagens and collagen-derived peptides ...
J:35224 Iruela-Arispe ML, et al., Expression of type VIII collagen during morphogenesis of the chicken and mouse heart. Dev ... Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ... Col8a2 interacts with 211 markers (Mir7-1, Mir7-2, Mir7b, ...) View All ...
It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have ... This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein existence evidence does ... Alpha-2 type I collagenImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ... tr,Q14036,Q14036_HUMAN Alpha-2 type I collagen (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=COL1A2 PE=4 SV=1 ...
... type II collagen explanation free. What is type II collagen? Meaning of type II collagen medical term. What does type II ... Looking for online definition of type II collagen in the Medical Dictionary? ... type II collagen. Also found in: Wikipedia. type II col·la·gen. collagen unique to cartilage, nucleus pulposis, notochord, and ... Type II collagen , definition of type II collagen by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/type+ ...
II) chains were incapable of eliciting arthritis, as was type II collagen injected without adjuvant. The disease is a chronic ... Autoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis.. D E Trentham, A S Townes, A H Kang ... Since homologous type II collagen emulsified in oil without bacterial preparations regularly causes the disease, this new ... We have found that intradermal injection of native type II collagen extracted from human, chick or rat cartilage induces an ...
Angiotensin II stimulates the proliferation and biosynthesis of type I collagen in cultured murine mesangial cells.. Wolf G1, ... Angiotensin II also stimulated mainly the biosynthesis of type I collagen in our MMCs. Transfection of MMCs with chimeric genes ... and types I and IV collagen by immunofluorescence. The addition of daily doses of 10(-6) to 10(-11) mol/l ANG II to MMCs also ... collagens linked to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter demonstrated that the stimulatory effect of ANG II for type I ...
I just want the collagen.. Then Im trying to isolate it to the type of collagen. Type 1, 2, 3 or some combination of them?. ... Collagen Types 1, 2, & 3.. Dog Food Advisor › Forums › Diet and Health › Collagen Types 1, 2, & 3. ... The tricky part with some of these collagen types is they are often packaged as protein supplements and Id rather not add more ... There seems to be a lot of hype building up for type 3, egg shell membranes.. Anybody here have any success incorporating a ...
CTX-II) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more. ... C-Telopeptide of Type II Collagen (CTX-II) ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Guinea pig CTX-II(Cross Linked C-telopeptide of Type II Collagen) ELISA Kit ... Immunotag™ Rat CTX-II (Cross Linked C-telopeptide of Type II Collagen) ELISA ...
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UC-II® undenatured type II collagen is so effective you only need a small amount of this undenatured form of type II collagen ... UC-II® UC-II® undenatured type II collagen helps rebuild healthy joints. It is manufactured in the United States through a ... UC-II® undenatured type II collagen is small and it works. Not only is UC-II® smaller than glucosamine pills, but clinical ... UC-II® undenatured type II collagen offers a small once-a-day alternative to large glucosamine pills that need to be taken 2 to ...
A highly polymorphic PCR/RFLP marker in the canine type II collagen gene (COL2A1). Du, F., Acland, G.M., Ray, J. Anim. Genet. ( ... A highly polymorphic PCR/RFLP marker in the canine type II collagen gene (COL2A1) [2]. ...
Type II Collagen Positive Undifferentiated Cells Involved in Cartilage Growth. Cartilages growth requires activation of ... This study was performed to identify a third type of cartilage growth in skeletal elements of quail embryos at 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, ...
Collagen list and information including what is Collagen, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list ... Health Benefits of Collagen. Collagen supplements usually contain predigested or hydrolyzed collagen. Collagen has been ... Collagen. Collagen Supplements: Information. Collagen refers to a group of structural proteins found throughout the body, but ... Using Collagen Supplements. Collagen supplements should be used as directed.. Side-effects and Cautions:. None-noted. Pregnant ...
Collagen type II alpha 1 chainImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures ... tr,A0A2K5UUF6,A0A2K5UUF6_MACFA Collagen type II alpha 1 chain OS=Macaca fascicularis OX=9541 GN=COL2A1 PE=4 SV=1 ... Fibrillar collagen NC1InterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system ... It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have ...
Some lots of serum provided strong induction of aggrecan and type II collagen expression by AHAC while others did not stimulate ... Synergistic action of transforming growth factor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-I induces expression of type II collagen ... Reexpression of aggrecan and type II collagen genes in dedifferentiated adult human articular chondrocytes (AHAC) in suspension ... to a deficient serum lot significantly enhanced its ability to induce aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA. Given this ...
Characterization of the antibody response in mice with type II collagen-induced arthritis, using monoclonal anti-type II ... Type II collagen autoimmunity in animals and provocations leading to arthritis. Immunol Rev 1990; 118: 193-232.. Direct Link: ... Antibodies to type II collagen in early rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease progression. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: ... Antibodies against the CB10 fragment of type II collagen in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2004; 6: R477-83.. * ...
ImmuCell is a naturally complete joint support supplement made of 100 percent pure Kolla2 unhydrolyzed collagen type II from ... DENATURED COLLAGEN TYPE II. Undenatured collagen Type II is native collagen purified from raw sternum without changing its ... COLLAGEN TYPE II :. Collagen Type II is the major component of hyaline joint cartilage. The protein content is between 65% to ... COLLAGEN TYPE I & III:. Scientific studies show that more than 90% of the collagen found in the body is Collagen Type I & III. ...
  • Structural and Functional Studies on Posttranslational Modifications of Collagen type II in Rheumatoid Arthritis. (lu.se)
  • Collagen supplements are derived from either fish, bovine, or porcine sources. (allstarhealth.com)
  • The crystal structure of anti-collagen antibody CIIC1 showed that it not only binds to collagen type II but also cross reacts with. (lu.se)
  • The arthritogenic and collagen specific antibody CIIC1 with this dual behavior suggests that RFs specific for joint proteins may form large immune complexes in the joints and simultaneously trigger inflammation and create a vicious cycle that produces new RFs in the way to a complete RA. (lu.se)
  • The second article from the thesis describes the recognition of a citrullinated peptide from collagen type II by the arthritis enhancing antibody ACC4. (lu.se)
  • In this context, we reported, in paper III, the experimental procedure that resulted in successful crystallization of MHC class II Aq presenting immunodominant CII peptide. (lu.se)
  • Both humoral and cellular responses against collagen type II in joint cartilage seems to be important for the disease development. (lu.se)
  • Especially posttranslational modifications on collagen type II are important in regulation of molecular mechanisms implicated in the disease. (lu.se)
  • In this thesis we tried to identify molecular principles of anti-collagen immunity and its relation with pathogenicity by mainly X-ray crystallography. (lu.se)
  • MOTION is fast-acting and formulated with a patented, extremely potent form of type II collagen called UC-II® . (oxyfresh.com)
  • The last two papers describe our experimental design to understand the role of cellular response against collagen type II and against another posttranslational modification which is glycosylation on collagen type II. (lu.se)
  • In paper IV, experimental design for efficient production of Aq restricted collagen specific T cell receptors HCQ3 and HCR2 in insect cells by fusing to leucine zippers were described. (lu.se)
  • In addition to this patented form of type II collagen, MOTION contains other premium ingredients to enhance joint health, including Boswellia Serrata, a renowned Ayurvedic herb that's been used for hundreds of years to increase mobility while reducing inflammation. (oxyfresh.com)
  • Studies at Harvard Medical School show that all-natural UC-II® works with the immune system to cushion the joints, rebuild cartilage, and vastly improve mobility and flexibility. (oxyfresh.com)
  • Collagen has been recommended by some for joint support, weight loss, skin health and exercise recovery but there insufficient data to substantiate claims of effectiveness for these conditions. (allstarhealth.com)
  • Take 2 capsules per day or as directed by your qualified healthcare professional. (jarrow.com)
  • 2 capsules‚ 2 to 3 times daily or as directed by a healthcare professional. (pureformulas.com)
  • Will look forward to seeing even more benefits for these collagen capsules. (amzn.com)
  • Take 1-2 capsules two or three times daily. (forresthealth.com)
  • Take 2 capsules daily with water for skin support. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • 4 Capsules provide 2,400mg Type 2 Collagen (from sternal chicken). (healthy.co.nz)
  • Each 4 Capsules contain: Sternal chicken collagen 2,400mg. (healthy.co.nz)
  • By taking collagen capsules you can help maintain your body's own collagen production similar to that of a younger person's. (hellenia.co.uk)
  • As a dietary supplement, take two (2) capsules daily, preferably one in the morning & one at night on an empty stomach, or as directed by your healthcare professional. (arnoldsupplements.com)
  • Hydrolyzed collagen supplements are available in the form of tablets, capsules, powder, or even tasty chewables! (energeticnutrition.com)
  • Hydrolysed collagen is manufactured via a specific hydrolysis process, where enzymes "cut" the triple helix molecule into smaller pieces, i.e. short-chain peptides. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This is why hydrolysed collagen is also known as collagen peptides, or denatured type II collagen. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The chemotactice response of human dermal fibroblasts of type I, II, and III human collagens and collagen-derived peptides was quantitated by an in vitro assay. (pnas.org)
  • When type I, II, and III collagens were digested by bacterial collagenase, the resulting peptides were also chemotactic. (pnas.org)
  • Since collagen is degraded and remodeled at sites of tissue injury and inflammation, these findings suggest that collagen and collagen-degradation peptides might function as chemotactic stimuli for fibroblasts in vivo and attract these cells to effect repair of damaged tissue. (pnas.org)
  • I'm not new to collagen peptides. (amzn.com)
  • I've been using them for a couple months now with surprising results and I'm a firm believer that collagen peptides have helped my skin look and feel tighter as well as more hydrated. (amzn.com)
  • However, since RA and relapsing polychondritis patient sera differed in their reactivity with the cyanogen bromide-digested peptides, it is possible that the clinical manifestation of collagen autoimmunity might be influenced by the epitope specificity of the antibodies. (docme.ru)
  • BioCell Collagen® Type 2 is a patented, clinically-studied complex that provides naturally-occurring collagen type 2 peptides, chondroitin sulfate and bioavailable, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • For this purpose we used both CNBr peptides with a natural sequence derived from bovine type I and II collagens, and recombinant fragments from human type III procollagen. (tesionline.it)
  • Using solid phase assays, ELISA, we studied the interaction between peptides from type I collagen and BM-40. (tesionline.it)
  • these peptides overlap in an homologous region at the C-terminus of the collagen molecule. (tesionline.it)
  • Oral administration of native type II collagen induces oral tolerance to pathological immune responses and may be useful in arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extensive research and clinical studies have shown UC · II to be both safe and effective in supporting joint health - and clarify how it helps the body derail a destructive process involved in both types of arthritis. (prohealth.com)
  • One day Dr. Moore read about some studies on chicken collagen which showed that a small amount taken orally could have a preventive effect on rheumatoid arthritis. (prohealth.com)
  • Six out of 10 rheumatoid arthritis patients reported significant improvement after taking UC · II for three months. (prohealth.com)
  • In a 90-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis were split into two groups. (prohealth.com)
  • Ten children (8 to 14 years old) with active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis were given UC · II for three months. (prohealth.com)
  • For those seeking natural approaches to combat arthritis, there are natural anti-inflammatory compounds in widespread use today including: undenatured type II collagen , boswellia, and curcumin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MMP-13 is by far the most studied of the matrix metalloproteinases in terms of its role in cartilage, as it is considered the major catabolic effector in osteoarthritis and other forms of arthritis, owing to its robust ability to cleave the type II collagen that predominates in articular cartilage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Autoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis. (rupress.org)
  • We have found that intradermal injection of native type II collagen extracted from human, chick or rat cartilage induces an inflammatory arthritis in approximately 40% of rats of several strains whether complete Freund's adjuvant or incomplete Freund's adjuvant is used. (rupress.org)
  • Type I or III collagen extracted from skin, cartilage proteoglycans and alpha1(II) chains were incapable of eliciting arthritis, as was type II collagen injected without adjuvant. (rupress.org)
  • Native type II co-lagen modified by limited pepsin digestion still produces arthritis, suggesting that type-specific determinants residing in the helical region of the molecule are responsible for the induction of disease. (rupress.org)
  • Since homologous type II collagen emulsified in oil without bacterial preparations regularly causes the disease, this new animal model of arthritis represents a unique example of experimentally-inducible autoimmunity to a tissue component. (rupress.org)
  • Type-II collagen (CII) is highly expressed in cartilage tissues and has been linked to Rheumatoid arthritis, aging, and osteoarthritis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. (lu.se)
  • Chicken type II collagen (Colloral) is being developed as an oral tolerance therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This open label pilot study will describe the safety of chicken type II collagen added to current anti-inflammatory medications as treatment for patients with uveitis associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 1 In another study, researchers at Harvard Medical School found that six of ten rheumatoid arthritis patients taking undenatured type II collagen for three months showed substantial improvement, while one patient recovered completely. (jonbarron.org)
  • And finally, in a 90-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, follow-up study on patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis, Harvard scientists found that 28 patients taking undenatured type II collagen showed significant improvement compared to the placebo group, while four patients recovered completely. (jonbarron.org)
  • For anyone suffering from progressive cartilage damage (which ultimately means anyone suffering from rheumatoid arthritis or long term osteoarthritis), reprogramming the immune system with undenatured type II chicken collagen as found in UC-II is an essential component of his or her joint repair regimen. (jonbarron.org)
  • In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) of mouse, self-reactive T cells recognize a peptide antigen from type II collagen (CII). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, recombinant soluble MHC II molecules, complex with the immuno-dominant self peptide, offer a new possibility for the treatment of chronically active autoimmune inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis. (jimmunol.org)
  • A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial of chicken type II collagen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of chicken type II collagen (CCII) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with methotrexate (MTX). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Specificity of antibodies to type II collagen in rheumatoid arthritis. (docme.ru)
  • The hypothesis that autoimmunity to type I1 collagen is instrumental in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is supported by 3 lines of investigation. (docme.ru)
  • Structural and Functional Studies on Posttranslational Modifications of Collagen type II in Rheumatoid Arthritis. (lu.se)
  • The second article from the thesis describes the recognition of a citrullinated peptide from collagen type II by the arthritis enhancing antibody ACC4. (lu.se)
  • We have previously developed a model of anterior scleritis by modifying the collagen-induced autoimmune arthritis model. (arvojournals.org)
  • To an 8-week-old DBA/1J mouse, bovine type II collagen (CII) emulsified using complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected subcutaneously back of the neck for primary immunization, then 21 days later, CII emulsified using CFA was injected subcutaneously around the eye for challenge immunization to induce both arthritis and anterior scleritis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and preliminary human and animal trials have shown it to be effective in treating osteoarthritis (OA). (medsci.org)
  • The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (medsci.org)
  • Suppression of type II collagen-induced arthritis by the endogenous estrogen metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol. (docme.ru)
  • To evaluate the antiarthritic properties of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol, on type I1 collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBN1 mice. (docme.ru)
  • This assumption is supported by the efficient suppression of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a T cell-dependent disease, by treatment with 17p-estradiol (3). (docme.ru)
  • Since angiogenesis plays a central role in the development of arthritis ( 5 ) , we assessed the antiinflammatory role of 2-methoxyestradiol in murine CIA, a model of human RA (6). (docme.ru)
  • A glycopeptide fragment, CII259-273, from type II collagen has shown promising results as a vaccine against arthritis resembling RA in mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Courtenay JS, Dallman MJ, Dayan AD, Martin A, Mosedale B: Immunisation against heterologous type II collagen induces arthritis in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trentham DE, Townes AS, Kang AH: Autoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Holmdahl R, Andersson M, Goldschmidt TJ, Gustafsson K, Jansson L, Mo JA: Type II collagen autoimmunity in animals and provocations leading to arthritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Can collagen type II sustain a methotrexate-induced therapeutic effect in patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis? (uzh.ch)
  • In multiple studies, urinary CTX-II has bee reported to be useful in progression of osteoarthritis, early indiation of rheumatoid arthritis as well as other clinical / pre-clinical investigations. (pacbio.com)
  • I became interested in collagen type II as a treatment for arthritis and heart disease while researching cartilage and writing my book, " Jaws for Life, the Story of Shark Cartilage . (appliedhealth.com)
  • When people suffer from arthritis, there is a selective destruction of collagen type II in the joint cartilage itself. (appliedhealth.com)
  • Autoimmune response to type II collagen is thought to be a significant factor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. (supplementdirect.com)
  • A few studies suggest that oral type II chicken collagen may be beneficial to some with rheumatoid arthritis, acting by a process known as oral tolerance. (supplementdirect.com)
  • Oral administration of cartilage-derived type II collagen ( CII ) has been shown to ameliorate arthritis in animal models of joint inflammation , and preliminary studies have suggested that this novel therapy is clinically beneficial and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (supplementdirect.com)
  • Collagen II antibodies also occur in patients with relapsing polychondritis and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (trinitybiotech.com)
  • The present study investigates synergistic effects of the TNF-α inhibitor thalidomide and the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-inhibitor nicotinic acid amide (NAA) in male DBA/1 hybrid mice suffering from type II collagen-induced arthritis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Parameters including the arthritis index, chemiluminescence and anti-collagen antibody titers were used for the assessment of disease activity: The disease courses demonstrated clearly an inhibitory effect of thalidomide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assessment of collagen type II induced arthritis in mice by whole blood chemiluminescence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Collagen-induced arthritis in the mouse. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immucell Collagen Type 2 is a new food supplement that provides all necessary nutrients to promote healthy joint cartilage and to repair the damage that causes the pain and swelling associated with arthritis. (taoofherbs.com)
  • Prevention of type II collagen-induced arthritis by in vivo tr. (mysciencework.com)
  • Prevention of type II collagen-induced arthritis by in vivo treatment with anti-L3T4. (mysciencework.com)
  • The effect of in vivo administration of monoclonal anti-L3T4 antibody on the development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was assessed. (mysciencework.com)
  • Administration of anti-L3T4 before immunization with type II collagen resulted in a significant decrease in arthritis incidence and delayed onset of the disease while treatment begun after a strong anticollagen IgG humoral response was underway was not effective in altering disease expression. (mysciencework.com)
  • BioCell Collagen II® is a natural hydrolyzed Type II collagen ingredient that provides a complex matrix of elements (collagen Type II, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid) that support joint and skin health. (forresthealth.com)
  • With the patented process, BioCell Collagen II was developed as a low molecular weight ingredient that could be easily absorbed by the body. (forresthealth.com)
  • UC-II® undenatured type II collagen helps rebuild healthy joints. (capsugel.com)
  • Laboratory tested to naturally contain collagen type II protein, and hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, and chondroitin, Therefore, naturally provides all necessary components for maintaining health joints. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • Kolla2 -ImmuCell is 100% pure chicken sternum cartilage collagen type II, the most abundant structural protein found in joints. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • a) As we age, the body s ability to make collagen protein slows down so there is insufficient new collagen to make skin, joints and other parts of the body. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • Undenatured collagen administered orally works with a healthy immune system to promote healthy joints by a process called oral tolerization. (jonbarron.org)
  • There have been a number of studies conducted with UC-II on both animals and humans, including research at the Harvard University Medical school -- all of which have shown that the undenatured type II chicken collagen found in UC-II effectively reprograms the immune system to promote healthy joints and increase joint mobility and flexibility. (jonbarron.org)
  • Derived from chicken sternum cartilage, UC-II® is a patented form of Undenatured (native) Type II Collagen that works with the immune system to support healthy joints. (betterlife.com)
  • Collagen Type 2 helps to hydrate your joints and contains Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin and Glucosamine. (healthy.co.nz)
  • Supplying the body with type 2 collagen aids in the replenishment of the body's most abundant structural protein, while assisting in the maintenance and rebuilding of cartilage, bones, joints and surrounding tissue. (healthy.co.nz)
  • Collagen plays a particularly important role in the maintenance of healthy joints. (vitaminlife.com)
  • But as we age, the quality and quantity of collagen in our bodies tends to deteriorate, which can affect the function of joints. (vitaminlife.com)
  • Collagen Type II is the most vital type of collagen for healthy joints. (appliedhealth.com)
  • Type II collagen is the most abundant collagen found in hyaline cartilage (in synovial joints, sternum, respiratory tract), comprising 80 to 90% of the total collagen content. (supplementdirect.com)
  • BioCell Collagen is a concentrated bioavailable and bioactive formula of naturally occurring molecules that play a vital role in the body's ability to maintain healthy connective tissues, flexible joints, and youthful-looking skin. (klaire.com)
  • Collagen Type 2 protein makes up the fluids and function in the cartilage and joints. (energeticnutrition.com)
  • What Does Type II Collagen Complex Do? (jarrow.com)
  • Jarrow Formulas ® Type ll Collagen Complex provides BioCell Collagen ® , a low molecular weight, water-soluble glycosaminoglycan complex completely derived from chicken sternum cartilage. (jarrow.com)
  • Each supplement has a strong suite of additional herbal and specialty ingredients for comprehensive, targeted support, including HEART: Deodorized Garlic, standardized Pomegranate, standardized Hawthorn, CoQ10 as well as JOINT: UC-II type II Collagen complex, standardised Boswellia serrata, organic Burdock, concluded the company. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2400 mg Collagen 2 complex. (heb.com)
  • Also for type II collagen we have identified at least one peptide able to interact with BM-40, alpha1(II) CB10, that is the homologous of the CB7 and CB3,5 from type I. Besides, we studied the interaction of the complex procollagen/BM-40 in electron microscopy with the technique of the rotary shadowing. (tesionline.it)
  • Our NEW Multi Collagen Complex contains collagen Type 1, 2 & 3. (hellenia.co.uk)
  • Each capsule contains 400mg of the Multi Collagen Complex (collagen type 1, 2 & 3). (hellenia.co.uk)
  • We demonstrate the direct involvement of increased collagenase activity in the cleavage of type II collagen in osteoarthritic human femoral condylar cartilage by developing and using antibodies reactive to carboxy-terminal (COL2-3/4C(short)) and amino-terminal (COL2-1/4N1) neoepitopes generated by cleavage of native human type II collagen by collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (collagenase-1), MMP-8 (collagenase-2), and MMP-13 (collagenase-3). (jci.org)
  • Recombinant human type II collagen (rhCII) hydrogel was tested as a xeno-free micro-environment for the chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). (eur.nl)
  • Synergistic action of transforming growth factor-beta and insulin-like growth factor-I induces expression of type II collagen and aggrecan genes in. (nih.gov)
  • The administration of antigens into the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye induces a special form of antigen-specific peripheral immune tolerance termed AC-associated immune deviation (ACAID), which prevents delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and other inflammatory responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of recombinant MHC II molecules in regulation of the antigen-specific T cell clones by using mouse I-A q , combined with an auto-antigen peptide from type II collagen (CII260-274) in CIA model. (jimmunol.org)
  • For type III collagen, we confirmed this result also by cloning two recombinant fragments that were including just the putative binding regions of the triple helix. (tesionline.it)
  • The ELISA Kit is designed to detect native, not recombinant, CTX-II. (mybiosource.com)
  • Paraffin embedded Col2a1-Cre;Nppcflox/flox mouse tibial growth plate section was stained with Goat Anti-Type II Collagen-UNLB (SB Cat. (southernbiotech.com)
  • By acting probably as a posttranscriptional regulator with a different efficacy on COL2A1 (show COL2A1 ELISA Kits ) and COL1A2 expression, miR (show MLXIP ELISA Kits )-29b can contribute to the collagens imbalance associated with an abnormal chondrocyte phenotype. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Collagen type 2 alpha 1, also known as COL2A1, is a human gene which is the major collagen synthesized by chondrocytes. (biomol.com)
  • Nitric oxide inhibits the synthesis of type-II collagen without altering Col2A1 mRNA abundance: prolyl hydroxylase as a possible target. (harvard.edu)
  • Cao M, Westerhausen-Larson A, Niyibizi C, Kavalkovich K, Georgescu HI, Rizzo CF, Hebda PA, Stefanovic-Racic M, Evans CH. Nitric oxide inhibits the synthesis of type-II collagen without altering Col2A1 mRNA abundance: prolyl hydroxylase as a possible target. (harvard.edu)
  • Addition of 50 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to a deficient serum lot significantly enhanced its ability to induce aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of type II collagen mRNA in Xenopus embryos visualized by whole-mount in situ hybridization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The feasibility and utility of this non-isotopic method has been demonstrated by using a specific DNA probe to localize Xenopus laevis Type II collagen mRNA expression to areas surrounding the vacuoles of the notochord in Stage 30 embryos. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the mineralizing zone virtually all cells were recognized by the type I collagen cDNA probe, but only very few scattered cells appeared to contain type II collagen mRNA. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we explored the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-differentiated chondrocytes (MSC-chondrocytes) on the responses of antigen-specific T cells in RA to type II collagen (CII) to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of MSCs in RA treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Visual inspection and grain counting revealed the highest levels of pro alpha 1(II) collagen mRNAs in chondrocytes of the lower proliferative and upper hypertrophic zones of the growth plate cartilage. (rupress.org)
  • Only a fraction of the chondrocytes in the degenerative zone were recognized by the pro alpha 1(II) collagen cDNA probe, and none by the type I collagen cDNA probe. (rupress.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine on the level of collagen type II and oligomeric matrix protein COMP expression in chondrocytes of knee osteoarthritis. (banglajol.info)
  • Hydroxychloro-quine treatment exhibited concentration- and time-dependent effect on the inhibition of collagen type II and COMP expression in chondrocytes. (banglajol.info)
  • Therefore, hydroxychloro-quine promotes expression of MMP-13 and reduces collagen type II and COMP expression levels in chondrocytes without any significant change in the growth of cells. (banglajol.info)
  • Anchorin CII is a collagen binding protein of the annexin family associated with plasma membranes of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and many other cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Collagen Type 2 is produced by chondrocytes (the non-cellular matrix of cartilage) - a liquid-like filling within the cartilage. (energeticnutrition.com)
  • Through this mode of action native type II collagen is recognised by the immune system as an endogenous substance, i.e. naturally occurring in the body, and deactivates the body's immune response against its own collagen. (nutraingredients.com)
  • As we age, the body's ability to make the protein Collagen Type 2 slows down. (puritan.com)
  • In the case of undenatured type II chicken collagen, small amounts (typically around 10 milligrams) taken orally have been shown to correct a faulty immune response specifically targeted at the type II collagen present in bone joint cartilage -- in effect, modulating the body's immune response so it works correctly once again. (jonbarron.org)
  • Youtheory® Joint Collagen is designed to help replenish the body's supply of this vital joint protein. (betterlife.com)
  • Collagen is your body's basic building block. (hellenia.co.uk)
  • It is your body's most abundant natural protein and without enough collagen your skin and body are old. (hellenia.co.uk)
  • Though it is possible to obtain extra collagen through diet (consuming animal products such as gelatinous meats, the cartilage on bones such as chicken drumsticks, and skin from poultry 5 ), some may find it unappealing or difficult to eat enough to support their body's requirements. (energeticnutrition.com)
  • I have since switched to FitIndex Marine Collagen & haven't experienced any bloating at all thankfully. (amzn.com)
  • Each capsule contains 80mg of collagen type 1 & 3 which is derived from marine collagen. (hellenia.co.uk)
  • Hydrolyzed Marine Collagen Type 1 & 3 (derived from fish ), Collagen Type 2 (derived from chicken sternum) Bulking Agent (Maltodextrin), Anti-Caking Agent (Magnesium Stearate), Capsule Shell (Gelatin). (hellenia.co.uk)
  • The composition of Chicken Type II Collagen protein consists of eighteen amino acids. (nutritiongeeks.com)
  • Collagen Type 2 protein consists of eighteen amino acids, which amino acid profiles parallel the profile of the joint cartilage. (healthy.co.nz)
  • The recommended daily supplementation of Immucell Collagen Type 2 is 2,400-3,600mg. taken on empty stomach for optimum utilization. (taoofherbs.com)
  • This week, we take a look at the dietary ingredient UC-II, which is derived from chicken sternum cartilage and is known for supporting joint comfort, mobility, and flexibility. (jonbarron.org)
  • Each capsule also contains 320mg of colllagen type 2 which is derived from chicken sternum. (hellenia.co.uk)
  • Human clinical studies have found that just one 40 mg capsule of UC-II® per day can help to promote joint comfort, as well as healthy joint function and flexibility. (betterlife.com)
  • 11 In the present study, a special form of sandwich assay was used to study the binding of 125 I- or Eu 3+ -labeled LDL-either in their native form or after copper-mediated oxidation-to type I, II, III, IV, and V collagen and to poly- d -lysine. (ahajournals.org)
  • The rate of growth in cartilage cells was analyzed using MTT assay whereas the Col-2 and COMP expression levels were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. (banglajol.info)
  • The urinary CTX-II assay is a solid-phase ELISA that employs the competitive enzyme immunoassay principle. (pacbio.com)
  • The assay sample and buffer are incubated together with CTX-II-HRP conjugate in pre-coated plate for one hour. (mybiosource.com)
  • The device will also force the differentiation of fibroblast cells in chondrocyte or chondrocyte-like cells for the production of aggrecan, Type II collagen , Sox-9 protein cartilage link protein, and perlecan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neither IGF-I nor insulin nor transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) alone stimulated induction of aggrecan or type II collagen production by dedifferentiated AHAC. (nih.gov)
  • At day 28 of culture, the gene expression level for cartilage marker genes (i.e. genes encoding for Sox9 transcription factor, Collagen type II and Aggrecan) were considerably lower in the rhCII hydrogels than in the high-density pellets, but at the end of the 84-day culture period, all the cartilage marker genes analysed were expressed at a similar level. (eur.nl)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for CTX-II . (mybiosource.com)
  • COL1A2 encodes the pro-alpha2 chain of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Angiotensin II stimulates the proliferation and biosynthesis of type I collagen in cultured murine mesangial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin II also stimulated mainly the biosynthesis of type I collagen in our MMCs. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate collectively that ANG II in serum-free cultures can be a paracrine catalyst for the growth and biosynthesis of type I collagen in mesangial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Biosynthesis, secretion and extracellular localization of anchorin CII, a collagen‐binding protein of the calpactin family. (semanticscholar.org)
  • b-2Cool ® ​ is a natural ingredient supplying native (undenatured) type II collagen, whose efficacy in joint health improvement has been confirmed in both animal models and clinical trials. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • the efficacy of pamidronate treatment does not seem to be related to the genotype of type I collagen in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta . (antibodies-online.com)
  • The present clinical trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of UC-II as compared to a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin (G+C) in the treatment of OA of the knee. (medsci.org)
  • Through its characteristic mechanism of action, called Oral Tolerance, a low dose b-2Cool ® ​ is able to modulate the immune response against endogenous type II collagen in the cartilage. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Native (undenatured) type II collagen works via an immune-mediated process, known as oral tolerance. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Taken from the chicken's sternum cartilage, UC · II is an innovative, patented form of undenatured type II collagen that works with the immune system to reduce inflammation and restore cartilage (unlike glucosamine & chondroitin, which are materials involved in the structure of healthy cartilage). (prohealth.com)
  • These findings indicate that autoantibody formation in RA and relapsing polychondritis may occur as a result of an immune response to heterologous type I1 collagen. (docme.ru)
  • Non-immune activation of complement: two new phenomena. (springer.com)
  • Scientists know that this particular component of cartilage is being attacked by white blood cells and somehow this activates the immune system in the rheumatoid arthritic patient to develop antibodies to collagen type II. (appliedhealth.com)
  • The question now becomes how does collagen type II turn off the immune system in the rheumatoid arthritic. (appliedhealth.com)
  • not processed by high heat or chemicals) chicken collagen using the chicken's sternum cartilage. (prohealth.com)
  • Another differentiation is that UC-II is manufactured in a GMP- certified facility from chicken sternum cartilage using a patented, low-temperature manufacturing process that ensures a particular level of undenatured type II collagen. (jonbarron.org)
  • Supplement Direct COLLAGEN TYPE II Chicken collagen derived from the sternum of chickens. (supplementdirect.com)
  • Advanced exclusive technology is used to extract Immucell Collagen Type 2 from young chicken sternum cartilage. (taoofherbs.com)
  • A murine mesangial cell line (MMC) was established from the glomeruli of SJL mice to study the influence of angiotensin II (ANG II) on their growth and function in a serum-free culture. (nih.gov)
  • Murine mesangial cells exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of mesangial cells, including staining for desmin, vimentin, Thy 1, and types I and IV collagen by immunofluorescence. (nih.gov)

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