Gingival NeoplasmsCollagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Epithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Gingival Hyperplasia: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)Gingival Recession: Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Gingivoplasty: Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gingivectomy: Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Collagen Type III: A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.Gingival Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.Periodontal Prosthesis: Any restorative and replacement device that is used as a therapeutic aid in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is an adjunct to other forms of periodontal therapy and does not cure periodontal disease by itself. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 3d ed)Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Oral Ulcer: A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Collagen Type V: A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Gingival Hemorrhage: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Collagen Diseases: Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Periodontal Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Tongue, FissuredLip DiseasesChronic Periodontitis: Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Fibroma, Ossifying: A benign central bone tumor, usually of the jaws (especially the mandible), composed of fibrous connective tissue within which bone is formed.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Odontogenic Cyst, Calcifying: A mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion of the jaws with features of both a cyst and a solid neoplasm. It is characterized microscopically by an epithelial lining showing a palisaded layer of columnar basal cells, presence of ghost cell keratinization, dentinoid, and calcification. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mouth DiseasesCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Periodontal Attachment Loss: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.Pigmentation DisordersMouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Hydroxylysine: A hydroxylated derivative of the amino acid LYSINE that is present in certain collagens.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Aggressive Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.Fibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ameloblastoma: An immature epithelial tumor of the JAW originating from the epithelial rests of Malassez or from other epithelial remnants of the ENAMEL from the developmental period. It is a slowly growing tumor, usually benign, but displays a marked propensity for invasive growth.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Mouth FloorTooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Collagen Type XII: A fibril-associated collagen found in many tissues bearing high tensile stress, such as TENDONS and LIGAMENTS. It is comprised of a trimer of three identical alpha1(XII) chains.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Orthodontic Appliances: Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)Collagen Type VII: A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Collagen Type VIII: A non-fibrillar collagen originally found in DESCEMET MEMBRANE. It is expressed in endothelial cell layers and in tissues undergoing active remodeling. It is heterotrimer comprised of alpha1(VIII) and alpha2(VIII) chains.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.ElastinOsteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC 1.14.11.4.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Aminopropionitrile: Reagent used as an intermediate in the manufacture of beta-alanine and pantothenic acid.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Collagen Type XIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found as a ubiquitously expressed membrane- associated protein. Type XIII collagen contains both collagenous and non-collagenous domains along with a transmembrane domain within its N-terminal region.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins: Basic glycoprotein members of the SERPIN SUPERFAMILY that function as COLLAGEN-specific MOLECULAR CHAPERONES in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase: An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.4.3.13.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Integrin alpha1: An integrin alpha subunit that binds COLLAGEN and LAMININ though its I domain. It combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the heterodimer INTEGRIN ALPHA1BETA1.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Keloid: A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1: A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Tropocollagen: The molecular unit of collagen fibrils that consist of repeating three-stranded polypeptide units arranged head to tail in parallel bundles. It is a right-handed triple helix composed of 2 polypeptide chains. It is rich in glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Mice, Inbred C57BLMicroscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Nephritis, Hereditary: A group of inherited conditions characterized initially by HEMATURIA and slowly progressing to RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. The most common form is the Alport syndrome (hereditary nephritis with HEARING LOSS) which is caused by mutations in genes for TYPE IV COLLAGEN and defective GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Gelatinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases: A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Collagen fibres bind the attached gingiva tightly to the underlying periodontium including the cementum and alveolar bone and ... Gingivae[edit]. Normal gingiva may range in color from light coral pink to heavily pigmented. The soft tissues and connective ... Free gingiva[edit]. The tissues that sit above the alveolar bone crest are considered the free gingiva. In healthy periodontium ... Interdental gingiva[edit]. The interdental gingiva takes up the space beneath a tooth contact point, between two adjacent teeth ...
The early lesion can occupy up to 15% of the connective tissue of the marginal gingiva and up to 60-70% of collagen may be ... A gingival abscess involves only the gingiva near the marginal gingiva or the interdental papilla. A periodontal abscess ... Loss of perivascular collagen occurs; it is thought that this is due to the degradative enzymes released by extravasating ... Attström R, Graf-de Beer M, Schroeder HE (July 1975). "Clinical and histologic characteristics of normal gingiva in dogs". J. ...
Itoiz, ME; Carranza, FA: The Gingiva. In Newman, MG; Takei, HH; Carranza, FA; editors: Carranza's Clinical Periodontology, 9th ... Connective tissue attachment loss refers to the pathological detachment of collagen fibers from cemental surface with the ...
Collagen-elastine membrane, collagen-glycosaminoglycane (C-GAG) matrix, cross-linked collagen matrix Integra™ and Terudermis® ... Kertinocytes can be isolated from different areas of the oral cavity (such as the palate or gingiva). It is important that the ... Collagen (mainly collagen type I) is often used as a scaffold because it is biocompatible, non-immunogenic and available. ... Collagen is the primary component of the extracellular matrix. Collagen scaffolds efficiently support fibroblast growth, which ...
... fibers that extend towards the crest of the gingiva fibers that extend laterally to the outer surface of the gingiva and fibers ... They are primarily composed of type I collagen, although type III fibers are also involved. These fibers, unlike the fibers of ... They hold the marginal gingiva against the tooth They provide the marginal gingiva with enough rigidity to withstand the forces ... circular group - these fibers are unique in that they exist entirely within the gingiva and do not contact the tooth ...
The gingiva ("gums") is the mucosal tissue that overlays the jaws. There are three different types of epithelium associated ... Consisting of mostly Type I and III collagen, the fibers are grouped in bundles and named according to their location. The ... It consists of the cementum, periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, and gingiva. Of these, cementum is the only one that is a ... Long term use of chlorhexidine, a mouthwash, may encourage extrinsic stain formation near the gingiva on teeth. This is usually ...
JEB affects tissues including mucous membranes, so one of the first signs is blistering of the gingiva and tongue after the ... Due to this mutation, the defective protein is not able to produce collagen, which provides strength and structure for the skin ... Another protein, called type XVII collagen, is affected by a mutation in COL17A1. ...
The procedure is performed from inside the patient's mouth where the surgeon makes an incision into the gum, or gingiva. Once ... The graft material used can be either an autograft, an allograft, a xenograft, an alloplast (a growth-factor infused collagen ...
Vitamin D deficiencies affect calcium homeostasis which in turn negatively impacts parts of the teeth including the gingivae, ... Beneath the enamel, there are collagen fibres and inorganic hydroxyapatite which together form dentin. Hydroxyapatite is the ...
After the gingiva, the alveolar mucosa and the buccal mucosa are the next most common sites, although any mucosal site in the ... Macrophages take up the exogenous particles, and the silver in amalgam leads to staining of collagen fibers. A similar ... Amalgam tattoo usually occurs on the mandibular gingiva, often in an area in which a apicoectomy ("root-end filling") with ...
The periodontium consists of four tissues: gingiva, or gum tissue, cementum, or outer layer of the roots of teeth, alveolar ... pockets are sites where the attachment has been gradually destroyed by collagen-destroying enzymes, known as collagenases) ... Crich, Aubrey (1932). "Blastomycosis of the gingiva and jaw". Can Med Assoc J. 26 (6): 662-65. PMC 402380 . PMID 20318753. ...
The lamina propria is a fibrous connective tissue layer that consists of a network of type I and III collagen and elastin ... Keratinized squamous epithelium is present in the attached gingiva and hard palate as well as areas of the dorsal surface of ... hard palate and attached gingiva. Lining mucosa, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, found almost everywhere else in ...
... lack of attached gingiva, pretibial plaques; and family history of a first-degree relative who meets clinical criteria. Cardiac ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III/articular hypermobility syndrome has a glycine 637 to serine substitution in type III collagen ...
Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease, which can cause the gingiva to recede. As the gingiva loses ... The outer more superficial zone is highly infected with proteolytic degradation of the collagen matrix and as a result the ... Plaque may also collect above or below the gingiva, where it is referred to as supra- or sub-gingival plaque, respectively. ... The innermost dentin caries has been reversibly attacked because the collagen matrix is not severely damaged, giving it ...
A woman's lipstick (or collagen lip enhancement) attempts to take advantage of this fact by creating the illusion that a woman ... It supplies the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip and labial gingiva (gum) anteriorly. The facial artery is one of the ...
Synthetic polymers are such that it is a polylactic acid bilayer, or the collagen-derived membranes. These membranes can be ... to direct the growth of new bone and gingival tissue at sites with insufficient volumes or dimensions of bone or gingiva for ... A synthetic resorbable membrane indicated an amount of stable augmented bone similar to that of a collagen resorbable membrane ... clinical trial done to compare the stability of augmented bone between a synthetic resorbable membrane and a collagen membrane ...
a. Collagenase (breakdown of collagen) in the jaw bone leads to bone degeneration, providing room for cysts to develop. ... Marsupialization could also be performed, which involves suturing the edges of the gingiva surrounding the cyst to remain open ...
This is a natural path of eruption of all the teeth as they emerge from gingiva and continue erupting until they make contact ... Theorists hypothesize that the periodontal ligament promotes eruption through the shrinking and cross-linking of their collagen ... Passive Eruption is known as movement of the gingiva apically or away from the crown of the tooth to the level of Cementoenamel ... Animals treated with lathyrogens that interfere with collagen cross-link formation showed similar eruption rates to control ...
To increase the effectiveness of oral anticoagulant drugs, bleeding risks can be further minimized by the usage of collagen ... supplying sense of touch and taste to the right and left half of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue as well as the lingual gingiva ... Dental practitioners usually have absorbent gauze, hemostatic packing material (oxidized cellulose, collagen sponge) and suture ... such as oxidised cellulose or collagen sponge, in addition to suturing are recommended if the source of bleeding is from the ...
The definitive symptom of ONJ is the exposure of mandibular or maxillary bone through lesions in the gingiva that do not heal. ... but are no longer synthetizing collagen. This appears to be consistent with the findings in alveolar cancellous bone. ...
Corneal collagen cross-linking. Iris, ciliary body,. sclera, and anterior chamber. *Glaucoma surgery: Trabeculectomy ...
It is uncommon, and usually involves the buccal mucosa and the gingiva (the gums). This condition is characterized by (usually ... relying on either the property of normal autoflorescent molecules in mucosa such as collagen and keratin which is lost from ...
fibrous joint - joined by dense regular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers [6] ...
It is attached to the alveolar bone (C) by the fibers of the periodontal ligament and to the soft tissue of the gingiva by the ... The organic portion is composed primarily of collagen and proteoglycans.[7] Cementum is avascular, receiving its nutrition ...
In studies reported in Science in April 2007, Asara and colleagues concluded that seven traces of collagen proteins detected in ... "Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology of the saliva and gingiva from 16 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis): new ... finding that it was the inner parts of the collagen coil that had been preserved, as would have been expected from a long ... Schweitzer and colleagues published an analysis in 2011 of what parts of the collagen had been recovered, ...
A woman's lipstick (or collagen lip enhancement) attempts to take advantage of this fact by creating the illusion that a woman ... It supplies the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip and labial gingiva (gum) anteriorly. ...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a porcine collagen matrix CM, with or without the addition of ... The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a porcine collagen matrix CM, with or without the addition of ... Porcine Collagen Matrix With And Without Enamel Matrix Derivative For The Treatment Of Gingival Recession Defects. ... Gingivae * connective tissue Subject Categories: *Medicine and Medical Research. Distribution Statement: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC ...
... of which collagen type I is the most prominent example. Mutation in the Son-of-Sevenless-1 gene has been suggested as one ... and on histopathological evaluation of affected gingiva. Early diagnosis is important, mostly to exclude oral malignancy. ... local or diffuse enlargements within marginal and attached gingiva or interdental papilla. In severe cases, the excess tissue ... Slowly progressive hyperplasia of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Occurs with eruption of the permanent teeth, more ...
... though GO-affected gingival tissues were controlled at least by genes related to collagen metabolisms including regulated MMPs ... Gingiva. *Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. *Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR. *Cathepsins. *Polymerase ...
In situ hybridization Immunohistochemistry Laminins Type IV collagen Amelotin Gingiva This is a preview of subscription content ... Weak and sporadic expression of type IV collagen in addition to laminin 10 in the gingiva indicates that these molecules ... Expression and localization of laminin 5, laminin 10, type IV collagen, and amelotin in adult murine gingiva. ... Heikinheimo K, Salo T (1995) Expression of basement membrane type IV collagen and type IV collagenases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in ...
Contraction and organization of collagen gels by cells cultured from periodontal ligament, gingiva and bone suggest functional ... Contraction and organization of collagen gels by cells cultured from periodontal ligament, gingiva and bone suggest functional ... Contraction and organization of collagen gels by cells cultured from periodontal ligament, gingiva and bone suggest functional ... Contraction and organization of collagen gels by cells cultured from periodontal ligament, gingiva and bone suggest functional ...
Collagen / physiology. Connective Tissue / anatomy & histology, physiology. Gingiva / anatomy & histology, physiology*. Humans ... The present review summarizes available data on the effect of orthodontic force on collagen, elastin, and collagenase in the ... the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the gingiva has been investigated to a lesser extent. Unlike bone and periodontal ... on which a hypothesis has been made that tooth relapse after removal of retention may be associated with changes in the gingiva ...
osteogenesis imperfecta (type 1 collagen defect) 14 bluish line on gingiva burton line (lead poisoning) ...
Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: cant hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis) 104 ...
Collagen Female Gene Expression Regulation Gingiva Graft Survival Heterografts Mice, Inbred BALB C Mice, Nude ... MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm3 ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The ...
... collagen and hyaluronic acid; and mixtures of the foregoing. Biostable materials that are suitable for use in this invention ... periodontal disease such as lesions of gingiva, periodontium, alveolar bone and substantia ossea dentis; nephrotic syndrome ... collagen diseases such as scleroderma, Wegeners granuloma and Sjogrens syndrome; adiposis; eosinophilic fasciitis; ...
d) Collagen tape and cyanoacrylate to reduce discomfort over donor site. (e) Graft secured and well adapted to recipient bed ... Note minimal keratinized attached gingiva over grafted area of numbers 8 and 9 due to coronal advancement of the flap. (b) Note ... Collagen disorders, such as erosive lichen planus and pemphigoid, may pose a risk to the viability of autogenous connective ... The tissue graft is used as a template to trim a collagen biomaterial in the proper dimensions to cover the donor site wound. ...
Therefore, we used organotypic tissue equivalents (reconstructed epithelium on fibroblast-populated collagen hydrogel) to study ... Gingiva Equivalents Secrete Negligible Amounts of Key Chemokines Involved in Langerhans Cell Migration Compared to Skin ... In contrast, general inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and CXCL8 were secreted similarly by skin and gingiva. These results indicate ... Furthermore, CCL27 was predominantly secreted by skin whereas CCL28 was predominantly secreted by gingiva. ...
It is firmly bound to the underlying cementum and bone with collagen fibers of the connective tissue. Attached gingiva is ... Figure 2Attached gingiva. The attached gingiva extends apically from the free gingiva to the alveolar mucosa. ... Anatomically, the gingiva is divided into the marginal and attached areas.. Marginal gingiva. The free gingival margin ... The inner surface (next to the tooth) of the free gingiva forms the gingival wall of the sulcus. The marginal gingiva extends ...
Your gingiva is also called your gums, designed to protect the roots of your teeth. The part of the pulp cavity inside the root ... It has high levels of protein, most of it collagen.12 Beneath the dentin is the pulp tissue encased in a pulp cavity where it ... Additionally, pure collagen treated with hydrogen peroxide in concentrations similar to those found in whitening strips made ... 7 Experimental Biology 2019, Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Collagen. *8 Experimental Biology 2019, Degradation of Proteins ...
Biochemical Characterization of Collagen in Alveolar Mucosa and Attached Gingiva of Pig (2007) ... Higher Contents of Mineral and Collagen but Lower of Hydroxylysine of Collagen in Mandibular Bone Compared with Those of ... Higher Expression of Collagen-binding Small Leucine-rich Proteoglycan Genes in Mouse Mandibular Bone Marrow than Femoral Bone ...
Definition: type I collagen fibers collected into fiber bundles within the subepithelial connective tissue of the gingiva; they ...
Blood flow kinetics of a xenogeneic collagen matrix following a vestibuloplasty procedure in the human gingiva-An explorative ... A Novel Approach to Monitoring Graft Neovascularization in the Human Gingiva.. Fazekas R, Molnár E, Mikecs B, Lohinai Z, Vág J. ... Functional characterization of collaterals in the human gingiva by laser speckle contrast imaging. ... Evidence of spreading vasodilation in the human gingiva evoked by nitric oxide. ...
Experimental and histological studies of different cross-linking types of collagen materials implanted in rat palatal gingiva ... Epithelial Regeneration Responses After Collagen Matrix Implantation into Defects of the Palatal Gingiva in Rats.:Epithelial ... Regeneration Responses After Collagen Matrix Implantation into Defects of the Palatal Gingiva in Rats (1994) ... Local drug delivery using collagen pellets containing minocycline and lysozyme chloride for periodontal therapy. (1992) ...
It is preferable to achieve a certain amount of attached gingiva for maintenance of the integrity of the dento-gingival ... Mucoderm is an acellular sterilized collagen matrix derived from porcine dermis consisting of collagen types I and III and ... Previously rehydrated collagen matrix was placed in the recipient site to cover the recessions, positioned at the level of the ... Xenogenic collagen matrix or autologous connective tissue graft as adjunct to coronally advanced flaps for coverage of multiple ...
... and the matrix metalloproteinases destroy the collagens and other connective tissue components of the gingiva and periodontal ... these pathogenic bacteria form on the tooth surfaces and extend apically between the surface of the tooth root and gingiva to ...
n.pl white fibers composed of collagen. The most conspicuous part of connective tissue, including the gingivae and periodontal ... n.pl the collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament that extend from the alveolar crest into the gingiva. ... n.pl the collagen fibers in the free gingiva that encircle the tooth in a ringlike fashion. ... n.pl the gathering together of collagen fibers in a group, particularly the collagen fiber bundles of the periodontal ligament. ...
gingiva and bone. Definition. gum = mucosa covering alveolar processes, aids in support, protects alveolar processes and ... connects tooth to bony socket, and connects to cementum via collagen. allows for individual tooth movement. acts as shock ...
... cell viability and differentiation of stem cells derived from gingiva, Bo-Bae Kim, Minji Kim, Jun-Beom Park ... Collagen I expression of the 0 μM group, E. Collagen I expression of the 2 μM group, F. Collagen I expression of the 6 μM group ... Isolation and culture of human gingiva-derived stem cells. Isolation and culture of human gingiva-derived stem cells were ... and collagen I, and protein expressions of Runx2 and collagen I were measured using Western blot analysis. To our knowledge, ...
The article focuses on water-soluble mucoproteins found in the gingiva. It states that the connective tissues of the gingiva ... Objective: To assess whether the variable impact of quantitative changes in myocardial collagen on left ventricular (LV) ... WATER-SOLUBLE MUCOPROTEINS OF THE GINGIVA. ENGEL, MILTON B. // Journal of Dental Research;Dec1953, Vol. 32 Issue 6, p779 ... The in intracellular degradation of newly synthesized collagen is a cellular pathway that accounts for the destruction of 10-60 ...
... , Hyunjin Lee, Md. Salah Uddin, Yong ... Stem cells isolated from human gingiva The gingivae were obtained from healthy patients visiting the Department of Periodontics ... Collagen I is one of the most abundant structural proteins [24]. Collagen I is reported to be associated with cell attachment ... The immunofluorescent assays for collagen I for ds 1, 3, 5, and 7 are shown in Figures 6-9. Noticeable increase of collagen I ...
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a porcine collagen matrix CM, with or without the addition of enamel matrix derivative EMD in the treatment of Miller Class I, II or III recession defects. (dtic.mil)
  • The most thoroughly characterized pathway of collagen turnover is the proteolytic breakdown process occurring in the extracellular space. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, in addition to this well established extracellular breakdown pathway, a less characterized intracellular process in which collagen is internalized through binding to collagen-specific receptors on the cell surface and delivered for lysosomal degradation has also been identified. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The pathologic manifestation of gingival fibromatosis comprises excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, of which collagen type I is the most prominent example. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DIGO is histologically associated with proliferation of cells and deposition of extracellular matrices, particularly collagen. (bvsalud.org)
  • A technique of derivatization of proline (Pro) and 4-hydroxyproline (Hyp) by 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole permitted the measurement of Pro and Hyp radio activities, concentrations, and specific activities in the main fractions separated from cultures of fibroblast cells (extracellular collagen and non-collagen proteins, intracellular free Pro and Hyp, Pro- and Hyp-containing peptides, procollagen, and non-collagen proteins). (naver.com)
  • Chapter 2 demonstrates that during wound healing of rat gingiva, periostin upregulation coincides with collagen and fibronectin deposition, while only few myofibroblasts are evident. (uwo.ca)
  • In addition, a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region of CCN2/CTGF domain 3 that binds alpha6beta1 inhibits the collagen-deposition assay. (qxmd.com)
  • These studies employed a new and relatively rapid assay for CCN2/CTGF-stimulated collagen deposition based on Sirius Red staining of cell layers. (qxmd.com)
  • Data obtained support a pathway in which CCN2/CTGF could bind to alpha6beta1 integrin and stimulate collagen deposition. (qxmd.com)
  • These findings provide new experimental methodologies applicable to uncovering the mechanism and signal transduction pathways of CCN2/CTGF-mediated collagen deposition, and may provide insights into potential therapeutic strategies to treat gingival fibrosis and other fibrotic conditions. (qxmd.com)
  • Levels of these hormones can affect the periodontium by modifying vascular proliferation and permeability, local immune response, collagen turnover and repair, crevicular fluid levels, and the oral biofilm or microbiota. (dcds.org)
  • Integrin α2β1 is related to collagen phagocytosis and involved in the occurrence and progression of DIGO. (bvsalud.org)
  • demonstrated that acemannan induced type I collagen expression in hGFs, and reduced the wound area [ 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Abercrombie M, Flint MH, James DW (1956) Wound contraction in relation to collagen formation in scorbutic guinea pigs. (springer.com)
  • A frequently cited study for the justification of the 3-month interval is Stanton et al (1969) time series study investigating the rate of wound healing of human gingivae by measuring hydroxyproline present in gingival collagen against time (N= 99). (bartleby.com)
  • By using RNA-seq technology, we identified differentially expressed gene programs (DEseq2) among seven normal human fibroblast primary cell lines from healthy cadavers, which included: vocal fold, trachea, lung, abdomen, scalp, upper gingiva, and soft palate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They also are experimenting with using a hydrogel a material that changes from liquid to gel under certain conditions instead of the collagen sponges. (umich.edu)
  • In order to address these issues, a methylcellulose based hydrogel was formulated in combination with collagen and beta glycerophosphate, and key development issues such as injectability and sterilization processes were examined. (collagensolutions.com)