A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.

GDF5 coordinates bone and joint formation during digit development. (1/1192)

A functional skeletal system requires the coordinated development of many different tissue types, including cartilage, bones, joints, and tendons. Members of the Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of secreted signaling molecules have been implicated as endogenous regulators of skeletal development. This is based on their expression during bone and joint formation, their ability to induce ectopic bone and cartilage, and the skeletal abnormalities present in animals with mutations in BMP family members. One member of this family, Growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), is encoded by the mouse brachypodism locus. Mice with mutations in this gene show reductions in the length of bones in the limbs, altered formation of bones and joints in the sternum, and a reduction in the number of bones in the digits. The expression pattern of Gdf5 during normal development and the phenotypes seen in mice with single or double mutations in Gdf5 and Bmp5 suggested that Gdf5 has multiple functions in skeletogenesis, including roles in joint and cartilage development. To further understand the function of GDF5 in skeletal development, we assayed the response of developing chick and mouse limbs to recombinant GDF5 protein. The results from these assays, coupled with an analysis of the development of brachypodism digits, indicate that GDF5 is necessary and sufficient for both cartilage development and the restriction of joint formation to the appropriate location. Thus, GDF5 function in the digits demonstrates a link between cartilage development and joint development and is an important determinant of the pattern of bones and articulations in the digits.  (+info)

Cross sectional evaluation of biochemical markers of bone, cartilage, and synovial tissue metabolism in patients with knee osteoarthritis: relations with disease activity and joint damage. (2/1192)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relations between the urinary levels of type II collagen C-telopeptide (CTX-II) and glucosyl-galactosyl pyridinoline (Glc-Gal-PYD)-two newly developed biochemical markers of type II collagen and synovial tissue destruction respectively-disease activity and the severity of joint destruction in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The clinical performance of these two new markers was compared with that of a panel of other established biochemical markers of connective tissue metabolism. METHODS: The following biochemical markers were measured in a group of 67 patients with knee OA (mean age 64 years, median disease duration eight years ) and in 67 healthy controls: for bone, serum osteocalcin, serum and urinary C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I); for cartilage, urinary CTX-II, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and serum human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40); for synovium, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD, serum type III collagen N-propeptide (PIIINP), serum hyaluronic acid (HA); and for inflammation, serum C reactive protein. Biochemical markers were correlated with pain and physical function (WOMAC index) and with quantitative radiographic evaluation of the joint space using the posteroanterior view of the knees flexed at 30 degrees. RESULTS: All bone turnover markers were decreased in patients with knee OA compared with controls (-36%, -38%, and -52%, p<0.0001 for serum osteocalcin, serum CTX-I and urinary CTX-I, respectively). Serum COMP (+16%, p=0.0004), urinary CTX-II (+25%, p=0.0009), urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (+18%, p=0.028), serum PIIINP (+33%, p<0.0001), and serum HA (+ 233%, p<0.0001) were increased. By univariate analyses, increased urinary Glc-Gal-PYD (r=0.41, p=0.002) and decreased serum osteocalcin (r=-0.30, p=0.025) were associated with a higher total WOMAC index. Increased urinary CTX-II (r=-0.40, p=0.0002) and Glc-Gal-PYD (r=-0.30, p=0.0046) and serum PIIINP (r=-0.29, p=0.0034) were the only markers which correlated with joint surface area. By multivariate analyses, urinary Glc-Gal-PYD and CTX-II were the most important predictors of the WOMAC index and joint damage, respectively. CONCLUSION: Knee OA appears to be characterised by a systemic decrease of bone turnover and increased cartilage and synovial tissue turnover. CTX-II, Glc-Gal-PYD, and PIIINP may be useful markers of disease severity in patients with knee OA.  (+info)

Sp3 represses the Sp1-mediated transactivation of the human COL2A1 gene in primary and de-differentiated chondrocytes. (3/1192)

Sp1 and Sp3 effects on the transcription of the human alpha1(II) procollagen gene (COL2A1) were investigated in both differentiated and de-differentiated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Transient transfection with constructs of deleted COL2A1 promoter sequences driving the luciferase reporter gene revealed that the region spanning -266 to +121 base pairs showed Sp1-enhancing effects, whatever the differentiation state. In contrast, Sp3 did not influence COL2A1 gene transcription. Concomitant overexpression of the two Sp proteins demonstrated that Sp3 blocked the Sp1 induction of COL2A1 promoter activity. Moreover, inhibition of Sp1/Sp3 binding to their target DNA sequence decreased both COL2A1 gene transcription and Sp1-enhancing effects. DNase I footprinting and gel retardation assays revealed that Sp1 and Sp3 bind specifically to cis-sequences of the COL2A1 gene promoter whereby they exert their transcriptional effects. Sp1 and Sp3 levels were found to be reduced in de-differentiated chondrocytes, as revealed by DNA-binding and immunochemical study. Sp1 specifically activated collagen neosynthesis whatever the differentiation state of chondrocytes, suggesting that this factor exerts a major role in the expression of collagen type II. However, our data indicate that type II collagen-specific expression in chondrocytes depend on both the Sp1/Sp3 ratio and cooperation of Sp1 with other transcription factors, the amounts of which are also modulated by phenotype alteration.  (+info)

IL-10-deficient B10.Q mice develop more severe collagen-induced arthritis, but are protected from arthritis induced with anti-type II collagen antibodies. (4/1192)

IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with stimulatory and inhibitory properties, and is thought to have a protective role in rheumatoid arthritis and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). In this study, we investigated how IL-10 deficiency affects CIA and anti-collagen type II (CII) Ab-transferred arthritis in C57BL/10.Q (B10.Q) mice. The B10.Q.IL-10(-/-) mice had an 8-cM 129/Ola fragment around the IL-10 gene. The mice were treated with antibiotics, appeared healthy, and had no colitis. T cells from IL-10(-/-) mice expressed similar levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 after mitogen stimulation; however, macrophages showed a reduced TNF-alpha production compared with IL-10(+/-) littermates. IL-10(-/-) mice had an increased incidence, and a more severe CIA disease than the IL-10(+/-) littermates. To study the role of IL-10 in T cell tolerance, IL-10(-/-) were crossed into mice carrying the immunodominant epitope, CII(256-270), in cartilage (MMC) or in skin (TSC). Both IL-10(-/-) and IL-10(+/-) MMC and TSC mice were completely tolerized against CIA, indicating that lack of IL-10 in this context did not break tolerance. To investigate whether IL-10 was important in the effector phase of CIA, arthritis was induced with anti-CII Abs. Surprisingly, IL-10(-/-) were less susceptible to Ab-transferred arthritis, as only 30% showed signs of disease compared with 90% of the littermates. Therefore, IL-10 seemed to have a protective role in CIA, but seemed to exacerbate the arthritogenicity of anti-CII Abs. These data emphasize the importance of studying IL-10 in a defined genetic context in vivo, to understand its role in a complex disease like arthritis.  (+info)

AMD3100, a potent and specific antagonist of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 chemokine receptor CXCR4, inhibits autoimmune joint inflammation in IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice. (5/1192)

Autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in IFN-gammaR-deficient DBA/1 mice was shown to be reduced in severity by treatment with the bicyclam derivative AMD3100, a specific antagonist of the interaction between the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4. The beneficial effect of the CXCR4 antagonist was demonstrable when treatment was initiated between the time of immunization and appearance of the first symptoms. Treatment also reduced the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to the autoantigen, collagen type II. These observations are indicative of an action on a late event in the pathogenesis, such as chemokine-mediated attraction of leukocytes toward joint tissues. The notion of SDF-1 involvement was further supported by the observation that exogenous SDF-1 injected in periarthritic tissue elicited an inflammatory response that could be inhibited by AMD3100. The majority of leukocytes harvested from inflamed joints of mice with CIA were found to be Mac-1(+) and CXCR4(+), and AMD3100 was demonstrated to interfere specifically with chemotaxis and Ca(2+) mobilization induced in vitro by SDF-1 on Mac-1(+)/CXCR4(+) splenocytes. We conclude that SDF-1 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of murine CIA, by attracting Mac-1(+)/CXCR4(+) cells to the inflamed joints.  (+info)

Chondrocyte phenotype and cell survival are regulated by culture conditions and by specific cytokines through the expression of Sox-9 transcription factor. (6/1192)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of culture conditions, serum and specific cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and interleukin (IL) 1alpha on phenotype and cell survival in cultures of Syrian hamster embryonic chondrocyte-like cells (DES4(+).2). METHODS: Proteins and RNA extracted from subconfluent and confluent early- and late-passage DES4(+).2 cells cultured in the presence or absence of serum and IL-1alpha or IGF-1 or both cytokines together were analysed for the expression of chondrocyte-specific genes and for the chondrogenic transcription factor Sox-9 by Western and Northern blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis of labelled low-molecular weight DNA extracted from DES4(+).2 cells and another Syrian hamster embryonic chondrocyte-like cell line, 10W(+).1, cultured under the different conditions and treatments. RESULTS: Early passage DES4(+).2 cells expressed chondrocyte-specific molecules such as collagen types alpha1(II) and alpha1(IX), aggrecan, biglycan and link protein and collagen types alpha1(I) and alpha1(X) mRNAs, suggesting a prehypertrophic chondrocyte-like phenotype. The expression of all genes investigated was cell density- and serum-dependent and was low to undetectable in cell populations from later passages. Early-passage DES4(+).2 and 10W(+).1 cells survived when cultured at low cell density, but died by apoptosis when cultured at high cell density in the absence of serum or IGF-1. IGF-1 and IL-1alpha had opposite and antagonistic effects on the chondrocyte phenotype and survival. Whereas IL-1alpha acting alone suppressed cartilage-specific gene expression without significantly affecting cell survival, IGF-1 increased the steady-state mRNA levels and relieved the IL-1alpha-induced suppression of all the chondrocyte-specific genes investigated; it also enhanced chondrocyte survival. Suppression of the chondrocyte phenotype by the inflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha correlated with marked down-regulation of the transcription factor Sox-9, which was relieved by IGF-1. The expression of the Sox9 gene was closely correlated with the expression of the chondrocyte-specific genes under all conditions and treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the effects of cartilage anabolic and catabolic cytokines IGF-1 and IL-1alpha on the expression of the chondrocyte phenotype are mediated by Sox-9. As Sox-9 appears to be essential for matrix production, the potent effect of IL-1alpha in suppressing Sox-9 expression may limit the ability of cartilage to repair during inflammatory joint diseases.  (+info)

Msx2 is a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation in migratory cranial neural crest cells. (7/1192)

During early mouse embryogenesis, cranial neural crest cells (CNCC) emigrate from the posterior midbrain and rhombomeres 1 and 2 of the anterior hindbrain into the first branchial arch-derived maxillary and mandibular processes and there provide cell lineages for several phenotypes, including cartilage, bone, and tooth. Here, we report that Sox9 and Msx2 were coexpressed in a subpopulation of CNCC during their migration. Because Sox9 is a transactivator of chondrogenesis, and Msx genes can act as transcriptional repressors, we hypothesized that Sox9 expression indicates the determination of CNCC-derived chondrogenic cell lineage and that Msx2 represses chondrogenic differentiation until CNCC migration is completed within the mandibular processes. To test whether Msx2 represses chondrogenesis, we designed experiments to inhibit Msx2 function in migratory CNCC in primary cultures through the expression of loss-of-function Msx2 mutants. We showed that infection of migratory CNCC with adenovirus Msx2 mutants accelerated the rate and extent of chondrogenesis, as indicated by the expression level of type II collagen and aggrecan, and the amount of alcian blue staining. Adenovirus infections did not apparently interfere with CNCC proliferation or migration. These findings suggest that an important early event in craniofacial morphogenesis is a transient expression of both Sox9 and Msx2 during emigration into the forming mandibular processes followed by restricted expression of Sox9 within CNCC- derived chondroprogenitor cells. We conclude that Msx2 serves as a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation during CNCC migration.  (+info)

Contacts with fibrils containing collagen I, but not collagens II, IX, and XI, can destabilize the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. (8/1192)

OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are important regulators of cellular functions, including matrix synthesis, proliferation and differentiation. This is well exemplified by the characteristically labile phenotype of chondrocytes that is lost in monolayer culture but is stabilized in suspension under appropriate conditions. We were interested in the role of collagen suprastructures in maintaining or destabilizing the cartilage phenotype of chondrocytes. DESIGN: Primary sternal chondrocytes from 17-day-old chick embryos were cultured in gels of fibrils reconstituted from soluble collagen I from various sources. The culture media either contained or lacked FBS. Cells were cultured for up to 28 days and the evolution of the phenotype of the cells was assessed by their collagen expression (collagens II and X for differentiated chondrocytes and hypertrophic chodrocytes, repectively; collagen I for phenotypically modulated cells), or by their secretion of alkaline phosphatase (hypertrophic cartilage phenotype). RESULTS: The cells often retained their differentiated phenotype only if cultured with serum. Under serum-free conditions, cartilage characteristics were lost. The cells acquired a fibroblast-like shape and, later, synthesized collagen I instead of cartilage collagens. Shape changes were influenced by beta1-integrin-activity, whereas other matrix receptors were important for alterations of collagen patterns. Heterotypic fibrils reconstituted from collagens II, IX, and XI did not provoke this phenotypic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Chondrocytes sensitively recognize the suprastructures of collagen fibrils in their environment. Cellular interactions with fibrils with appropriate molecular organizations, such as that in cartilage fibrils, result in the maintenance of the differentiated cartilage phenotype. However, other suprastructures, e.g. in reconstituted fibrils mainly containing collagen I, lead to cell-matrix interactions incompatible with the cartilage phenotype. The maintenance of the differentiated traits of chondrocytes is pivotal for the normal function of, e.g., articular cartilage. If pathologically altered matrix suprastructures lead to a dysregulation of collagen production also in vivo compromised cartilage functions inevitably will be propagated further.  (+info)

One question that remains unresolved is which enzyme or enzymes are responsible for the type II collagen breakdown products we found by Western blot analysis. Cleavage of type II collagen by MMP-1 and MMP-8, both known to be present in the vitreous, did not produce these type II collagen breakdown products, and a combination of MMP-8 with MMP-2 or MMP-9, or both, produced such extensive breakdown that clear fragments were no longer detectable by Western blot analysis. The weakly stained band that was formed on degradation by MMP-2 alone could correspond to one of the naturally occurring breakdown products in the vitreous, but MMP-2 cannot explain the range of other breakdown products that we repeatedly found. Although MMP-9 was able to digest some of the type II collagen, we did not find any larger fragments. MMP-9, though, is not supposed to be able to cleave the collagen triple helix. 29 It is possible that our type II collagen, which was isolated from diseased osteoarthritic cartilage, ...
phdthesis{53a36616-ce7f-4122-8084-e7c13dc6a8da, abstract = {The molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of rheumatoid,br/,,br, arthritis are not known in fine details. Both humoral and cellular responses against,br/,,br, collagen type II in joint cartilage seems to be important for the disease development.,br/,,br, Especially posttranslational modifications on collagen type II are important in regulation,br/,,br, of molecular mechanisms implicated in the disease. In this thesis we tried to identify,br/,,br, molecular principles of anti-collagen immunity and its relation with pathogenicity by,br/,,br, mainly X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of anti-collagen antibody CIIC1,br/,,br, showed that it not only binds to collagen type II but also cross reacts with other,br/,,br, immunoglobulins which is the typical behavior of rheumatoid factors. The arthritogenic,br/,,br, and collagen specific antibody CIIC1 with this dual behavior suggests that RFs specific,br/,,br, for ...
Collagen Type II is a major constituent of hyaline and elastic cartilage protein. Collagen Type II Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 20G-12E) specifically recognizes rat and mouse type-II collagen and is suitable for immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded cartilage protein tissue sections as well as immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions. The Rat Collagen Type 2 Monoclonal Antibody specifically recognizes rat type-II collagen. It is validated for immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry applications.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Collagen-induced arthritis and TCRs in SWR and B10.Q mice expressing an E(α)/(k) transgene. AU - Griffiths, M. M.. AU - Nabozny, G. H.. AU - Hanson, J.. AU - Harper, D. S.. AU - McCall, S.. AU - Moder, K. G.. AU - Cannon, G. W.. AU - Luthra, H. S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - B10.E(α)/(k) transgenic mice were mated with H2-E- B10.Q and SWR mice. F1 and F1 x parental strain backcross progeny were tested for arthritis and autoimmune reactivity to mouse type II collagen (MII) after immunization with bovine, chick, deer, or human type II collagen. The results were correlated with the H-2 haplotype (b/q vs q/q) and the TCR Vβ profile of peripheral blood T cells in each mouse. Hybrid progeny expressed TCR profiles different from either parent because of the TCR Vβ genomic deletions of SWR mice (Vβa), the wild-type TCR allele of C57Bl/10 (B10) mice (Vβb), and the intrathymic negative selection processes resulting from cell surface expression of ...
Introduction: The Vbeta12-transgenic mouse was previously generated to investigate the role of antigen-specific T cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model for rheumatoid arthritis. This mouse expresses a transgenic collagen type II (CII)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain and consequently displays an increased immunity to CII and increased susceptibility to CIA. However, while the transgenic Vbeta12 chain recombines with endogenous alpha-chains, the frequency and distribution of CII-specific T cells in the Vbeta12-transgenic mouse has not been determined. The aim of the present report was to establish a system enabling identification of CII-specific T cells in the Vbeta12-transgenic mouse in order to determine to what extent the transgenic expression of the CII-specific beta-chain would skew the response towards the immunodominant galactosylated T-cell epitope and to use this system to monitor these cells throughout development of CIA. Methods: We have generated and ...
There is considerable interest in the possible use of cAMP-elevating agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different cAMP-elevating agents on the T-cell response to type II collagen within the context of collagen-induced arthritis, a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Spleen cells or lymph node cells from type-II-collagen-immunized DBA/1 mice were cultured in the presence of type II collagen plus one of five different cAMP-elevating agents: rolipram, forskolin, prostaglandin E2, 8-bromo-cAMP, or cholera toxin. Levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 were measured in culture supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All of the cAMP-elevating agents tested were found to profoundly suppress IFN-gamma production in a dose-dependent manner. IL-4 and IL-5 production was slightly up-regulated at low concentrations of the cAMP-elevating agents and was modestly suppressed at
Decreased production of anti-CII antibodies in mice treated with anti-IL-23p19.At day 35, at the end of the experiment as shown in Figure 2A, serum was collecte
The crystal structure of HLA-DR1 complexed with the CII (259-273) peptide reveals several structural characteristics that differ from other HLA-DR-peptide complexes. First, unlike the HA peptide that uses all four binding pockets (21), the CII peptide uses only two of the four binding pockets in the DR1 molecule, P1 and P4, the effects of which are reflected in its overall low binding affinity (20). Second, despite having its side chain oriented in a direction that would be considered favorable for TCR interaction, the P2 residue Lys264 of the CII peptide interacts with the helical portion of the DRβ1 chain, providing significant binding energy for the peptide. The primary interaction of Lys264 is with the DRβ1 His81 residue, and a distinct change in the orientation of this His side chain is clear in the DR1-CII structure in comparison to its location in the DR1-HA structure, where the P2 residue is Val (21). In addition, replacement of Lys264 with an Ala residue greatly reduces the binding ...
Improved Collagen Type I ELISA. (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Offers increased sensitivity and reproducibility with accurate & reliable results.
Collagen list and information including what is Collagen, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the lesions of a mouse collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model using fluorescence bioimaging and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and to compare it with histopathological examination. Twelve mice were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) as control, group 2 (G2) as fluorescence probe control and group 3 (G3) as collagen antibody-induced arthritis. The mice of G3 intravenously received anti-type II collagen 5-clone antibody cocktail (2 mg/mouse) on day 0 and intraperitoneally received lipopolysaccharide (|TEX|$50{\mu}g/mouse$|/TEX|) on day 3. On the while, the mice of G1 and G2 received 0.9% saline in equal volumes at equivalent times. Fluorescence bioimaging and micro-CT analysis were carried out to assess arthritis. Treatment with the collagen antibody cocktail increased the paw thickness of mice compared to those in both the control and probe-treated groups. Fluorescence bioimaging using a near infrared imaging agent showed high
Binds human Collagen type II. Cross-reactivity to other human collagen type I, III, IV and V less than 5%. No cross-reactivity to human plasma proteins. Affinity purification on immobilized collagen type II with cross-absorption to immobilised human blood plasma proteins and human collagen type I, III, IV and V. Applications - ELISA, Immunohistochemistry (frozen sections). Not suitable for denaturing and dissociating conditions
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In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) of mouse, self-reactive T cells recognize a peptide antigen from type II collagen (CII). CII is of particular interest, as an autoimmune response to this protein leads to CIA in mice, rats, and primates. Activation of T cells is believed to be an important pathogenic factor in autoimmune disease. So, T cells have become a focal point of study for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of autoimmune disease. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of recombinant MHC II molecules in regulation of the antigen-specific T cell clones by using mouse I-Aq, combined with an auto-antigen peptide from type II collagen (CII260-274) in CIA model. It was found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules not only activate CII-specific T cell clone but also inhibit the same clone in vitro according to the condition of stimulation. Furthermore, development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by the in vivo injection of a ...
A rapid and synchronized alternative to the CIA and K/BxN models that reduces variability, eliminates the need for expensive colonies and conserves test compound, controls and vivarium space.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased TGF-β and BMP Levels and Improved Chondrocyte-Specific Marker Expression In Vitro under Cartilage-Specific Physiological Osmolarity. AU - Timur, Ufuk Tan. AU - Caron, Marjolein. AU - van den Akker, Guus. AU - van der Windt, Anna. AU - Visser, Jenny. AU - van Rhijn, Lodewijk. AU - Weinans, Harrie. AU - Welting, Tim. AU - Emans, Pieter. AU - Jahr, Holger. PY - 2019/2/2. Y1 - 2019/2/2. KW - chondrocyte. KW - osmolarity. KW - TGF- superfamily. KW - signalling. KW - collagen type II. KW - bone morphogenetic proteins. KW - HUMAN ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES. KW - EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX. KW - CELL-MEMBRANE. KW - BETA. KW - PHENOTYPE. KW - OSTEOARTHRITIS. KW - STIMULATION. KW - HYPERTROPHY. KW - ELEMENTS. KW - ENDOGLIN. U2 - 10.3390/ijms20040795. DO - 10.3390/ijms20040795. M3 - Article. VL - 20. JO - International Journal of Molecular Sciences. JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences. SN - 1422-0067. IS - 4. M1 - 795. ER - ...
BLM support normal bone and joint health with type II collagen, MSM, glucosamine sulfate, and manganese citrate, enhanced with essential oils.
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2150-0060 recognizes human Collagen type II, an extracellular matrix protein found mainly in cartilaginous tissue. The antibody reacts with both native and
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Aigner, Thomas, Gebhard, Pia Margarethe, Schmid, Erik, Bau, Brigitte, Harley, Vincent and Poschl, Ernst (2003) SOX9 expression does not correlate with type II collagen expression in adult articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biology, 22 (4). pp. 363-372. ISSN 1569-1802 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Recent studies of OA cartilage have identified both messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein for specific MMPs as well as a collagenase mediated type II collagen degradation product, suggesting that MMPs contribute to the intrinsic chondrocyte mediated degenerative changes of the cartilage matrix in OA.8,12,13 As yet the factors responsible for their expression remain uncertain, although the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL1) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been implicated.1,8 The increased levels of histamine found in OA synovial fluids3 have suggested a role for this mediator in the pathophysiology of this disease. Evidence presented here shows that histamine up regulates both MMP-13 and MMP-3 production by chondrocytes. Both these MMPs are important in the degradation of articular cartilage; MMP-13 can degrade collagen type II, and MMP-3 can degrade proteoglycan and collagen types IX and XI, and activate procollagenase-1.14 Earlier studies have shown that chondrocytes ...
Objectives: Biochemical markers reflecting the degradation of the type II collagen helical (Helix-II) and type II collagen C telopeptides (CTX-II) have been developed.. Aim: To investigate the association of rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis with urinary Helix-II and urinary CTX-II.. Patients and methods: 12 patients (mean age 70 years) meeting the criteria for rapidly destructive hip osteoarthritis and 28 patients with slowly progressive hip osteoarthritis (mean age 63 years) defined as ,0.20 mm joint space loss/year were included in a case-control study. In each patient, urinary Helix-II and CTX-II were measured at the end of the follow-up period, with retrospective evaluation of x rays.. Results: Helix-II levels were 41% (p = 0.002) higher in the 40 patients with hip osteoarthritis than in 75 healthy controls. Increased Helix-II levels were associated with decreased minimum joint space width of the hip (r = −0.57, p = 0.001). Mean urinary Helix-II levels were 71% higher in rapidly ...
The Rho family GTPase Rac1 regulates cytoskeletal rearrangements crucial for the recruitment, extravasation and activation of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. Rac1 signaling also promotes the activation and survival of lymphocytes and osteoclasts. Therefore, we assessed the ability of a cell-permeable Rac1 carboxy-terminal inhibitory peptide to modulate disease in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice, and in either early or chronic disease, mice were treated three times per week by intraperitoneal injection with control peptide or Rac1 inhibitory peptide. Effects on disease progression were assessed by measurement of paw swelling. Inflammation and joint destruction were examined by histology and radiology. Serum levels of anti-collagen type II antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-cell phenotypes and activation were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Results were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and unpaired Student
The pattern of type II collagen expression during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis has been established after isolating specific cDNA and genomic clones. Evidence is presented suggesting that in X. laevis there are two transcriptionally active copies of the type II procollagen gene. Both genes are activated at the beginning of neurula stage and steady-state mRNA levels progressively increase thereafter. Initially, the transcripts are localized to notochord, somites, and the dorsal region of the lateral plate mesoderm. At later stages of development and parallel to increased mRNA accumulation, collagen expression becomes progressively more confined to chondrogenic regions of the tadpole. During the early period of mRNA accumulation, there is also a transient pattern of expression in localized sites that will later not undergo chondrogenesis, such as the floor plate in the ventral neural tube. At later times and coincident with the appearance of chondrogenic tissues in the developing embryo, ...
Studies have shown that both Type I and Type II Collagen undergo fibrillogenesis under similar conditions, namely at near normal body temperature and pH. It is understood that accessory proteins or chaperone proteins can either speed up or slow down fibrillogenesis in Type I Collagen. However, there is a lack of research on how these same proteins can regulate the kinetics of fibril formation in Type II Collagen. If certain proteins are found to speed up Type II fibril formation, they could greatly decrease the time required for healing in cartilage injuries or diseases, especially those due to the inherent lack of vascularity in cartilage. On the other hand, some proteins may slow down Type II fibril formation and have applications in diseases that are caused by excessive fibril formation such as fibrosis or scar formation. To test the effects of specific accessory proteins, recombinant forms of these proteins were added with Collagen Type II in a buffered solution at 7.4 pH, and a temperature of 25⁰
article{9a5c9918-f28d-42f7-9e4a-e617d47af020, abstract = {Development of type-II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is dependent on a T-cell mediated activation of autoreactive B cells. However, it is still unclear if B cells can present CII to T cells. To investigate the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for CII, we purified B cells from lymph nodes of immunized and nonimmunized mice. These B cells were used as APC for antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. B cells from naïve mice did present native, triple-helical, CII (nCII) but also ovalbumin (OVA) and denatured CII (dCII) to antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas. In addition, B cells primed with nCII or OVA, but not dCII, activated the antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas two to three times better than naïve B cells. We conclude that antigen-primed B cells have the capacity to process and present CII to primed T cells, and antigen-primed antigen-specific B cells are more efficient as APC than naïve B cells. We further ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Synovial fluid concentrations of the C-propeptide of type II collagen correlate with body mass index in primary knee osteoarthritis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In some RA patients antibodies are formed that target collagen II, an important protein in joint cartilage. These antibodies drive the inflammation early in the disease and the highest amounts of collagen antibodies have been detected at the time of diagnosis, after which the levels decrease during the first year.. In the present paper researchers at the Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, in collaboration with colleagues at Karolinska Institutet, have followed a large group of RA patients during five years to see if there is a correlation between the collagen antibodies and disease development.. We found that patients with collagen antibodies showed increased signs of inflammation during the first six months after diagnosis, after this there was no difference compared to patients without any collagen antibodies. We also discovered that the presence of collagen antibodies at the time of diagnosis was associated with a better prognosis, says Vivek Anand Manivel, ...
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ImmuCell is a naturally complete joint support supplement made of 100 percent pure Kolla2 unhydrolyzed collagen type II from chicken sternal cartilage.
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Hyaluronic acid is a major component of joint tissue. It helps to hold lubricating moisture in joints and cartilage, which affects their resilience, elasticity, and strength. Source Naturals Hyaluronic Acid is made from patented BioCell Collagen II which has undergone an absorption enhancing hydrolyzation process that yields low molecular weight hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and Collagen Type II peptides. These elements make it a multifaceted ingredient, which may help support joint function and the appearance of healthy skin.
(a)-(c) Typical histological appearance of CIA mouse paws: (a) severe inflammatory cellular infiltration-synovitis and pannus formation; (b) bone and cartil
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Dont let sore joints, tendons, or torn ligaments derail your fitness program-get superior protection from Joint Support Super Formula before its too late.. Our powerful blend of glucosamine, collagen type II, and MSM provides your body with the very best ingredients to maximize joint and cartilage support. And because its 100% natural, its one of the safest and most effective ways to naturally provide relief from the symptoms of joint and connective tissue wear and tear.. Click here for ingredients and nutrition information.. WARNING: Consult with a healthcare professional if pregnant, breast feeding, providing to a child, or if you have any other unique or special needs. Keep out of reach of children.. **With Home Direct, youll receive this item every 30 days, shipped directly to your door and billed to the credit card used today. You may cancel at any time.. Our Price: $22.95. ...
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The Flexcin Joint Maintenance Formula is specifically designed to promote long term joint health by supporting stronger cartilage, lubricating the joints and minimizing inflammation. The primary component, Cetyl Myristoleate (CM8), works to lubricate the joints and muscles and reduce inflammation throughout the body. The proprietary blend of CM8, Glucosamine, MSM, and Hydrolyzed Collagen Type II works to facilitate maximum mobility and flexibility. The Joint Maintenance Formula helps to regulate continuous joint health and functionality for enhanced mobility and flexibility. Guaranteed. Made in the USA.. Package Contains:. (1) Bottle Flexcin Joint Maintenance Formula (90 capsules/bottle). (Bottle is a 30-day supply when taken as recommended). ...
Super Collagen Type 1 & 3 NeoCell 198 grams NeoCell Super Collagen Powder, type 1 and type 3 hydrolyzed collagen peptides. Collagen is a complex structural protein that maintains strength and f...
I-A(q)-bCII257-270 protein: a monomeric murine I-A(q)-derived RTL construct linked to bovine collagen type II peptide bCII257-270
Vital Proteins has a great line of collagen products for a variety of uses. Why collagen you ask? Collagen has been on the rise in the sports nutrition realm and some of its benefits include: It may help improve tissue and cartilage repair (especially when taken before exercise or strength training) It can improve gut
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Deroyal part numbers 71-5046 81-010003 71-6515 M3044-B A9916-12 46-IV22 V81-010400 71-1101 72-7000 204401 1030197 72-8000 23-310 15590067 71-3001 15590005 V71-6515 M3070-M 28-0102 13662067 V71-3001 31-249 30-106 35-409 D4511
Type I collagen Collagen, type III, alpha 1 Park KS, Park MJ, Cho ML, Kwok SK, Ju JH, Ko HJ, Park SH, Kim HY (2009). "Type II ... type II, alpha 1 chains. It makes up 50% of all protein in cartilage and 85-90% of collagen of articular cartilage. Type II ... Collagen+type+II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short description ... Type II collagen is the basis for hyaline cartilage, including the articular cartilages at joint surfaces. It is formed by ...
Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A2 collagen, type IV, alpha 2". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C- ...
... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... This gene encodes one of the chains for type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues. Mutations in ... Type-I collagen Collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164692 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: COL1A2 collagen, type I, alpha 2". Byers PH, Wallis GA, Willing MC (1991). "Osteogenesis imperfecta: translation ...
II) chain of type II collagen. This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage ... "A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in ... II) chain that cannot be incorporated into type II collagen fibers. As a result, cells make a reduced amount of type II ... chain that cannot be incorporated into type II collagen fibers. As a result, cells make a reduced amount of type II collagen. ...
"Type VI collagen anchors endothelial basement membranes by interacting with type IV collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (42): 26522-9 ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective ... "Entrez Gene: COL6A2 collagen, type VI, alpha 2". Bertini E, Pepe G (2002). "Collagen type VI and related disorders: Bethlem ... 1996). "Type VI collagen mutations in Bethlem myopathy, an autosomal dominant myopathy with contractures". Nat. Genet. 14 (1): ...
... related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type ... Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in ... Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classical type, formerly known as types I and II. Type-V ... Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Classic Type. Includes: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type I, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type II v t e (Genes on ...
Type XI collagen also helps maintain the spacing and diameter of type II collagen fibrils. Type II collagen is an important ... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 ...
... the gene encoding the alpha2 chain of type VIII collagen, cause two forms of corneal endothelial dystrophy". Hum Mol Genet. 10 ... "Entrez Gene: COL8A2 collagen, type VIII, alpha 2". Shuttleworth CA (1998). "Type VIII collagen". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 ... Illidge C, Kielty C, Shuttleworth A (1998). "The alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains of type VIII collagen can form stable ... Greenhill NS, Rüger BM, Hasan Q, Davis PF (2000). "The alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) collagen chains form two distinct ...
Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... "Collagen II containing a Cys substitution for Arg-alpha1-519: abnormal interactions of the mutated molecules with collagen IX ...
Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... of type IV collagen in synovial capillaries by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against human type IV collagen ... Collagen Type-IV collagen Alport syndrome GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000188153 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A5 collagen, type IV, alpha 5 (Alport syndrome)". Lemmink HH, Schröder CH, Monnens LA, Smeets HJ (1997). "The ...
Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene, alpha 5 type IV collagen, so that the ... of type IV collagen in synovial capillaries by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against human type IV collagen ... collagen chain and comparison with other type IV collagen genes". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 26863-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.45. ...
Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A4 collagen, type IV, alpha 4". Hinek A (1995). "Nature and the multiple functions of the 67-kD elastin-/ ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ...
Specific interaction of fibronectin with collagen type II". Histochemistry. 82 (2): 149-58. doi:10.1007/bf00708199. PMID ... Collagen alpha-3(IV) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A3 gene. Type IV collagen, the major structural ... 2003). "Type-IV collagen related diseases". J. Nephrol. 16 (2): 314-6. PMID 12768082. Torra R, Tazón-Vega B, Ars E, Ballarín J ... Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another ...
... type III collagen is also an important regulator of the diameter of type I and II collagen fibrils. Type III collagen is also ... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Type III collagen could also be important in several other human diseases. Increased amounts of type III collagen are found in ... Type III collagen is one of the fibrillar collagens whose proteins have a long, inflexible, triple-helical domain. Type III ...
Collagen XVII is a homotrimer of three alpha1(XVII)-chains and a transmembrane protein in type II orientation. Each 180 kD a- ... It encodes the alpha chain of type XVII collagen. Collagen XVII is a transmembrane protein, like collagen XIII, XXIII and XXV. ... Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred ... which in turn causes a type of osteogenesis imperfecta. Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with Keratin 18 ...
It is related to the fibrillar collagens: type II, type XI, and type XXIV. Current research suggests that it is made by ... Type XXVII collagen is the protein predicted to be encoded by COL27A1. It was first described by Dr. James M. Pace and his ... v t e (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking sources, Collagens, All stub articles, Protein stubs) ...
Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... "Developmental regulation of mRNA species for types II, IX and XI collagens during mouse embryogenesis". Biochem. J. 324. ( Pt 1 ...
Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have ... sites in bovine cartilage type IX collagen reveals an antiparallel type II-type IX molecular relationship and type IX to type ... This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, a collagen component of hyaline cartilage. ... Two genes of 90 and 15 kb code for similar polypeptides of the same collagen molecule". Matrix Biol. 17 (3): 237-41. doi: ...
This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type VIII collagen. The gene product is a short chain collagen and a major ... "Entrez Gene: COL8A1 collagen, type VIII, alpha 1". Shuttleworth CA (1998). "Type VIII collagen". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 ... 2002). "Missense mutations in COL8A2, the gene encoding the alpha2 chain of type VIII collagen, cause two forms of corneal ... Plenz GA, Deng MC, Robenek H, Völker W (2003). "Vascular collagens: spotlight on the role of type VIII collagen in ...
This protein is an alpha chain of type VI collagen that aids in microfibril formation. As part of type VI collagen, this ... This gene encodes the alpha 3 chain, one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in ... "The 1.6 A structure of Kunitz-type domain from the alpha 3 chain of human type VI collagen". Journal of Molecular Biology. 246 ... "Anisotropic behaviour of the C-terminal Kunitz-type domain of the alpha3 chain of human type VI collagen at atomic resolution ( ...
Collagen XXIII is a type II transmembrane protein and the fourth in the subfamily of non-fibrillar transmembranous collagens. ... "Entrez Gene: COL23A1 collagen, type XXIII, alpha 1". Banyard J, Bao L, Zetter BR (June 2003). "Type XXIII collagen, a new ... The activity of this protease is vital to explain the origin of the two forms that collagen types XIII, XXIII and XXV can adopt ... The molecule of collagen XXIII can be found either in membrane-bond form or in shed form. Type XXIII collagen is expressed in ...
CIA is induced in mice by injecting them with an emulsion of complete Freund's adjuvant and type II collagen. In rats, only one ... Williams, RO (2004). Collagen-induced arthritis as a model for rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Mol Med. Vol. 98. pp. 207-16. doi: ... Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a condition induced in mice (or rats) to study rheumatoid arthritis. ... Arthritis in mice induced by a single immunisation with collagen v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
May 1993). "A missense mutation in type VII collagen in two affected siblings with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa ... This gene encodes the alpha chain of type VII collagen. The type VII collagen fibril, composed of three identical alpha ... Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita involves an autoimmune reaction to this form of collagen. Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 forms a ... of type VII collagen is amino-terminal and chimeric. Homology to cartilage matrix protein, the type III domains of fibronectin ...
Type IV collagen is the major structural component of basement membranes, which contains two or three COL4A1 proteins. Thus, ... It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. COL4A1 is a subunit of the type IV collagen and plays a role in ... "Chromosomal assignments of the genes coding for human types II, III, and IV collagen: a dispersed gene family". Proceedings of ... "Entrez Gene: COL4A1 collagen, type IV, alpha 1". "BioGPS - your Gene Portal System". biogps.org. Retrieved 2016-10-11. Peng, ...
The COL11A1 gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a ... Mutations in this gene are associated with type II Stickler syndrome and with Marshall syndrome. Stickler syndrome, type II is ... Keene DR, Oxford JT, Morris NP (1995). "Ultrastructural localization of collagen types II, IX, and XI in the growth plate of ... "Amplification of cDNAs for human cartilage-specific types II, IX and XI collagens from chondrocytes and Epstein-Barr virus- ...
... types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of ... Unlike type VIII collagen, the other short chain collagen, type X collagen is a homotrimer. Type X collagen has a short triple ... to type II and X collagen and to chondrocalcin (C-propeptide of type II collagen). Implications for anchoring function between ... chain of type X collagen occur in two unrelated families with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 54 ...
"Czech dysplasia metatarsal type: another type II collagen disorder". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (12): 1269-1275. ... Czech dysplasia metatarsal type is a rare type of Czech dysplasia which is characterized primarily by bone anomalies. ... Cys mutation in the procollagen type II gene (COL2A1)". Human Genetics. 92 (5): 499-505. doi:10.1007/BF00216458. ISSN 0340-6717 ... "Czech dysplasia metatarsal type - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". rarediseases.info.nih.gov ...
The collagen, mostly collagen type II, constrains the proteoglycans. The ECM responds to tensile and compressive forces that ... aggrecan and collagen type II) that form the extracellular matrix. In all vertebrates, cartilage is the main skeletal tissue in ... They present two distinct extracellular matrix regions. These regions are an acellular fibrous region with a high collagen ... A two-year implantation of the PVA hydrogels as artificial meniscus in rabbits showed that the gels remain intact without ...
Type II Collagen is an example of homotrimeric protein. Porins usually arrange themselves in membranes as trimers. Multiple ... When a multimer is formed from polypeptides produced by two different mutant alleles of a particular gene, the mixed multimer ...
Type II collagen can help distinguish it from other tumours. Ferri, Fred (2019). Ferri's clinical advisor 2019 : 5 books in 1. ... Müller S, Söder S, Oliveira AM, Inwards CY, Aigner T (August 2005). "Type II collagen as specific marker for mesenchymal ... The other type of sarcoma is a soft-tissue sarcoma. There are three main types of bone sarcoma based on tissue type - an ... It is the most common type found in adults. Unlike the other types it is rarely found in those under the age of twenty. Most ...
The first two catenins that were identified became known as α-catenin and β-catenin. α-Catenin can bind to β-catenin and can ... Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory. Cell-cell adhesion complexes ... Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR (October 2011). "A role for collagen XXIII in cancer cell ... For instance, higher levels of collagen XXIII have been associated with higher levels of catenins in cells. These heightened ...
The mare has two mammary glands, which are smaller in maiden mares. They have two ducts each, which open externally.[citation ... Due to its many twists and turns, it is a common place for a type of horse colic called an impaction. The small colon is 3.0 to ... Once a tendon is damaged the tendon will always be weaker, because the collagen fibres tend to line up in random arrangements ... The mare has two ovaries, usually 7 to 8 cm (2.8 to 3.1 in) in length and 3 to 4 cm (1.2 to 1.6 in) thick, that generally tend ...
Fluoride-containing toothpaste can be classified into two types, namely low-fluoride and high-fluoride toothpaste. Low-fluoride ... SDF, in addition to performing the functions of conventional topical fluorides, is suggested to have collagen-conserving ... A comparative study of two school-based programs". Community Dental Health. 33 (1): 23-26. ISSN 0265-539X. PMID 27149769. ... Fluoride has a high tendency to react with the calcium hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 in tooth enamel due to its high affinity ...
The inner layer is mainly composed of two cell types, specialized macrophages (macrophage-like synovial cells) and fibroblast- ... such as expression of several types of collagens and protein vimentin, a part of cytoskeletal filaments. Unlike fibroblasts, ... Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) represent a specialised cell type located inside joints in the synovium. These cells play a ... Synovial membrane is divided into two compartments - the outer layer (subintima) and the inner layer (intima). ...
2021). "Targeting DNA Homologous Repair Proficiency With Concomitant Topoisomerase II and c-Abl Inhibition". Frontiers in ... "Cytoskeletal protein PSTPIP1 directs the PEST-type protein tyrosine phosphatase to the c-Abl kinase to mediate Abl ... is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with src homologous and collagen gene (SHC) in chronic myelogenous ... 3.0.CO;2-G. PMID 10679771. S2CID 10977765. Yuan ZM, Shioya H, Ishiko T, Sun X, Gu J, Huang YY, Lu H, Kharbanda S, Weichselbaum ...
Two organisms of the same species can also age at different rates, making biological aging and chronological aging distinct ... While there may be some validity to the idea that for various types of specific damage detailed below that are by-products of ... Chemical damage to structural proteins can lead to loss of function; for example, damage to collagen of blood vessel walls can ... With respect to specific types of chemical damage caused by metabolism, it is suggested that damage to long-lived biopolymers, ...
The use of this type of product on a daily basis gradually enhances the exfoliation of the epidermis. This exposes newer skin ... Epidermal growth factor, to stimulate cell renewal and collagen production in the skin, and strengthen elasticity and structure ... 161 (2): 419-426. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09216.x. PMC 2774146. PMID 19438432. Bland, Martin (19 November 2009). "Keep ... Telang, PS (2013). "Vitamin C in dermatology". Indian Dermatol Online J. 4 (2): 143-6. doi:10.4103/2229-5178.110593. PMC ...
Excessive pronation of the foot (over 5 degrees) in the subtalar joint is a type of mechanical mechanism that can lead to ... This lack of blood supply can lead to the degradation of collagen fibers and inflammation. Tightness in the calf muscles has ... It is also a known side effect of fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, as are other types of tendinitis. Swelling ... Increased water content and disorganized collagen matrix in tendon lesions may be detected by ultrasonography or magnetic ...
It is also unlikely that Paleolithic hunter-gatherers were affected by modern diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, ... Upper Paleolithic art can be divided into two broad categories: figurative art such as cave paintings that clearly depicts ... 19 February 2019). "Exceptionally high δ15N values in collagen single amino acids confirm Neandertals as high-trophic level ... For instance, archaeological evidence from art and bear remains reveals that the bear cult apparently involved a type of ...
Tooth disease type 1C Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B1 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type ... Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma ... hemolytic anemia Cold contact urticaria Cold urticaria Cole carpenter syndrome Coleman-Randall syndrome Colitis Collagen ... CDG syndrome type 1A CDG syndrome type 1B CDG syndrome type 1C CDG syndrome type 2 CDG syndrome type 3 CDG syndrome type 4 CDK4 ...
This downregulation sees the removal of post-transcriptional repression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β receptor type II (TGF-βRII), and ... consequent collagen production. miR-590 downregulation has further been shown to be mediated by activation of alpha-7 nicotinic ...
II. Cooperation between subclasses of Ly+ cells in the generation of killer activity. J. Exp. Med. 1975;141:1390. Huber B, ... Shinohara ML, Kim J-H, Garcia VA, Cantor H. Engagement of the Type I interferon receptor on dendritic cells inhibits promotion ... Mobilization of natural killer cells inhibits development of collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 ... an early component of type 1 (cell-mediated) immunity. Science 287: 860-864. †Panoutsakopoulou V, †Sanchirico ME, Huster KM, ...
... loss-of-function mutations in one of the two normally paired TSC1 or one of the two normally paired TSC2 tumor suppressor genes ... Tuberous sclerosis is also associated with a second type of angiofibroma, adenoma sebaceum, also termed facial angiofibroma, in ... spindle-shaped or star-shaped fibroblasts and ectatic blood vessels in a dense collagen fiber connective tissue background. In ... 2 (3): 196-8. doi:10.1016/j.jdcr.2016.03.014. PMC 4885148. PMID 27274535. Liebman JJ, Nigro LC, Matthews MS (December 2014). " ...
Plenz GA, Deng MC, Robenek H, Völker W (2003). "Vascular collagens: spotlight on the role of type VIII collagen in ... integrin upon release from keratinocytes migrating on type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (31): 29368-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... They are found on a wide variety of cell types including T cells (the NKT cells), NK cells, fibroblasts and platelets. ... Expression of CD49b in conjunction with LAG-3 has been used to identify type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells. The DX5 monoclonal ...
There are two types of striated muscle: Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle (muscle attached to the skeleton) ... The perimysium organizes the muscle fibers, which are encased in collagen and endomysium, into fascicles. Each muscle fiber ... Type II). Cardiac muscle lies between the epicardium and the endocardium in the heart. Cardiac muscle cells generally only ... Based on their contractile and metabolic phenotypes, skeletal muscle can be classified as slow-oxidative (Type I) or fast- ...
The ISneck domain is a type of neck domain. There are two types of ISneck domain. This first is an ISneck which is interrupted ... Nummelin H, Merckel MC, Leo JC, Lankinen H, Skurnik M, Goldman A (2004). "The Yersinia adhesin YadA collagen-binding domain ... There are two types of stalk domain: the FGG domain and the right-handed stalk domain. Structure: The structure of this protein ... TAAs are one of those pathways and also go by the name type Vc secretion pathway. The mechanism is split into two. First, the ...
The expedition spent two days at the site, drying out their instruments and papers. Two more near-disasters on May 17 led to ... Protein sequencing of the material showed it to be collagen. In November 2010, hunter David Bradt stumbled on an elasmosaur ... There are four major types of habitat within the refuge: river bottom, riparian zones and wetlands, shoreline, and upland ( ... Four men shot the bear (with two bullets going through its lungs), but it continued to charge. Two more men shot the bear, but ...
... mice made deficient in LECT2 using a gene knockout method developed more severe osteoarthritis induced by anti-type II collagen ... and other types of inflammation-related disorders; the metabolic syndrome and diabetes; and various types of liver disease. The ... Mice made deficient in the Lect2 gene were compared to wild-type mice in a model of high fatty acid diet-induced obesity and ... Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and ...
... mainly protein collagen) and two thirds mineral (calcium phosphate mostly in the form of hydroxyapatite) renders its diagenesis ... The study of diagenesis in rocks is used to understand the geologic history they have undergone and the nature and type of ... At high temperatures, the rate of collagen loss will be accelerated and extreme pH can cause collagen swelling and accelerated ... During this phase, most bone collagen is lost and porosity is increased. The dissolution of the mineral phase caused by low pH ...
This strength comes from the type IV collagen in between the endothelial and epithelial cells. Damage can occur to this barrier ... the endothelial cells of the capillaries and the basement membrane between the two cells. The barrier is permeable to molecular ... It is formed by the type I pneumocytes of the alveolar wall, ... approximately 600 nm-2μm; in some places merely 200 nm) to ...
... most commonly in the first residue of a type II β-turn. The "mirror image" PPII backbone dihedral angles (75°, -150°) are ... This structure is somewhat similar to that adopted in the fibrous protein collagen, which is composed mainly of proline, ... The analog of the poly-Pro II helix in poly-glycine is called the poly-Gly II helix. Some proteins, such as the antifreeze ... A left-handed polyproline II helix (PPII, poly-Pro II) is formed when sequential residues all adopt (φ,ψ) backbone dihedral ...
Ligaments are tough, inelastic fibers made of collagen that connect two or more bones to form a joint and are important for ... type of cold compress that is activated similarly to a blood pressure cuff) have been effective in reducing swelling and ... Collagen fibers have about a 4% elastic zone where fibers stretch out with increased load on the joint. However, exceeding this ... Chronic sprains are caused by repetitive movements leading to overuse.[citation needed] Ligaments are collagen fibers that ...
The most widely used substance, gluteraldehyde crosslinked collagen (GAX collagen) proved to be of value in many patients. The ... This type of intervention can take a person months to learn and would not be a therapy option for people who are not physically ... or the patients own tissue that is placed under the urethra through one vaginal incision and two small abdominal incisions. The ... There is no evidence that one type of incontinence pad is superior with regard to skin health. A pessary is a medical device ...
Substantial collagen bundles anchor the dermis to the hypodermis in a way that permits most areas of the skin to move freely ... The dermis has two layers: the papillary dermis and the reticular layer. The papillary layer is the superficial layer that ... It is essentially composed of a type of cell known as adipocytes, which are specialized in accumulating and storing fats. These ... The skin (integument) is a composite organ, made up of at least two major layers of tissue: the epidermis and the dermis. The ...
There are numerous types of liposuction. Some can be described as techniques or modalities. Often surgeons will use two or more ... Referred to as Smart Lipo, this technique uses laser technology to coagulate and tighten the skin and boost collagen ... There are two different uses for liposuction: cosmetic liposuction to change the body's contour or shape and reconstructive, ... Referred to as "a vibrating cannula" in research studies, PAL uses a specific type of wand that creates an up and down, ...
... is a type of receptor which binds one or more signaling peptides or signaling proteins. An example ... CLIP DSIP Enteroglucagon Formyl peptide GALP GIP GRP Integrin ligands collagens fibrinogen fibronectin laminins ICAM-1 ICAM-2 ... B Neuromedin N Neuromedin S Neuromedin U Obestatin Osteocalcin Resistin Secretin Thymopoietin Thymosins Thymulin Urotensin-II ... 2-11) Galanin-like peptide Galmic Galnon J18 NAX 810-2 Antagonists C7 Galantide (M15) M32 M35 M40 M871 Agonists Galanin Galanin ...
Eye surgery List of surgeries by type Cillino, S; Pace F Di; Cillino G; Casuccio A (Sep 2011). "Biodegradable collagen matrix ... After two years researchers found that vision and quality of life are similar in both treatments. At the same time eye pressure ... Bleb leak - may cause flat bleb; leaking blebs can be revised with the use of ologen collagen matrix or bandage contact lens ... There were no statistically significant differences between the two procedures in regards to surgery failure rate, mean ...
... and angiotensin II-induced type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene expression in cultured human vascular smooth ... "Glycated albumin stimulation of PKC-beta activity is linked to increased collagen IV in mesangial cells". The American Journal ... Fos was first isolated as the cellular homologue of two viral v-fos oncogenes, both of which induce osteosarcoma in mice and ... Together, this hydrophobic surface holds the two subunits together. The basic region of the bZIP domain is just upstream to the ...
There are various types of hepatocytes that are used in these devices. Porcine hepatocytes are often used due to ease of ... Hepatocytes are suspended in a gel solution such as collagen, which is injected into a series of hollow fibers. In the case of ... Hepatic encephalopathy ≥ II Treatment Schedule: 3 to 5 eight-hour treatment sessions on consecutive days Continuous treatment ... A liver support system or diachysis is a type of therapeutic device to assist in performing the functions of the liver. Such ...
Type II Collagen. Type II Collagen. - See: collagen. - Discussion:. - accounts for over 50 percent of the dry wt of cartilage; ... type II collagen mutations:. - mutations in type II collagen as a cause of chondrodysplasias:. - chondrodysplasias are highly ... type II collagen is also found in small amounts in vitreous gel and in a number of other tissues during early development;. - ... since the strength of cartilage depends largely on presence of fibrils of type II collagen, it is possible that some. chondro- ...
Discover the benefits of native type II collagen for convenient and low-dose supplements. ... Collagen is becoming increasingly popular in the joint health market. ... This is why hydrolysed collagen is also known as collagen peptides, or denatured type II collagen. Native type II collagen is ... Native type II collagen has been shown to help modulate the immune response against endogenous type II collagen through its ...
BioCell Collagen® - Hydrolyzed Type II - 120 Veg Capsules Great Collagen Alternative. 5 * ... BioCell Collagen® 1 g (1‚000mg) / *. (Proprietary Chicken Sternal Cartilage Extract‚ providing). Hydrolyzed Type II Collagen ... NOW BioCell Collagen® - Hydrolyzed Type II - 120 Veg Capsules Shop all NOW products ... BioCell Collagen® is a versatile nutritional supplement that supports both joint health and moisture retention in mature skin. ...
... high levels of the cartilage turnover biomarker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) predict an ... Urinary type II collagen C-terminal peptide is associated with synovitis and predicts structural bone loss in very early ... Urinary type II collagen C-terminal peptide is associated with synovitis and predicts structural bone loss in very early ... CTX-II data were log transformed to a normal distribution. Associations between variables were examined using Pearsons r/ ...
The creep strains of scaffold with different stress levels show the two stages: the rapidly increasing stage and the second ... The results show that the three-dimensional silk fibroin-typeⅡ collagen scaffold has good porosity and water absorption, which ... Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Testing of Mechanical Properties for 3D Printed Silk Fibroin-Type II Collagen Scaffolds ... 2018). Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Testing of Mechanical Properties for 3D Printed Silk Fibroin-Type II Collagen ...
... collagen gene (COL2A1) in order to examine the segregation of this gene within a large pedigree with type II Ehlers-Danlos ... syndrome (EDS). The EDS gene and the collagen gene segregate independently within the pedigree and therefore COL2A1 can be ... Exclusion of the alpha 1(II) collagen structural gene as the mutant locus in type II Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. ... Exclusion of the alpha 1(II) collagen structural gene as the mutant locus in type II Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. ...
Analysis of the Gene for Cartilege-Specific Type-II Collagen in Kniest Disease ...
ELISA Grade Mouse Type II Collagen with 10X Buffer. Product Name. ELISA Grade Mouse Type II Collagen with 10X Buffer. ... Mouse Anti-Mouse Type II Collagen IgG Antibody Assay Kit, OPD $500.00. Add To Cart. ... Mouse Anti-Mouse Type II Collagen IgG Antibody Assay Kit, TMB $500.00. Add To Cart. ... Citrullinated mouse collagen administered to DBA/1J mice in the absence of adjuvant initiates arthritis. Int Immunopharmacol, ...
Type II collagenopathies: Mutations in the procollagen II gene (COL2A1) cause achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino dysplasia ... Type 11 collagen group. This includes the following conditions:. * Stickler syndrome types 2 and 3 ... Mutations in osteopetrosis: These mutations cause type I (LRP5), type II (CLCN7), Van Buchem disease (SOST), sclerostenosis ( ... type I and type II, Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome, Muenke syndrome, hypochondroplasia), TWIST (Saethre-Chotzen syndrome), MSX2 ...
On the basis of its potential to block anti-collagen type II (CII) antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) and to suppress the ... An IL-1β-activated endothelial layer formed by a murine glomerular cell line (glEND.2) was used to assay the interaction with ... Concomitantly, ALP suppressed the IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation and the upregulation of E-selectin expression in glEND.2 cells ... Modulation of granulocyte-endothelium interactions by antileukoproteinase: inhibition of anti-type II collagen antibody-induced ...
acne Amado Anti Aging Baby Bright Body Lotion Body Scrub Cathy Doll Chame CLEANSER Coffee Coffee Weight Loss Collagen dark ...
Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities. In: ... Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities. / Mahdi, ... title = "Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities", ... Autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies and type II collagen Specificities. ...
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60 Disclaimer Amount Per Serving BioCell Collagen II® (hydrolyzed chicken collagen type II, providing Chondroitin Sulfate 100 ... BioCell Collagen II® (hydrolyzed chicken collagen type II, providing Chondroitin Sulfate 100 mg and Hyaluronic Acid 50 mg)500 ... Collagen Type II 500 mg Click or scroll to zoom Tap or pinch to zoom ...
Featuring BioCell Collagen®. 🔴 Joint Health and Mobility II, Vitacherry, Boron & HA, 60 Capsules ... Natures Lab, Hyaluronic Acid with BioCell Collagen and OptiMSM, 180 Veg Capsules ... Swanson, Glucosamine & Collagen Type II, 90 Capsules. 🔴 ... Now Foods, Collagen Joint Support Powder, 11oz (312g) HK$350.00 ...
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an experimental autoimmune disease that is widely used as a model of human rheumatoid ... Caymans Mouse Anti-Type II Collagen IgG Assay is an immunometric (i.e., sandwich) assay which can be used to measure anti-type ... Stuart, J.M., Townes, A.S., and Kang, A.H. Nature and specificity of the immune response to collagen in type II collagen-. ... Type II Collagen IgG Assay Kit (bovine). Cat No: 500410 Size: 96 wells ...
BioCell Collagen® has clinically documented bioavailability, and has been shown to support joint health and skin ... ... Type II Collagen Complex provides BioCell Collagen®, a low molecular weight, watersoluble glycosaminoglycan complex completely ... Jarrow Formulas® Type II Collagen Complex provides BioCell Collagen®, a low molecular weight, watersoluble glycosaminoglycan ... BioCell Collagen® has clinically documented bioavailability, and has been shown to support joint health and skin hydration.*. ...
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... Wound Healing Care Non-Hydrolyzed Advanced Products ... Medifil® II Collagen Particles are collagen in their "purest form". Non-hydrolyzed collagen retains a higher percentage of its ... and endothelial cells to move and attach themselves is influenced by integrin interaction with collagen, type 1 collagen is ... Type 1 collagen is required for the extracellular matrix to produce growth factors, as well as to store and retain growth ...
TwinLab Maxilife Collagen Type II - 60 Caps at My Vendor. Supports Healthy joint function, Radiant skin. 100% pure Type II ... Twinlab MaxiLife® Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid contains a patented, 100% pure Type II Collagen extracted from chicken ... Though there are over 14 different types of collagen, only Type II collagen has been shown effective in clinical research. The ... Several types of goods are exempt from being returned. Perishable goods such as food, flowers, newspapers or magazines cannot ...
suplement diety BioCell Collagen Hydrolyzed Type II został wyprodukowany przez NOW Foods, oraz zgłosiła go do rejestracji firma ... BioCell Collagen Hydrolyzed Type II to suplement diety w formie Kapsułki wegetariańskie. W skład tego suplementu diety wchodzą ... Kwas hialuronowy, Siarczan chondroityny, Hydrolizowany kolagen typu 2, Kolagen Biocell (zastrzeżony ekstrakt z chrząstki ... BioCell Collagen Hydrolyzed Type II BioCell Collagen Hydrolyzed Type II to suplement diety w formie Kapsułki wegetariańskie. W ...
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... type 2 and some type 1&3. As Im looking, reading and learning, Im seeing a corrolation between collagen and protein; almost ... suggesting that if my protein intake is good (160-180g per day...160 lbs) that I dont need collagen, or am already getting it ... examine.com/supplements/type-ii-collagen/. The primary benefit of undenatured CII appears to be improvement in joint pain, ... examine.com/supplements/type-ii-collagen/. The primary benefit of undenatured CII appears to be improvement in joint pain, ...
Buy collagen for joints and ligaments supplements in powder and capsules with different types such as hydrolyzed type ii ... uc collagen, and collagen joint supplement formulas. Collagen can be found in ligaments, muscles, knees and other parts. ... Discover Codeage collection of collagen for joint including undenatured type ii collagen, ... Codeage offers a collection of joint collagen formulas including UC II collagen (undenatured type 2 collagen), multi collagen ...
Undenatured Type Ii Collagen Powder Manufacturers, Factory, Suppliers From China, Standing still today and searching into the ... Undenatured Type Ii Collagen Powder. Undenatured Type Ii Collagen Powder - Manufacturers, Suppliers, Factory from China Were ... Fish Collagen Peptide, Chicken Sternum Collagen Type Ii, Chicken Collagen Peptides, Collagen In Chicken Breast, Chicken Sternal ... We are able to guarantee you products high quality and competitive value for Undenatured Type Ii Collagen Powder, Collagen In ...
Rat Anti-Human Type II Collagen Antibody Assay Kit, OPD. Product Name. Rat Anti-Human Type II Collagen Antibody Assay Kit, OPD ... Rat Anti-Type I and Type II Collagen IgG ELISA Kit. Collagen Coated Wells. Human II. ... Collagen *Human Anti-Type I/II Collagen. *Human Anti-Type V Collagen ... Collagen *Human Anti-Type I/II Collagen. *Human Anti-Type V Collagen ...
... bovine hide collagen peptides safety][Girls praise was raped by the landlord Hangzhou police-▷•□: Rape is not attempted The ... on drying calculation usp marine collagen manufacturers marine collagen peptides vs bovine maxilife chicken collagen type ii ... collagen peptides collagen wholesale custom collagen dried fish scales for collagen empty gelatin capsules face care collagen ... hydrolyzed chicken collagen type ii - proteiindustriesanadaeo. Posted on 2022年11月16日. by admin ...
Producing high quality Edible Chicken Collagen Type II White Powder With Min 26% Chondroitin products. ... Chinas leading Collagen Type 2 product market, With strict quality control Collagen Type 2 factories, ... High quality Edible Chicken Collagen Type II White Powder With Min 26% Chondroitin from China, ... Edible Chicken Collagen Type II White Powder With Min 26% Chondroitin. Chicken collagen type II is the collagen powder ...
NOW Supplements, UC-II Type II Collagen with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 60 Veg Capsules. #ad. ... NOW Supplements, 120 Veg Capsules, UC-II Type II Collagen with Undenatured Type II Collagen. #ad. ... With undenatured type ii collagen: derived from chicken sternum cartilage, uc-ii is a patented form of collagen with ... NOW #ad - With undenatured type ii collagen: derived from chicken sternum cartilage, uc-ii is a patented form of collagen with ...
... matrix metalloproteinase-derived fragments of type II collagen) and hsCRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein) were quantified ... monoclonal antibody was developed as a biomarker of chondrocyte hypertrophy through measurement of type X collagen (ColX). The ... The data suggest that chondrocyte hypertrophy and subsequent collagen X fragmentation seem to be increased in a subset of ... We found significantly higher levels of ColX in patients with KL score 2 compared to patients with no radiographic evidence of ...
  • Hydrolysed collagen is manufactured via a specific hydrolysis process, where enzymes "cut" the triple helix molecule into smaller pieces, i.e. short-chain peptides. (nutraingredients.com)
  • This is why hydrolysed collagen is also known as collagen peptides, or denatured type II collagen. (nutraingredients.com)
  • I just have typical age/mileage wear on joints & nothing severe, but if it helps, since I added collagen peptides & turmeric into the mix on top of other supplements, I've noticed less irritation especially in knees. (bodybuilding.com)
  • And you can get the same great benefits for hair skin and nails as our collagen peptides. (mustaer.com)
  • Expertly sourced - vital proteins cartilage collagen is sourced from grass-fed, pasture-raised bovine tracheal cartilage and is rich in Type II Collagen Peptides and Chondroitin Sulfate. (mustaer.com)
  • Hydrolyzed collagen is a protein that has been broken down into smaller peptides to support absorption. (silveronyx.com)
  • bovine vs marine collagen peptides]Original title: Ministry of Education: "Free Teachers◆▽=" renamed ▪…▪"Public Warehouse", the performance period is changed to the "Teacher Education Revitalization Plan (2018-2022)◇▪▽-" (2018-2022) "issued by the Ministry of Education, etc. (hxpeptonemanufacturer.com)
  • our collagen peptides pill includes all 5 types of collagen hydrolysate to help restore your youthful skin health, hair, nails, bones, tendons, joints, and gut health. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • All-in-one collagen supplement with a potent blend of hydrolyzed collagen peptides from grass-fed beef, collagen from chicken bone broth, collagen from eggshell and types i, ii, iii, v and x collagen in a convenient small capsule form. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • During the process of manufacture, collagen is hydrolyzed to break the protein into the smallest peptides. (ipsnews.net)
  • This supplement contains the purest form of grass-fed collagen peptides (Type I and II) that is absorbed very fast into the bloodstream. (ipsnews.net)
  • The collagen peptides also aid in the growth of lean muscles. (ipsnews.net)
  • Hydrolyzed Type 1 & 3 Collagen Peptides, Grass Fed, Pasture Raised Bovine. (eatyournutrition.com)
  • 10 grams of collagen peptides and only 35 calories per serving. (eatyournutrition.com)
  • Hydrolyzed collagen peptides provide the amino acids of collagen synthesis in the dermis via increased elastin fiber creation (1,2). (eatyournutrition.com)
  • What we can do though, is 'hydrolyze' the collagen, which suggests it's broken down right into a lot smaller items (' peptides') by water, making it usable by your body. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen Complex supplies easy-to-digest hydrolyzed collagen peptides. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • What is the difference between hydrolyzed collagen and collagen peptides? (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen supplements are otherwise identified as "hydrolyzed collagen" or "collagen peptides," however they coincide. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen Complicated offers easy-to-digest hydrolyzed collagen peptides. (afemo.org)
  • I've been sharing a few different recipes on my blog lately featuring products from Vital Proteins and while I love that they offer so many different kinds and flavors of collagen products, I still think the most versatile product they offer is the plain old unflavored collagen peptides . (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • One of the nicest features of these regular collagen peptides is that they are unflavored so you can literally include them in so many different types of recipes with no weird flavor. (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • For example just this weekend I whipped up a batch of sugar cookie blondie bars (adapted from No Excuses Nutrition ) where the collagen peptides replace an entire cup of flour for what would typically be used in a blondie bar. (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • Instead of just adding carbs from the flour, using unflavored collagen peptides added extra protein to these blondie bars without any weird flavors and they still kept a great texture. (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • If you want to start taking more collagen but don't know where to start I've rounded up 25 recipes below from some amazing food bloggers that ALL use Vital Proteins unflavored collagen peptides as a major ingredient in the recipe! (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • There are many different types of collagen on the market and they come from various sources, which include: marine, chicken, eggs, and bovine collagen peptides from cows. (amandean.com)
  • Twinlab MaxiLife® Collagen Type II with Hyaluronic Acid contains a patented, 100% pure Type II Collagen extracted from chicken cartilage. (myvendor.net)
  • The collagen in our formula, along with naturally occurring levels of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, helps to promote joint health. (myvendor.net)
  • Chicken collagen type II is the collagen powder extracted from the chcicken sternum, it is of yellowish powder, and contain 26%Mucopolysaccharide (As Chondroitin ) and more than 10% Hyaluronic Acid that are very good for joint health. (chondroitinpowder.com)
  • 2. Combined shipment of all ingredients: We are able to supply almost all joint care ingredients including: Chondroitin Sulfate, Glucosamine, MSM, Hyaluronic Acid. (chondroitinpowder.com)
  • This top-quality collagen supplement provides a supreme source of this compound combined with hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate. (pipingrock.com)
  • Hyaluronic Acid with BioCell Collagen II is a combination formula featuring nutritional raw materials to support joint and connective tissue health. (kroger.com)
  • A 2014 study conducted on Labrador retrievers found that administering hydrolyzed collagen along with hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and gamma oryzanol help to alleviate the symptoms and lessen the occurrence of elbow dysplasia, a common deformity of the elbow joint. (amandean.com)
  • [1] ​ ​ Of the 28 different types of collagen that have been identified, type II collagen is the main structural protein in cartilage. (nutraingredients.com)
  • While the ease of use and low cost are the most evident advantages of collagen particles, the particle form of a collagen protein provides direct bioavailability for the wound bed, promoting wound healing. (humanbiosciences.com)
  • Non-hydrolyzed collagen retains a higher percentage of its native triple helix protein structure, providing for greater molecular and scaffold stability during wound healing. (humanbiosciences.com)
  • In the wound care market, there are many hydrolyzed collagen formats that do not compare to the high collagen protein structure and healing outcomes as do Medifil® II Collagen Particles. (humanbiosciences.com)
  • Is collagen just protein. (bodybuilding.com)
  • 160 lbs) that I don't need collagen, or am already getting it in my protein. (bodybuilding.com)
  • As I understand it, collagen is a type of protein but pretty poor if you are comparing it to whey for example. (bodybuilding.com)
  • I don't rely on the collagen for my protein intake at all. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Collagen protein comes from the bones, skin etc from animal sources. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Collagen is an abundant protein present in our organism. (codeage.com)
  • Undenatured type ii collagen is the principal structural protein in cartilage that is responsible for its tensile strength and toughness. (mustaer.com)
  • The levels of C-Col10, C2M (matrix metalloproteinase-derived fragments of type II collagen) and hsCRP (high sensitive C-reactive protein) were quantified by ELISAs in serum of 271 OA patients stratified by Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score 0-4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Revive Natural's Multi-Collagen Protein Powder Mix features the 5 collagen types your body naturally craves, including I, II, III, V and X. (revivecollagen.co)
  • Collagen is the most abundant protein within the human body and is comprised of amino acids: glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and arginine. (drewisdope.com)
  • Tones, rejuvenates & helps joints: reduction in collagen protein leads to weaker bones, fragile nails, brittle hair and dry skin. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • Promotes vitality and anti aging: this pasture raised, grass-fed and marine collagen protein pills greatly support collagen regeneration which stimulates your body to effectively renew tissues, helping you maintain a radiant youthful skin complexion. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • Collagen is a type of protein that is produced to keep the skin firm and supple. (howtocure.com)
  • Increases and maintains type II collagen, the essential protein building block in your cartilage. (profound-performance.com)
  • Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • When it comes to sources of collagen beef, chicken, fish and eggs are foods which are high in protein. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • Most abundant protein in the body is paramount in maintaining optimal connective tissue integrity 2,3). (eatyournutrition.com)
  • Collagen is the main structural protein (or building blocks) of connective tissues (such as skin, muscles, tendons, and ligaments) and occurs naturally in our bodies. (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • Collagen is the most numerous healthy protein in your body, and it's a major part of your tendons, skin, bones, teeth, muscles as well as tendons. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen is one of the most numerous healthy protein in your body, and also it's a huge part of your tendons, skin, bones, teeth, muscular tissues as well as tendons. (afemo.org)
  • Marine collagen is high in protein, and has zero carbs so fits perfectly within the perimeters of the ketogenic diet. (kollmarine.com)
  • This collagen is actually a protein found in the connective tissue of the skin, which helps restore the healthy texture of normal skin. (wellnesszon.com)
  • Collagen is the most abundant protein in our body but we stop producing as much of it when we hit our mid-twenties. (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • While collagen does have amazing health benefits, at the end of the day it is a protein and thus it does have calories (two scoops of collagen has 70 calories and 18 grams of protein), so my favorite way to use collagen is in a recipe where it can replace flour or some other ingredient so I'm not just wasting calories by dissolving the collagen into liquid. (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • In fact, just like humans, collagen accounts for 30% of a dog's total protein, making it the most abundant protein in your dog's body! (amandean.com)
  • Beef gelatin powder is another versatile source of collagen protein that you can add to your dog's nutrition and it can act as a thickener in high protein and homemade dog treats and snacks! (amandean.com)
  • The patients' levels of protein C, antithrombin III and in vitro platelet aggregation in response to collagen were compared with those of 20 controls. (who.int)
  • It usually develops when changes in fat and collagen (a fiber-like protein in your body) happen beneath the skin's surface. (cdc.gov)
  • Vital Proteins #ad - Health benefits - type ii collagen is the major structural component present in connective tissues and is rich in the amino acids glycine and proline. (mustaer.com)
  • Collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in the human body. (silveronyx.com)
  • Collagens are a family of proteins that strengthen and support many tissues in the body, including skin, ligaments, bones, tendons, and muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It also supplies type II collagen proteins, chondroitin sulfate and other elements required for healthy tissues. (kroger.com)
  • Features Biocell Collagen II, A High-Quality, 100% Natural, Clinically Researched Combination Of Type II Collagen Proteins And Other Nutrients. (kroger.com)
  • The collagen proteins are hydrolyzed to improve their benefits and support faster absorption. (ipsnews.net)
  • Our body primarily produces collagen of three types/proteins: Types I, II, and III. (howtocure.com)
  • Proteins, mainly animal products such as chicken, fish, shellfish, and egg whites, are extremely rich in collagen and must be a staple in one's diet. (howtocure.com)
  • Collagen proteins are long chains of amino acids. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • All skin is made up of many different types of proteins, the most important being elastin and collagen. (athrefacialplastics.com)
  • These two proteins form a matrix to give skin its volume, texture, and elasticity. (athrefacialplastics.com)
  • 1. FIBROBLASTS: secrete proteins of extracellular fibers, like collagen. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Thank you Vital Proteins for sponsoring this post so I can share all the different types of recipes that collagen can be used in! (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • Though there are over 14 different types of collagen, only Type II collagen has been shown effective in clinical research. (myvendor.net)
  • I just ordered 2 different types of collagen. (bodybuilding.com)
  • There are at least 28 different types of collagen within the human body. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • And with those different types of collagen come different benefits. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Collagen is the main component of connective tissues that make up tendons, ligaments, skin and cartilage. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Type 1: The most abundant collagen in the body, type I collagen is important for bone support, skin, and connective tissues. (silveronyx.com)
  • Researchers believe that the abnormal collagen weakens connective tissues throughout the body, which causes the signs and symptoms of classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagen is crucial to maintaining the structure and elasticity of your pets' skin, ligaments, joints, muscles, and connective tissues. (amandean.com)
  • Codeage offers a collection of joint collagen formulas including UC II collagen (undenatured type 2 collagen), multi collagen formulas, and marine collagen in powder and capsule formats. (codeage.com)
  • And is marine collagen compatible with the diet? (kollmarine.com)
  • We recommend our unflavored marine collagen over other sources because it is the most bioavailable source on the market. (amandean.com)
  • Discover the benefits of native type II collagen for convenient and low-dose supplements. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Native type II collagen vs. hydrolysed type II collagen: what's the difference? (nutraingredients.com)
  • Native type II collagen is not hydrolysed and maintains its characteristic three-dimensional structure. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Through this mode of action native type II collagen is recognised by the immune system as an endogenous substance, i.e. naturally occurring in the body, and deactivates the body's immune response against its own collagen. (nutraingredients.com)
  • NOW #ad - With undenatured type ii collagen: derived from chicken sternum cartilage, uc-ii is a patented form of collagen with undenatured native type II collagen that works with the immune system to support healthy joints. (mustaer.com)
  • When rats were injected intradermally with an oil emulsion of native type II collagen, they developed an inflammatory polyarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • By partnering with Bioiberica, ByHealth aims to capitalise on the untapped potential of new product development with native type II collagen and respond to the growing number of consumers looking to support their mobility with effective, convenient products across the country. (foodbeverageasia.com)
  • We are able to guarantee you products high quality and competitive value for Undenatured Type Ii Collagen Powder, Collagen In Chicken Skin , Glucosamine Sulfate & Chondroitin , Supplements With A Combo Of Glucosamine Sulfate And Chondroitin , Chicken Cartilage Collagen . (beyond-collagen.com)
  • Video Demonstration of Solubility of Fish Collagen Peptide Fish Collagen manufacturer understand that fish collagen powder is a nutritional ingredient that gains more and more popularity in s. (beyond-collagen.com)
  • Dr. Collagen capsules are typically enjoyed by those who'd rather not add collagen powder to their drinks or foods. (mustaer.com)
  • the best alternative to collagen powder is collagen supplements as they are so quick and convenient to take with you in your handbag, car or pocket. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • Supplementing with this high-quality collagen powder boosts the body's collagen content. (ipsnews.net)
  • NativePath Collagen is available in the form of tasteless, dissolvable powder. (ipsnews.net)
  • NativePath Collagen powder repairs the linings of the gut and improves intestinal functions and immunity. (ipsnews.net)
  • The various types of formulation includes matrix and gel hemostats, sheet and pad hemostats, sponge hemostats, and powder hemostats. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • One of the most basic ways to use collagen is to stir 1-2 scoops into your coffee in the morning: the powder dissolves into the liquid and doesn't change the taste at all! (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • Take 1-2 capsules two or three times daily. (purelyintegrative.com)
  • Convenient capsules: Take two capsules per day or as directed by your qualified healthcare professional. (mustaer.com)
  • Collagen Capsules by Hello Lovely! (silveronyx.com)
  • Predominantly associated with skin health across Asia, the collaboration aims to educate Chinese consumers about the benefits of collagen supplementation on joint health. (foodbeverageasia.com)
  • There is therefore significant opportunity for brands looking to target Chinese consumers - especially if they educate them about the benefits of collagen beyond skin and beauty," commented Jaume Reguant, healthcare director at Bioiberica. (foodbeverageasia.com)
  • What are the benefits of collagen supplements? (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • The benefits of collagen are not limited to the human body. (amandean.com)
  • It is also beneficial in relieving joint pain, as depleting levels of collagen( 1 ) can lead to a weakening of the ligaments and muscles, thus affecting the joints. (howtocure.com)
  • This collagen is found in our dermis(skin), ligaments, bones and tendons. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • Type 1 Collagen - is a key building block of our skin, teeth, bones, ligaments and tendons. (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • Though collagen-boosting supplements and skincare have seen a rise globally in sales and thus, popularity, a study in 2012 showed that fruits and vegetables are the safest ways of boosting collagen production in the body. (howtocure.com)
  • Since the body reduces its production of collagen as one grows older, it's essential that you look towards external supplements and foods to boost its production. (howtocure.com)
  • Collagen supplements are becoming must-have products in our "inner beauty regimes" and for good reason! (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • Taking collagen supplements can help to lessen and prevent the depletion of collagen. (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • Whilst these supplements are not collagen per se, they do support the body in producing collagen. (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • What are the Perks of Collagen Supplements? (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen supplements are not only great for your skin yet also for your hair, nails, and joints. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • There are many different sorts of collagen supplements on the market today. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • That requires collagen supplements? (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen supplements are not only helpful for your skin but likewise for your hair, nails, as well as joints. (afemo.org)
  • Unflavored collagen supplements are a completely safe way to boost your dog's overall health and wellness from puppy through until old age. (amandean.com)
  • Collagen supplements can boost collagen production in the dermis to promote hair growth and coat health. (amandean.com)
  • For dogs and humans alike, when we take collagen supplements it gets broken down into its amino acids glycine and proline. (amandean.com)
  • Collagen can also play a role in our articular cartilage, a tissue known to help cover the ends of our joints and bones. (codeage.com)
  • The immune system mistakes these collagen fibers as being akin to pathogenic cellular invaders, ultimately signaling for killer T-cells to attack the joints with these collagen fibers. (drewisdope.com)
  • When the killer T-cells reach the joints, proinflammatory cytokines are released in attempt to eviscerate collagen - mistaken as a pathogenic cellular invader. (drewisdope.com)
  • Type II & X: Supports joints, Supports bones, and cartilage, and can help support comfort and mobility. (silveronyx.com)
  • Type I collagen is found in the skin and hairs and Type III in the joints. (ipsnews.net)
  • Chicken bones are predominantly type II collagen, which is great for joints/cartilage. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Collagen in your cartilage is the mechanical reason that joints don't just crack and also break whenever you leap or run. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Supplementing the diet with hydrolyzed collagen has actually been associated with joint benefits for a whole series of people, from age-related joint deterioration, to highly-active athletes who push their joints to the limit. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Supplementing the diet with hydrolyzed collagen has been connected with joint benefits for a whole range of individuals, from age-related joint destruction, to highly-active professional athletes who push their joints to the limit. (afemo.org)
  • This inflammatory attack is mediated and/or exacerbated by exposed microscopic collagen fibers. (drewisdope.com)
  • The manufacturers hydrolyze the grass-fed collagen fibers. (ipsnews.net)
  • It provides the skin with more collagen fibers so that the skin remains hydrated from the inside. (ipsnews.net)
  • These types all create relatively long fibers (compared to body cells). (afemo.org)
  • They are bundles of fibers containing 3 collagen fibers each. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Despite its thin nature, this leather has a high tensile strength of 90 newtons from its multi-dimensional collagen fibers. (libertyleathergoods.com)
  • The collagen molecules then arrange themselves into long, thin fibrils with another form of collagen, type I. Type V collagen regulates the width (diameter) of those fibrils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gelatin is a cooked form of collagen full of amino acids such as alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, and proline. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • Jarrow Formulas® Type II Collagen Complex provides BioCell Collagen®, a low molecular weight, watersoluble glycosaminoglycan complex completely derived from chicken sternum cartilage. (mysupplements.store)
  • Remarkably, the strength of the chemotaxis stimulation is proportional to the amount of collagen present. (humanbiosciences.com)
  • The incidence and severity of arthritis increased as the amount of collagen injected was increased. (nih.gov)
  • While both chicken and beef bones provide a healthy amount of collagen , the types and amount of collagen varies. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Studies recommend a diet regimen supplemented with hydrolyzed collagen can support the maintenance of the bone collagen already present - suggesting less natural degradation of the bones with age. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Researches suggest a diet plan supplemented with hydrolyzed collagen can sustain the upkeep of the bone collagen already present - implying much less all-natural destruction of the bones with age. (afemo.org)
  • Widely used in beauty and cosmetics, as well as food and beverage applications, collagen is now making big moves in the joint health market, creating exciting opportunities for dietary supplement manufacturers to innovate in this sector. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Biocell collagen is a versatile nutritional supplement that supports both joint health and moisture retention in mature skin. (mustaer.com)
  • While collagen production naturally starts slowing down as we age, we can regenerate it through potent supplement powders like Revive Naturals. (revivecollagen.co)
  • This is a collagen supplement that provides the body with extra collagen for improving overall body functioning. (ipsnews.net)
  • This supplement provides the body with the required levels of collagen for healthy metabolism and digestion. (ipsnews.net)
  • This collagen supplement contains pure grass-fed collagen. (ipsnews.net)
  • It is only a supplement to boost the collagen levels of the body. (ipsnews.net)
  • As a dietary supplement, mix 10 grams (2) scoops with 8-12 fluid ounces of water or beverage of choice. (eatyournutrition.com)
  • As you may have found on your search for the perfect collagen supplement, collagen is not vegan and tends to be derived from the hides of cows or fish scales. (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • This short article will aid you determine which collagen supplement is best for you. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Below are some actions to comply with when trying to find a high quality collagen supplement. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Here are some actions to adhere to when looking for a high quality collagen supplement. (afemo.org)
  • Thus I am trying to supplement my diet with more collagen since it is shown to enhance your hair, skin and nails, improves digestions, and even boosts joint health. (mygirlishwhims.com)
  • If you're already taking an unflavored non-GMO collagen supplement, you can share a couple of scoops with your pet! (amandean.com)
  • There's no need to buy a special supplement just for them, human-grade collagen is also safe for animals. (amandean.com)
  • Bovine (cow or beef) collagen comes from cows, specifically from their bones, skin, and muscles. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • Type I is found throughout the entire body and is beneficial for joint, skin, vital organs, blood vessels, digestion and bones. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • Bones are boiled, collagen is released and thickens. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • As far as collagen content is concerned, chicken bones do offer less than beef, but they also offer a different type. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Though beef still has more collagen overall, thanks to its denser, heavier bones. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Beef bones are more dense than chicken bones, which yields a higher concentration of minerals and collagen compared to chicken. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Most people don't eat bones, skin, and connective cells- the parts of pets that contain collagen. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Just like their owners, dogs tend to produce less and less collagen as they age which can bring about skin irritations and conditions, as well as problems with bones and joint health. (amandean.com)
  • Collagen helps to fortify bones, skin and teeth in both humans and dogs. (amandean.com)
  • Bone broth naturally contains bovine collagen because it is cooked using the bones and cartilage of cows. (amandean.com)
  • They contain amino acids that are essential for the production of collagen in the body( 2 ). (howtocure.com)
  • That suggests they do not obtain the amino acids (especially hydroxyproline, glycine, and also proline) that are located in collagen yet not much in muscle meat. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • That implies they do not get the amino acids (specifically hydroxyproline, glycine, and also proline) that are discovered in collagen yet not much in muscular tissue meat. (afemo.org)
  • Although it has many important functions in the body, collagen is best known for its structural role - providing a framework for tissues throughout the body. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Collagen in your body gradually decreases as you age, which can lead to having weaker tissues over time. (silveronyx.com)
  • Studies suggest that type V collagen also controls the assembly of other types of collagen into fibrils in several tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO ) dis- ions in tissues such as collagen or muscle. (who.int)
  • Biocell Collagen II Is Manufactured Using A Patented Processing Method Which Ensures Rapid Absorption. (kroger.com)
  • Northampton, MA (11/12/19) - Perfect Type II Collagen (Cartilage) is now the world's first 100% bovine cartilage collagen to receive the Glyphosate Residue Free Certification from the Detox Project. (perfectsupplements.com)
  • Circulating levels of anti-type II collagen antibody are strongly associated with the development of arthritis and can be used as a biomarker of CIA. (bertin-bioreagent.com)
  • Cayman's Mouse Anti-Type II Collagen IgG Assay is an immunometric (i.e., sandwich) assay which can be used to measure anti-type II collagen antibody in plasma or serum without prior sample purification. (bertin-bioreagent.com)
  • It also boosts the body's internal process of collagen production. (ipsnews.net)
  • VitaPost Collagen Complex might have great benefits supporting the body's maintenance of the skeleton, particularly in ladies that are undertaking all-natural hormone adjustments. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • VitaPost Collagen Complex could have terrific advantages supporting the body's upkeep of the skeleton, especially in females that are undertaking all-natural hormonal changes. (afemo.org)
  • 2. MACROPHAGES: act as the "attack dogs" of the body's immune system. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Each offering of VitaPost Collagen Complex gives replenishing hydrolyzed collagen. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • 4. chicken collagen type II can promote the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, advance the viscosity of synovia, and improve the metabolism of arthroidal cartilage. (chondroitinpowder.com)
  • 1.chicken collagen type II is used as medicine's raw material, it can promote the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, advance the viscosity of synovia, and improve the metabolism of arthroidal cartilage with evident effect of relieving inflmmation and easing pain. (chondroitinpowder.com)
  • There are very sophisticated and natural plant-based alternatives that will support collagen synthesis and prevent collagen depletion. (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • 5. Henrotin YE, Deberg MA, Crielaard JM, Piccardi N, Msika P, Sanchez C. Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables prevent the inhibitory effect of osteoarthritic subchondral osteoblasts on aggrecan and type II collagen synthesis by chondrocytes. (original-asu.com)
  • Accelerates skin metabolism, promr otys collagen synthesis, controls oil secret prevents melanin generation, minimize ores and whitens skin, leaving it hyzratc and bright. (thewomenwears.com)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP 7) (Matrilysin, PUMP-1) is known to cleave the major matrix molecules found within the IVD, i.e., the proteoglycan aggrecan and collagen type II. (shu.ac.uk)
  • Data have shown that ASU Expanscience TM restore normal levels of cartilage matrix molecules (e.g. aggrecan and collagen II) by counteracting the inhibitory effects of osteoblasts on matrix component production 5 . (original-asu.com)
  • Quantitation of IgM and IgG antibodies by radioimmunoassay showed good correlation with hemagglutination titers and increased binding of collagen by both classes of antibody in arthritic as compared to nonarthritic animals. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies to type II collagen in relapsing polychondritis. (medscape.com)
  • Various studies find circulating antibodies to cartilage-specific collagen types II, IX, and XI to be present in 30%-70% of patients with relapsing polychondritis. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers have found that antibodies to type II collagen are present during acute relapsing polychondritis episodes and that the levels correlate with the severity of the episode. (medscape.com)
  • They are more likely to be found in association with antibodies to type II collagen in patients with relapsing polychondritis. (medscape.com)
  • Anti-GBM antibodies interact with the GBM glycoproteins, almost exclusively the epitope of the noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the α3 chain of type IV collagen. (medscape.com)
  • Type III: Found in the intestines, muscles, and vessels, type III collagen can help support happy hydrated skin. (silveronyx.com)
  • As collagen also helps keep our muscles at the peak of their health, it can also be a factor in increasing muscle mass, especially for those who work out or are regularly engaged in sports. (howtocure.com)
  • Type III collagen is found in the muscles, fascia, blood vessels, and the intestine. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • Type 3 Collagen - is mostly found in the intestinal walls, muscles and blood vessels, and is crucial for cardiovascular development . (ediblebeautyaustralia.com)
  • Mutations of the alpha2(V) chain of type V collagen impair matrix assembly and produce ehlers-danlos syndrome type I. Hum Mol Genet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Role of transforming growth factor-ß1 pathway in carbon nanotube stimulated collagen production in human lung cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Collagen type II, EPC Product No. MC22 is prepared from mouse sternum by modifications of published methods (22, 23,24). (elastin.com)
  • Undenatured type 2 collagen sold as "UC-II" is a patented form of undenatured type 2 collagen (undenatured means not processed/denatured by high heat or chemicals) derived specifically from chicken sternum cartilage along with other inactive ingredients. (drewisdope.com)
  • Chicken Collagen delivers type II collagen derived from chicken sternum. (pipingrock.com)
  • When collagen molecules fragment (hydrolyzed), their triple helix form is lost, the function shifts to a more rejuvenated condition by activating monocytes, resulting in the creation of more macrophages, and so on. (humanbiosciences.com)
  • Collagens begin as rope-like procollagen molecules that are each made up of three chains. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The triple-stranded procollagen molecules are processed by enzymes outside the cell to create mature collagen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Collagen-boosting skincare products aren't as effective as they're marketed to be, as the molecules are too large to seep through the layers of the epidermis. (howtocure.com)
  • Interestingly, an additional study provided further evidence as to how ASU modulate signaling pathways in osteoarthritis, and suggests a "unique range of activities" that includes ERK1/2 and NF-κB inhibition, molecules that regulate the expression of certain key genes such as inflammatory mediators 6 . (original-asu.com)
  • BioCell Collagen® has clinically documented bioavailability, and has been shown to support joint health and skin hydration. (mysupplements.store)
  • Anti aging cream baobab oil and ceramide 2 help reduce under eye bags, puffiness and dark circles, and renew skin around the eyes to look more refreshed and youthful. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • Premium quality: our collagen pills for skin and hair are ethically sourced from pure, non-gmo, grass-fed, pasture-raised, hormone-free and cruelty-free sources. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • The body produces collagen by itself, but with aging, collagen production reduces and the skin starts getting wrinkles. (ipsnews.net)
  • Only one scoop per day added to any drink replenishes collagen levels and improves skin health, metabolism, joint health, and immune system. (ipsnews.net)
  • Wait 1-2 hours after taking a bath or shower before applying as skin may be sensitive. (profound-performance.com)
  • Consider beef your natural botox, Since it's filled with type III collagen that's great for skin health. (fondbonebroth.com)
  • Collagen offers your skin stamina and strength. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Studies have actually ended that supplementing with collagen can additionally enhance skin hydration. (liguedetirpc.com)
  • Collagen offers your skin toughness and also strength. (afemo.org)
  • Researches have ended that supplementing with collagen can also raise skin hydration. (afemo.org)
  • Each product is created using the highest quality ingredients for a variety of skin types and conditions. (athrefacialplastics.com)
  • Skin care treatments are so important because as aging occurs, collagen and elastin are broken down at a faster rate than they are re-made. (athrefacialplastics.com)
  • Skin care regimens can be used to grow collagen, treat acne, remove age spots, remove scars, minimize fine lines, and even thicken and tighten skin. (athrefacialplastics.com)
  • Fish leather is a type of leather produced from the skin (and sometimes scales) of the Actinopterygii species (aquatic fish). (libertyleathergoods.com)
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine in vitro DM digestibility of expanded pork skin chews and rawhide chews, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), gastrointestinal transit time, and blood metabolite measurements in healthy adult dogs fed a weight control commercial diet and expanded pork skin chews. (researchgate.net)
  • Known as a non-wounding laser, they are projected along under the skin to improve the tension and tone of the skin while improving collagen growth. (wellnesszon.com)
  • The lasers used to heal acne target the skin bacteria and oil-producing glands, two of the main determinants of locations. (wellnesszon.com)
  • This is because this type of acne starts from deep underneath the exterior of the skin. (wellnesszon.com)
  • Collagen comprises the majority of a dog's skin. (amandean.com)
  • Coxir Black Snail Collagen Emulsion is an emulsion, formulated based on snail drool and collagen that helps to intensely hydrate the skin. (koreacosmetics.eu)
  • For all skin types. (koreacosmetics.eu)
  • The body overproduces collagen, which causes thick, tight patches of skin that stiffen, squeeze, and ultimately damage portions of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 4) History of cancer within previous 2 years from Screening 1, except adequately resected non-melanoma skin cancer. (who.int)
  • Collagen is becoming increasingly popular in the joint health market. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Scientific evidence has demonstrated the effectiveness of native (undenatured) type II collagen in supporting joint health and may therefore be used as an ingredient in consumer products. (nutraingredients.com)
  • So how can manufacturers looking to make their next big move in the joint health market harness the powerful benefits of type II collagen? (nutraingredients.com)
  • Both native (undenatured) type II collagen and hydrolysed (denatured) collagen are used in commercial joint health products, but there are significant differences between the two forms. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Joint health complex with UC-II® collagen & VitaCherry® sport whole tart cherry. (codeage.com)
  • It has a large ageing population and an emerging health-conscious younger generation, but collagen for joint health and mobility is a relatively new concept. (foodbeverageasia.com)
  • NativePath Collagen also improves joint health and relieves the body of pains. (ipsnews.net)
  • Type II collagen is most abundant in chicken collagen, which is best in building cartilage and beneficial for joint health. (balancednutritionalenergy.com)
  • PRO-C2 is a serum marker of type II collagen formation and low levels have been shown to be prognostic of radiographic progression. (bvsalud.org)
  • PRO-C2 was measured in synovial fluid (SF) (n = 59) and serum samples (n = 225) from participants of the FORWARD study, a 2-year phase IIb clinical trial testing the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) sprifermin over placebo. (bvsalud.org)
  • To assist in the evaluation of skeletal status, two markers of bone turnover are being measured: a) bone alkaline phosphatase, a formative marker in serum, and b) NTx, a resorptive marker in urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Extra Whitening Guanjing Nicotinamide Collagen Face Serum - is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (thewomenwears.com)
  • Collagen is crucial for skin's strength and elasticity, muscle strength, bone strength, and more. (revivecollagen.co)
  • Collagen cream for face allantoin and syn-coll help minimize pores and boost this collagen cream restore natural elasticity and smoothness day and night for a radiant look and feel. (10bestreviewz.com)
  • Collagen type III are vital for blood vessel elasticity thus optimizing stroke volume (blood flow), lowered blood pressure (1, 2). (eatyournutrition.com)
  • The immunomodulators contained within undenatured type 2 collagen decrease the secretion of enzymes that metabolize endogenous type 2 collagen, which attenuates part of the inflammatory response commonly observed in arthritis and joint disorders. (drewisdope.com)
  • enzymes that degrade the collagen, such as the Very few studies have investigated the rela- metallo-proteinases (Jenkins, 2002). (who.int)
  • Environmental factors such as sun exposure, multiple previous sunburns, and smoking speed up the breakdown of elastin and collagen, causing premature aging. (athrefacialplastics.com)
  • collagen, elastin and reticular. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Legumes such as kidney beans, chickpeas, and nuts like cashews are also rich sources of collagen. (howtocure.com)
  • Because the aptitude of macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells to move and attach themselves is influenced by integrin interaction with collagen, type 1 collagen is required to recruit macrophages and monocytes. (humanbiosciences.com)
  • In conclusion, CNT stimulate lung fibroblasts to induce collagen I in vitro through activation of the TGF-beta R1-Smad Signaling pathway. (cdc.gov)
  • Collagen oligopeptides (ligands) attach to fibroblasts (bone formation cells) receptors on the fibroblast membrane synthesizing new collagen production (1,2,3). (eatyournutrition.com)
  • 20. Kubota Y, Oka S, Nakagawa S, Shirasuna K. Interleukin-1alpha enhances type I collagen-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in odontogenic keratocyst fibroblasts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Does This Native Path Grass Fed Collagen Peptide Works? (ipsnews.net)
  • What is the role of peptide fragments of collagen I and IV in health and disease? (eatyournutrition.com)
  • Change from baseline in Pro-peptide of type III collagen. (who.int)
  • Dr. Wheeless enjoys and performs all types of orthopaedic surgery but is renowned for his expertise in total joint arthroplasty (Hip and Knee replacement) as well as complex joint infections. (wheelessonline.com)
  • A collection of 2 or more of the organs that together perform some complex body function. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Normally the human body produces collagen, but, with advancing age, the rate of production decreases. (ipsnews.net)