Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Collagen Type V: A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Collagen Type XII: A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Quinazolinones: Chemicals with two conjoined aromatic rings incorporating two nitrogen atoms and one of the carbons oxidized with a keto oxygen.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.ElastinIntegrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Collagen Type VIII: A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Collagen Type VII: A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Keloid: A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lathyrism: A paralytic condition of the legs caused by ingestion of lathyrogens, especially BETA-AMINOPROPIONITRILE or beta-N-oxalyl amino-L-alanine, which are found in the seeds of plants of the genus LATHYRUS.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gelatinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Mice, Inbred C57BLFibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Tropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Antisense Elements (Genetics): Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Collagen Type XIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (1/3016)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism. (2/3016)

BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed in the patients. Measurements of bone mass and metabolism indicated only a mild degree of osteodystrophy in the patients with cirrhosis. ICTP correlated significantly in the cirrhotic patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction and fibrosis, but not with measurements of bone mass or metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: ICTP is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

Biochemical markers of bone turnover in breast cancer patients with bone metastases: a preliminary report. (3/3016)

BACKGROUND: Some biochemical markers of bone turnover are expected to reflect the disease activity of metastatic bone tumor. In the present study six biochemical markers were evaluated to determine appropriate markers for the detection of metastatic bone tumors from breast cancer (BC). METHODS: A panel of bone turnover markers was assessed in 11 normocalcemic patients with bone metastases from BC and in 19 BC patients without clinical evidence of bone metastases. Bone formation was investigated by measuring serum bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP): Bone resorption was investigated by measuring serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), fasting urinary pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (D-Pyr). RESULTS: PICP was influenced by age and menopausal status. Significant correlations were observed between each of bone turnover markers except between BALP and OC. The mean levels of the six bone turnover markers were higher in patients with bone metastases than in those without them and significance was observed except for OC. The best diagnostic efficiency by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was provided by ICTP followed by Pyr or D-Pyr, BALP, PICP and OC and significance was observed between ICTP and OC. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by age revealed that the only significant marker related to bone metastases was ICTP. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ICTP appears to be the leading marker of bone metastases from BC. However, to reveal the clinical usefulness of these markers, further examination will be needed to account for the ease and cost-effectiveness of the measurements.  (+info)

Elevation of alpha2(I) collagen, a suppressor of Ras transformation, is required for stable phenotypic reversion by farnesyltransferase inhibitors. (4/3016)

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) are a novel class of anticancer drugs that can reverse Ras transformation. One of the intriguing aspects of FTI biology is that continuous drug exposure is not necessary to maintain phenotypic reversion. For example, after a single exposure to FTIs, Ha-Ras-transformed fibroblasts revert to a flat and anchorage-dependent phenotype that persists for many days after processed Ras has returned to pretreatment levels. In this study, we show that persistence of the reverted state is mediated by elevated expression of the collagen isoform alpha2(I), a suppressor of Ras transformation the transcription of which is repressed by activated Ras and derepressed by FTI treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying an FTI-regulated gene which is linked to phenotypic reversion. The finding that extracellular matrix alterations can influence the kinetics of reversion supports our assertion that Rho-regulated cell adhesion parameters are a crucial determinant of the cellular response to FTIs.  (+info)

Relationship between urinary pyridinium cross-links, disease activity and disease subsets of ankylosing spondylitis. (5/3016)

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine the urinary levels of pyridinium cross-links and urinary beta-isomerized fragments derived from the C-telopeptide of the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (beta-CTX) as markers of bone resorption in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and to study their relationship to markers of disease activity [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)] and to disease subsets of this condition. METHODS: The serum calcium, osteocalcin (OC), parathormone (PTH), 25 OHD3 levels, beta-CTX and the urinary combined free pyridinolines (f-Pyr + f-Dpyr), urinary free deoxypyridinoline (f-Dpyr) and urinary free pyridinoline (f-Pyr) were evaluated and compared in 32 AS patients and 25 controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. RESULTS: The serum markers of bone metabolism (serum calcium, PTH, 25 OHD3 and OC) were in the normal range in the AS group. AS patients had a lowered lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.01) (corresponding T score: P = 0.03), but femoral neck BMD did not differ significantly between AS and controls (P = 0.08) (corresponding T score: P = 0.11). There was no difference in the urinary levels of pyridinium cross-links and beta-CTX between AS patients and controls. A positive correlation between ESR, (f-Pyr + f-Dpyr) (r = 0.42; P = 0.018) and f-Dpyr (r = 0.49; P = 0.005) was observed. In the different disease subsets of AS, we found that patients with peripheral involvement had higher (f-Pyr + f-Dpyr) (P = 0.04) and f-Dpyr levels (P = 0.04), patients with early disease had elevated (f-Pyr + f-Dpyr) (P = 0.01), f-Dpyr (P = 0.02) and f-Pyr (P = 0.01) levels, and that those with raised ESR had enhanced f-Dpyr (P = 0.009) excretion. Patients were then stratified according to disease duration, peripheral involvement and sex, and this allowed us to observe that only urinary f-Dpyr remained elevated in patients independently from these variables and that raised ESR is the more relevant parameter for explaining this high level of excretion. CONCLUSION: We conclude that there was no difference in the levels of urinary pyridinium cross-links and beta-CTX between AS and controls. However, urinary excretion of some of these collagen compounds was enhanced in subgroups of AS, mainly in patients with raised ESR. Thus, AS patients with laboratory evidence of active disease could have a higher risk of bone loss.  (+info)

Circulating biochemical markers of bone remodeling in uremic patients. (6/3016)

Chronic renal failure is often associated with bone disorders, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminum-related low-turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, adynamic osteopathy, osteoporosis, and skeletal beta2-microglobulin amyloid deposits. In spite of the enormous progress made during the last few years in the search of noninvasive methods to assess bone metabolism, the distinction between high- and low-turnover bone diseases in these patients still frequently requires invasive and/or costly procedures such as bone biopsy after double tetracycline labeling, scintigraphic-scan studies, computed tomography, and densitometry. This review is focused on the diagnostic value of several new serum markers of bone metabolism, including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP), procollagen type I carboxy-terminal extension peptide (PICP), procollagen type I cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP), pyridinoline (PYD), osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in patients with chronic renal failure. Most of the observations made by several groups converge to the conclusion that serum bAP is the most sensitive and specific marker to evaluate the degree of bone remodeling in uremic patients. Nonetheless, PYD and osteocalcin, in spite of their retention and accumulation in the serum of renal insufficient patients, are also excellent markers of bone turnover. The future generalized use of these markers, individually or in combination with other methods, will undoubtedly improve the diagnosis and the treatment of the complex renal osteodystrophy.  (+info)

Effects of 42 months of GH treatment on bone mineral density and bone turnover in GH-deficient adults. (7/3016)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of GH treatment for up to 42 months on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. DESIGN AND METHODS: BMD with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, serum type I procollagen carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), serum type I collagen carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) and serum IGF-I were assessed in 71 adults with GH deficiency. There were 44 men and 27 women, aged 20 to 59 (median 43) years. Thirty-two patients completed 36 months and 20 patients 42 months of treatment. RESULTS: The BMD increased for up to 30-36 months and plateaued thereafter. In the whole study group, the maximum increase of BMD was 5.0% in the lumbar spine (P<0. 001), 5.9% (P<0.01) in the femoral neck, 4.9% (NS, P>0.05) in the Ward's triangle and 8.2% (P<0.001) in the trochanter area. The serum concentrations of PICP (202.6+/-11.5 vs 116.3+/-5.4 microg/l; mean+/-s.e.m.) and ICTP (10.5+/-0.6 vs 4.4+/-0.3 microg/l) doubled (P<0.001) during the first 6 months of GH treatment but returned to baseline by the end of the study (130.0+/-10.4 and 5.6+/-0.7 microg/l respectively), despite constantly elevated serum IGF-I levels (39. 6+/-4.1 nmol/l at 42 months vs 11.9+/-0.9 nmol/l at baseline; P<0.001). The responses to GH treatment of serum IGF-I, PICP, ICTP (P<0.001 for all; ANOVA) and of the BMD in the lumbar spine (P<0.05), in the femoral neck and the trochanter (P<0.001 for both) were more marked in men than in women. At the end of the study the BMD had increased at the four measurement sites by 5.7-10.6% (P<0.01-0.001) in patients with at least osteopenia at baseline and by 0.1-5.3% (NS P<0.05) in those with normal bone status (P<0.001 for differences between groups; ANOVA). Among patients who completed 36-42 months of treatment, the number of those with at least osteopenia was reduced to more than a half. The response of BMD to GH treatment was more marked in young than in old patients at three measurement sites (P<0. 05-<0.001; ANOVA). In the multiple regression analysis the gender and the pretreatment bone mass appeared to be independent predictors of three measurement sites, whereas the age independently determined only the vertebral BMD. CONCLUSIONS: GH treatment in GH-deficient adults increased BMD for up to 30-36 months, with a plateau thereafter. Concurrently with the plateau in BMD the bone turnover rate normalized. From the skeletal point of view GH-deficient patients exhibiting osteopenia or osteoporosis should be considered as candidates for GH supplementation of at least 3-4 years.  (+info)

Assessment of bone response to systemic therapy in an EORTC trial: preliminary experience with the use of collagen cross-link excretion. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. (8/3016)

This study was designed to evaluate new bone resorption and tumour markers as possible alternatives to serial plain radiographs for the assessment of response to treatment. Thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed bone metastases from breast cancer, randomized to receive oral pamidronate or placebo tablets in addition to anticancer treatment within the context of a multicentre EORTC trial, who were both assessable for radiographic response in bone and had serum and urine samples collected for more than 1 month were studied. The markers of bone metabolism measured included urinary calcium (uCa), hydroxyproline (hyp), the N-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (NTx) and total alkaline phosphatase. The tumour markers measured were CA15-3 and cancer-associated serum antigen (CASA). Before treatment, levels of Ntx, uCa and Hyp were elevated in 41%, 24% and 28% respectively, and CA15-3 and CASA increased in 69% and 50%. For assessment of response and identification of progression, Ntx was the most useful bone marker. All markers behaved similarly in no change (NC) and partial response (PR) patients. There was a significant difference (P < or = 0.05) in Ntx levels (compared to baseline) at 1 and 4 months and in CA15-3/CASA at 4 months between patients with PR or NC and those with progressive disease (PD), and at 4 months between those with time to progression (TP) > 7 and those with TP < or = 7 months. The diagnostic efficiency (DE) for prediction of PD following a > 50% increase in Ntx or CA15-3 was 78% and 62% respectively. An algorithm to predict response to therapy has been developed for future prospective evaluation.  (+info)

NADPH oxidase is a major source of ROS in vascular and cardiac tissues, and Ang II stimulates NADPH oxidase.35 It has been postulated that the increase in ROS is an important mechanism by which Ang II contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease,36,37 and perhaps cardiac remodeling. Sano et al38 showed that Ang II stimulates ROS generation in cardiac fibroblasts, and we confirmed this phenomenon in the present study. In another recent study,12 we observed that pioglitazone blocks ROS generation in response to ox-LDL, TNF-α, and Ang II in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Several investigators have shown that pioglitazone attenuates the expression and activity of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p22phox, p47phox, gp91phox).39,40 We postulate that Ang II induces ROS generation in cardiac fibroblasts by activating NADPH oxidase and possibly other pathways, but this remains to be defined. Nonetheless, we observed that pioglitazone attenuated Ang II-enhanced ROS generation. In parallel ...
Huvelle, Sophie ; Bothy, Anaïs ; Lepoutre, Thibault ; Gruson, Damien. Measurement of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen: Evaluation of a new automated assay. In: Clinical Biochemistry, Vol. 46, no.16-17, p. 1778-1779 (2013 ...
Background We attempted to test the hypothesis that chronic angiotensin II type 1A receptor blockade (ARB) alters myocardial collagen turnover leading to an improvement of diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients. Methods and Results Forty-eight type 2 diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups: 38 treated with candesartan for 6 months, and 10 without candesartan, as controls. Doppler mitral flow velocity pattern and biomarkers of collagen type I turnover were assessed before and after ARB during a 6-month period. The mitral E/A ratio increased from 0.65±0.11 to 0.75±0.19. The carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PIP), an index of collagen type I synthesis, decreased and the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP), an index of collagen type I degradation, increased following ARB. Consequently, the PIP/CITP ratio, an index of coupling between the synthesis and degradation of collagen type I, decreased. None of the indexes changed in the control group. The change ...
Objectives: Myocardial fibrosis is one of the determinants of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients with heart failure (HF). The carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP) is a serum marker of type I collagen synthesis and the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) reflects degradation of type I collagen. We examined the effects of synthesis and degradation of collagen type I on LV chamber stiffness constant in HF.. Methods: We studied 50 HF patients who were admitted to our hospital with acute exacerbation (NYHA functional class of III or IV). 19 were female and mean age was 70 years. Serum P1CP and C1TP concentrations were assayed with ELISA in addition to measurement of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration and echo Doppler studies of the mitral flow velocity pattern on admission and after treatment. The deceleration of early diastolic filling wave (Dct) was measured to provide for the calculation of LV chamber stiffness ...
Collagen types I, II, and III. (A-D) Collagen type I, (E-H) collagen type II, (I-L) collagen type III (A, E, I) ACL from young normal knee; (B, F, J) ACL from a
(a) Collagen type I mRNA expression was increased in 1 h. A persistent high level was formed in postoperative 24 h to 3 d. Despite being slightly descende
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While collagen type I (Col-I) is commonly used as a structural component of biomaterials, collagen type III (Col-III), another fibril forming collagen ubiquitous in many soft tissues, has not previously been used. In the present study, the novel concept of an injectable hydrogel with semi-interpenetrating polymeric networks of heterotypic collagen fibrils, with tissue-specific Col-III to Col-I ratios, in a glycol-chitosan matrix was investigated. Col-III was introduced as a component of the novel hydrogel, inspired by its co-presence with Col-I in many soft tissues, its influence on the Col-I fibrillogenesis in terms of diameter and mechanics, and its established role in regulating scar formation ...
Aortic stiffness is a, predictor of cardiovascular mortality. The mechanical properties of the arterial wall depend on the connective tissue framework, with variation in fibrillin-1 and collagen I genes being associated with aortic stiffness and/or pulse pressure elevation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variation in fibrillin-1 genotype was associated with aortic stiffness in men. The mechanical properties 4 the abdominal aorta of 79 healthy pen (range 28-81 yr) were investigated by ultrasonographic phase-locked echo tracking. Fibrillin-1 genotype, characterized by the variable tandem repeat in intron 28, and collagen type I alpha I genotype characterized by the 2,064 G,T polymorphism, were deterimined by using DNA from peripheral blood cells. Three common fibrillin-1 genotypes, 2-2, 2-3, and 2-4, were observed in 50 (64%), 10 (13%), and 11 (14%) of the men, respectively. Those of 2-3 genotype had higher pressure strain elastic modulus and aortic stiffness compared with men of ...
Kemp, J. P., Sayers, A., Paternoster, L., Evans, D. M., Deere, K., St Pourcain, B., Timpson, N. J., Ring, S. M., Lorentzon, M., Lehtimäki, T., Eriksson, J., Kähönen, M., Raitakari, O., Laaksonen, M., Sievänen, H., Viikari, J., Lyytikäinen, L., Smith, G. D., Fraser, W. D., Vandenput, L., Ohlsson, C., Tobias, J. H.. (2014). Does bone resorption stimulate periosteal expansion?: A cross sectional analysis of β-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX), genetic markers of the RANKL pathway, and periosteal circumference as measured by pQCT,. in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 29. (4). pp. 1015-1024. Full Text UEA Repository (Article). (Published). ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
... : Western blot analysis of Collagen types I and II about of regenerated cartilage 12 weeks after implantation by ECL KIT (Bio-rad ...
Both pulsed dye laser and intense pulsed light demonstrated efficacy in improving the appearance of stretch marks, according to researchers.. Twenty patients were treated on one side of their bodies with pulsed dye laser (PDL) and on the other with intense pulsed light (IPL) for five sessions, with 4 weeks between each session. Patients results were evaluated clinically prior to treatment and at 1 month after the final treatment.. Both treatments yielded significant improvements in overall skin texture and a significant decrease in stretch mark width, according to the researchers.. Additionally, both PDL and IPL were shown to significantly increase collagen expression. However, PDL significantly improved collagen type I expression compared with IPL, according to the researchers.. Disclosure: The authors have no relevant financial disclosures.. Source: Healio. Read More. ...
Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half-life of collagen messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two α1 and one α2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stoichiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of α1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) polypeptides. Collagen α1(I) mRNA has in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) a C-rich sequence that binds protein αCP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5 UTR both
You want to reduce lines and wrinkles Is there a recovery period after Botox injections? After getting a Botox done will my face go back to the way it was after it wears off before I enjected botox? Rvtl Anti Aging Cream Equinox Instant Wrinkle Reducer Available powers phytoceramides buy australia can be impacted the menopausal group as early arthropod wrinkles under eyes newborn The Collagen Protein Structure Quaternary For Cream 30s message is based on large season abnormalities food-suitable as bullying canal frequency etc. Introduction Preparations of botulinum Collagen Protein Structure Quaternary For Cream 30s toxin (BoNT-A) have rapidly become established as a treatment option for Muscle Spasm and Relaxation. Collagen Protein Structure Quaternary For Cream 30s mostly used as an outer packaging in combination with our ultra clean medical grade LDPE bags this barrier packaging provides Collagen Protein Structure Quaternary For Cream 30s protection against: Gritty scrubs "They can be harsh ...
Vitauthoritys Multi Collagen Protein Powder is a multi-type collagen supplement featuring four natural sources of collagen: grass-fed beef, chicken, fish, and eggshell. Multi Collagen Protein provides multiple types of collagen (Types I, II, III, V and X), 7g of protein, and is dairy and gluten free.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of dicationic diphenylfurans on production of type I collagen by human fibroblasts and activated hepatic stellate cells. AU - Stefanovic, Lela. AU - Stephens, Chad E.. AU - Boykin, David. AU - Stefanovic, Branko. PY - 2005/3/11. Y1 - 2005/3/11. N2 - Excessive production of extracellular matrix is responsible for clinical manifestations of fibroproliferative disorders and drugs which can inhibit excessive synthesis of type I collagen are needed for the therapy. Several dicationic diphenylfurans were synthesized and were found to bind RNA. Two of these type compounds were able to reduce synthesis of type I collagen by human fibroblasts and human activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Activated HSCs are responsible for collagen production in liver fibrosis. When added at 40 μM compound 588 reduced intracellular level and secretion of procollagen α1(I) by 50%, while compound 654 reduced these parameters by more than 80% at 20 μM. 654 also significantly reduced ...
Save 10% Ancient Nutrition - Dr. Axe Multi Collagen Protein 90 Capsules Dr. Axe Multi Collagen Protein Powder 5 Types of Food Source Collagen Type I, II, III, V and X Skin - Gut - Joint* Powered By Grass-Fed Beef and Chicken Bone Broth Collagen Easy To Swallow Capsules Dr. Axe Multi Collagen Formula is uniquely formulated with 5 Types of Food Source Collagen - specifically designed to provide your body with the primary building blocks it needs for: Promoting healthy skin* Supporting healthy digestive function* Supporting healthy joints*
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in tissue remodelling and fibrogenesis by inducing synthesis of collagen I via protein kinase C (PKC). ET-1 signals are transduced by two receptor subtypes, the ETA- and ETB-receptors which activate different Gα proteins. Here, we investigated the expression of both ET-receptor subtypes in human primary dermal fibroblasts and demonstrated that the ETA-receptor is the major ET-receptor subtype expressed. To determine further signalling intermediates, we inhibited Gαi and three phospholipases. Pharmacologic inhibition of Gαi, phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD), but not of phospholipase Cβ, abolished the increase in collagen I by ET-1. Inhibition of all phospholipases revealed similar effects on TGF-β1 induced collagen I synthesis, demonstrating involvement of PC-PLC and PLD in the signalling pathways elicited by ET-1 and TGF-β1. ET-1 and TGF-β1 each stimulated collagen I production and in an additive manner. ...
Save 25% NeoCell - Super Collagen Type 1 & 3 7 Ounces Super Collagen Type 1 & 3 Powder 6,600 mg Collagen Type 1 & 3 Hair, Skin, Nails, Joints & Bones* Clinically Tested Neocell Collagen* 92% Had Increased Skin Hydration* Healthy Joints* Healthy Bones* Non-GMO, Gluten Free Paleo Friendly Collagen is a complex structural protein that maintains strength and flexibility throughout the body. As we age, collagen depletion can lead to common signs of aging in the skin, hair, nails, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. Super Collagen contains clinically studied NeoCell Collagen™ which supports healthy collagen formation throughout the body. Using NeoCells technologically advanced hydrolyzation process, large collagen molecules are enzymatically hydrolyzed into small peptides that are both bioavailable and bioactive in the body.* Clinical Results NeoCell Collagen™ has been shown to increase skin hydration by an average of 21% and up to 50%, with 92% of test subjects experiencing increased skin hydration
CTX : Testing is performed using the Roche Cobas 6000 e601 analyzer and the Roche Beta-CrossLaps assay, a 2-site immunometric (sandwich) assay using electrochemiluminescence detection. Patient specimen, biotinylated monoclonal beta-CrossLaps-specific antibody, and monoclonal beta-CrossLaps-specific antibody labeled with ruthenium react to form a complex. Streptavidin-coated microparticles act as the solid phase to which the complex binds. Voltage is applied to the electrode, inducing a chemiluminescent emission from the ruthenium, which is then measured against a calibration curve to determine the amount of beta-CrossLaps in the patient specimen. This assay is specific for crosslinked isomerized type I collagen fragments, independent of the nature of the crosslink (eg, pyrrole, pyridinolines). The assay specificity is guaranteed through the use of 2 monoclonal antibodies, each recognizing linear beta-8AA octapeptides (EKAHD-beta-GGR). The assay, therefore, quantifies all type I collagen degradation
To assess the effects on the biosynthesis of collagen types I and III associated with an acute increase in blood pressure, we established a mid-thoracic aortic coarctation in the rabbit and studied gene expression and protein accumulation of these collagen types proximal to the stenosis 1, 3 and 7...
Best Collagen Types 1 & 3 Powder 200G Science-based nutrition Dietary supplement Essential structural support for hair, skin, nails tendons, ligaments and bones* Collagen is the major structural protein in connective tissue and the most abundant protein in the human body. It is responsible for maintaining the strength and flexibility of bones, joints, skin, tendons, ligaments, hair, nails, blood vessels and eyes, among other tissues throughout the body. Best Collagen Types 1 & 3 contains pure collagen protein, providing the fundamental building blocks for growth and maintenance of healthy tissues.* Taken as a supplement, this product provides the body with the raw material needed to support the strength and integrity of essential structures.* Best Collagen Types 1 & 3 is enzymatically hydrolyzed into component amino acids with a low molecular weight for optimal absorption and utilization by the body.* Suggested Use: Dissolve 1 scoop of powder in a small amount of water or juice
Best Collagen Types 1 & 3 Powder 200G Science-based nutrition Dietary supplement Essential structural support for hair, skin, nails tendons, ligaments and bones* Collagen is the major structural protein in connective tissue and the most abundant protein in the human body. It is responsible for maintaining the strength and flexibility of bones, joints, skin, tendons, ligaments, hair, nails, blood vessels and eyes, among other tissues throughout the body. Best Collagen Types 1 & 3 contains pure collagen protein, providing the fundamental building blocks for growth and maintenance of healthy tissues.* Taken as a supplement, this product provides the body with the raw material needed to support the strength and integrity of essential structures.* Best Collagen Types 1 & 3 is enzymatically hydrolyzed into component amino acids with a low molecular weight for optimal absorption and utilization by the body.* Suggested Use: Dissolve 1 scoop of powder in a small amount of water or juice
A mutation in the COL1A1 gene has also been shown to cause the Classic Type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This mutation changes one of the amino acids used to build the pro-α1 (I) chain. Specifically, this genetic change replaces the amino acid arginine with the amino acid cysteine at position 134. The altered protein interferes with other collagen-building proteins, disrupting the structure of type I collagen fibrils and trapping collagen in the cell. But researchers believe that this COL1A1 mutation only rarely underlies the signs and symptoms of classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. ...
What is collagen? Collagen is a type of protein that is fibrous in nature, connecting and supporting other bodily tissues. Some people refer to collagen as the glue that holds the body together. Collagen works with keratin to provide skin with strength, flexibility and resistance. As we age, cell degradation occurs, leading to wrinkles. Think of collagen fibers as a chain-link fence. Now imagine those links rusting and falling apart; and as the links break, the fence falls. As our collagen production decreases this is what happens to skin fibers resulting in sagging, crepe-like skin. In addition, fibroblasts (collagen producing cells) decrease their production of new collagen as we age.. Once the importance of collagen in the skin is understood it is easier to understand why stimulating collagen production is the key to any good skin care and anti-aging regimen. Numerous studies explain why certain products and skin care treatments are effective at rejuvenating the skin. These treatments & ...
Loss of collagen. Even though collagen is so important for our health, as we grow older, collagen production is reduced. This happens because our body becomes less efficient at producing this protein despite how necessary it is for us. This results in less structure for our skin- which means more wrinkles and sagginess. Our skin will look looser and lose that tight feeling to it. While it is a big disappointment, there are ways to combat the loss of collagen to help protect your skin from wrinkles.. Solutions. Start by focusing on the problem- which is a lack of collagen. A great way to restore your collagen and help your body produce more is by using products that stimulate collagen growth. Our Vitamin C Eye Gel works great to encourage collagen production which results in the skin maintaining its structure and preventing wrinkles and lines. Vitamin C helps with keeping collagen levels high and helps the body heal as well. Try this product to combat wrinkles around your eyes and stay looking ...
Youtheory Anti Aging Collagen Protein Shake contains 10 grams of collagen and 10 grams of whey protein. Designed for the active, busy, and on the go lifestyle. Whether you are working out or just working, our bodies need replenishing daily. One scoop per day will supply twenty (20) grams of protein and fortified with 100% of RDA of vitamins and minerals. The protein is derived from both Whey and Collagen 1 & 3. Collagen, the most abundant protein in the body is found in the connective tissue, skin, tendons, cartilage and bones, and is critical to the formation and on going health of these tissues and structures. Hydrolyzed Collagen is fat free, cholesterol-free, carbohydrate-free and helps the body with the maintenance of dieting. Vitamin C assists the body in the manufacture of collagen. Whey protein provides branched amino acids, which are the building blocks of muscle tissue.
For Any Query, Contact Our Expert. In Nutshell, the report focuses on global major leading Collagen Market players with information such as company profiles, contact information. Collagen Market Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share, Product Type and Applications, Regions, analysis is also carried out. Whats more, the Global Collagen Market development trends and marketing channels are analysed.. Price of Report: $3480 (Single User License). Ask for Discount @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-discount/10289499. Table and Figures Covered in This Report:. · Table and Figure: Collagen Product Picture. · Table and Figure: Development of Collagen Manufacturing Technology. · Table and Figure: Manufacturing Process of Collagen. · Table and Figure: Company Collagen Product and Specifications. · Table and Figure: Company Collagen Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. List. · Table and Table and Figure: Global Collagen Key Manufacturers Capacity ...
Most of the time the first place you will notice collagen loss will be in your face area. This is where your collagen decreases first. If youre on the search for ways how to restore collagen in the face then your new best friend will be vitamin C! Vitamin C is full of powerful antioxidant properties that restore and renew your skin keeping you looking younger, longer. Whether you decide to use a vitamin C serum or a supplement, they are both great for aiding in skin health.. When you begin to lack vitamin C in your body you will notice sagginess in your breasts, face and chest area due to loss of elasticity. You can rebuild the collagen and elasticity in these areas by taking a supplement that includes natural herbs and vitamin C. You need collagen for skin tightening along with other vitamins. If your concern is your breast area, you may take a natural breast enhancer that includes vitamin C to repair the tissues in your chest making them appear fuller. The best way to take any supplement that ...
Collagen on the go - perfect for your handbag and travelling!. O Nutricia collagen helps plump the outer layer of your skin naturally, thus reducing the appearance of ne lines and other aws. Hair is improved by replenishing the hair follicles with collagen.. Cartilage is regenerated by stimulating chondrocytes. Stimulating osteoblasts, improves bone density. Collagen contains Proline and Glycine, that can help repair damaged cells in the intestinal wall.. The health conscious, athletes, Banters and those following Paleolithic Nutrition principles can use O Nutricia Collagen. Improved results may be seen when used in conjunction with a low carbohydrate lifestyle. Whilst our body produces sufcient amounts of amino acids, during times of stress or sickness these levels drop and so supplementation is essential. Collagen peptides have a higher rate of absorption and bio-availability, than Gelatine and work on a cellular level.. ...
Purifying human derived collagen from human tissue includes treating harvested human tissue with an enzyme to form a collagen product, deactivating the enzyme with a non-alkaline enzyme deactivation solution, and collecting the collagen product resulting from the enzyme treatment, where the collected collagen product includes a preserved amount of its natural collagen constituents. Various medical implants can be formed using the isolated, enzymatically-treated human derived collagen having an amount of its natural collagen constituents preserved, and may include implantable sponges, patches, tubes, structural supports and coatings, and which may be used for repair, barrier, support and/or stabilization purposes.
Mamio Mixberry is a Mixberry flavored powder drink with 1000 mg Collagen content. In addition Mamio Mixberry also contains Vitamin A and Vitamin C. Mamio Mixberry specially formulated as a refreshing beverage and beneficial to your bodys health and beauty of the skin.. Then Do you know what is collagen?. Collagen is one of the proteins that make up the human body. Its presence is approximately 30% of all proteins contained in the body. It is the organic structure of the builder of bones, teeth, joints, muscles, and skin. Collagen fibers have a strong resistance to pressure.. Collagen is produced naturally by the body and can become slow with age. Decreased collagen production in the body can lead to aging processes such as wrinkles, sagging skin, and joint pain. Some lifestyle factors can lead to decreased production of collagen such as:. ...
Collagen Marine Extra® Anti-Aging 2-step Step one - Beauty starts from within: Collagen Extra® Marine is a food supplement that contains Peptan® collagen peptides, Hyaluronic acid, Vitamins and Minerals, all in liquid form for better absorption. Peptan® collagen peptides may reduce the appearance of wrinkles and hyd
Multi Collagen Protein supports joints, connective tissue, muscles, healthy digestion and glowing skin, while helping to tone, tighten and rejuvenate the body.†
COLLAGEN. Natural Collagen products designed for beauty, health and antiaging skincare. Natural collagen Q5-26 products are natural cosmetics regenerating health of human aging skin collagen
Touted as the next best thing to the "fountain of youth", collagen is your bodys natural secret to luxurious hair, strong muscles and joints, moisturized, youthful-looking skin and improved metabolism and digestion.. In earlier times, the human diet supplemented our natural collagen production by eating things like organ meats from animals. Early man often boiled bones, cartilage and other grisly parts of the animal into a broth. When bones and other parts are boiled in this way, the collagen inside the animal bones, ligaments and tendons seeps out and can be readily consumed.. And lets be real, when was the last time you had organ meats or beef bones?. Fortunately, weve found a way to make collagen accessible AND appetizing. Made with only grass-fed beef, every scoop contains 11 grams of the highest quality, highest potency collagen. Collagen like this is easily absorbed by the body and put to use right away - helping to strengthen and add shine to hair, improve skin texture and elasticity, ...
Blog on Col I elisa kit product: The Porcine Col I n/a (Catalog #MBS9301022) is an ELISA Kit and is intended for research purposes only. T...
BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix molecules profoundly regulate cell behavior, including proliferation. In glomerulonephritis, type I collagen accumulates in the mesangium and is constantly structurally modified and degraded during the course of the d
Answer: DeepMarine Collagen works by reducing skin inflammation related to dermatitis and eczema. This stops the itchiness and allows the skin to heal. It also helps to manage the negative effects of skin issues in immune-mediated skin diseases. Collagen supplements deliver specific peptides that help the body to promote its own collagen production. Because DeepMarines collagen has an average molecular weight of 1,000 Daltons it is easily absorbed and produces the maximum benefits. Studies show that low molecular weight fish scale collagen is particularly effective at inhibiting excessive inflammatory factors in the skin and stimulating your natural collagen producing mechanisms. These processes encourage skin healing, reduce joint pain and improve joint function ...
Its a white powder with no taste and no smell. The package does not have serving directions or instructions on it but I mix 1 tablespoon of this with milk and sometimes my protein shake, and theres enough in the pack for several days worth. I wont see effects with a trial size so small, but I will likely repurchase this instead of my usual capsules. Collagen is amazing for strong nails, joints, firm skin, suppressing hunger and hair growth. ...
In lab experiments, Yu and his colleagues have shown that this kind of molecular marriage does take place. They attached fluorescent tags to the peptides and observed the glow in collagen that had been mixed with the smaller molecules. Exactly how and why the collagen and the peptides join is uncertain. But researchers know that collagen molecules form a distinctive triple-helix in which three long protein strands intertwine like rope. Yu speculates that because the smaller collagen mimetic peptides have a propensity to make similar triple-helix structures, they are naturally attracted to collagen molecules. He believes the peptides make themselves at home within gaps formed by loose collagen strands ...
Comparative vertebrate evolutionary analyses of type I collagen: potential of COL1a1 gene structure and intron variation for common bone-related diseases.
from Dr. Dakes slide: Until a time when we reach a more sophisticated, higher plane of diagnostic acumen, not just regarding CCSVI, but all MS therapies, we will continue to experience dialogues that are polarizing, unedifying and fail to benefit ...
Improved Collagen Type I ELISA. (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Offers increased sensitivity and reproducibility with accurate & reliable results.
Collagen is a protein produced by the skin to provide elasticity, smoothness and resilience. It is in the second layer of skin called the dermis. When...
Pure Marine Collagen- Liquid Collagen Supplements is the best Collagen protein available in the market today which helps reduce the ageing signs. For Collagen vitamins contact us now Tel.+81-3-3471-0798.
First off I think you do a wonderful job of keeping, those of who wish to do the best, informed and aware of great things. I am however a bit concerned with what I know about collagen and their sources/how to take them. From what I know there are three types of collagen; two can be taken together (1 & 3) and one should be taken by its self ~ you have all three in your product. If one wishes to have ensure proper absorption of all three should they not be taken correctly? My second concern is type I collagen is the only type available to my knowledge; The others come from such things a beef, chicken and pigs (this is one of the reasons I have loved my homemade bone broth long before I found your site). With that said can you point me to information that otherwise contradicts what I have stated because from the label it appears that although this is called marine collagen it does not appear to be so from my present understanding of such.. ...
DermAid Soft 1% Cream 30g Specially formulated for sensitive skin DermAid Sof. Dry lotions contain plastic like polymers that make them very water resistant. Collagen Cross Links 82523 Sensitive Aveeno over 1 million products that ship and deliver Collagen Cross Links 82523 Sensitive Aveeno fast.. If its your swimming pool you may need to treat the pool for oil which is often the. Retinol also works wonders on skin vitality because it speeds cell turnover. Once youve halted the assault on your cells start to repair the damage.. UVB rays that for its topical eczema therapy Protopic() (tacrolimus endpoint over a period of. Marine Collagen Supplements Pills + Hyaluronic Acid 2000mg Skin Hair 120 Japan shiseido Collagen Ex Beauty Drink Supplement Quality Of Japan 50ml (4) Osteo Bi-flex Joint Health Ease Collagen Formula Dietary Supplement - 7ct. Prescription steroids and burn creams will help.. Clarins - Shop in the Clarins Store on intu.co.uk. Do not wear the belt in front of the face or neck. ...
Collagen Product Exporters ☆ Search here 107 collagen product selling leads from 56 collagen product exporters at EC21 ☆ Choose quality collagen product exporters now - EC21
Skinade collagen drink. Marine Collagen drink and collagen travel size drink. Better skin from within Marine collagen, hair, skin and nails. Daily collagen
Pret BingoSpa Collagen emulsie pentru spalare fermitatea fetei si gatului 300 ml Original. Cumpara acum BingoSpa Collagen emulsie pentru spalare fermitatea fetei si gatului 300 ml la pretul de 17 lei. Produsele din gama BingoSpa Collagen sunt Originale si se afla pe stoc. Cod produs BISCOLW_KECL10. Plasati o comanda online de peste 100 lei si primiti un cadou gratuit. Cosmetice si Parfumuri BingoSpa Collagen Originale si Ieftine. Produse BingoSpa Collagen pentru femei si barbati la cel mai bun pret.. ...
Collagen 2, Wholesale Various High Quality Collagen 2 Products from Global Collagen 2 Suppliers and Collagen 2 Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com.
There is a new trend utilizing growth factors for successful skincare products that is proving successful! Growth factors are compounds that act as chemical messengers between cells and play a role in cell division, new cell and blood vessel growth, and in the production and distribution of collagen and elastin. As we age, our bodies…
Collagen has become one of the most talked about substance which is often regarded as one of the best solutions to battle the aging process and is used in a wide range of medical industries. Whether they work or not is still a debatable question.. Collagen comes in the form of pills, injections or liquid promising to compensate the age related reduction by replenishing the level of collagen in the body, promising to slow down the aging process. This anti aging supplement is derived from animal tissue like cows, chicken or pigs, but whether it is effective or not has yet to be proven.. When used for counteracting the effects on aging of the skin, may studies claim that it does not produce the desired results, certain substances like Keratin and nano-lipobell can help to stimulate collagen production and has shown to be more efficient in reducing wrinkles.. ...
☎ 800-766-5086 Read Transcript Product Terms Privacy About Us ==> Prefer to Read? Click Here In todays presentation, Im going to reveal why collagen doesnt work unless you know the 5 red flags of bad collagen. Im also going to reveal the 5 best types of collagen protein from some rather odd foods found at your l
I am looking for an antibody specific for human collagen 1 and/or collagen 3 for measuring collagen contents in supernatants of fibroblast cultures with an ELISA. Does anybody knows these kind of antibodies or such an ELISA system for collagen ...
Collagen42 - WHAT IS IT? Collagen is the primary structural protein that makes up connective tissue. Its literally the glue that holds your body together and helps hold your skin to your muscles and your muscles to your bones. Collagen actually has over 25 different subtypes, but the Glaxon Pharma Collagen42 contai
Bovine-based Collagen for Biomedical Applications Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017-2025. Global Bovine-based Collagen for Biomedical Applications Market: Overview Collagen is a protein exclusively found in animals, specifically in the connective tissues and skin of mammals. Collagen is primarily ext
LOGONA FREE šampon i gel za tuširanje za čišćenje kože i kose, bez isušivanja, nježnom kombinacijom veoma blagih biljnih sastojaka za čišćenje kao i biljnog glicerina koji održava vlažnost ...
Throwback to when we were babies, ever wonder why our skins was super soft and elastic at that time? It is because our skin is rich of collagen at that time. The older we get the production of collagen is decreased. The scary thing is, research says the production of collagen will be stop when we reach 35 years old. ...
The Collagen Cycle Serum has a small molecular structure which penetrates your skin and keeps your existing collagen from degrading. They also stimulate the formation of new Collagen production. The sonic device opens the pores by heat which enables the serum to penetrate into the skin more effectively to stimulate the
When it comes to skincare- collagen is all the buzz right now, and for good reason. Collagen is the main structural protein found in the skin and it plays a large role in its firmness and elasticity. When collagen production slows down, or its broken ...
The concentrated Tri-Active Collagen Serum protects and regenerates collagen to help firm and tone skin, boosting the synthesis of collagen I, III and IV.
The hydrolyzed, pre-digested collagen protein in GI Pro is available immediately to the intestinal wall cells to repair the leaky gut, and can help throughout the body. Hydrolyzed Fish Collagen Protein is backed by a 40-year history of safe clinical use. This collagen and the other ingredients that make up GI Pro have been carefully selected to support the rapid repair of damaged intestinal tissue and establish optimum flora balance. 180 ...
Optimum Nutrition Amino Energy Plus UC-II Collagen offers a combination of 5g of Amino Acids, 100 mg of Caffeine, and UC-II Collagen. Joint Support.
Much of the clinical supply comes from animals like pigs and cows, but it can cause allergic reactions or illness in some people. Functional human collagen has been impossible to create in the lab. Now, in a study published this month in Nature Chemistry, a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers describe what may be the key to growing functional, natural collagen fibers outside of the body: symmetry.. "These are massive protein chains and its difficult to make them," says study lead author I. Caglar Tanrikulu, an assistant scientist in the laboratory of Ronald Raines, professor of chemistry and Henry Lardy Professor of Biochemistry. "You cant synthesize them chemically because theyre really long. You cant make them biologically because of post-translational modifications," the cellular-level touches that render collagen functional.. Simple shapes, such as these fish, can tile large surfaces if their geometry allows for symmetry. The edges each tessellating fish share with their ...
|b| NutriCology Arthred Collagen Formula |b|Description:|/b| |/b| Clinically reported to nutritionally support healthy joint function. Arthred Collagen Formula|br|Collagen is an essential component of connective tissue. Arthred is a low molecular weight
The original Adashiko Collagen formula, Adashiko Collagen Pure offers multidimensional support for health, elasticity and anti-aging throughout the body.
To be honest, it seems stranger to me than anyone else that somehow I ended up creating a website about the side effects of collagen. It all started when I decided to investigate the effectiveness of collagen for a potential business opportunity with an online marketing agency. Before I decide to pursue those opportunities I decided to do some research.. The compiling of this research was starting to be enough data to become a useful website, so I posted it up on another domain. After my initial research I decided the entire industry wasnt a scam and that real progress had been made since the claims i saw debunked 10 years ago.. Now that Im semi-committed to consulting with and promoting companies that produce collagen related products, I wanted to do everything I could to make sure they were used safely and that information was available.. Im not a doctor of any type. I have no authority in any medical field. I can however research topics and post what I find out. I can also create a website ...
|p||strong|SYIS AMPULKY PURE COLLAGEN 100% 10x3ML|/strong||/p| |p|Ampulka Collagen Pure 100% obsahuje |strong|rozpustný kolagén - soluble collagen|/strong| – ktorý zadržiava vodu v pokožke a chráni ju pred vznikom vr&aac
It will not only keep the outer layers of your skin in optimal condition but also penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin to replenish the bodys own collagen stores while at the same time stimulate collagen production and facilitate tissue renewal. The result is firmer skin with fine lines less visible ...
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. ...
Each scoop of NativePath Grass-Fed Collagen is formulated with 10 grams of the purest, most digestible, keto-friendly, and paleo approved collagen peptide protein, to help enhance the body
Did you know that somewhere around the age of 35 your body stops producing as much collagen as it did when youre younger?And did you know that this is one of the main reasons why we start to get wrinkles and fine lines? Collagen is the protein that gives skin its structure,suppleness, and elasticity.
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Scitec COLLAGEN LIQUID 1000 ml, Scitec Nutrition, : Kloubn v iva tekut , Collagen Liquid hydrolyz t elatiny je zdroj irok ho spektra aminokyselin a peptid , spolup sob c ch p i tvorb kolagenu, zcela nezbytn ch pro spr vn v voj, v ivu a ochranu chrupavek ... - V e pro fitness, kulturistiku a aerobik. Posilovac stroje a sportovn v iva pro dom c a komer n posilovny.
Collagen list and information including what is Collagen, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Collagen list and information including what is Collagen, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Present day society is highly flexible regarding collagen product availability at the touch of a button. While this can be a great advantage, we must also figure out how the average consumer goes through thousands of products in order to find the very best one for their needs. The collagen...
Toitev ja pinguldav näokreem Collagen Power ("Kollageeni jõud") seeriast. Kreem sisaldab 54% mere kollageeni ning on "lifting" (pinguldava) efektiga, toidab, silub kortse, pehmendab kuiva nahka, parandab naha oma kollageeni ja elastiini sünteesi epidermises, taastades naha elastsust ja noorust.. Kollageen - on naha põhiline komponent, mille kogus väheneb vanusega, mistõttu nahk kaotab oma elastsuse, tekkivad kortsud, kuivus ja nahk muutub õhemaks. Mere kollageen on oma molekulaarstruktuuri poolest kõige lähemal inimese nahas sisalduvale kollageenile, seetõttu pääseb ta sügavale nahakihtidesse, imendub kergelt ning aitab kaasa ekstratsellulaarse maatriksi taastumisele, mis parandab naha elastsust, tugevdab ja silub nahka.. Mizon Collagen Power Firming Enriched näokreem sisaldab ka adenosiini - ainet, mis on tugeva vananemisvastase toimega ja mis silub aktiivselt miimilisi kortse laubal, silmade ümber ja suu juures.. Koostisesse kuuluvad peptiidid (vase tripeptiid-1, matrixyl) ...
From the health benefits of collegen to what types of collagen there, to what foods have the most, this post has everything you need to know about collagen!
If you have been following my progress since the beginning of February, you will already have heard me talking about how I was taking collagen as part of my repair and recovery from pains that I had started to get once I started to run. Here I discuss what collagen is and which one you…
A colorimetric, soluble collagen assay for the analysis of acid and pepsin-soluble collagens produced in situ or during in-vitro cell culture.
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The best tips for building collagen include using products containing retinoid, consuming foods that boost collagen, and having...
Collagen is a natural brewed juice that ensures optimum health for the human body. It activates and add collagen cells to protect the immune system ...
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[111 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Phyto Collagen Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Phyto Collagen Revenue,...
In the era of Kylie Jenners lips, collagen has become synonymous with needles. But what about drinking collagen? Firstly, fortunately (or unfortunately for som
You just need to do Revivagenix Pro Collagen Serum right for anti aging cream and everything will work from there on out. Heres Revivagenix Pro Collagen Serum accelerated. Its how to start working with Revivagenix Pro Collagen Serum from home. Weve hit a hard pendulum swing when it matches Revivagenix Pro Collagen Serum.At this time, [...]
In a person`s, collagen is the most abundant protein. It is the chief component of the body with the responsibility of creating many dif…
From reducing wrinkles to helping inflammation, joint pain & digestion, learn why you need this superfood every day! 6 Surprising benefits of Collagen....
Ever wondered what collagen really is? We hear it all the time in spas. But why is it the building block for defense against aging skin. Are these benefits really that incredible?
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Shaped structures of planar, tubular and molded threedimensional forms are formed from concentrated dispersions of a water-insoluble, ionizable, partial salt of collagen and a small amount of water.
BERITA BAIK UNTUK PASANGAN YANG TELAH BERKAHWIN DAN MASIH MENANTIKAN KEHADIRAN CAHAYAMATA SULUNG, [email protected] / MASALAH SUKAR LEKAT(HAMIL) / MENGALAMI KEGUGURAN DAN SEBAGAINYA. PRODUK KAMI "COLLAGEN RATU IDAMAN" PASTI DAPAT MEMBANTU ANDA... INSYAALLAH MARILAH SAMA-SAMA BERUSAHA DEMI KEBAHAGIAN & KESEJAHTERAAN KELUARGA ANDA... ...
View mouse Col25a1 Chr3:130131501-130599877 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Its a lot more workable to run your skin care business when you have an easy to understand image of where you want to take it. For you to fulfill all the goals you have, you have to get rid of numerous challenges that come your method. The standards listed below might assist you in broadening and m… Read more ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Collagen,_type_XX,_alpha_1&oldid=705418915" ...
Type III collagen. liver, bone marrow, and lymphatic organs USES[edit]. Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that ... Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Type I Collagen". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (6): 4223-31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110709200. PMID 11704682.. ... Types of fibers: Tissue. Purpose. Components. Location Collagenous fibers. Bind bones and other tissues to each other. Alpha ...
COL1A1: collagen, type I, alpha 1 (17q21.33). *LUC7L3: LUC7 like 3 pre-mRNA splicing factor (17q21.33) ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the ...
The menisci contain 70% type I collagen.[6] The larger semilunar medial meniscus is attached more firmly than the loosely fixed ... In 1978, Shrive et al. reported that the collagen fibers of the menisci are oriented in a circumferential pattern.[6] When a ... This type of rehabilitation focuses on maintenance of full range of motion and functional progression without aggravating the ... Torg J, Quesdenfeld T (1971). "Effect of shoe type and cleat length on incidence and severity of knee injuries among high ...
... and type III collagen is largely replaced by type I. Collagen which was originally disorganized is cross-linked and aligned ... They begin to produce the much stronger type I collagen. Some of the fibroblasts mature into myofibroblasts which contain the ... Fibroblasts quickly produce abundant type III collagen, which fills the defect left by an open wound. Granulation tissue moves ... In order for an injury to be healed by regeneration, the cell type that was destroyed must be able to replicate. Cells also ...
Type II Collagen is an example of homo-trimeric protein. Porins usually arrange themselves in membranes as trimers. ...
COL7A1: Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (epidermolysis bullosa, dystrophic, dominant and recessive) ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ... ZBED2: encoding protein Zinc finger BED-type containing 2. *ZNF9: zinc finger protein 9 (a cellular retroviral nucleic acid ...
Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Type I Collagen". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (6): 4223-31. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110709200. PMID 11704682.. ... TypesEdit. Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, and special connective tissue.[5][6] ... groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression ...
COL17A1 is collagen. Specifically type XVII, alpha 1. This may play a role in overall protein structure. PRDM16 binds to DNA ... This type of conclusion will require further information. Not enough consensus exists as to where in the body SMIM23 is ... The closest relatives to humans with the SMIM23 gene were in primates so two types of monkeys were picked which diverged around ... The same kind of investigation of protein localization in other types of species returned conflicting results. Many programs ...
Horton, WA, Campbell, D, Machado, MA & Chou, J; Campbell; Machado; Chou (1989). "Type II collagen screening in the human ... Gajko-Galicka, A (2002). "Mutations in type I collagen genes resulting in osteogenesis imperfecta in humans". Acta biochimica ... "Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and type III collagen abnormalities: a variable clinical spectrum". Clinical Genetics 53 (6): 440-446. ... Type 2: brusk (hovedkomponent). Sykdommer[rediger , rediger kilde]. Ett tusen mutasjoner er blitt identifisert i tolv av mer ...
The molecular basis for thin basement membrane disease has yet to be elucidated fully; however, defects in type IV collagen ... defects in the gene encoding the a4 chain of type IV collagen have been reported in some families. Overall, most people with ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Collagen IV-Related Nephropathies (Alport Syndrome and Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy). ...
... within the human COL7A1 gene encoding the protein type VII collagen (collagen VII).[11] DEB-causing mutations can be either ... Type VII collagen mutations and phenotype-genotype correlations in the dystrophic subtypes". Journal of Medical Genetics. 44 (3 ... There are 54 known keratin genes-of which 28 belong to the type I intermediate filament genes and 26 to type II-which work as ... Over 300 mutations have been identified in this condition.[7] They have been classified into the following types:[8][9]:596 ...
Leitinger B, Kwan AP (2006). "The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen". Matrix Biol. 25 (6): 355- ... protein tyrosine kinase collagen receptor activity. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • ATP binding. • collagen binding. ... collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway. • ossification. • phosphorylation. • collagen fibril ... "Discoidin domain receptor 2 interacts with Src and Shc following its activation by type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (21): ...
Svensson L, Närlid I, Oldberg A (Mar 2000). "Fibromodulin and lumican bind to the same region on collagen type I fibrils". FEBS ... This enables it bind to collagen molecules within a collagen fibril, thus helping keep adjacent fibrils apart.[9] ... fibrillar collagen trimer. • lysosomal lumen. • Golgi lumen. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. • extracellular ... collagen binding. • extracellular matrix structural constituent. • protein binding. Cellular component. • extracellular matrix ...
COL11A1: collagen, type XI, alpha 1. *CPT2: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. *CRYZ: Crystallin zeta ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... FRA1J encoding protein Fragile site, 5-azacytidine type, common, fra(1)(q12) ... This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the ...
2007, (Type species of the genus).;: Greek noun amulon, starch; New Latin adjective lyticus -a -um (from Greek adjective ... 2007, ; New Latin noun collagenum, collagen; Latin adjective marinus -a -um, of the sea, marine; New Latin feminine gender ... the source of the type strain), Kenya.) Bacterial taxonomy Microbiology Classification of Genera AC entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P ...
The COL11A2 gene is responsible for providing instructions on making one component of the type XI collagen. Type XI collagen is ... which codes for the α2 strand of collagen type XI. It is a collagenopathy, types II and XI disorder. It causes facial ... The mutation of COL11A2 in Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome disrupts the assembly of the type XI collagen molecules. The ... Collagen is found in bone. It is also found in cartilage that makes up most of the skeleton during early development. ...
Abnormally shaped ends of one or more bones at a joint A Type 1 collagen or other connective tissue defect (as found in Ehlers- ... For example: Typing can reduce pain from writing. Voice control software or a more ergonomic keyboard can reduce pain from ... Female sex hormones alter collagen proteins. Women are generally more supple just before a period and even more so in the ... The dermatosparaxis and kyphoscoliosis types of EDS and some cases of the classic and hypermobility forms, are inherited in an ...
... s can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow:[1][9] Joint movements are ... fibrous joint - joined by dense regular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers [6] ... There are two types: primary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage, and secondary cartilaginous joints composed of ... Types of joints based upon their structure (L to R): Cartilaginous joint, Fibrous joint, and Synovial joint. ...
Research into synthetic collagen is ongoing; as of 2011, partial success has been achieved in replicating collagen's structure ... Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and ... It has been suggested that Hydrolyzed collagen be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since July 2018. ... "Type A & B Process Definition". Vyse Gelatin Company. 26 October 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2015. Retrieved 16 ...
Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; ... CollagenEdit. Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM. In fact, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human ... The collagen can be divided into several families according to the types of structure they form: *Fibrillar (Type I, II, III, V ... Other (Type VI, VII, XIII). ElastinEdit. Elastins, in contrast to collagens, give elasticity to tissues, allowing them to ...
Collagen, type XXIV, alpha 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL24A1 gene. Model organisms have been used in the ... Collagen, type XXIV, alpha 1". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of ...
There are multiple types of collagen: Type I (comprising skin, tendons and ligaments, vasculature and organs, as well as teeth ... Several types of protein based, nanosized fibers are being used in nanocomposites. These include collagen, cellulose, chitin ... and bone); Type II (a component in cartilage); Type III (often found in reticular fibers); and others. Collagen has a ... Additionally secondary processing of collagen sources to obtain sufficient purity collagen micro fibrils adds a degree of cost ...
Among the many types of collagens, only the fibrillar and the basement membrane (type IV) collagens have been found in the ... Type II and type XI collagens compose the fibrils present in cartilage. These can be distinguished from collagens located in ... coding for collagen type IV which is a diagnostic feature of the basal lamina It has also been found that 29 types of collagen ... Different types of collagen have been found in all multicellular organisms, including sponges. It has been found that sponges ...
Bornstein P, Kyriakides TR, Yang Z, Armstrong LC, Birk DE (Dec 2000). "Thrombospondin 2 modulates collagen fibrillogenesis and ... "Entrez Gene: THBS2 thrombospondin 2". Bein K, Simons M (Oct 2000). "Thrombospondin type 1 repeats interact with matrix ... Bein K, Simons M (Oct 2000). "Thrombospondin type 1 repeats interact with matrix metalloproteinase 2. Regulation of ... "Mice that lack thrombospondin 2 display connective tissue abnormalities that are associated with disordered collagen ...
Several types of catenins work with N-cadherins to play an important role in learning and memory (For full article, see ... Spivey KA, Chung I, Banyard J, Adini I, Feldman HA, Zetter BR (October 2011). "A role for collagen XXIII in cancer cell ... For instance, higher levels of collagen XXIII have been associated with higher levels of catenins in cells. These heightened ... levels of collagen helped facilitate adhesions and anchorage-independent cell growth and provided evidence of collagen XXIII's ...
COL18A1, KNO, KNO1, KS, Collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1, collagen type XVIII alpha 1, collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain. ... This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix ... 2002). "Epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies against multiplexin collagens demonstrate that type XV and XVIII collagens are ... "Cloning of cDNA and genomic DNA encoding human type XVIII collagen and localization of the alpha 1(XVIII) collagen gene to ...
... a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but… ... This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, ... Background of Collagen type XI alpha 2 chain antibody. This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a ... Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. ...
... chain of type II collagen and to the alpha 3(XI) chain of type XI collagen. Some patients also had antibodies which bound to ... chains of type XI collagen. Thus antibodies to unique as well as to common epitopes on each of the two types of collagen ... Antibodies to type II and XI collagens: evidence for the formation of antigen specific as well as cross reacting antibodies in ... Antibodies to type II and XI collagens: evidence for the formation of antigen specific as well as cross reacting antibodies in ...
Loss of collagen-receptor DDR1 delays renal fibrosis in hereditary type IV collagen disease ... Download PDF Loss of collagen-receptor DDR1 delays renal fibrosis in hereditary type IV collagen disease. Item availability ... Loss of collagen-receptor DDR1 delays renal fibrosis in hereditary type IV collagen disease. Matrix Biology, 29(5):346-56. ... Loss of DDR1-expression in the kidney delayed renal fibrosis and inflammation in hereditary type IV collagen disease. This ...
Collagen type XI may therefore exist as homotrimers and/or heterotrimers composed of two collagen alpha(XI) chains in some ... The distribution of mRNAs for collagen alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(I) were also studied. Co-expression of collagen type XI, alpha 2( ... These findings have implications for the possibility of additional chain associations for collagen types XI and V in cross-type ... the mRNAs for all three alpha chains of collagen type XI were not co-expressed, but collagen alpha 1(XI) and alpha 2(XI) mRNAs ...
Collagen IV (ColIV or Col4) is a type of collagen found primarily in the basal lamina. The collagen IV C4 domain at the C- ... Collagen IV is the more common usage, as opposed to the older terminology of "type-IV collagen".[citation needed] Collagen IV ... type IV collagen excretion reflects renal morphological alterations and type IV collagen expression in patients with type 2 ... Type III Procollagen, Type IV Collagen, Laminin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase, or Prolyl Hydroxylase?". Alcoholism: ...
This gene encodes the alpha chain of type VII collagen. The type VII collagen fibril, composed of three identical alpha ... Collagen, type VII, alpha 1 has been shown to interact with Laminin 5 and Fibronectin. Collagen GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... of type VII collagen is amino-terminal and chimeric. Homology to cartilage matrix protein, the type III domains of fibronectin ... "Cleavage of type VII collagen by interstitial collagenase and type IV collagenase (gelatinase) derived from human skin". The ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Collagen,_type_XX,_alpha_1&oldid=705418915" ...
Collagen type VI myopathies.. Bushby KM1, Collins J, Hicks D.. Author information. 1. Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle ... Mutations in each of the three collagen VI genes COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 cause two main types of muscle disorders: Ullrich ... Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances, Supplementary concepts, Grant support. Publication type. *Review ... Collagen VI is an important component of the extracellular matrix which forms a microfibrillar network that is found in close ...
I report a series of studies targeted at elucidating mechanisms of proteostasis for collagen type-1, the most abundant collagen ... Misfolding collagen variants cause disease, including osteogenesis imperfecta in the case of collagen-I variants. The origins ... Despite decades of work, however, the mechanisms of collagen folding remain poorly understood, and collagen quality control is ... The folding, quality control, and secretion of collagen presents a significant challenge to collagen-producing cells. Each ...
About 47% of these are collagen, 18% are anti-aging, and 12% are animal extract. A wide variety of collagen type ii options are ... chicken collagen type ii amino collagen c collagen granule firm up collagen cartilage collagen us collagen softgel oem collagen ... Raw material hydrolyzed collagen type 2 cas 9064-67-9 fish collagen powder type II hydrolyzed collagen type II powder ... Tags: Undenatured Collagen Type Ii , Undenatured Collagen Type 2 , Collagen Type 2 Undenatured ...
Healthy Origins, Natural, UC-II with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 40 mg, 120 Veggie Caps. 6 ... Now Foods, UC-II Joint Health, Undenatured Type II Collagen, 120 Veg Capsules. 86 ... Healthy Origins, Natural, UC-II with Undenatured Type II Collagen, 40 mg, 60 Veggie Caps. 3 ... Life Extension, Bio-Collagen with Patented UC-II, 40 mg, 60 Small Caps. 20 ...
Collagen types I, II, III, V and XI self-assemble into D-periodic cross-striated fibrils. Here the D is approximately 67 nm and ... These form the most abundant collagens in vertebrates. ... There are 29 genetically distinct collagens present in animal ... Type V collagen and type XI collagen are minor components of tissue and occur as fibrils with type I and type II collagen ... These form the most abundant collagens in vertebrates.. Collagen types I - V. *Type I collagen is found throughout the body ...
Collagens constitute nearly 30% of all proteins in our body (1). Among the 29 collagen types, type IV collagen is a major and ... collagen types I, II, and III) and networks (collagen types IV and VI) (1). Proper posttranslational modifications of collagen ... C and D) Presence of type IV collagen in both P3H2-null and control embryos at E6 (green) is shown. colIV, type IV collagen. (E ... Type I collagen used for SPR experiments was extracted from mouse skin as previously described (6). Type IV collagen extracted ...
... dginn at olivet.edu dginn at olivet.edu Sun Jun 9 23:37:26 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... Greetings, I am looking for a plasmid probe with a cDNA sequence for Rat Type I collagen gene [alpha1(I) and/or alpha2(I)]. ... Previous message: Rat Type I collagen cDNA probe needed *Next message: Rat Type I collagen cDNA probe needed ...
alpha-1(IX) collagen chain. cartilage-specific short collagen. collagen IX, alpha-1 polypeptide. collagen, type IX, alpha 1. ... Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have ... COL9A1 collagen type IX alpha 1 chain [Homo sapiens] COL9A1 collagen type IX alpha 1 chain [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1297 ... Type IX collagen interacts with fibronectin providing an important molecular bridge in articular cartilage Title: Type IX ...
COL18A1 collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain [Homo sapiens] COL18A1 collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID: ... collagen alpha-1(XVIII) chain isoform 1 preproprotein. collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1. endostatin. multi-functional protein MFP ... CRD_Collagen_XVIII; Cysteine-rich domain of the variant 3 of collagen XVIII (V3C18 ). pfam01391. Location:1057 → 1107. Collagen ... This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix ...
collagen alpha-2(VIII) chain. Names. collagen VIII, alpha-2 polypeptide. collagen, type VIII, alpha 2. endothelial collagen. ... COL8A2 collagen type VIII alpha 2 chain [Homo sapiens] COL8A2 collagen type VIII alpha 2 chain [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:1296 ... Collagen; Collagen triple helix repeat (20 copies). * NM_005202.3 → NP_005193.1 collagen alpha-2(VIII) chain isoform 1 ... Collagen formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Collagen formation, organism-specific biosystemCollagen is a ...
... mainly type II collagen), the outer elastin layer (OEL), and a layer of type I collagen fiber bundles (cI). In the col1a2−/− ... into the type I collagen triple helix. However, to obtain a full understanding of zebrafish type I collagen, the exact trimer ... Zebrafish type I collagen mutants faithfully recapitulate human type I collagenopathies. Charlotte Gistelinck, Ronald Y. Kwon, ... Zebrafish type I collagen mutants faithfully recapitulate human type I collagenopathies. Charlotte Gistelinck, Ronald Y. Kwon, ...
The excess accumulation of type I collagen within tissues leads to organ dysfunction and occurs as a result of an imbalance ... The excess accumulation of type I collagen within tissues leads to organ dysfunction and occurs as a result of an imbalance ... This chapter outlines several methods to assess the in vitro production of type I collagen that are employed in our laboratory ... Type I collagen Western immunoblot real-time PCR nuclear run-on assay ...
b-2Cool®​ is a natural ingredient supplying native (undenatured) type II collagen, whose efficacy in joint health improvement ... Discover b-2Cool, Bioibericas native type II collagen. Published 07-Nov-2017. ... is able to modulate the immune response against endogenous type II collagen in the cartilage. ...
collagen type IV, isoform A. D. melanogaster. 51.5. 483. NP_001116702.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... Collagen, type IV, alpha 4 (COL4A4). Human protein-coding gene COL4A4. Represented by 83 ESTs from 50 cDNA libraries. ... collagen alpha-5(IV) chain precursor. D. rerio. 49.9. 1626. NP_510664.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... PREDICTED: collagen alpha-4(IV) chain. P. troglodytes. 98.8. 1689. XP_003908072.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * ...
COL18A1 collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain [Canis lupus familiaris] COL18A1 collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain [Canis lupus ... LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: collagen alpha-1(XVIII) chain. Names. collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1. endostatin. ... collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chainprovided by VGNC. Primary source. VGNC:VGNC:49781 See related. Ensembl:ENSCAFG00000011817 Gene ... COL18A1 collagen type XVIII alpha 1 chain [ Canis lupus familiaris (dog) ] Gene ID: 100687767, updated on 26-Sep-2018 ...
Collagen Type 4-related Nephropathies: From Alport to Thin Membrane Nephropathy. A Series of Cases Treated With Angiotensin ... Patients with Collagen type 4 nephropathies and proteinuria followed in Pediatric Nephrology Unit of Instituto da Criança - ... Background: Collagen IV-related nephropathies can lead to End Stage Renal Disease. Experimental studies have shown renin ... Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with Collagen IV-related nephropathies and proteinuria treated with ...
Compare collagen type XXIV alpha 1 Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Your search returned 1 collagen type XXIV alpha 1 Biomolecules across 1 supplier. ... Strong, native & highly biocompatible - introducing next generation collagen fibers for the development of novel therapies in ...
  • Collagen alpha-1(XVIII) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL18A1 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Type I collagen production is inhibited by the inability of the altered procollagen strands to associate and form the triple-stranded, ropelike structure of mature collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of procollagen 1 C-terminal peptide (PICP) and collagen type 1 C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP), two major by-products in the synthesis and degradation of collagen, was shown to be positively correlated with inflammatory mediator levels in previous studies. (dovepress.com)
  • Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest collagenous domain, Col15, which contains 232 amino acids (amino acids 567-808), contributes significantly to stability of collagen XVII homotrimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen XVII also plays a role as an autoantigen in acquired subepithelial blistering disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most immunodominant epitopes lie within the NC16A domain, and the binding of the autoantibodies perturbs adhesive functions of the collagen XVII, and this (together with inflammation-related processes) leads to epidermal-dermal separation and skin blistering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen XVII is extracellularly phosphorylated by ecto-casein kinase 2 within the NC16A domain, phosphorylation negatively regulates ectodomain shedding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen XIII belongs to the transmembranous subfamily of collagens, like collagen XVII, XXIII and XXV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bullae are formed by an immune reaction, initiated by the formation of IgG autoantibodies targeting Dystonin, also called Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1, and/or type XVII collagen, also called Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 2, which is a component of hemidesmosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter outlines several methods to assess the in vitro production of type I collagen that are employed in our laboratory. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the swelling ratio and the in vitro degradation of the collagen scaffold, the tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in a PBS solution or digestion in a type I collagenase respectively. (springer.com)
  • Under small shear strains, {\em in vitro} collagen gels exhibit strain-stiffening while maintaining overall network integrity. (aps.org)
  • Type IV collagen, an important component of the basement membrane, is highly expressed by pancreatic cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. (diva-portal.org)
  • Super Collagen™ is enzymatically hydrolyzed, providing an amino acid ratio with a low molecular weight for maximum bioavailability and utilization by the body. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Super Collagen™ is neutral in taste and is specifically formulated in an easy to take powder form. (vitaminworld.com)
  • Directions: As a daily dietary supplement, dissolve one scoop of Super Collagen™ Dietary Supplement with one spoon of water or orange juice. (vitaminworld.com)