Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.
A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An acute form of MEGACOLON, severe pathological dilatation of the COLON. It is associated with clinical conditions such as ULCERATIVE COLITIS; CROHN DISEASE; AMEBIC DYSENTERY; or CLOSTRIDIUM ENTEROCOLITIS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Inflammation of the RECTUM and the distal portion of the COLON.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Microscopic colitis: prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea. (1/36)

BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease. We studied the prevalence and distribution of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhoea and normal colonoscopy and we studied the association with coeliac disease. METHODS: Colonoscopy was performed. Biopsies were taken from every segment of the colon. Lymphocytic colitis was defined as the presence of more than 20 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells and collagenous colitis was defined as thickening of the basal membrane of more than 10 microm. Upper endoscopy was performed if upper intestinal symptoms were present. If this was the case, small bowel biopsies were taken. RESULTS: Microscopic colitis was found in 13 out of 103 patients. The distribution was diffuse throughout the colon in ten and restricted to the right colon in three patients. In seven patients, upper endoscopy was performed. Marsh I/II lesions were found in six out of seven patients. CONCLUSION: Microscopic colitis was limited to the right colon in 23% of patients. Biopsies of macroscopically normal colonic mucosa in patients with diarrhoea is mandatory.  (+info)

Review article: drug-induced microscopic colitis - proposal for a scoring system and review of the literature. (2/36)

The pathophysiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, although it is thought to be because of an abnormal immune reaction to luminal antigens in predisposed hosts. Specific antigens have not been proved, although various infectious triggers and drugs have been proposed. The responsibility of several drugs has been questioned, some with strong clinical and/or histological evidence suggesting causality. The issue of drug-induced microscopic colitis is important because of the burden of this disease. Thus, any case that can be cured by withdrawal of a drug must be identified. In this report, we propose a scoring system for drug-induced microscopic colitis, adapting existing criteria of drug causality, and review the literature using this framework. Based on this review, several drugs are identified with intermediate or high likelihood of inducing microscopic colitis. Finally, we suggest how to treat individual patients suspected of having drug-induced colitis according to the level of evidence for that particular drug.  (+info)

Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis. (3/36)

AIM: To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes, osmotic gap and pH. METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) (40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC); 11 with collagenous colitis (CC)); 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration. RESULTS: Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11+/-5.38 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 54.14+/-8.42 mmol/L (P<0.05) than in CG 34.28+/-2.98 mmol/L. Potassium concentration in LC 74.65+/-5.29 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 75.53+/-8.78 mmol/L (P<0.05) was significantly less compared to CG 92.67+/-2.99 mmol/L. Chloride concentration in CC 36.07+/-7.29 mmol/L was significantly higher than in CG 24.11+/-2.05 mmol/L (P<0.05). Forty-four (86.7%) patients had a secretory diarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.  (+info)

Systematic review: microscopic colitis. (4/36)

BACKGROUND: Collagenous and lymphocytic colitis are fairly common causes of chronic non-bloody diarrhoea, especially in elderly female. AIM: To present a systematic review of microscopic colitis. METHODS: A PubMed search using the MeSH terms microscopic colitis, collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis and chronic diarrhoea was performed. RESULTS: Annual incidence of each disorder is 4-6/100,000 inhabitants. The aetiology is unknown. Clinical characteristics are well described and there is an association with autoimmune diseases. Budesonide is the best-documented short-term treatment of collagenous colitis. In meta-analysis pooled odds ratio for clinical response after 6-8 weeks of treatment was 12.3 (95% CI: 5.5-27.5) in comparison with placebo. The evidence for bismuth subsalicylate is weaker and the effectiveness of other alternatives such as loperamide, cholestyramine, aminosalicylates, probiotics, or Boswellia serrata extract is unknown. Although unproven, in unresponsive severe disease azathioprine or methotrexate may be tried. No controlled trials have been carried out in lymphocytic colitis. The long-term prognosis of microscopic colitis is good, serious complications are rare and there is no increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of microscopic colitis are well described. Budesonide is the best-documented short-term therapy in collagenous colitis, but the optimal long-term strategy needs further study. Controlled treatment data of lymphocytic colitis are awaited for.  (+info)

Microscopic colitis demonstrates a T helper cell type 1 mucosal cytokine profile. (5/36)

BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. AIM: To characterise the mucosal cytokine profile of MC, with a view to understanding its potential pathogenic mechanisms. METHODS: Cytokine profiles of mucosal biopse specimens taken at flexible sigmoidoscopy from 18 patients (8 with lymphocytic colitis and 10 with collagenous colitis) were analysed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, in comparison with those from 13 aged-matched controls with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Biopsy specimens from six patients with histologically documented remission were available for comparative analysis. Biopsy specimens were also taken to determine the cellular expression of cytokine and cytokine-related proteins using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Mucosal mRNA levels were 100 times greater for interferon (IFN)gamma and interleukin (IL) 15, 60 times greater for tumour necrosis factor alpha, and 35 times greater for inducible nitric oxide synthase in MC compared with controls. Apart from a trend for increased levels of IL10, levels of other T helper cell type 2 (T(H)2) cytokines including IL2 and IL4 were too low to be accurately quantified. Mucosal IFNgamma mRNA levels correlated with the degree of diarrhoea, and returned to normal in remission. The immunohistochemical expression of cell junction proteins E-cadherin and ZO-1 was reduced in active disease. No differences were noted between lymphocytic and collagenous colitis for any of the above parameters. CONCLUSIONS: MC demonstrates a T(H)1 mucosal cytokine profile with IFNgamma as the predominantly upregulated cytokine, with concurrent induction of nitric oxide synthase and down regulation of IFNgamma-related cell junction proteins. This pattern is similar to that in coeliac disease and suggests that it might represent a response to a luminal antigen.  (+info)

The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a population based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. (6/36)

OBJECTIVE: Although the epidemiology of microscopic colitis has been described in Europe, no such data exist from North America. We studied the incidence, prevalence and temporal trends of microscopic colitis in a geographically defined US population. DESIGN AND SETTING: In this population based cohort study, residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, with a new diagnosis of microscopic colitis, and all who had colon biopsies for evaluation of diarrhoea, between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2001 were identified. Biopsies were reviewed for confirmation (cases) and to identify missed cases (diarrhoea biopsies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates, age and sex adjusted to the 2000 US white population. Poisson regression assessed the association of calendar period, age and sex with incidence. RESULTS: We identified 130 incident cases for an overall rate of 8.6 cases per 100,000 person-years. There was a significant secular trend, with incidence increasing from 1.1 per 100,000 early in the study to 19.6 per 100,000 by the end (p<0.001). Rates increased with age (p<0.001). By subtype, the incidence was 3.1 per 100,000 for collagenous colitis and 5.5 per 100,000 for lymphocytic colitis. Collagenous colitis was associated with female sex (p<0.001) but lymphocytic colitis was not. Prevalence (per 100,000 persons) on 31 December 2001 was 103.0 (39.3 for collagenous colitis and 63.7 for lymphocytic colitis). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of microscopic colitis has increased significantly over time, and by the end of the study, the incidence and prevalence were significantly higher than reported previously. Microscopic colitis is associated with older age, and collagenous colitis is associated with female sex.  (+info)

Microscopic colitis with granuloma which responded to steroid therapy. (7/36)

We present a patient with chronic watery diarrhea and weight loss, in whom colonoscopic findings were consistent with microscopic colitis, but histopathological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation. A 67-year-old Japanese female with a several year history of chronic watery diarrhea and body weight loss was admitted to our hospital. Her laboratory data showed hypoalbuminemia and high levels of serum immunoglobulin G and C-reactive protein. Colonoscopic findings were grossly normal. Histopathology showed inflammatory cell infiltrates with non-necrotizing granulomas and multinucleated giant cells, indicating that this was not conventional microscopic colitis, lymphocytic colitis or collagenous colitis. After treatment with prednisolone her symptoms and laboratory data improved dramatically, and she went into remission without the necessity of further steroid treatment.  (+info)

Prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology in Turkey. (8/36)

AIM: To investigate the prevalence and demography of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colonoscopy in Turkey. METHODS: Between March, 1998 to July, 2005, 129 patients with chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology who had undergone full colonoscopy with no obvious abnormalities were included in the study. Two biopsies were obtained from all colonic segments and terminal ileum for diagnosis of microscopic colitis. On histopathologic examination, criteria for lymphocytic colitis (intraepithelial lymphocyte >or= 20 per 100 intercryptal epithelial cells, change in surface epithelium, mononuclear infiltration of the lamina propria) and collagenous colitis (subepithelial collagen band thickness >or= 10 microm) were explored. RESULTS: Lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed in 12 (9%) patients (Female/Male: 7/5, mean age: 45 year, range: 27-63) and collagenous colitis was diagnosed in only 3 (2.5%) patients (all female, mean age: 60 years, range: 54-65). CONCLUSION: Biopsy of Turkish patients with the diagnosis of chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology and normal colonoscopic findings will reveal microscopic colitis in approximately 10% of the patients. Lymphocytic colitis is 4 times more frequent than collagenous colitis in these patients.  (+info)

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Ischemic colitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the large intestine (colon) due to reduced blood flow to the area. This reduction in blood flow, also known as ischemia, can be caused by various factors such as narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the colon, low blood pressure, or certain medications.

Symptoms of ischemic colitis may include sudden abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it can lead to tissue death, perforation of the colon, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as fluid replacement, bowel rest, and antibiotics. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow to the area.

Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon (large intestine) that can only be seen under a microscope. It is called "microscopic" because the inflammation is not visible to the naked eye during endoscopic examination of the colon.

There are two main types of microscopic colitis: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Both types are more common in older adults, particularly women, and can cause chronic watery diarrhea that may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, bloating, and nausea.

In collagenous colitis, there is thickening of the collagen band (a layer of tissue) beneath the lining of the colon. In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increase in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon.

The exact cause of microscopic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods may also help alleviate symptoms.

Dextran sulfate is a type of polysaccharide (a complex carbohydrate) that is made up of repeating units of the sugar dextran, which has been sulfonated (introduced with a sulfonic acid group). It is commonly used as a molecular weight standard in laboratory research and can also be found in some medical products.

In medicine, dextran sulfate is often used as a treatment for hemodialysis patients to prevent the formation of blood clots in the dialyzer circuit. It works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of certain clotting factors in the blood. Dextran sulfate may also have anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and hepatitis.

It is important to note that dextran sulfate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, low blood pressure, and bleeding. It should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Collagenous colitis is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. It is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of collagen, a protein that provides structure to the body's tissues, beneath the lining of the colon. This can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating. The exact cause of collagenous colitis is not known, but it may be associated with autoimmune disorders or the use of certain medications. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own, while in others, treatment with medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid" is not a medical term. It is an organic compound used in industrial and research applications, such as a reagent in chemical reactions. Its formula is C6H3N3O9S. If you have any questions about chemical compounds or scientific terms, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Lymphocytic colitis is a type of microscopic colitis, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the large intestine (colon). In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increased number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency. The exact cause of lymphocytic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an immune response to an environmental trigger in genetically susceptible individuals. It is more common in women than men and typically affects people over the age of 40. Treatment may include medications such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods from the diet may also be helpful in managing symptoms.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Mesalamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the intestines, which can help alleviate symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

Mesalamine is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas. The specific formulation and dosage may vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation in the gut.

The drug's anti-inflammatory effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in the inflammatory response, such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. By reducing inflammation, mesalamine can help promote healing and prevent recurrences of IBD symptoms.

It's important to note that mesalamine may cause side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects like kidney damage or allergic reactions. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of taking mesalamine.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Restorative proctocolectomy, also known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), is a surgical procedure used to treat ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. This procedure involves the removal of the colon, rectum, and anal canal while preserving the sphincter muscles that control fecal continence.

After removing the diseased tissues, the surgeon creates a pouch from the end of the small intestine (ileum) and attaches it to the anus, restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. The pouch serves as a reservoir for stool, allowing for more normal bowel movements compared to having a permanent ileostomy.

Restorative proctocolectomy can be performed in one or two stages, depending on the patient's condition and the surgeon's preference. In the two-stage procedure, an initial total colectomy with ileostomy is performed, followed by the creation of the pouch and closure of the ileostomy in a second operation. The single-stage procedure involves removing the colon, creating the pouch, and performing the anastomosis in one surgical setting.

While restorative proctocolectomy significantly improves quality of life for many patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis, potential complications include pouchitis (inflammation of the ileal pouch), anastomotic leakage, small bowel obstruction, and pelvic sepsis. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for these and other potential issues.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

Amebic dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It is characterized by severe diarrhea containing blood and mucus, abdominal pain, and cramping. The infection is typically acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the parasites invade the intestinal lining, causing damage and leading to the symptoms of dysentery. In severe cases, the parasites can spread to other organs such as the liver, lungs, or brain, causing more serious infections. Amebic dysentery is treated with medications that kill the parasites, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene and sanitation, including proper handwashing and safe food handling practices.

An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall (stoma) to create a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is typically performed when there is damage or removal of the colon, rectum, or anal canal due to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), cancer, or trauma.

After an ileostomy, waste material from the small intestine exits the body through the stoma and collects in a pouch worn outside the body. The patient needs to empty the pouch regularly, typically every few hours, as the output is liquid or semi-liquid. Ileostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the planned course of treatment. Proper care and management of the stoma and pouch are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life after an ileostomy.

"Administration, Rectal" is a medical term that refers to the process of administering medication or other substances through the rectum. This route of administration is also known as "rectal suppository" or "suppository administration."

In this method, a solid dosage form called a suppository is inserted into the rectum using fingers or a special applicator. Once inside, the suppository melts or dissolves due to the body's temperature and releases the active drug or substance, which then gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the rectum.

Rectal administration is an alternative route of administration for people who have difficulty swallowing pills or liquids, or when rapid absorption of the medication is necessary. It can also be used to administer medications that are not well absorbed through other routes, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, it may take longer for the medication to reach the bloodstream compared to intravenous (IV) administration.

Common examples of rectally administered medications include laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, analgesics, and some forms of hormonal therapy. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when administering medication rectally, as improper administration can reduce the effectiveness of the medication or cause irritation or discomfort.

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis), resulting in the formation of pseudomembranes – raised, yellowish-white plaques composed of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells. The condition is most commonly caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), which can overgrow in the gut following disruption of the normal gut microbiota, often after antibiotic use. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and dehydration. Severe cases can lead to complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending antibiotic, administering oral metronidazole or vancomycin to eliminate C. difficile, and managing symptoms with supportive care. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be considered as a treatment option.

Pouchitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the ileal pouch, a surgically created reservoir that is connected to the patient's anus in individuals who have undergone proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). This procedure is often performed in patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

Pouchitis can present with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The exact cause of pouchitis remains unclear, but it is thought to be related to changes in the microbiota or an overactive immune response in the ileal pouch.

The diagnosis of pouchitis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination of biopsies taken during endoscopy. Treatment options for pouchitis include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and probiotics, depending on the severity and frequency of the condition.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Enterocolitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis). This condition can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in infants and young children. The symptoms of enterocolitis may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

There are several types of enterocolitis, including:

1. Infectious Enterocolitis: This type is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection in the intestines. Common causes include Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and norovirus.
2. Antibiotic-Associated Enterocolitis: This type is caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the intestines following the use of antibiotics that kill off beneficial gut bacteria.
3. Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis: This is a severe form of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. diff).
4. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: This is a serious condition that primarily affects premature infants, causing inflammation and damage to the intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations and sepsis.
5. Ischemic Enterocolitis: This type is caused by reduced blood flow to the intestines, often due to conditions such as mesenteric ischemia or vasculitis.
6. Radiation Enterocolitis: This type occurs as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer treatment, which can damage the intestinal lining and lead to inflammation.
7. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: This is a rare condition characterized by an excessive buildup of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the intestinal tissue, leading to inflammation and symptoms similar to those seen in inflammatory bowel disease.

Treatment for enterocolitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, probiotics, or surgery in severe cases.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Colonic pouches, also known as pouch colon or reservoir, refer to an artificial structure created during a surgical procedure called restorative proctocolectomy. This is often performed in patients with certain types of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

During the surgery, the entire colon and rectum are removed. A pouch is then created using the patient's own small intestine, which is folded back on itself and sewn together to form a reservoir. This pouch is connected to the anus, allowing the patient to have relatively normal bowel movements.

The most common type of colonic pouch is the J-pouch, so named because of its J-shaped design. Other types include the S-pouch and the W-pouch. The choice of pouch depends on various factors, including the patient's anatomy and the surgeon's preference.

The purpose of creating a colonic pouch is to restore intestinal continuity and function after removing the diseased colon and rectum, thereby improving the patient's quality of life. However, it's important to note that living with a colonic pouch also requires significant lifestyle adjustments and ongoing medical management.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the modulation of immune responses. It is produced by various cell types, including T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-10 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, and downregulates the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and effector functions, which ultimately helps to limit tissue damage during inflammation and promote tissue repair. Dysregulation of IL-10 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Citrobacter rodentium is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a natural pathogen in mice and has been used as a model organism to study enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) infections in humans, due to its similar virulence mechanisms. C. rodentium primarily colonizes the large intestine, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and weight loss in mice. It is not considered a significant human pathogen, but there have been rare reports of Citrobacter species causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Ileitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine. The condition can have various causes, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease.

The symptoms of ileitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, and nausea or vomiting. The diagnosis of ileitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI.

Treatment for ileitis depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation. In cases of infectious ileitis, antibiotics may be used to treat the infection. For autoimmune or inflammatory causes, medications that suppress the immune system may be necessary to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.

In severe cases of ileitis, surgery may be required to remove damaged portions of the intestine or to drain abscesses. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of ileitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Helicobacter hepaticus" is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the liver of various animals, including primates. It was initially identified in 1992 and has been associated with chronic active hepatitis and hepatic adenocarcinoma (liver cancer) in mice. While its role in human disease is not fully understood, some studies have suggested a possible link between H. hepaticus infection and liver inflammation or cancer in humans. However, more research is needed to confirm this association and establish the clinical significance of H. hepaticus in human health.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Toxic megacolon is a serious complication of colon inflammation that is characterized by non-obstructive dilation of the colon (diameter greater than 6 cm) and systemic toxicity. It is often associated with conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), infections (e.g., Clostridioides difficile infection), and ischemic colitis.

The dilation of the colon can lead to decreased blood flow, impaired motility, and increased risk of perforation, which can result in sepsis and even death if not promptly treated. The systemic toxicity may manifest as fever, tachycardia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalances, and mental status changes.

Toxic megacolon requires immediate medical attention, often involving hospitalization, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and possibly surgical intervention to remove the affected portion of the colon.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Oxazolone is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a chemical compound. It is commonly used in research and scientific studies as an experimental contact sensitizer to induce allergic contact dermatitis in animal models. Here's the general definition:

Oxazolone (C8H7NO3): An organic compound that belongs to the class of heterocyclic compounds known as oxazoles, which contain a benzene fused to a five-membered ring containing one oxygen atom and one nitrogen atom. It is used in research as an allergen to induce contact hypersensitivity reactions in skin sensitization studies.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Proctitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon. The symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness; rectal bleeding, often in the form of mucus or blood; diarrhea; and urgency to have a bowel movement.

Proctitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections (such as sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), radiation therapy, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of proctitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to visualize the rectum and take tissue samples for further testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the cecum, where it joins the small intestine, to the anus. It is called "large" because it has a larger diameter compared to the small intestine and is responsible for several important functions in the digestive process.

The large intestine measures about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long in adults and consists of four main regions: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food materials, compact the remaining waste into feces, and store it until it is eliminated through defecation.

The large intestine also contains a diverse population of bacteria that aid in digestion by breaking down complex carbohydrates, producing vitamins like vitamin K and some B vitamins, and competing with harmful microorganisms to maintain a healthy balance within the gut. Additionally, the large intestine plays a role in immune function and helps protect the body from pathogens through the production of mucus, antimicrobial substances, and the activation of immune cells.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Proctocolitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of both the rectum (proctitis) and the colon (colitis). It can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. The inflammation can be caused by various factors, including infections, immune-mediated disorders, or irritants. In some cases, the specific cause of proctocolitis may not be identified (known as idiopathic proctocolitis). Treatment for proctocolitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce inflammation, manage symptoms, and treat any underlying infections.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Bacterial translocation is a medical condition that refers to the migration and establishment of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to normally sterile sites inside the body, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, bloodstream, or other organs. This phenomenon is most commonly associated with impaired intestinal barrier function, which can occur in various clinical settings, including severe trauma, burns, sepsis, major surgery, and certain gastrointestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and liver cirrhosis.

The translocation of bacteria from the gut to other sites can lead to systemic inflammation, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which can be life-threatening in severe cases. The underlying mechanisms of bacterial translocation are complex and involve several factors, such as changes in gut microbiota, increased intestinal permeability, impaired immune function, and altered intestinal motility.

Preventing bacterial translocation is an important goal in the management of patients at risk for this condition, and strategies may include optimizing nutritional support, maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance, using probiotics or antibiotics to modulate gut microbiota, and promoting intestinal barrier function through various pharmacological interventions.

The mesentery is a continuous fold of the peritoneum, the double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, which attaches the stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and rectum to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It provides blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to these organs.

Traditionally, the mesentery was thought to consist of separate and distinct sections along the length of the intestines. However, recent research has shown that the mesentery is a continuous organ, with a single continuous tethering point to the posterior abdominal wall. This new understanding of the anatomy of the mesentery has implications for the study of various gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

Collagen diseases, also known as collagen disorders or connective tissue diseases, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's connective tissues. These tissues provide support and structure for various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, and blood vessels.

Collagen is a major component of connective tissues, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining their strength and elasticity. In collagen diseases, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy collagen, leading to inflammation, pain, and damage to the affected tissues.

There are several types of collagen diseases, including:

1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, and lungs.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): This is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness.
3. Scleroderma: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissues, leading to restricted movement and organ damage.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory muscle disease that can also affect the skin, causing rashes and weakness.
5. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that combines symptoms of several collagen diseases, including SLE, RA, scleroderma, and dermatomyositis.

The exact cause of collagen diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A medical definition of an ulcer is:

A lesion on the skin or mucous membrane characterized by disintegration of surface epithelium, inflammation, and is associated with the loss of substance below the normal lining. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcers that occur in the gastrointestinal tract.

Another type of ulcer is a venous ulcer, which occurs when there is reduced blood flow from vein insufficiency, usually in the lower leg. This can cause skin damage and lead to an open sore or ulcer.

There are other types of ulcers as well, including decubitus ulcers (also known as pressure sores or bedsores), which are caused by prolonged pressure on the skin.

Mucin-2, also known as MUC2, is a type of mucin that is primarily produced by the goblet cells in the mucous membranes lining the gastrointestinal tract. It is a large, heavily glycosylated protein that forms the gel-like structure of mucus, which provides lubrication and protection to the epithelial surfaces. Mucin-2 is the major component of intestinal mucus and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier by preventing the adhesion and colonization of harmful microorganisms. Additionally, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may play a role in regulating immune responses in the gut.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

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Common causes include ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, microscopic colitis, celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and ... Microscopic colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease where changes are seen only on histological examination of colonic ... "Microscopic colitis - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 19 July 2022. Navaneethan U, Giannella RA (November 2008). " ... including biopsies to detect microscopic colitis Testing for bile acid diarrhea with SeHCAT, 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one or ...
Coeliac disease Colitis Ulcerative colitis-familial. Microscopic colitis Collagenous colitis Crohn's disease Intestinal yeast ... Holstein A, Burmeister J, Plaschke A, Rosemeier D, Widjaja A, Egberts EH (2006). "Autoantibody profiles in microscopic colitis ... In Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis the presence of intestinal S. cerevisiae is rare, but the association with irritable ... ASCA tends to recognize Crohn's disease more frequently, whereas pANCA tend to recognize ulcerative colitis. ASCA antibodies ...
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2012). "Microscopic colitis: Current status, present and future challenges: statements of the European Microscopic Colitis ... are lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis two subtypes of the same disease - microscopic colitis?". Aliment Pharmacol ... Lymphocytic colitis is a subtype of microscopic colitis, a condition characterized by chronic non-bloody watery diarrhea. No ... Park, T; Cave, D; Marshall, C (7 August 2015). "Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease". ...
... lymphocytic colitis. Microscopic colitis causes chronic watery diarrhea with greater than 10 bowel movements per day. Some ... Colitis Lymphocytic colitis Inflammatory bowel disease Ulcerative colitis Park, Tina; Cave, David; Marshall, Christopher (2015- ... It is often classified under the umbrella entity microscopic colitis, that it shares with a related condition, ... 08-07). "Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 21 ( ...
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Inflammatory bowel disease consists of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and microscopic colitis. Gastroesophageal reflux ... Casella G, Perego D, Baldini V, Monti C, Crippa S, Buda CA (2002). "A rare association between ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac ... Severity - The severity of the microscopic destruction appears to be a factor, and genetics appears now to play a role. ...
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Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid ... Less common causes of this symptom profile are carcinoid syndrome, microscopic colitis, bacterial overgrowth, and eosinophilic ... Cole JA, Yeaw JM, Cutone JA, Kuo B, Huang Z, Earnest DL, Walker AM (December 2005). "The incidence of abdominal and pelvic ... Cole JA, Rothman KJ, Cabral HJ, Zhang Y, Farraye FA (September 2006). "Migraine, fibromyalgia, and depression among people with ...
"The Microscopic World of Sal Lopes: Images of Worlds Often Hidden to Our Eyes." Shutterbug.net, Features. Grimberg, Salomon. " ... Cole, Diane (June 26, 1994). "The Face of AIDS". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2021. Smith, Rosalind. 2003. " ... in California with Cole Weston, and at his studios in Newport and Boston. Lopes' range of printing encompasses the Civil War ...
3 induces and maintains short-term clinical response in patients with active microscopic colitis: a two-phase randomised ... issued a letter to the editor of Oxford Academic's Journal of Crohn's and Colitis (JCC) stating that as a result of a court ... Journal of Crohn's and Colitis. 11 (suppl_1): S321-S322. doi:10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx002.602. Fedorak, Richard N.; Feagan, Brian G ... in arthralgia in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: a pilot study". Drugs of Today. 41 (7): 453-459. doi: ...
In: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Harrison, F.W. & Kohn, A.J. (eds.), Vol. 5: Mollusca I. Wiley-Liss, New York: 111-252 ... Brooks/Cole. Dale, Jonathan (2000). "Starfish Science". "Macrobenthos of the North Sea - Echinodermata > Introduction". ... Harrison, F.W. & Chia, F.-S. (1994). Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 14: Echinodermata. Wiley-Liss, New York, [1]. ...
... microscopic colitis). Symptoms of nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain may suggest involvement of the upper gastrointestinal ... The extent of colitis is also graded based on severity, from 1 to 5. Grade 1 colitis does not result in any symptoms, while ... Grade 3 colitis is defined by severe pain, peritoneal signs and ileus. Grade 4 colitis is defined by life-threatening ... Grade 5 colitis results in death. High grade colitis may lead to severe complications, including perforation, toxic megacolon ...
Kuroiwa, M; Chihara K; Higashi S (1994). "Electron microscopic studies on Sharpey's fibers in the alveolar bone of rat molars ... Cole. pp. 284-291. ISBN 0-03-025982-7.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Cephalopoda Glossary - ...
Macroscopic and microscopic findings include signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrosis of colonic mucosa and ... Colitis X, equine colitis X or peracute toxemic colitis is a catchall term for various fatal forms of acute or peracute colitis ... Colitis-X is a term used for colitis cases in which no definitive diagnosis can be made and the horse dies. Clinical signs ... Horses under stress appear to be more susceptible to developing colitis X, and like the condition pseudomembranous colitis in ...
... microscopic colitis, and liver disease. Moreover, he has performed extensive research in paediatrics. He is an Honorary ...
Cole, K. C. (2009). Something Incredibly Wonderful Happens - Frank Oppenheimer and the World He Made Up. Houghton Mifflin ... Carlson, C. (2005). "Accessing the Microscopic World". PLOS Biology. 3 (1): e12. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030012. PMC 544541. ...
In particular, B. pilosicoli has been described as an important colonic pathogen of pigs and chickens, causing colitis and ... This name reflected the microscopic description of how the spirochete organisms coat the enterocytes creating an appearance ... Other clinical signs include reduced productivity, hemorrhagic colitis and bloody or mucoid diarrhea. Diarrhea typically ... Symptomatic infections are characterized by diarrhea, headaches, bloating, cramping, rectal bleeding and colitis. Treament with ...
... colitis MeSH C06.405.205.265.115 - colitis, ischemic MeSH C06.405.205.265.173 - colitis, microscopic MeSH C06.405.205.265. ... colitis MeSH C06.405.469.158.188.115 - colitis, ischemic MeSH C06.405.469.158.188.173 - colitis, microscopic MeSH C06.405. ... 173.500 - colitis, collagenous MeSH C06.405.205.265.173.750 - colitis, lymphocytic MeSH C06.405.205.265.231 - colitis, ... 469.158.188.173.500 - colitis, collagenous MeSH C06.405.469.158.188.173.750 - colitis, lymphocytic MeSH C06.405.469.158.188.231 ...
... and microscopic colitis among others. Globally coeliac disease affects between 1 in 100 and 1 in 170 people. Rates, however, ... and microscopic colitis, among others. In untreated coeliac disease, these are often transient conditions derived from the ... microscopic colitis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and more. ...
... ulcerative colitis, microscopic colitis Obstruction: hernia, intussusception, volvulus, post-surgical adhesions, tumors, severe ... Hung, Alex; Calderbank, Tom; Samaan, Mark A.; Plumb, Andrew A.; Webster, George (1 January 2021). "Ischaemic colitis: practical ... Locations and associated conditions include: Diffuse Peritonitis Vascular: mesenteric ischemia, ischemic colitis, Henoch- ... ischemic colitis, mesenteric ischemia, and abdominal aortic aneurysms are other serious causes. Acute abdomen is a condition ...
... but not sensitive for ulcerative colitis, so is not useful as a sole diagnostic test. When measured together with anti- ... of cases of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis A majority of primary sclerosing cholangitis Microscopic polyangiitis ... "How helpful are serological markers in differentiating crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis in indian asian inflammatory ... in differentiating patients with ulcerative colitis from normal controls. Approximately 50% ...
Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis ... 2012). "Microscopic colitis: Current status, present and future challenges: statements of the European Microscopic Colitis ... unresponsive microscopic colitis. The prognosis for lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis is good, and both conditions ... are lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis two subtypes of the same disease - microscopic colitis?". Aliment Pharmacol ...
Microscopic colitis is diagnosed in a 64-year-old woman with a history of watery diarrhea. What is the most appropriate ... On the basis of the patients history and physical exam, you suspect that she has microscopic colitis (MC) because many of its ... The latter feature is consistent with a diagnosis of collagenous colitis, one of the two types of MC. The other type of MC is ... Optimizing Patient Management in Ulcerative Colitis: The Urgent Patient Need 0.25 CME / ABIM MOC Credits ...
Learn about the symptoms and treatment of microscopic colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation of the ... Microscopic Colitis. View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Microscopic colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease ... The most common symptom of microscopic colitis is chronic diarrhea. Experts arent sure what causes microscopic colitis but ... To help diagnose microscopic colitis, your doctor may order medical tests to check for signs of conditions that cause symptoms ...
... and lymphocytic colitis (LC) are relatively rare conditions that are diagnosed when a patient with chronic watery nonbloody ... Microscopic Colitis (Collagenous and Lymphocytic Colitis)) and Microscopic Colitis (Collagenous and Lymphocytic Colitis) What ... European guidelines on microscopic colitis: United European Gastroenterology and European Microscopic Colitis Group statements ... Microscopic Colitis (Collagenous and Lymphocytic Colitis). Lymphocytic colitis (LC) showing marked chronic inflammatory cell ...
A child with microscopic colitis has swelling of the colon, which leads to chronic, watery diarrhea. Learn more about this ... What is Pediatric Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis or Collagenous Colitis)?. Microscopic colitis is characterized by an ... Pediatric Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis or Collagenous Colitis). Microscopic colitis causes inflammation of the ... What are the causes of Pediatric Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic Colitis or Collagenous Colitis)?. The causes of microscopic ...
Consult with NorthShores experts for information on microscopic colitis treatment and symptoms. ... Microscopic colitis is more common in women in their 60s. ... Microscopic Colitis Symptoms and Diagnosis. Microscopic colitis ... Microscopic Colitis Treatment. The therapies available for microscopic colitis often lead to satisfactory control of the ... Microscopic colitis describes two different conditions that cause chronic diarrhea: lymphocytic and collagenous colitis. Both ...
HLA signatures as pathophysiological discriminants of microscopic colitis subtypes Tenghao Zheng et al. J Crohns Colitis. 2023 ... HLA signatures as pathophysiological discriminants of microscopic colitis subtypes Tenghao Zheng 1 2 3 , Giulia Roda 4 , Yamile ... Background and aims: Microscopic colitis (MC) is currently regarded as an inflammatory bowel disease that manifests as two ... Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of European Crohns and Colitis Organisation. All rights reserved. For ...
Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Microscopic colitis, a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, is a common cause of ... In recent years, the incidence of microscopic colitis has significantly increased to levels comparable to Crohns disease ... were independently associated with the development of microscopic colitis. ... the incidence of microscopic colitis has significantly increased to levels comparable to Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis ...
Background Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Biopsies with characteristic histological ... abstract = "Background Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Biopsies with characteristic ... N2 - Background Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Biopsies with characteristic ... AB - Background Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Biopsies with characteristic ...
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Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammation of the large intestine that can cause watery diarrhea and cramping. Microscopic ... Microscopic Colitis. Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that can cause watery ... There are two types of microscopic colitis. Collagenous colitis occurs when a thick layer of collagen/protein develops in colon ... Microscopic colitis is part of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBD) family, and is less serious than Crohns disease or ...
Microscopic colitis. What is microscopic colitis? Microscopic colitis is a non-cancerous condition caused by an increased ... There are two types of microscopic colitis: lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. What are …. Read More » ... Lymphocytic colitis. What is lymphocytic colitis? Lymphocytic colitis is a non-cancerous condition caused by an increased ... This condition belongs to a group of related conditions called microscopic colitis. This group includes lymphocytic colitis ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Microscopic colitis. Check out our video library. Microscopic colitis is a form of ... Microscopic colitis is a form of colitis, or inflammation of the colon, that presents with normal macroscopic appearance of the ...
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title = "Microscopic Colitis and Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease",. abstract = "The term "microscopic colitis" was ... Therefore, "microscopic colitis" currently is used as an umbrella term, covering two major subsets: collagenous colitis, with a ... Therefore, "microscopic colitis" currently is used as an umbrella term, covering two major subsets: collagenous colitis, with a ... Therefore, "microscopic colitis" currently is used as an umbrella term, covering two major subsets: collagenous colitis, with a ...
Diagnosis And Management Of Microscopic Colitis4:27. *Management Of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: The Maastricht V/florence ... Diagnosis And Management Of Microscopic Colitis. PCMA Archive - July 201735 Chapters ...
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Microscopic colitis (MC) is usually an illness with intestinal mucosal inflammation. Home / Uncategorized / Microscopic colitis ... Microscopic colitis (MC) is usually an illness with intestinal mucosal inflammation. August 14, 2018. phytid0 comments ... Microscopic colitis (MC) is usually an illness with intestinal mucosal inflammation causing diarrhea, affecting predominantly ... Desk 2 The prevalence of different illnesses 170364-57-5 IC50 in microscopic colitis (MC) and settings. = 0.012). Those that ...
Microscopic colitis (MC) is an increasingly common cause of watery diarrhea particularly in older individuals. The role of diet ... Dietary Calcium and Risk of Microscopic Colitis. Sandler, Robert S; Sun, Shan; Keku, Temitope O; Woosley, John T; Anderson, ... Colite Microscópica/diagnóstico; Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia; Colite Microscópica/complicações; Diarreia/epidemiologia; ... Actinobacteria; Colite Microscópica; Idoso; Feminino; Humanos; Masculino; Cálcio da Dieta; Estudos de Casos e Controles; ...
Microscopic Colitis Show child pages. * Definition & Facts * Symptoms & Causes * Diagnosis * Treatment * Eating, Diet, & ...
Cannabidiol Oil-Associated Microscopic Colitis. Cureus. 2020;12:e10528. View abstract.. *Leehey MA, Liu Y, Hart F, et al. ... J Crohns Colitis 2021;15:1799-1806. View abstract.. *Walsh JH, Maddison KJ, Rankin T, et al. Treating insomnia symptoms with ... Cochrane-Snyman KC, Cruz C, Morales J, Coles M. The Effects of Cannabidiol Oil on Noninvasive Measures of Muscle Damage in Men ... Cole TB, Saitz R. Cannabis and Impaired Driving. JAMA. 2020;324:2163-2164. View abstract. ...
microscopic colitis. *ulcerative colitis. *fructose sensitivity (trouble digesting fructose, which is found in fruits and hone) ...
1 had microscopic colitis; 1 had AA amyloidosis; 1 had neurovegetative disorder (1 each); 3 had recurrent pyogenic cholangitis ... 2 patients had mixed connective tissue disease, 1 had systemic sclerosis, 1 had sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had microscopic ... H7-associated hemorrhagic colitis in a nursing home. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1496-500. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Pancreatitis; stomatitis; microscopic colitis; fundic gland polyps;. Hepatobiliary Hepatic failure, hepatitis with or without ...
Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis; stomatitis; microscopic colitis; fundic gland polyps;. Hepatobiliary: hepatic failure, ...
It is less common than the other inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. ... Microscopic colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon that can cause chronic, watery diarrhea. ... Living with microscopic colitis. While microscopic colitis is non-progressive, it is a relapsing and remitting disease. This ... hence the name microscopic colitis).. Treatment of microscopic colitis. The goal of treatment is to improve your quality of ...
Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis; stomatitis; microscopic colitis; fundic gland polyps; Hepatobiliary: hepatic failure, hepatitis ...
Are Drugs Associated with Microscopic Colitis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by Zahid Ijaz Tarar, Umer Farooq, Mustafa ...
Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and microscopic colitis are other common types of ... Sex Intimacy and IBD (Crohns & Colitis Foundation of America) * Skin Complications of IBD (Crohns & Colitis Foundation of ... Bone Loss in IBD (Crohns & Colitis Foundation of America) * Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors (Crohns ... Crohns Disease & Ulcerative Colitis: A Guide for Parents and Pediatric Caregivers (Crohns & Colitis Foundation of America) ...
Microscopic colitis. Hepatobiliary disorders. Uncommon. Increased liver enzymes. Rare. Hepatitis with or without jaundice ...
  • Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid diarrhea is found in 41% of patients with collagenous colitis and 29% with lymphocytic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histological features of colonic biopsies indicating microscopic colitis are: greater than 20 intraepithelial lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells and, additionally, 10-20 μm of a thickened subepithelial collagen band in collagenous colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of the lamina propria, with mainly mononuclear cells, may be observed in collagenous colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional distinguishing feature of collagenous colitis is a thickened subepithelial collagen layer, which may be up to 30 micrometres thick, that occurs in addition to the features found in lymphocytic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis have both been shown in randomized, placebo-controlled trials to respond well to budesonide, a glucocorticoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prognosis for lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis is good, and both conditions are considered to be benign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in North America found incidence rates of 7.1 per 100,000 person-years and 12.6 per 100,000 person-years for collagenous colitis for lymphocytic colitis, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagenous colitis was recognised earlier, in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of microscopic colitis are lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. (nih.gov)
  • In collagenous colitis, the layer of collagen under the colon lining is thicker than normal. (nih.gov)
  • Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, predominantly subdivided into collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). (medscape.com)
  • its histopathology does not fit into either of the collagenous colitis or lymphocytic colitis criteria. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 ] In 1980, Read and colleagues described microscopic colitis, which is clinically indistinguishable from collagenous colitis but is differentiated from it by specific biopsy features. (medscape.com)
  • [ 17 ] nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) show a strong trend ( P = 0.057) toward increasing the risk of collagenous colitis (CC), and rechallenge has been shown to cause recurrence of collagenous colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Antidepressant agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as a group increase the risk of collagenous colitis, but in this class of medications, sertraline alone significantly raises the risk of lymphocytic colitis (LC). (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic colitis (MC) is a relatively common cause of chronic, recurrent nonbloody diarrhea with two subtypes: collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cytokine profiles of mucosal biopse specimens taken at flexible sigmoidoscopy from 18 patients (8 with lymphocytic colitis and 10 with collagenous colitis) were analysed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, in comparison with those from 13 aged-matched controls with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • No differences were noted between lymphocytic and collagenous colitis for any of the above parameters. (bmj.com)
  • This thesis describes the outcomes of two clinical studies in which FMT was investigated as a therapy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients andin collagenous colitis (CC) patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • Collagenous Colitis occurs when a thick layer of protein develops in the colon tissue. (rockymountaingastro.com)
  • Multiple biopsies obtained throughout the colon revealed chronic colitis with marked thickening and irregularity of the sub epithelial collagen plate, consistent with collagenous colitis. (shmabstracts.org)
  • Both lymphocytic and collagenous colitis inflame the large intestine, typically causing watery diarrhea. (deaconess.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of lymphocytic (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC) in the county Skåne (Scania), southern Sweden, during the period 2010-20 with focus both on the temporal and spatial variations. (lu.se)
  • Care should be taken to exclude other causes of chronic diarrhea, both infectious and noninfectious (e.g., lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, tumors, drug reactions). (cdc.gov)
  • [ 1-3 ] The disorder comprises two major subtypes: lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4-7 ] Research over the past decade has indicated an increasing incidence for lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, with some studies noting an incidence at least as high as that of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) . (nih.gov)
  • [ 8 ] Later, Lazenby et al proposed the term "lymphocytic colitis" to replace the term "microscopic colitis" and to distinguish it from infectious colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease). (medscape.com)
  • While there are many similarities between IMC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), IMC is usually indicative of acute colitis rather than chronic colitis. (shmabstracts.org)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, involves chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. (cdc.gov)
  • The most well-known forms of inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (goop.com)
  • Incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis nears those of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are other common types of IBD. (nih.gov)
  • For patient education resources, see Crohns Colitis Foundation , Digestive Disorders Center as well as Common Causes of Colitis , Celiac Sprue , and Crohn's Disease . (medscape.com)
  • This group includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis too. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • As our new resource explains, microscopic colitis cannot be seen when you have an endoscopy (a camera looking at your digestive system), but in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, the inflammation may be seen. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • This information is for anyone who wants to know how smoking tobacco cigarettes may affect Crohn's Disease , Ulcerative Colitis or Microscopic Colitis . (crohnsandcolitis.org.uk)
  • Everyone with Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis or Microscopic Colitis is advised not to smoke. (crohnsandcolitis.org.uk)
  • Data on diagnosed IBD (hereafter referred to as IBD) were collected with the Sample Adult Core questionnaire using the following question: "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis? (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are very similar. (medicalert.org)
  • Crypts may have minimal architectural distortion as in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic colitis is a chronic disease in which abnormal reactions of the immune system cause inflammation on the inner lining of your colon . (nih.gov)
  • Doctors can only see the inflammation caused by microscopic colitis by looking at colon tissue under a microscope. (nih.gov)
  • The interleukin (IL)-6-174 gene polymorphism also has a possible association with microscopic colitis by influencing the inflammation pathway. (medscape.com)
  • To determine the prognostic importance of microscopic rectal inflammation we followed up 82 patients (aged 21 to 78 years, 44 men) with chronic quiescent ulcerative colitis over 12 months. (bmj.com)
  • Microscopic Colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) causing persistent watery, diarrhea. (rockymountaingastro.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis also causes inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, but only the lining of the large intestine or colon is affected. (medicalert.org)
  • Like all other forms of IBD, diversion colitis causes inflammation, specifically the large intestine. (medicalert.org)
  • The microscopic hallmark of toxic megacolon is inflammation extending beyond the mucosa into the muscularis propria. (medscape.com)
  • Whereas the typical ulcerative colitis inflammatory response is limited to the mucosa, toxic megacolon is characterized by severe inflammation extending into the smooth muscle layer, thus paralyzing the colonic smooth muscle and leading to dilatation. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic examination of colonic tissue biopsy specimens often reveals mild inflammation, with an increased number of lymphocytes, particularly in the ascending and transverse colon. (cdc.gov)
  • A higher incidence of autoimmune diseases, for example arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, thyroid disorders, and celiac disease, has been reported in people with microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • What other health problems do people with microscopic colitis have? (nih.gov)
  • Experts have found that some people with microscopic colitis also have other disorders related to the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • One study showed that 1 in 3 people with microscopic colitis were initially incorrectly diagnosed with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • Microscopic colitis is characterized by an increase in inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes, in colonic biopsies with an otherwise normal appearance and architecture of the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic, nonbloody diarrhea with an endoscopically and radiologically normal colon but which demonstrates inflammatory changes on mucosal biopsies. (medscape.com)
  • When an endoscopy is performed, it is recommended to conduct multi-level biopsies to detect microscopic colitis, which Hammoudi believes is "probably underdiagnosed. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic colitis (MC) is a term used to identify a group of chronic inflammatory bowel disorders characterised by chronic or recurrent watery diarrhoea in the absence of abnormal radiological examinations, with normal or near-normal endoscopic appearance and specific microscopic abnormalities in colonic biopsies. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic colitis is the diagnosis in around 10% of cases investigated for chronic non-bloody diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • If microscopic colitis causes severe diarrhea, it may lead to weight loss and dehydration . (nih.gov)
  • Ever since microscopic colitis was described, its incidence has steadily increased and accounts for about 8-16% of chronic nonbloody diarrhea. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] Microscopic colitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the workup of chronic diarrhea, especially in the elderly population. (medscape.com)
  • No definitive etiology has been determined for microscopic colitis (MC), but evidence indicates that drug consumption may trigger underlying inflammatory factors in the colon of affected individuals, whereas other agents may exacerbate diarrhea in patients with idiopathic microscopic colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Microscopic colitis (MC): Nocturnal symptoms are indicative for the most common diagnosis of watery diarrhea", reported Dr. med. (tillotts.com)
  • Methods: One man, age 36 y, suffering from functional diarrhea and one woman, 56 y, suffering from microscopic colitis, were randomized to a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet for 4 wk. (lu.se)
  • The fact that the two types of microscopic colitis share many features including epidemiology, risk factors and, response to therapy has led to the suggestion that they are actually subtypes of the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of Microscopic Colitis. (rockymountaingastro.com)
  • As the changes are often patchy, an examination limited to the rectum may miss cases of microscopic colitis, and so a full colonoscopy is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence (number of new cases) of microscopic colitis has doubled from 2009 to 2016. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • Although 17,000 new cases of microscopic colitis are diagnosed each year in the UK, the real number could be a lot higher, as microscopic colitis is often underreported and misdiagnosed. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • There are 17,000 new cases of microscopic colitis diagnosed each and every year. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • Despite the missed diagnoses, cases of microscopic colitis are on the rise globally. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases, as well as the abstract books of the major gastroenterology meetings, to investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients with functional bowel disorders (considering all subtypes of both disorders) and vice versa. (medscape.com)
  • People who develop microscopic colitis are characteristically, though not exclusively, middle-aged females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anyone can develop microscopic colitis. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Gubatan's work has been featured in Gastroenterology, Gut, American Journal of Gastroenterology, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Journal of Crohns & Colitis, and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • Diagnosis is made by the examination of the microscopic appearance of a deep biopsy of the lower rectum . (britannica.com)
  • Guidelines from the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) in 2010 recommended a screening colonoscopy in all patients with colitis up to 8 years following diagnosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The high proportion of microscopic colitis among diarrhoea-dominant functional syndromes should serve as a call for more active diagnosis in selected patients. (medscape.com)
  • A finding of greater than 7 g of fecal fat excretion per 24 hours in an individual ingesting 100 g of fat per day usually is indicative of fat malabsorption, and, even if microscopic colitis is present, a diagnosis of concurrent sprue should be considered. (medscape.com)
  • Safety and tolerability of a modified filter-type device for leukocytapheresis using ACD-A as anticoagulant in patients with mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
  • However, surgery is still considered for patients with severe, unresponsive microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin levels have been found to be high in patients with microscopic colitis and ulcerative colitis (UC), suggesting a possible association in its pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Immune-mediated colitis (IMC) is an immune-related adverse event in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI/ICPIs). (shmabstracts.org)
  • For patients with grade 2 colitis defined as 4-6 bowel movements per day along with at least one other symptom such as abdominal pain or hematochezia, ICIs are discontinued and treatment with prednisolone or oral budesonide is initiated. (shmabstracts.org)
  • Patients suffering from immune mediated colitis are often treated with a corticosteroid regimen based on the severity of colitis. (shmabstracts.org)
  • 2 patients had mixed connective tissue disease, 1 had systemic sclerosis, 1 had sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had microscopic polyangiitis, 3 had type 1 diabetes, 1 had multiple sclerosis, and 2 had psoriasis. (cdc.gov)
  • LAS VEGAS -- Treatment advancements appear to have helped cut colectomy rates to treat colorectal cancer among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), according to a presentation here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Picardo S, et al "A significant decline in colectomy rates for colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis" CCC 2019. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Altered microbiota in microscopic colitis. (lu.se)
  • [ 11 ] Some studies have also shown an association between microscopic colitis and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ, as noted in celiac disease. (medscape.com)
  • www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/816865/all/Microscopic_Colitis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Background Microscopic colitis shares certain common clinical manifestations with functional bowel disorders, especially diarrhoea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional diarrhoea. (medscape.com)
  • In microscopic colitis, a small sample of tissue (a biopsy) has to be taken of the bowel and examined under a microscope. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • Clinicians are advised to biopsy each segment to quantify the extent of the microscopic disease activity. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Histology of pterygium: an electron microscopic study. (bmj.com)
  • Development of the predictive model required conditions be performed on the fiber distributions of both phase contrast (PC) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) counts. (cdc.gov)
  • Victoria was diagnosed with microscopic colitis in August 2022, after 12 years managing an undiagnosed condition. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • However, the exact relationship between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders has not been systematically assessed. (medscape.com)
  • Aim To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic overlap between functional bowel disorders and microscopic colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions There is a significant overlap of symptoms between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders, especially in diarrhoeal subtypes. (medscape.com)
  • HLA signatures as pathophysiological discriminants of microscopic colitis subtypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: In microscopic colitis (MC), the incidence has increased over the last decades. (lu.se)
  • Doctors call both types microscopic colitis, and they have the same symptoms and treatments. (nih.gov)
  • The epidemiology of microscopic colitis in Olmsted County from 2002 to 2010: a population-based study. (nih.gov)
  • In rare cases, microscopic colitis may cause serious complications, such as ulcers or perforation of the colon. (nih.gov)
  • Heightened awareness and consideration for colitis secondary to ICI treatment may promote timely detection, symptomatic treatment, and resolution of the colitis before it has the chance to become severe. (shmabstracts.org)
  • Pete was diagnosed with microscopic colitis after his GP had put him on the cancer pathway for bowel cancer. (gutscharity.org.uk)
  • Findings from sigmoidoscopy confirmed ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphocytic colitis is characterized histologically by chronic inflammatory infiltration in the lamina propria with lymphocyte and plasma cell proliferation. (medscape.com)
  • The presence of a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate or crypt architectural irregularities, however, bore no relation to the frequency of colitis relapse. (bmj.com)
  • Lymphocytic colitis (LC) showing marked chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate of the surface epithelium (on right) with preservation of crypt architecture. (medscape.com)
  • Studies of a number of other agents including antidiarrheals, bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol), mesalazine/mesalamine (alone or in combination with cholestyramine), systemic corticosteroids, cholestyramine, immunomodulators, and probiotics have shown to be less effective than budesonide for treating both forms of microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient was started on budesonide 9 mg for 9 weeks for treatment of PDL1 inhibitor mediated microscopic colitis. (shmabstracts.org)
  • Increased expression of proliferative Ki-67 nuclear antigen is correlated with dysplastic colorectal epithelium in ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
  • With emerging advances in treatment and surveillance, colectomy rates in Canada's Alberta province declined 8.6% annually from 2003 to 2015 for colorectal cancer, reported Sherman Picardo, MBBS, of University of Calgary in Alberta, at the Crohn's & Colitis Congress . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. (bmj.com)
  • Rarer types of IBD include microscopic colitis (MC), diversion colitis, and Behçet's disease. (medicalert.org)
  • Caroline has memories in primary school, crying on the toilet with a sore stomach, but she wasn't diagnosed with microscopic colitis until she was in her 20's. (gutscharity.org.uk)