Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.
A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An acute form of MEGACOLON, severe pathological dilatation of the COLON. It is associated with clinical conditions such as ULCERATIVE COLITIS; CROHN DISEASE; AMEBIC DYSENTERY; or CLOSTRIDIUM ENTEROCOLITIS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Inflammation of the RECTUM and the distal portion of the COLON.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Histocompatibility antigens in inflammatory bowel disease. Their clinical significance and their association with arthropathy with special reference to HLA-B27 (W27). (1/3046)

Histocompatibility (HLA) antigen phenotypes have been studied in 100 patients with ulcerative colitis, 100 with Crohn's disease, and 283 normal controls. In addition the incidence of ankylosing spondylitis, sacroiliitis, and "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy was determined in the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There was no significant difference in antigen frequency between patients and controls. However, the incidence of HLA-B27 was increased in the patients complicated by ankylosing spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. In contrast, none of the 29 IBD patients with "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy had B27 antigen. Furthermore, ankylosing spondylitis was found more frequently in ulcerative colitis bearing HLA-B27 compared with non-B27 patients (P less than 0-01). The same was found in Crohn's disease, although this difference was not statistically significant. In addition, 12 of 14 ulcerative colitis patients and five out of six Crohn's patients with HLA-B27 had total colitis, compared with the frequency of total colitis in non-B27 patients (P less than 0-024 and less than 0-03 respectively). The data suggest that B27 histocompatibility antigen could be a pathogenetic discriminator between the arthropathies in IBD and may be of prognostic significance with respect to extension and severity of the disease.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/3046)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (3/3046)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Biased JH usage in plasma cell immunoglobulin gene sequences from colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis but not in Crohn's disease. (4/3046)

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colonic and rectal mucosa. Autoantibodies have been observed in ulcerative colitis which may have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Evidence also suggests that there is an hereditary predisposition towards the disease, although no individual genes have been identified. AIMS: This is a pilot study of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgH) in ulcerative colitis to determine whether they have any particular genetic characteristics which may lead to a better understanding of the disease aetiology. SUBJECTS: Colonic or rectal tissue was obtained from five children with ulcerative colitis. Tissue was also obtained from five children with Crohn's disease and five children who did not have inflammatory bowel disease as controls. METHODS: B cells and IgD+ B cells were identified by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections. Areas of lamina propria containing plasma cells, and areas of IgD+ B cells were microdissected. The immunoglobulin genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequences were analysed for content of somatic mutations and composition of heavy chain. RESULTS: An increase in the use of JH6 and DXP'1, and a decrease in the use of JH4, gene segments in immunoglobulin genes from lamina propria plasma cells, and from virgin IgD+ B cells, was found in patients with ulcerative colitis. These biases were not present in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is a fundamental difference in the immunoglobulin genes from patients with ulcerative colitis. Whether this is caused by a difference in content of immunoglobulin gene segments in the germline or a difference in the recombination mechanism is not known.  (+info)

Sulphation and secretion of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin MUC2 in ulcerative colitis. (5/3046)

BACKGROUND: Decreased synthesis of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin (MUC2) occurs during active ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To study possible alterations in mucin sulphation and mucin secretion, which could be the cause of decreased mucosal protection in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis in remission, and controls were metabolically labelled with [35S]-amino acids or [35S]-sulphate, chase incubated and analysed by SDS-PAGE, followed by quantitation of mature [35S]-labelled MUC2. For quantitation of total MUC2, which includes non-radiolabelled and radiolabelled MUC2, dot blotting was performed, using a MUC2 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Between patient groups, no significant differences were found in [35S]-sulphate content of secreted MUC2 or in the secreted percentage of either [35S]-amino acid labelled MUC2 or total MUC2. During active ulcerative colitis, secretion of [35S]-sulphate labelled MUC2 was significantly increased twofold, whereas [35S]-sulphate incorporation into MUC2 was significantly reduced to half. CONCLUSIONS: During active ulcerative colitis, less MUC2 is secreted, because MUC2 synthesis is decreased while the secreted percentage of MUC2 is unaltered. Furthermore, sulphate content of secreted MUC2 is unaltered by a specific compensatory mechanism, because sulphated MUC2 is preferentially secreted while sulphate incorporation into MUC2 is reduced.  (+info)

A genomewide analysis provides evidence for novel linkages in inflammatory bowel disease in a large European cohort. (6/3046)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation, typically starting in early adulthood. IBD is subdivided into two subtypes, on the basis of clinical and histologic features: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Previous genomewide searches identified regions harboring susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 12, and 16. To expand our understanding of the genetic risk profile, we performed a 9-cM genomewide search for susceptibility loci in 268 families containing 353 affected sibling pairs. Previous linkages on chromosomes 12 and 16 were replicated, and the chromosome 4 linkage was extended in this sample. New suggestive evidence for autosomal linkages was observed on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 22, with LOD scores of 2.08, 2.07, 2.30, and 1.52, respectively. A maximum LOD score of 1.76 was observed on the X chromosome, for UC, which is consistent with the clinical association of IBD with Ullrich-Turner syndrome. The linkage finding on chromosome 6p is of interest, given the possible contribution of human leukocyte antigen and tumor necrosis-factor genes in IBD. This genomewide linkage scan, done with a large family cohort, has confirmed three previous IBD linkages and has provided evidence for five additional regions that may harbor IBD predisposition genes.  (+info)

The systemic load and efficient delivery of active 5-aminosalicylic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis on treatment with olsalazine or mesalazine. (7/3046)

BACKGROUND: There have been reports of nephrotoxic reactions in patients with ulcerative colitis treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) preparations. AIM: To compare the efficacy in delivery of active 5-ASA to the colon and the systemic load as the basis for potential long-term toxicity during treatment with olsalazine or mesalazine in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with olsalazine or mesalazine, each for 7 days in an open, randomized, crossover design study. 5-ASA and acetyl-5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA) in plasma and urine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of 5-ASA was 1.2 +/- 0.1 micromol/L (mean +/- S.E.M.) for olsalazine and 8.0 +/- 1.9 micromol/L for mesalazine, while the plasma concentration of Ac-5-ASA was 2.8 +/- 0.2 micromol/L for olsalazine and 10.8 +/- 1.6 micromol/L for mesalazine. The amount of 5-ASA excreted in the urine was 68 +/- 30 micromol/24 h for olsalazine and 593 +/- 164 micromol/24 h for mesalazine. The amount of Ac-5-ASA in the urine was 1260 +/- 102 micromol/24 h for olsalazine and 3223 +/- 229 micromol/24 h for mesalazine. The urinary recovery of total 5-ASA plus Ac-5-ASA (as a percentage of the given dose) was 23 +/- 2.1% for olsalazine and 39 +/- 3.6% for mesalazine. The ratio between the plasma concentrations of mesalazine and olsalazine differed significantly both for 5-ASA (5.1) and Ac-5-ASA (3.6); for 5-ASA (9. 9) and Ac-5-ASA (2.6) in urine, and for the urinary recovery of total 5-ASA plus Ac-5-ASA (1.7). Moreover, in the mesalazine group there was a large variation in the individual plasma concentrations of 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA, with maximal values 5-6-fold higher than that in the olsalazine group. CONCLUSION: The systemic load of active 5-ASA is significantly higher for mesalazine than for olsalazine, when based on the dosages given and when calculated on an equimolar basis. Some of the patients in the mesalazine group showed unexpected high levels of plasma and urinary 5-ASA concentrations, a finding which may have long-term safety implications.  (+info)

Is maintenance therapy always necessary for patients with ulcerative colitis in remission? (8/3046)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of sulphasalazine and mesalazine in preventing relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis is well known. It is less clear how long such maintenance should be continued, and if the duration of disease remission is a factor that affects the risk of recurrence. AIM: To determine whether the duration of disease remission affects the relapse rate, by comparing the efficacy of a delayed-release mesalazine (Asacol, Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy) against placebo in patients with ulcerative colitis with short- and long-duration of disease remission. METHODS: 112 patients (66 male, 46 female, mean age 35 years), with intermittent chronic ulcerative colitis in clinical, endoscopic and histological remission with sulphasalazine or mesalazine for at least 1 year, were included in the study. Assuming that a lower duration of remission might be associated with a higher relapse rate, the patients were stratified according to the length of their disease remission, prior to randomization into Group A (Asacol 26, placebo 35) in remission from 1 to 2 years, or Group B (Asacol 28, placebo 23) in remission for over 2 years, median 4 years. Patients were treated daily with oral Asacol 1.2 g vs. placebo, for a follow-up period of 1 year. RESULTS: We employed an intention-to-treat analysis. In Group A, whilst no difference was found between the two treatments after 6 months, mesalazine was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing relapse at 12 months [Asacol 6/26 (23%), placebo 17/35 (49%), P = 0.035, 95% Cl: 48-2.3%]. In contrast, in Group B no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatments, either at 6 or 12 months [Asacol 5/28 (18%), placebo 6/23 (26%), P = 0.35, 95% Cl: 31-14%] of follow-up. Patients in group B were older, and had the disease and remission duration for longer, than those in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: Mesalazine prophylaxis is necessary for the prevention of relapse by patients with ulcerative colitis in remission for less than 2 years, but this study casts doubt over whether continuous maintenance treatment is necessary in patients with prolonged clinical, endoscopic and histological remission, who are at very low risk of relapse.  (+info)

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Ischemic colitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the large intestine (colon) due to reduced blood flow to the area. This reduction in blood flow, also known as ischemia, can be caused by various factors such as narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the colon, low blood pressure, or certain medications.

Symptoms of ischemic colitis may include sudden abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it can lead to tissue death, perforation of the colon, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as fluid replacement, bowel rest, and antibiotics. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow to the area.

Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon (large intestine) that can only be seen under a microscope. It is called "microscopic" because the inflammation is not visible to the naked eye during endoscopic examination of the colon.

There are two main types of microscopic colitis: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Both types are more common in older adults, particularly women, and can cause chronic watery diarrhea that may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, bloating, and nausea.

In collagenous colitis, there is thickening of the collagen band (a layer of tissue) beneath the lining of the colon. In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increase in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon.

The exact cause of microscopic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods may also help alleviate symptoms.

Dextran sulfate is a type of polysaccharide (a complex carbohydrate) that is made up of repeating units of the sugar dextran, which has been sulfonated (introduced with a sulfonic acid group). It is commonly used as a molecular weight standard in laboratory research and can also be found in some medical products.

In medicine, dextran sulfate is often used as a treatment for hemodialysis patients to prevent the formation of blood clots in the dialyzer circuit. It works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of certain clotting factors in the blood. Dextran sulfate may also have anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and hepatitis.

It is important to note that dextran sulfate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, low blood pressure, and bleeding. It should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Collagenous colitis is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. It is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of collagen, a protein that provides structure to the body's tissues, beneath the lining of the colon. This can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating. The exact cause of collagenous colitis is not known, but it may be associated with autoimmune disorders or the use of certain medications. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own, while in others, treatment with medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid" is not a medical term. It is an organic compound used in industrial and research applications, such as a reagent in chemical reactions. Its formula is C6H3N3O9S. If you have any questions about chemical compounds or scientific terms, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Lymphocytic colitis is a type of microscopic colitis, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the large intestine (colon). In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increased number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency. The exact cause of lymphocytic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an immune response to an environmental trigger in genetically susceptible individuals. It is more common in women than men and typically affects people over the age of 40. Treatment may include medications such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods from the diet may also be helpful in managing symptoms.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Mesalamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the intestines, which can help alleviate symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

Mesalamine is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas. The specific formulation and dosage may vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation in the gut.

The drug's anti-inflammatory effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in the inflammatory response, such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. By reducing inflammation, mesalamine can help promote healing and prevent recurrences of IBD symptoms.

It's important to note that mesalamine may cause side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects like kidney damage or allergic reactions. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of taking mesalamine.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Restorative proctocolectomy, also known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), is a surgical procedure used to treat ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. This procedure involves the removal of the colon, rectum, and anal canal while preserving the sphincter muscles that control fecal continence.

After removing the diseased tissues, the surgeon creates a pouch from the end of the small intestine (ileum) and attaches it to the anus, restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. The pouch serves as a reservoir for stool, allowing for more normal bowel movements compared to having a permanent ileostomy.

Restorative proctocolectomy can be performed in one or two stages, depending on the patient's condition and the surgeon's preference. In the two-stage procedure, an initial total colectomy with ileostomy is performed, followed by the creation of the pouch and closure of the ileostomy in a second operation. The single-stage procedure involves removing the colon, creating the pouch, and performing the anastomosis in one surgical setting.

While restorative proctocolectomy significantly improves quality of life for many patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis, potential complications include pouchitis (inflammation of the ileal pouch), anastomotic leakage, small bowel obstruction, and pelvic sepsis. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for these and other potential issues.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

Amebic dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It is characterized by severe diarrhea containing blood and mucus, abdominal pain, and cramping. The infection is typically acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the parasites invade the intestinal lining, causing damage and leading to the symptoms of dysentery. In severe cases, the parasites can spread to other organs such as the liver, lungs, or brain, causing more serious infections. Amebic dysentery is treated with medications that kill the parasites, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene and sanitation, including proper handwashing and safe food handling practices.

An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall (stoma) to create a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is typically performed when there is damage or removal of the colon, rectum, or anal canal due to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), cancer, or trauma.

After an ileostomy, waste material from the small intestine exits the body through the stoma and collects in a pouch worn outside the body. The patient needs to empty the pouch regularly, typically every few hours, as the output is liquid or semi-liquid. Ileostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the planned course of treatment. Proper care and management of the stoma and pouch are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life after an ileostomy.

"Administration, Rectal" is a medical term that refers to the process of administering medication or other substances through the rectum. This route of administration is also known as "rectal suppository" or "suppository administration."

In this method, a solid dosage form called a suppository is inserted into the rectum using fingers or a special applicator. Once inside, the suppository melts or dissolves due to the body's temperature and releases the active drug or substance, which then gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the rectum.

Rectal administration is an alternative route of administration for people who have difficulty swallowing pills or liquids, or when rapid absorption of the medication is necessary. It can also be used to administer medications that are not well absorbed through other routes, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, it may take longer for the medication to reach the bloodstream compared to intravenous (IV) administration.

Common examples of rectally administered medications include laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, analgesics, and some forms of hormonal therapy. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when administering medication rectally, as improper administration can reduce the effectiveness of the medication or cause irritation or discomfort.

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis), resulting in the formation of pseudomembranes – raised, yellowish-white plaques composed of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells. The condition is most commonly caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), which can overgrow in the gut following disruption of the normal gut microbiota, often after antibiotic use. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and dehydration. Severe cases can lead to complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending antibiotic, administering oral metronidazole or vancomycin to eliminate C. difficile, and managing symptoms with supportive care. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be considered as a treatment option.

Pouchitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the ileal pouch, a surgically created reservoir that is connected to the patient's anus in individuals who have undergone proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). This procedure is often performed in patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

Pouchitis can present with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The exact cause of pouchitis remains unclear, but it is thought to be related to changes in the microbiota or an overactive immune response in the ileal pouch.

The diagnosis of pouchitis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination of biopsies taken during endoscopy. Treatment options for pouchitis include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and probiotics, depending on the severity and frequency of the condition.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Enterocolitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis). This condition can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in infants and young children. The symptoms of enterocolitis may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

There are several types of enterocolitis, including:

1. Infectious Enterocolitis: This type is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection in the intestines. Common causes include Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and norovirus.
2. Antibiotic-Associated Enterocolitis: This type is caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the intestines following the use of antibiotics that kill off beneficial gut bacteria.
3. Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis: This is a severe form of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. diff).
4. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: This is a serious condition that primarily affects premature infants, causing inflammation and damage to the intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations and sepsis.
5. Ischemic Enterocolitis: This type is caused by reduced blood flow to the intestines, often due to conditions such as mesenteric ischemia or vasculitis.
6. Radiation Enterocolitis: This type occurs as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer treatment, which can damage the intestinal lining and lead to inflammation.
7. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: This is a rare condition characterized by an excessive buildup of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the intestinal tissue, leading to inflammation and symptoms similar to those seen in inflammatory bowel disease.

Treatment for enterocolitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, probiotics, or surgery in severe cases.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Colonic pouches, also known as pouch colon or reservoir, refer to an artificial structure created during a surgical procedure called restorative proctocolectomy. This is often performed in patients with certain types of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

During the surgery, the entire colon and rectum are removed. A pouch is then created using the patient's own small intestine, which is folded back on itself and sewn together to form a reservoir. This pouch is connected to the anus, allowing the patient to have relatively normal bowel movements.

The most common type of colonic pouch is the J-pouch, so named because of its J-shaped design. Other types include the S-pouch and the W-pouch. The choice of pouch depends on various factors, including the patient's anatomy and the surgeon's preference.

The purpose of creating a colonic pouch is to restore intestinal continuity and function after removing the diseased colon and rectum, thereby improving the patient's quality of life. However, it's important to note that living with a colonic pouch also requires significant lifestyle adjustments and ongoing medical management.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the modulation of immune responses. It is produced by various cell types, including T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-10 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, and downregulates the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and effector functions, which ultimately helps to limit tissue damage during inflammation and promote tissue repair. Dysregulation of IL-10 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Citrobacter rodentium is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a natural pathogen in mice and has been used as a model organism to study enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) infections in humans, due to its similar virulence mechanisms. C. rodentium primarily colonizes the large intestine, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and weight loss in mice. It is not considered a significant human pathogen, but there have been rare reports of Citrobacter species causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Ileitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine. The condition can have various causes, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease.

The symptoms of ileitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, and nausea or vomiting. The diagnosis of ileitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI.

Treatment for ileitis depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation. In cases of infectious ileitis, antibiotics may be used to treat the infection. For autoimmune or inflammatory causes, medications that suppress the immune system may be necessary to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.

In severe cases of ileitis, surgery may be required to remove damaged portions of the intestine or to drain abscesses. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of ileitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Helicobacter hepaticus" is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the liver of various animals, including primates. It was initially identified in 1992 and has been associated with chronic active hepatitis and hepatic adenocarcinoma (liver cancer) in mice. While its role in human disease is not fully understood, some studies have suggested a possible link between H. hepaticus infection and liver inflammation or cancer in humans. However, more research is needed to confirm this association and establish the clinical significance of H. hepaticus in human health.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Toxic megacolon is a serious complication of colon inflammation that is characterized by non-obstructive dilation of the colon (diameter greater than 6 cm) and systemic toxicity. It is often associated with conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), infections (e.g., Clostridioides difficile infection), and ischemic colitis.

The dilation of the colon can lead to decreased blood flow, impaired motility, and increased risk of perforation, which can result in sepsis and even death if not promptly treated. The systemic toxicity may manifest as fever, tachycardia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalances, and mental status changes.

Toxic megacolon requires immediate medical attention, often involving hospitalization, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and possibly surgical intervention to remove the affected portion of the colon.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Oxazolone is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a chemical compound. It is commonly used in research and scientific studies as an experimental contact sensitizer to induce allergic contact dermatitis in animal models. Here's the general definition:

Oxazolone (C8H7NO3): An organic compound that belongs to the class of heterocyclic compounds known as oxazoles, which contain a benzene fused to a five-membered ring containing one oxygen atom and one nitrogen atom. It is used in research as an allergen to induce contact hypersensitivity reactions in skin sensitization studies.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Proctitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon. The symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness; rectal bleeding, often in the form of mucus or blood; diarrhea; and urgency to have a bowel movement.

Proctitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections (such as sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), radiation therapy, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of proctitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to visualize the rectum and take tissue samples for further testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the cecum, where it joins the small intestine, to the anus. It is called "large" because it has a larger diameter compared to the small intestine and is responsible for several important functions in the digestive process.

The large intestine measures about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long in adults and consists of four main regions: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food materials, compact the remaining waste into feces, and store it until it is eliminated through defecation.

The large intestine also contains a diverse population of bacteria that aid in digestion by breaking down complex carbohydrates, producing vitamins like vitamin K and some B vitamins, and competing with harmful microorganisms to maintain a healthy balance within the gut. Additionally, the large intestine plays a role in immune function and helps protect the body from pathogens through the production of mucus, antimicrobial substances, and the activation of immune cells.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Proctocolitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of both the rectum (proctitis) and the colon (colitis). It can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. The inflammation can be caused by various factors, including infections, immune-mediated disorders, or irritants. In some cases, the specific cause of proctocolitis may not be identified (known as idiopathic proctocolitis). Treatment for proctocolitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce inflammation, manage symptoms, and treat any underlying infections.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Bacterial translocation is a medical condition that refers to the migration and establishment of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to normally sterile sites inside the body, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, bloodstream, or other organs. This phenomenon is most commonly associated with impaired intestinal barrier function, which can occur in various clinical settings, including severe trauma, burns, sepsis, major surgery, and certain gastrointestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and liver cirrhosis.

The translocation of bacteria from the gut to other sites can lead to systemic inflammation, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which can be life-threatening in severe cases. The underlying mechanisms of bacterial translocation are complex and involve several factors, such as changes in gut microbiota, increased intestinal permeability, impaired immune function, and altered intestinal motility.

Preventing bacterial translocation is an important goal in the management of patients at risk for this condition, and strategies may include optimizing nutritional support, maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance, using probiotics or antibiotics to modulate gut microbiota, and promoting intestinal barrier function through various pharmacological interventions.

The mesentery is a continuous fold of the peritoneum, the double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, which attaches the stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and rectum to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It provides blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to these organs.

Traditionally, the mesentery was thought to consist of separate and distinct sections along the length of the intestines. However, recent research has shown that the mesentery is a continuous organ, with a single continuous tethering point to the posterior abdominal wall. This new understanding of the anatomy of the mesentery has implications for the study of various gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

Collagen diseases, also known as collagen disorders or connective tissue diseases, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's connective tissues. These tissues provide support and structure for various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, and blood vessels.

Collagen is a major component of connective tissues, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining their strength and elasticity. In collagen diseases, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy collagen, leading to inflammation, pain, and damage to the affected tissues.

There are several types of collagen diseases, including:

1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, and lungs.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): This is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness.
3. Scleroderma: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissues, leading to restricted movement and organ damage.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory muscle disease that can also affect the skin, causing rashes and weakness.
5. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that combines symptoms of several collagen diseases, including SLE, RA, scleroderma, and dermatomyositis.

The exact cause of collagen diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A medical definition of an ulcer is:

A lesion on the skin or mucous membrane characterized by disintegration of surface epithelium, inflammation, and is associated with the loss of substance below the normal lining. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcers that occur in the gastrointestinal tract.

Another type of ulcer is a venous ulcer, which occurs when there is reduced blood flow from vein insufficiency, usually in the lower leg. This can cause skin damage and lead to an open sore or ulcer.

There are other types of ulcers as well, including decubitus ulcers (also known as pressure sores or bedsores), which are caused by prolonged pressure on the skin.

Mucin-2, also known as MUC2, is a type of mucin that is primarily produced by the goblet cells in the mucous membranes lining the gastrointestinal tract. It is a large, heavily glycosylated protein that forms the gel-like structure of mucus, which provides lubrication and protection to the epithelial surfaces. Mucin-2 is the major component of intestinal mucus and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier by preventing the adhesion and colonization of harmful microorganisms. Additionally, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may play a role in regulating immune responses in the gut.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

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"Ulcerative Colitis". PubMed Health. October 16, 2011. "Rock of Love 2: Meet Lyanna". BuddyTV. January 7, 2008. Archived from ... At 10 years old, Martin was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. It is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects the lining of ... List of people diagnosed with ulcerative colitis "'The Voice's' Erin Martin is More Than Just A Model Turned Singer: Interview ...
... ulcerative colitis'. Therefore, ulcerative colitis is considered 'cured' of the problematic disease activity in the colon and ... Symptoms are typically similar to ulcerative proctosis for ulcerative colitis pouches including burning in the anal canal, a ... Australia Crohn's and Colitis - Canada Gastrointestinal (GI) Society - Canada German Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis ... "Empowering people living with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis". Crohn's & Colitis Australia (CCA). Retrieved 20 July ...
Ulcerative colitis an ulcerative form of colitis, is the other major inflammatory bowel disease which is restricted to the ... Ulcerative colitis is the most common of the IBDs Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of the functional ... Medicine portal Ulcerative colitis Abdominal internal oblique muscle Kong F, Singh RP (June 2008). "Disintegration of solid ... Danese S, Fiocchi C (November 2011). "Ulcerative colitis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (18): 1713-1725. doi: ...
... or in the colon if a person has ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis Enteritis-inflammation of the small ... "Ulcerative Colitis". NIDDK. September 2014. Retrieved Dec 6, 2017. "Crohn's disease: Symptoms". MayoClinic.com. 2011-08-09. ... Inflammatory bowel disease is also divided into separate conditions, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which have ... Colitis can be divided into infectious and drug induced, as can the treatment for these conditions. With infectious colitis, ...
Ulcerative colitis mainly affects the function of the large bowel, and its incidence rate is three times larger than the ... Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two universal type of inflammatory bowel diseases that have been ... Steed, Helen (May 2019). "Ulcerative colitis". Medicine. 47 (6): 371-376. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2019.03.001. S2CID 243328622. ...
"Localised giant pseudopolyposis secondary to ulcerative or granulomatous colitis". Clinical Radiology. 28 (6): 609-16. doi: ... Ulcerative Colitis: Pseudopolyps; http://www.endoatlas.com/ib_uc_03.html Joffe, N (November 1977). " ...
Indeterminate colitis is the classification for colitis that has features of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. ... Lymphocytic colitis Collagenous colitis Diversion colitis Chemical colitis Chemotherapy-induced colitis Radiation colitis ... Indeterminate colitis' behaviour is usually closer to ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease. Atypical colitis is a phrase ... "Ulcerative colitis - Symptoms - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-03. "Diagnosis of Ulcerative Colitis , NIDDK". ...
Hardy, T. L.; Bulmer, Ernest (4 November 1933). "Ulcerative colitis: a survey of ninety-five cases". Br Med J. 2 (3800): 812- ... Hardy, T. L.; Brooke, B. N.; Hawkins, C. F. (1949). "Ileostomy and ulcerative colitis". The Lancet. 254 (6566): 4-6. doi: ... This revolutionised the therapy for ulcerative colitis. In 1914 T. Lionel Hardy married Elizabeth Clarke Ritchie. They had ...
PFAS chemicals have been linked to high cholesterol, altered kidney and thyroid function, ulcerative colitis, immunosuppression ... Steenland, K.; Kugathasan, S.; Barr, D. B. (2018). "PFOA and ulcerative colitis". Environmental Research. 165: 317-321. Bibcode ...
In February 2014, he said that he had ulcerative colitis. In July 2016, Wilkins was given a four-year ban for drink driving. In ... "Ray Wilkins has Ulcerative Colitis". The Daily Telegraph. London. 19 February 2014. Archived from the original on 12 January ...
The gut microbiome is altered from antibiotics and is linked to future gut disease, i.e., IBD, ulcerative colitis, obesity, etc ... Severe or chronic infections of C. difficile can lead to inflammation of the colon, a condition known as colitis. Periodontitis ... Surawicz CM, McFarland LV, Elmer G, Chinn J (October 1989). "Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with ... and colitis. There is no single or well understood microbial cause of IBD, but three major pathogens have been associated with ...
"Granulomatous ulcerative colitis: a re-appraisal of the mucosal granuloma in the distinction of Crohn's disease from ulcerative ... Visible bleeding in the feces is less common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, but is not unusual. Bloody bowel ... Although the association is greater in the context of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease may also be associated with primary ... Tysk C, Lindberg E, Järnerot G, Flodérus-Myrhed B (July 1988). "Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in an unselected ...
Fluegelman suffered from ulcerative colitis. In July 1985, he was prescribed prednisone to treat the condition. Within a few ...
Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis; diverticulitis; severe hepatic impairment. Concomitant use of fluvoxamine is also ... The FDA said it had reports of 49 cases of ischemic colitis and 21 cases of "severe constipation" and that ten of the 70 ... Severe adverse events continued to be reported, with a final total of 84 instances of ischaemic colitis, 113 of severe ... The cumulative incidence of ischaemic colitis was 2 in 1000, while serious complications arising from constipation (obstruction ...
See Trendelenburg position.) Brooke BN (1961). "Malignant change in ulcerative colitis". Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. 4 (6 ... was a British surgeon and pioneer of surgery for ulcerative colitis. The son of numismatist George C. Brooke, after education ... Eade MN; Cooke WT; Brooke BN; Thompson, H. (1971). "Liver disease in Crohn's colitis: a study of 21 consecutive patients having ...
Hurst, Arthur F. (1931). "A paper on ulcerative colitis". British Medical Journal. 1 (3668): 693-694. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.3668. ... Among his major discoveries, Wilks recognised ulcerative colitis in 1859, differentiating it from bacterial dysentery. His work ... autopsy of a 42-year-old woman who died after several months of diarrhoea and fever demonstrated a transmural ulcerative ...
Deepak, P; Bruining, DH (Aug 2014). "Radiographical evaluation of ulcerative colitis". Gastroenterology Report. 2 (3): 169-77. ... In pseudomembranous colitis, barium studies show pancolitis with thumb printing and shaggy margins as well as plaque-like ... Schistosomiasis caused by infection with flatworms have an appearance resembling colitis ulcerosa, with inflammatory polyps, ...
Crohn's disease vs ulcerative colitis). In patients with T1DM, miR-375 dysregulation was observed in a number of tissues that ... "MicroRNA signatures differentiate Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis". BMC Immunology. 16 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/s12865-015- ...
He introduced a popular modification to the technique for creating an ileo-anal pouch , or j-pouch for ulcerative colitis, in ... "Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 13 (24): 3288-3300. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13. ...
T.R. Sullivan (August 8, 2020). "Palumbo (ulcerative colitis) goes to IL". MLB.com. Retrieved December 1, 2020. Kennedi Landry ... before missing the rest of the season after being diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. Palumbo played the 2021 season with the ...
Ulcerative colitis involves the colonic mucosa. Crohn's disease may produce inflammation in all layers in any part of the ... This is called esophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis, ileitis, and colitis depending on the parts affected. It can be due to ...
Picardo S, Panaccione R (April 2020). "Anti-MADCAM therapy for ulcerative colitis". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 20 (4 ... 2002). "Differential expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's ... 2002). "Differential expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's ...
Dragstedt, L. R.; Dack, G. M.; Kirsner, J. B. (1941). "Chronic Ulcerative Colitis: A Summary of Evidence Implicating Bacterium ... In addition to his research on staphylococcal food poisoning, Dack studied botulism, ulcerative colitis, and salmonella ... Dack, G. M. (1936). "Bacterium Necrophorum in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis". Journal of the American Medical Association. 106: 7 ... "Effect of introducing oxygen into the isolated colon of a patient with chronic ulcerative colitis". American Journal of ...
Ulcerative colitis". JAMA. 307 (1): 104. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1889. PMID 22215172. MedlinePlus ulcerative colitis page Portal ... "Ulcerative Colitis". NIDDK. September 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2016. "Ulcerative Colitis". Autoimmune Registry Inc. Retrieved ... "ulcerative colitis". Ulcerative Colitis was the first subtype of IBD to be identified. Helminthic therapy using the whipworm ... ulcerative colitis is usually confined to the colon. Inflammation in ulcerative colitis is usually continuous, typically ...
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disorder that affects the digestive system. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/ulcerative-colitis/ Ulcerative colitis. ... Ulcerative colitis is one common form of inflammatory bowel disease. (IBD). Another type of IBD, Crohns disease, also causes ... Ulcerative colitis usually appears between the age of 15 and 30, although it can develop at any age. The inflammation tends to ...
... is the first IL-23 inhibitor to be approved in the United States for the treament of moderately to severely active ulcerative ... "Bowel urgency is one of the most disruptive symptoms for patients with ulcerative colitis," Michael Osso, president and chief ... FDA Approves Mirikizumab for Ulcerative Colitis * Intestinal Microbiota Transplant Improves Clinical Outcomes in IBD: Meta- ... Cite this: FDA Approves Mirikizumab for Ulcerative Colitis - Medscape - Oct 27, 2023. ...
How do systemic steroids treat symptoms of ulcerative colitis? Find out how well they work, types, and side effects. ... Systemic Steroids for Ulcerative Colitis Medically Reviewed by Sabrina Felson, MD on June 06, 2022 ... Once your serious ulcerative colitis reaches remission on steroids, your doctor will switch you to different medications for ... Steroids arent a cure for ulcerative colitis. But they are highly effective at reducing inflammation and getting you into ...
Library of original WebMD video content for Ulcerative Colitis. ... Ulcerative Colitis and Dairy Bad bacteria can be a trigger for ... Ulcerative Colitis: Should You Avoid Dairy? Is it smart to exclude dairy from your diet for UC? And if foods like milk, cheese ... Ulcerative Colitis: Exercise Benefits and Tips An active lifestyle can tame flare-ups brought on by stress and help you stay in ... Ulcerative Colitis: Changing Your Treatment Sometimes your first approach isnt the right one. These clues may help you know ...
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that happens only in the colon. It causes the inner lining of ... But not everyone with ulcerative colitis has someone in the family with ulcerative colitis or IBD. Ulcerative colitis can ... What Is Ulcerative Colitis?. Ulcerative colitis is a condition that causes the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) to ... What Causes Ulcerative Colitis?. The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not clear. It is probably a combination of genetics, ...
People from the Ulcerative Colitis community share their stories, challenges, goals and successes. ... Self-Assessment: How Much Do You Know About Managing Ulcerative Colitis. The more you know about managing Ulcerative Colitis, ... Many foods can trigger ulcerative colitis symptoms. Its also important to be sure youre getting enough important vitamins and ... People from the Ulcerative Colitis community share their stories, challenges, goals and successes. ...
However, much interest has been devoted recently to the relationship between appendicectomy and ulcerative colitis. A case- ... The aetiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. ... Appendicectomy and ulcerative colitis J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1998 ... The aetiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unknown. However, much interest has been devoted recently to the relationship ... study shows that patients with ulcerative colitis had rarely undergone appendicectomy before the first manifestation of colitis ...
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition that can cause constipation and other symptoms. Here, learn some tips on ... There are different types of ulcerative colitis, including distal ulcerative colitis.. In distal ulcerative colitis, the ... Risks of leaving ulcerative colitis untreated. Without treatment, ulcerative colitis symptoms can worsen and may become more ... Why do I get constipated with ulcerative colitis?. If ulcerative colitis affects only one side of the colon, it can cause ...
Fecal calprotectin was a marker of mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis, but was too variable to replace ... Many Young People Stop Ulcerative Colitis Maintenance Treatment, Risking Relapse * ChatGPT May Aid Decision-Making in the ED ... At this time, the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) index are used to ... Fecal calprotectin (FP) levels indicate mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but are too variable for this ...
Ulcerative: A wide variety of diseases and disorders occur in the large intestine. Abnormal rotation of the colon is fairly ...
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the 2 major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with Crohn disease. Unlike Crohn ... Ulcerative Colitis. Plain abdominal radiograph in a 26-year-old with a 10-year history of ulcerative colitis shows a long ... Ulcerative Colitis. Single-contrast enema study in a patient with known ulcerative colitis in remission shows a benign ... Ulcerative Colitis. Plain abdominal radiograph from a patient with known ulcerative colitis who presented with an acute ...
If youre pregnant and have ulcerative colitis, you might be wondering how to keep yourself and your baby-to-be healthy. Heres ... What Is Ulcerative Colitis?. Ulcerative colitis is type of an inflammatory bowel disease. Learn about diagnosis, when to see a ... How Does Lymphocytic Colitis Differ from Ulcerative Colitis?. Lymphocytic colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD ... What Diet Is Good for a Child with Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis? Diet can help children with pediatric ulcerative colitis. ...
Hi, Are there any recommendations for Android Apps which can help track UC symptoms - stools time, type, medication, food diary, mood, stress etc. Ne...
Risk factors include recent Salmonella or Campylobacter infection and a family history of ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis is ... Ulcerative colitis is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory bowel disease of the large intestine. ... Exclude infectious colitis with stool culture and Clostridioides difficile toxin testing before diagnosing ulcerative colitis.1 ... Add rectal mesalamine to oral 5-ASA therapy for patients with extensive mild to moderate ulcerative colitis.13 A. Multiple RCTs ...
Ulcerative Colitis in Children. What is ulcerative colitis in children?. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease ( ... Key points about ulcerative colitis in children. *Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease. In this condition, the ... Children with ulcerative colitis often have problems with their immune system. Its not clear if these issues are a cause or a ... How is ulcerative colitis treated in a child?. Treatment will depend on your childs symptoms, age, and general health. It will ...
We describe a scarcely reported case in which ulcerative colitis (UC) occurred in the postpartum period. The aims of this case ... Ulcerative colitis in the postpartum period Autops Case Rep. 2020 Sep 2;10(4):e2020187. doi: 10.4322/acr.2020.187. ... We describe a scarcely reported case in which ulcerative colitis (UC) occurred in the postpartum period. The aims of this case ... She was diagnosed with UC (left-sided colitis, moderate severity). Sulfasalazine induced remission. She then experienced and ...
Overview of ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease ... Symptoms of ulcerative colitis. Some people with ulcerative ... Ulcerative colitis December 29, 2014 Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammation in the lining of the ... Ulcerative colitis tends to run in families. Up to one in four people with ulcerative colitis has a parent or sibling with ... Treating ulcerative colitis. So far, there is no cure for ulcerative colitis. But there are ways to manage this condition to ...
... with Ulcerative Colitis in remission. Yes for Male or female subjects aged 18 to 75 years, with Ulcerative Colitis in remission ... Not sure for Male or female subjects aged 18 to 75 years, with Ulcerative Colitis in remission inclusion criteria 1 ... No for Male or female subjects aged 18 to 75 years, with Ulcerative Colitis in remission inclusion criteria 1 ... for Maintenance of Clinical and Endoscopic Remission in Ulcerative Colitis. ...
I have Ulcerative Colitis (UC), and have had it for going on eight years now. My immune system is seriously hyperactive and has ... Since last December, the ulcerative colitis has been the worst its ever been. It goes into remission for a few days or a few ... Damien Roop has been kind enough to share his experience with Ulcerative Colitis and what a gluten free paleo diet has done for ... 31 years of Ulcerative Colitis. Diagnosed at 18. Changed to Crohns diagnosis after developing a fistula. Longest remission: 6 ...
In good news for patients with stubborn cases of ulcerative colitis, a serious intestinal disorder, a new research review ... Ulcerative Colitis. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by bouts of diarrhea, bleeding per rectum and pain, which remits and ... Stubborn Ulcerative Colitis Responds to Arthritis Drug Personalised Printable Document (PDF). Please complete this form and ... According to Higgins, the causes of ulcerative colitis arent clear, but they may have something to do with an interaction ...
In ulcerative colitis, this epithelial permeability becomes leaky, allowing bacterial products to cross into the gut and ... "Our work increases our understanding of how this drug is useful for treating ulcerative colitis," said Declan McCole, a ... Drug decreases gut leakiness associated with ulcerative colitis. December 5, 2019. ScienceBlog.com ... Affecting roughly 1 million Americans, ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of the large intestine in ...
Fewer Colectomy Procedures Performed Among Ulcerative Colitis Patients. - Surveillance efforts may lead to more treatment ... "A significant decline in colectomy rates for colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis" CCC 2019. ... advancements appear to have helped cut colectomy rates to treat colorectal cancer among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), ... Crohns & Colitis Congress. Source Reference: Picardo S, et al " ... a screening colonoscopy in all patients with colitis up to 8 ...
Posts under ulcerative colitis. Helping your child cope with a Crohns or colitis diagnosis. Kathy Johnson - Writer December 1 ... Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are both forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that result in inflammation in the ... Ulcerative colitis affects the colon (large intestine) while Crohns disease can affect anywhere in the GI tract. Pediatric ...
... a multi-center clinical study identified several patient characteristics that can predict how well children with ulcerative ... Predicting the most effective treatment approach for pediatric ulcerative colitis. Research Update Jan. 3, 2019. ... Ulcerative colitis mucosal transcriptomes reveal mitochondriopathy and personalized mechanisms underlying disease severity and ... clinical study identified several patient characteristics that can predict how well children with ulcerative colitis (UC) will ...
Ulcerative colitis is one of the two primary forms of inflammatory bowel disease. Learn about the types, diagnoses & treatments ... What Is Ulcerative Colitis? Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting ... Ulcerative proctitis typically affects less than six inches of the rectum.. Left-sided colitis (or distal ulcerative colitis). ... Ulcerative Colitis Information. At Mercy, we offer comprehensive ulcerative colitis testing services to diagnose conditions and ...
This study explored the link between ulcerative colitis and bipolar disorder in an inpatient setting. ... A Study of the Association of Ulcerative Colitis and Bipolar Disorder in an Inpatient Population. Abid Rizvi, MD; Sahar Ashraf ... Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease. It is hypothesized that an inflammatory gut causes a higher ... A study of the association of ulcerative colitis and bipolar disorder in an inpatient population. Prim Care Companion CNS ...
... surgery has been viewed as definitive therapy for ulcerative colitis. Total proctocolectomy is often curative, alleviating ... encoded search term (Surgical Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis) and Surgical Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis What to Read Next ... Long-term Risk of Cancer Following Ileal Pouch-anal Anastomosis for Ulcerative Colitis. J Crohns Colitis. 2018 Jan 5. 12 (1):57 ... Surgical Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis Updated: Apr 19, 2023 * Author: E Stanton Adkins, III, MD; Chief Editor: Harsh Grewal ...
... of GS-5745 testing the investigational anti-MMP9 antibody in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. - ... Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum, with key symptoms ... of GS-5745 testing the investigational anti-MMP9 antibody in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. ...
Effective natural remedies to treat Ulcerative Colitis include dietary changes, pH balancing tonics like Apple Cider Vinegar, ... Food allergy test cured my ulcerative colitis. I had severe ulcerative colitis for 18 years. Medicines helped suppress it, but ...
  • People with ulcerative colitis usually present with diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset that persists for an extended period of time (weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain genetic variations may make some individuals more prone to an overactive immune response to the bacteria and other microbes in the intestines, which may cause the chronic inflammation that occurs in people with ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, there are some ways in which people with ulcerative colitis can remedy constipation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are many ways to treat constipation in people with ulcerative colitis, depending on the severity of the symptoms and the person's lifestyle. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If diet, hydration , and exercise do not ease symptoms, some people with ulcerative colitis may find relief from constipation by taking over-the-counter (OTC) laxatives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Up to one in four people with ulcerative colitis has a parent or sibling with ulcerative colitis or with a related inflammatory bowel disease called Crohn's disease . (harvard.edu)
  • Some people with ulcerative colitis have only occasional symptoms. (harvard.edu)
  • Some people with ulcerative colitis develop pain or soreness in the joints, irritated eyes, and rashes. (harvard.edu)
  • Some people with ulcerative colitis don't get enough vitamins, minerals, and other important micronutrients, either because they eat less to avoid diarrhea or because the disease makes it difficult to absorb nutrients from food. (harvard.edu)
  • But Mercy offers treatments to help people with ulcerative colitis manage their symptoms and enjoy active lives. (mercy.net)
  • Mercy dietitians can assess the nutritional status of people with ulcerative colitis and recommend dietary or lifestyle changes to improve their symptoms. (mercy.net)
  • It affects men and women equally and appears to run in families, with reports of up to 20 percent of people with ulcerative colitis having a family member or relative with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. (wikidoc.org)
  • Inflammation in ulcerative colitis is usually continuous, typically involving the rectum, with involvement extending proximally (to sigmoid colon, ascending colon, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is classified by the extent of involvement, depending on how far the disease extends: proctitis (rectal inflammation), left sided colitis (inflammation extending to descending colon), and extensive colitis (inflammation proximal to the descending colon). (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike ulcerative colitis, which affects only the inner surface of the large intestine, Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, and the inflammation extends deeper into the intestinal tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This immune response may lead to chronic inflammation and the digestive problems characteristic of ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Another possible explanation is that ulcerative colitis occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the cells of the intestines, causing inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ulcerative colitis causes inflammation and ulceration in the colon, which can lead to constipation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease that affects the lining of the large intestine, causing inflammation and ulceration. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The symptoms of ulcerative colitis happen because of inflammation in your digestive tract. (webmd.com)
  • This option is best for treating inflammation in the colon only, which is what happens in ulcerative colitis. (webmd.com)
  • Endoscopic evidence of continuous colonic inflammation starting at the rectum with confirmatory biopsies establishes the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. (aafp.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis can also cause inflammation in other parts of the body. (harvard.edu)
  • There are a number of drug treatments for colitis, including steroids, which reduce inflammation by dampening the body's immune system, and aminosalicylates, which also help control inflammation. (medindia.net)
  • Ulcerative colitis makes swelling, inflammation, and sores in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and causes diarrhea, belly pain, and bleeding from the rectum. (uky.edu)
  • McCole explained that increased intestinal permeability - or leakiness - is a feature of ulcerative colitis and plays a critical role in promoting inflammation. (scienceblog.com)
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are both forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that result in inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation (swelling) and ulcers (sores) in the digestive tract. (mercy.net)
  • Types of ulcerative colitis are categorized by location and the extent of inflammation. (mercy.net)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum, with key symptoms abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic diseases that involve inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum and is characterized by chronic inflammation of the entire mucosal layer. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is characterized by inflammation of the mucosa which is diffuse and primarily confined to the colon. (wikidoc.org)
  • For one group, of 17 patients, this surgery was to treat ulcerative colitis whereas for the other group, of seven patients, it was because of a different condition that does not involve inflammation. (theguardian.com)
  • The team is carrying out a clinical study to explore whether introducing secondary bile acids may help to treat patients who have had surgery for ulcerative colitis but who develop inflammation in their pouches. (theguardian.com)
  • There is an increased risk of colorectal cancer in people with longstanding inflammation in the large intestine, including individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC). (helsinki.fi)
  • Ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory diseases cause excessive production of chemicals, for example, prostaglandins, that produce inflammation in the colon. (hdkino.org)
  • Reduced production of prostaglandins decreases inflammation in the colon and the symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis . (hdkino.org)
  • Microscopically, the inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease can appear to be the same, but noncaseating granulomas are present only in Crohn disease. (medscape.com)
  • The inflammation of Crohn disease may be transmural, whereas it is confined to the mucosa and submucosa in ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Significant gastroduodenal inflammation in children with ulcerative colitis has been reported. (medscape.com)
  • Overview of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is a relapsing and remitting condition characterized by chronic inflammation at various sites in the gastrointestinal. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The inflammation caused by ulcerative colitis affects the mucosa and submucosa, and there is a sharp border between normal and affected tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term for two conditions (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) that are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doctors diagnose ulcerative colitis with a combination of blood tests, stool (poop) tests, and X-rays. (kidshealth.org)
  • To diagnose ulcerative colitis, a doctor will ask about your symptoms, do a physical exam, and do a number of tests. (uky.edu)
  • A physical exam and a series of tests are performed to diagnose ulcerative colitis. (mercy.net)
  • When a patient with symptoms such as diarrhea or bloody stools visits a general clinic, it could be easy to diagnose ulcerative colitis by checking the antibody concentration in the blood," Kakuta said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Depending on the location of involved are with respect the descending colon, ulcerative colitis can be classified as proximal or distal . (wikidoc.org)
  • Some vegetables can trigger ulcerative colitis symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Many foods can trigger ulcerative colitis symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • A food diary can be used to identify foods that trigger ulcerative colitis symptoms. (mercy.net)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved mirikizumab-mrkz (Omvoh, Eli Lilly) for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) in adults. (medscape.com)
  • For people with active ulcerative colitis who do not respond to corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents, infliximab is effective in inducing clinical remission, inducing clinical response, promoting mucosal healing and reducing the need for colectomy, at least in the short term," said review co-author Dr. Anthony Kwaku Akobeng. (medindia.net)
  • Gilead Sciences has pulled the plug on a combined Phase II/III clinical study of GS-5745 testing the investigational anti-MMP9 antibody in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Standard treatments for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis after conventional treatments are biological treatments (adalimumab, golimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab or vedolizumab) or tofacitinib. (nice.org.uk)
  • Clinical trial evidence shows that ozanimod is more effective than placebo for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. (nice.org.uk)
  • Janssen Biotech announced that the FDA has approved Simponi (golimumab) injection for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) in adult patients who have demonstrated corticosteroid dependence or who have had inadequate response to or failed to tolerate oral aminosalicylates, oral corticosteroids, azathioprine , or 6-mercaptopurine. (empr.com)
  • Once your serious ulcerative colitis reaches remission on steroids, your doctor will switch you to different medications for longer-term use. (webmd.com)
  • 000175 : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Mesalamine 2g Extended Release Granules (Sachet) for Maintenance of Clinical and Endoscopic Remission in Ulcerative Colitis. (centerwatch.com)
  • I want to come back to ECCO [the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization meeting] 2022, which recently, with Britta Siegmund, MD, et al,showed the rapidity of onset, with a 2-week response in patients who had a response, and a 5-week response with those who were in clinical remission. (consultantlive.com)
  • Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission . (wikidoc.org)
  • Risk factors include recent Salmonella or Campylobacter infection and a family history of ulcerative colitis. (aafp.org)
  • Risk factors include a family history of ulcerative colitis, or Jewish ancestry. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bowel urgency is one of the most disruptive symptoms for patients with ulcerative colitis ," Michael Osso, president and chief executive officer of the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation, said in the news release. (medscape.com)
  • The present study shows that patients with ulcerative colitis had rarely undergone appendicectomy before the first manifestation of colitis. (nih.gov)
  • Fecal calprotectin (FP) levels indicate mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but are too variable for this biomarker to reliably replace endoscopy and biopsy, according to a report published in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology . (medscape.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong illness that has a profound emotional and social impact on the affected patients. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, extraintestinal manifestations are only 6% more common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease than in the general population and are more common with Crohn disease compared with ulcerative colitis. (aafp.org)
  • In good news for patients with stubborn cases of ulcerative colitis, a serious intestinal disorder, a new research review suggests that the drug infliximab can be a useful alternative if other treatments don't work. (medindia.net)
  • Akobeng, a gastroenterologist at Manchester Children's University Hospitals in England, and colleagues examined seven randomized controlled studies comprising 860 patients that evaluated infliximab as a treatment for ulcerative colitis. (medindia.net)
  • In the review studies, patients were given either infliximab or a placebo for moderate and severe cases of ulcerative colitis. (medindia.net)
  • LAS VEGAS -- Treatment advancements appear to have helped cut colectomy rates to treat colorectal cancer among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), according to a presentation here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Guidelines from the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) in 2010 recommended a screening colonoscopy in all patients with colitis up to 8 years following diagnosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Picardo S, et al "A significant decline in colectomy rates for colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis" CCC 2019. (medpagetoday.com)
  • and Miguel Regueiro, MD, provide advice for physicians treating patients with ulcerative colitis. (hcplive.com)
  • Patients with ulcerative colitis require screening for colorectal carcinoma. (wikidoc.org)
  • The United States Preventive Task Force ( USPSTF ]) in patients without ulcerative colitis recommends screening for colorectal carcinoma starting at age 50 and ending at 75. (wikidoc.org)
  • Treatment recommendations for patients with ulcerative colitis as outlined by the American College of Gastroenterology clinical practice guidelines. (consultantlive.com)
  • Now researchers say patients who have had this surgery for ulcerative colitis have lower levels of certain acids in their faeces, and fewer of the bacteria that produce them, than those who have had the surgery for other reasons. (theguardian.com)
  • The team analysed faeces from patients in each group, finding that patients treated for ulcerative colitis had far lower levels of certain secondary bile acids than the other group. (theguardian.com)
  • An international research collaboration has discovered a potential new diagnostic marker for ulcerative colitis in a trans-ethnic analysis of Japanese and white patients. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We found that patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis, have high levels of antibodies programmed to target endothelial protein C receptors," said first author Yoichi Kakuta, associate professor, Division of Gastroenterology at Tohoku University Hospital. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers previously identified the same anti-EPCR antibodies in patients with Takayasu arteritis, a disorder that causes blood vessels to inflame and can be complicated by ulcerative colitis. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To further explore the potential connection between the antibodies and ulcerative colitis, they analyzed the blood samples of 303 patients, 203 with inflammatory bowel disease and 100 without, in Japan and in the United States. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Anti-EPCR antibodies were found to be specifically expressed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease when compared with healthy subjects and other colorectal diseases, with a particularly high sensitivity for patients with ulcerative colitis," Kakuta said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers also found that more than 93 percent of the patients with ulcerative colitis, arthritis and immune-related skin conditions were positive for the antibody. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Yoichi Kakuta et al, Novel Diagnostic Autoantibodies Against Endothelial Protein C Receptor in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2021). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Other problems to be considered include collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis (rarely requires surgery, low risk for malignancy), infectious colitis, ischemic colitis in elderly patients, and radiation colitis. (medscape.com)
  • All large series of proctocolectomies include a subset of patients (approximately 10%) who were preoperatively thought to have ulcerative colitis but were subsequently diagnosed with Crohn disease. (medscape.com)
  • These patchy areas may be seen endoscopically in as many as 38% of patients with ulcerative colitis who undergo medical therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Analysis of the Long-Term Prognosis in Japanese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis Treated with New Therapeutic Agents and the Correlation between Prognosis and Disease Susceptibility Loci. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 8 ] In addition, patchiness of the colonic mucosa suggestive of skip lesions may occur during the treatment phase of ulcerative colitis, leading one to question the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • When confined to the rectum, the condition is called ulcerative proctitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Ulcerative proctitis typically affects less than six inches of the rectum. (mercy.net)
  • It may remain localized to the rectum (ulcerative proctitis) or extend proximally, sometimes involving the entire colon. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis almost always involves the rectum. (harvard.edu)
  • Proctosigmoiditis is a form of life-sided colitis that affects the sigmoid colon (the last part of the colon that connects to the rectum). (mercy.net)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a lifelong inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum. (blackdoctor.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis usually begins in the rectum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not clear. (kidshealth.org)
  • The cause of ulcerative colitis is still something of a mystery. (harvard.edu)
  • Children with ulcerative colitis often have problems with their immune system. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Recent results from a multi-center clinical study identified several patient characteristics that can predict how well children with ulcerative colitis (UC) will respond to treatment, pointing toward a more personalized approach to treating the disease. (nih.gov)
  • A variety of genetic and environmental factors are likely involved in the development of ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Next, the researchers plan to clarify the mechanism underpinning how the antibody is involved with the development of ulcerative colitis, with the goal of developing a diagnostic blood test and treatment options. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Mirikizumab offers "new hope for those who have tried other therapies and still find themselves making accommodations for the uncertainty of bowel urgency-related accidents and other symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis," Osso added. (medscape.com)
  • Some individuals with ulcerative colitis have symptoms only rarely, others have flares and remissions, others have symptoms all or most of the time. (harvard.edu)
  • These enzymes are over-active in individuals with ulcerative colitis . (hdkino.org)
  • The drug has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, an intestinal disorder that is closely linked to colitis. (medindia.net)
  • Specifically, it fixes intestinal epithelial permeability defects caused by 'interferon-gamma,' an inflammatory cytokine involved in autoimmune diseases such as ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis. (scienceblog.com)
  • Various factors influencing the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis including intestinal micro bacteria, genetics, immunological abnormalities, and environmental factors. (wikidoc.org)
  • Mercy gastroenterologists treat ulcerative colitis with medication, nutritional therapy and sometimes bowel surgery. (mercy.net)
  • New therapeutic agents, including biologics and small-molecule drugs , are widely used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). (bvsalud.org)
  • The more you know about managing Ulcerative Colitis, the easier it will be to manage it. (healthline.com)
  • Cite this: FDA Approves Mirikizumab for Ulcerative Colitis - Medscape - Oct 27, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • In North America, ulcerative colitis affects approximately 40 to 420 in 100,000 people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ulcerative colitis affects the colon (large intestine) while Crohn's disease can affect anywhere in the GI tract. (akronchildrens.org)
  • However, ulcerative colitis only affects the colon (large intestine), while Crohn's disease can affect the entire digestive system, from the mouth to the anus. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is, however, a systemic disease that affects many parts of the body outside the intestine. (wikidoc.org)
  • Affecting roughly 1 million Americans, ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of the large intestine in which the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and leaky. (scienceblog.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory and ulcerative disease arising in the colonic mucosa, characterized most often by bloody diarrhea. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In recent years, researchers have begun looking at infliximab also known by the brand name Remicade as a possible treatment for moderate and severe colitis. (medindia.net)
  • Having ulcerative colitis can seem overwhelming, especially during flare-ups of severe abdominal symptoms. (mercy.net)
  • Surgery may be needed if medication and nutrition therapy aren't controlling ulcerative colitis symptoms - or if complications like severe bleeding occur. (mercy.net)
  • Ellen J. Scherl, MD, reviews data from the phase 3 True North study evaluating the use of ozanimod as induction and maintenance therapy for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, and the panel shares their experience with ozanimod in clinical practice. (consultantlive.com)
  • I had severe ulcerative colitis for 18 years. (earthclinic.com)
  • Based on the severity, ulcerative colitis can be classified into mild, moderate, severe or fulminant. (wikidoc.org)
  • [11] In case of a patient with ulcerative colitis, the risk of colorectal carcinoma is increased and so the American Cancer Society recommends having the initial screening 8 years after the patient is diagnosed with severe disease, or when most of, or the entire, large intestine is involved and 12 - 15 years after diagnosis when only the left side of the large intestine is involved. (wikidoc.org)
  • Predicting outcome in severe ulcerative colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Toxic colitis is a medical emergency that usually occurs spontaneously in the course of very severe colitis but is sometimes precipitated by opioid or anticholinergic antidiarrheal drugs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In contrast to Crohn's disease, which can affect areas of the gastrointestinal tract outside of the colon, ulcerative colitis is usually confined to the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major focus of McCole's lab is PTPN2, a protein-coding gene associated with autoimmune diseases such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (scienceblog.com)
  • Using panels of proteins identified with mass spectrometry, scientists from the University of Ottawa were able to distinguish between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a cohort of 99 children who had not yet been treated for any form of IBD. (genomeweb.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis has similarities to Crohn's disease , another form of IBD. (wikidoc.org)
  • Based on the work by Allchin, Hale-White in 1888, differentiated ulcerative colitis from Crohn's disease. (wikidoc.org)
  • The inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD ) is divided primarily into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease . (wikidoc.org)
  • Some cases which depict overlapping features of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can be classified as intermediate colitis . (wikidoc.org)
  • United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia have the highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease i.e ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease .The incidence of ulcerative colitis in North America is 10-12 cases per 100,000. (wikidoc.org)
  • Experiments in mice with three different conditions comparable to ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease - another disease where parts of the digestive system becomes inflamed - offered further insights. (theguardian.com)
  • Adopting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to 60% of cases of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, according to research published Dec. 6 in the journal Gut . (blackdoctor.org)
  • More than five million worldwide suffer from inflammatory bowel disease , a catch-all descriptor for a class of disorders that includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Mesalamine is a drug used for treating ulcerative colitis and mild to moderate Crohn's disease. (hdkino.org)
  • Mesalamine may cause an acute intolerance syndrome that resembles a flare of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis) with cramping, abdominal pain , and bloody diarrhea . (hdkino.org)
  • BACKGROUND: The occurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is shaped by environmental influences. (cdc.gov)
  • At this time, the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) index are used to assess mucosal healing, but endoscopy is invasive and is associated with complications. (medscape.com)
  • an x-ray or CT scan may be done to check for serious complications of ulcerative colitis, such as a perforated colon, or to determine how much of the colon is inflamed. (harvard.edu)
  • The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are cramping abdominal pain and frequent diarrhea, often with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Common symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea and bloody, frequent stools, but constipation can also affect some individuals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis (pronounced: ko-LYE-tiss) are cramping belly pain and diarrhea . (kidshealth.org)
  • Poor appetite, diarrhea, and poor digestion of nutrients can make it hard for teens with ulcerative colitis to get the calories and nutrients the body needs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Other causes of bloody diarrhea include ischemic colitis, Crohn disease, and colitis caused by medications or radiation. (aafp.org)
  • Non-bloody diarrhea can be caused by microscopic colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, or food intolerances. (aafp.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis should be differentiated from other causes of diarrhea. (wikidoc.org)
  • The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are abdominal pain and diarrhea, which often contains blood or pus. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Toxic or fulminant colitis manifests initially with sudden violent diarrhea, fever to 40 ° C (104 ° F), abdominal pain, signs of peritonitis (eg, rebound tenderness), and profound toxemia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Unlike Crohn disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis characteristically involves the large bowel (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • There are host of digestive ailments which benefit enormously from a gluten free Paleo diet: IBS, Crohns, Celiac, diverticulitis…and ulcerative colitis . (robbwolf.com)
  • Though most people know how ulcerative colitis can affect your eating habits and overall digestive system, another issue goes largely undiscussed. (blackdoctor.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune disease. (harvard.edu)
  • The presence of these self-attacking antibodies is a hallmark of autoimmune disorders, such as ulcerative colitis. (medicalxpress.com)
  • especially in people whose entire colon is inflamed and in those who have had ulcerative colitis for 8 years or more. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Getting treatment for ulcerative colitis, managing your symptoms, and keeping a positive attitude can help get you back on track. (kidshealth.org)
  • To streamline treatment approaches for UC, particularly in children, the NIDDK supported the Predicting Response to Standardized Pediatric Colitis Therapy (PROTECT) study, which recruited several hundred boys and girls from 29 centers in the United States and Canada who were recently diagnosed with UC. (nih.gov)
  • With emerging advances in treatment and surveillance, colectomy rates in Canada's Alberta province declined 8.6% annually from 2003 to 2015 for colorectal cancer, reported Sherman Picardo, MBBS, of University of Calgary in Alberta, at the Crohn's & Colitis Congress . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to minimizing the long-term effects of ulcerative colitis. (mercy.net)
  • You could help us study an investigational treatment for ulcerative colitis. (clinicalconnection.com)
  • Hopes of developing a new treatment for ulcerative colitis have been raised by research suggesting the condition may be linked to low levels of certain bacteria in the gut. (theguardian.com)
  • Are you living with ulcerative colitis and wondering if biologics might be the right treatment for you? (blackdoctor.org)
  • Differentiation between ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease is critical to developing a treatment plan. (medscape.com)
  • Rectal sparing may also occur at some point during medical treatment of ulcerative colitis in as many as 44% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • The doctors did his endoscopy test and revealed that he had Ulcerative Colitis and also told him that he has to take medicines for the lifetime. (planetayurveda.com)
  • The nonuniform procedures hampered the ability to distinguish pancolitis from left-sided colitis. (medscape.com)
  • She was diagnosed with UC (left-sided colitis, moderate severity). (nih.gov)
  • There are different types of ulcerative colitis, including distal ulcerative colitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In distal ulcerative colitis, the symptoms only affect the left side of the colon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with Crohn disease (CD). (medscape.com)
  • Crohn disease may involve the entire GI tract, whereas ulcerative colitis involves only the large bowel. (medscape.com)
  • Distinguishing ulcerative colitis from Crohn disease is important. (medscape.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis involves only the colonic mucosa , and the lesions are uniform and continuous with no areas of normal tissue interspersed between the diseased mucosa. (diagnose-me.com)
  • The traditional idea that ulcerative colitis involves only the large bowel has been challenged. (medscape.com)
  • Living well with ulcerative colitis (UC) typically entails consistent monitoring of your diet and general lifestyle. (blackdoctor.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis is treated with medicines and sometimes surgery. (kidshealth.org)
  • Avoid medicines that can make ulcerative colitis worse. (uky.edu)
  • While a number of medicines can help manage the condition, ulcerative colitis can only be cured by removing the colon. (theguardian.com)
  • The symptoms of ulcerative colitis occur periodically in flare-ups. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis ( Colitis ulcerosa , UC ) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (wikidoc.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a condition that causes the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) to get red and swollen with sores called ulcers. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a relapsing and remitting inflammatory bowel disease of the large intestine. (aafp.org)
  • In ulcerative colitis, the immune system does this but also attacks the lining of the large intestine. (harvard.edu)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis , a disease of the intestine , specifically the large intestine or colon , that includes characteristic ulcers , or open sores, in the colon. (wikidoc.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the lining of the large intestine (colon) becomes inflamed. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In this section, we're going to focus on S1P [sphingosine-1-phosphate] receptor modulators and other emerging treatments for ulcerative colitis [UC]. (consultantlive.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis can cause bloody, watery or mucusy bowel movements which may consist only of blood and pus . (diagnose-me.com)
  • Diet and stress may make symptoms worse, but probably don't cause ulcerative colitis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Damien Roop has been kind enough to share his experience with Ulcerative Colitis and what a gluten free paleo diet has done for him. (robbwolf.com)
  • It was believed that Prince Charles, Young Pretender of the roman empire, suffered from ulcerative colitis and cured himself by adopting a milk-free diet. (wikidoc.org)
  • There are a few evidence-based natural remedies that can help those with ulcerative colitis find relief, like exercising, reducing stress, and consuming a diet rich in soluble fiber. (everydayhealth.com)
  • When Surinder had finished, the doctor said, "Look Mr. Surinder, you need to take this Ulcerative Colitis Care Pack from our pharmacy and follow these prescriptions here," and pointing his index finger towards the slip and also gave him another sheet of paper and added, "Here is a diet chart that needs to be followed strictly, the foods to take or avoid and you will become healthy very soon. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Our work increases our understanding of how this drug is useful for treating ulcerative colitis," said Declan McCole , a professor of biomedical sciences in the UCR School of Medicine , and the lead author of the study that appears in the journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • They say it also offers insights into ulcerative colitis itself, with experiments in mice suggesting inflammatory bowel diseases could be treated by introducing these "missing" acids into the colon. (theguardian.com)
  • Toxic colitis or fulminant colitis occurs when transmural extension of ulceration results in localized ileus and peritonitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Genes that regulate the immune system may also contribute to ulcerative colitis, particularly genes that are involved in the maturation and function of immune cells called T cells . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ulcerative colitis is believed to be caused by an abnormal response by your body's immune system. (everydayhealth.com)