Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.
A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An acute form of MEGACOLON, severe pathological dilatation of the COLON. It is associated with clinical conditions such as ULCERATIVE COLITIS; CROHN DISEASE; AMEBIC DYSENTERY; or CLOSTRIDIUM ENTEROCOLITIS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Inflammation of the RECTUM and the distal portion of the COLON.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Ischaemic enterocolitis complicating idiopathic dysautonomia. (1/88)

A previously fit 23 year old adult male who presented with a sudden onset of profound autonomic neuropathy, for which no cause could be found, is described. The patient subsequently developed ischaemic enterocolitis that ultimately necessitated colectomy and subtotal enterectomy. Potential neural and humoral mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

Can colonoscopy diagnose transmural ischaemic colitis after abdominal aortic surgery? An evidence-based approach. (2/88)

OBJECTIVES: to assess the diagnostic value of colonoscopy in ischaemic colitis following abdominal aortic surgery, based on a literature review, and to introduce the concept of evidence-based medicine. METHOD: a review of the literature according to evidence-based principles was made by all doctors of our department. RESULTS: seven prospective non-randomised reports on routine colonoscopy after abdominal aortic surgery were found. None of the participants found all the reports, and the last was identified by the reviewer. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopy may disclose ischaemic colitis, but cannot separate transmural from the clinically less important mucosal ischaemia. Endoscopy had no impact on mortality in any of the prospective series. The evidence-based conference was an inspiring teaching modality, and illustrated for the participants the difficulty in performing a targeted literature search.  (+info)

Idiopathic enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis: a rare cause of ischemic colitis. (3/88)

We report on a 74-year-old female patient who was admitted to the hospital because of abdominal pain. She underwent a colonoscopy and a stenosing mass was found in the cecum. Histologic findings in the biopsy specimens were consistent with ischemic colitis. Due to clinical symptoms and the endoscopic and radiologic findings that roused the suspicion that the patient was suffering from a malignant tumor, a right hemicolectomy was performed. Histology of the resection specimen disclosed an inflammation of the veins. It was characterized by a predominantly lymphocytic infiltration of the vessels affecting the veins of the colonic wall and the mesentery. Furthermore, secondary thrombosis with focal venous occlusion was observed. The colon showed extensive ischemic colitis with focal transmural coagulation necrosis. The disease was considered to be idiopathic lymphocytic phlebitis, which is a rare disease of unknown origin. Our patient is well and alive after more than 1 year, supporting the notion that the disease shows a benign course after surgery.  (+info)

Rare complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: two case reports. (4/88)

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic procedure with several known risks. We present two rarely reported complications of ERCP and sphincterotomy: transverse mesocolon disruption with ischemic colitis and splenic rupture. RESULTS: The first patient, a 54-year-old female, presented one day following ERCP and stent revision for pancreas divisum. She presented with hypotension and abdominal distention. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a ruptured spleen, which was confirmed on laparotomy. She had a complicated postoperative course and died of multiple organ failure. The second patient is a 56-year-old female who presented five days after ERCP and sphincterotomy with abdominal pain, abdominal wall ecchymosis, and decreasing hematocrit. Her evaluation included hospital admission and abdominal CT scan, which showed free fluid and a large hematoma in the transverse mesocolon. These findings were confirmed on laparotomy and a devascularized segment of bowel was resected. CONCLUSION: Only 6 cases of ERCP-related splenic injury have been reported in the literature. One additional report is available of a fatal splenic artery injury. No previous reports exist of a mesenteric hematoma resulting in bowel devascularization. Prompt evaluation and awareness of potential complications should help capture potentially life-threatening sequelae of ERCP.  (+info)

Complete small bowel recovery after prolonged total venous occlusion. (5/88)

Acute small bowel ischaemia is a mostly irreversible condition associated with high mortality. Here we report the case of a patient after severe abdominal trauma in whom the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was completely occluded for more than 15 h in the absence of any collateral venous drainage. Following surgical reconstruction of the SMV and with scheduled relaparotomies for 5 days, the bowel showed slow recovery. Now the patient is well and on complete oral nutrition.  (+info)

Fulminant ischaemic colitis with atypical clinical features complicating sickle cell disease. (6/88)

Clinically significant ischaemic bowel injury is an exceedingly rare complication of sickle cell disease. It manifests as acute surgical abdomen and may respond to conservative treatment. An unusual fatal case of ischaemic colitis with minimal abdominal findings in a young male during a sickle cell vaso-occlusive pain crisis is described. This case demonstrates that an acute surgical abdomen should be considered in such patients who fail to respond to conservative management as untreated this condition may be fatal.  (+info)

Endothelin-1 induces mucosal mast cell degranulation and tissue injury via ETA receptors. (7/88)

The effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on mucosal mast cells are of special interest, since they may be an important component of the tissue response that occurs during ischaemic preconditioning or ischaemia/re-oxygenation injuries. Increasing doses of ET-1 were administered intravenously to anaesthetized rats. In a second series of experiments, animals were pretreated with the ET(A) receptor antagonists BQ-610 or ETR-P1/fl peptide, or with the ET(B) receptor antagonist IRL-1038. Intestinal perfusion changes were recorded, and the proportion of degranulated mast cells and the degree of mucosal damage were determined in ileal biopsies. ET-1 induced dose-dependent alterations in the haemodynamic and morphological parameters, and caused significant mast cell degranulation. These changes were inhibited significantly by pretreatment with the ET(A) receptor antagonists, but not with the ET(B) receptor antagonist. We conclude that a cross-talk exists between endothelial cell-derived humoral mediators and the intestinal mast cell system.  (+info)

Colonic necrosis and perforation secondary to Escherichia coli O157:H7 gastroenteritis in an adult patient without hemolytic uremic syndrome. (8/88)

During a multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea, we encountered a woman who had hemorrhagic colitis complicated by ischemic colitis with perforation. To our knowledge, this has not previously been described in adult patients. Because of the insensitivity of the commonly used diagnostic methods, this condition may be underrecognized.  (+info)

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Ischemic colitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the large intestine (colon) due to reduced blood flow to the area. This reduction in blood flow, also known as ischemia, can be caused by various factors such as narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the colon, low blood pressure, or certain medications.

Symptoms of ischemic colitis may include sudden abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it can lead to tissue death, perforation of the colon, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as fluid replacement, bowel rest, and antibiotics. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow to the area.

Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon (large intestine) that can only be seen under a microscope. It is called "microscopic" because the inflammation is not visible to the naked eye during endoscopic examination of the colon.

There are two main types of microscopic colitis: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Both types are more common in older adults, particularly women, and can cause chronic watery diarrhea that may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, bloating, and nausea.

In collagenous colitis, there is thickening of the collagen band (a layer of tissue) beneath the lining of the colon. In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increase in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon.

The exact cause of microscopic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune factors. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods may also help alleviate symptoms.

Dextran sulfate is a type of polysaccharide (a complex carbohydrate) that is made up of repeating units of the sugar dextran, which has been sulfonated (introduced with a sulfonic acid group). It is commonly used as a molecular weight standard in laboratory research and can also be found in some medical products.

In medicine, dextran sulfate is often used as a treatment for hemodialysis patients to prevent the formation of blood clots in the dialyzer circuit. It works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of certain clotting factors in the blood. Dextran sulfate may also have anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and hepatitis.

It is important to note that dextran sulfate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, low blood pressure, and bleeding. It should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Collagenous colitis is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. It is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of collagen, a protein that provides structure to the body's tissues, beneath the lining of the colon. This can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating. The exact cause of collagenous colitis is not known, but it may be associated with autoimmune disorders or the use of certain medications. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own, while in others, treatment with medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs or immunosuppressants may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid" is not a medical term. It is an organic compound used in industrial and research applications, such as a reagent in chemical reactions. Its formula is C6H3N3O9S. If you have any questions about chemical compounds or scientific terms, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Lymphocytic colitis is a type of microscopic colitis, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the large intestine (colon). In lymphocytic colitis, there is an increased number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lining of the colon. This inflammation can cause symptoms such as chronic watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency. The exact cause of lymphocytic colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an immune response to an environmental trigger in genetically susceptible individuals. It is more common in women than men and typically affects people over the age of 40. Treatment may include medications such as anti-diarrheal agents, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, dietary modifications or elimination of certain foods from the diet may also be helpful in managing symptoms.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Mesalamine is an anti-inflammatory drug that is primarily used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the intestines, which can help alleviate symptoms like diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

Mesalamine is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, suppositories, and enemas. The specific formulation and dosage may vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation in the gut.

The drug's anti-inflammatory effects are thought to be mediated by its ability to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes involved in the inflammatory response, such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. By reducing inflammation, mesalamine can help promote healing and prevent recurrences of IBD symptoms.

It's important to note that mesalamine may cause side effects, including headache, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects like kidney damage or allergic reactions. Patients should talk to their healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of taking mesalamine.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Sulfasalazine is defined as a medication that is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine has an anti-inflammatory effect, which helps to reduce inflammation in the gut or joints.

The medication contains two components: sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). The sulfapyridine component is an antibiotic that may help to reduce the number of harmful bacteria in the gut, while the 5-ASA component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulfasalazine works by being broken down into its two components after it is ingested. The 5-ASA component then acts directly on the lining of the gut to reduce inflammation, while the sulfapyridine component is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted in the urine.

Common side effects of sulfasalazine include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, headache, and loss of appetite. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, liver or kidney problems, and blood disorders. It is important to take sulfasalazine exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any concerning symptoms promptly.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Restorative proctocolectomy, also known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), is a surgical procedure used to treat ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. This procedure involves the removal of the colon, rectum, and anal canal while preserving the sphincter muscles that control fecal continence.

After removing the diseased tissues, the surgeon creates a pouch from the end of the small intestine (ileum) and attaches it to the anus, restoring the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract. The pouch serves as a reservoir for stool, allowing for more normal bowel movements compared to having a permanent ileostomy.

Restorative proctocolectomy can be performed in one or two stages, depending on the patient's condition and the surgeon's preference. In the two-stage procedure, an initial total colectomy with ileostomy is performed, followed by the creation of the pouch and closure of the ileostomy in a second operation. The single-stage procedure involves removing the colon, creating the pouch, and performing the anastomosis in one surgical setting.

While restorative proctocolectomy significantly improves quality of life for many patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis, potential complications include pouchitis (inflammation of the ileal pouch), anastomotic leakage, small bowel obstruction, and pelvic sepsis. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for these and other potential issues.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

Amebic dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It is characterized by severe diarrhea containing blood and mucus, abdominal pain, and cramping. The infection is typically acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the parasites invade the intestinal lining, causing damage and leading to the symptoms of dysentery. In severe cases, the parasites can spread to other organs such as the liver, lungs, or brain, causing more serious infections. Amebic dysentery is treated with medications that kill the parasites, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene and sanitation, including proper handwashing and safe food handling practices.

An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall (stoma) to create a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is typically performed when there is damage or removal of the colon, rectum, or anal canal due to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), cancer, or trauma.

After an ileostomy, waste material from the small intestine exits the body through the stoma and collects in a pouch worn outside the body. The patient needs to empty the pouch regularly, typically every few hours, as the output is liquid or semi-liquid. Ileostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the planned course of treatment. Proper care and management of the stoma and pouch are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life after an ileostomy.

"Administration, Rectal" is a medical term that refers to the process of administering medication or other substances through the rectum. This route of administration is also known as "rectal suppository" or "suppository administration."

In this method, a solid dosage form called a suppository is inserted into the rectum using fingers or a special applicator. Once inside, the suppository melts or dissolves due to the body's temperature and releases the active drug or substance, which then gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the rectum.

Rectal administration is an alternative route of administration for people who have difficulty swallowing pills or liquids, or when rapid absorption of the medication is necessary. It can also be used to administer medications that are not well absorbed through other routes, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, it may take longer for the medication to reach the bloodstream compared to intravenous (IV) administration.

Common examples of rectally administered medications include laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, analgesics, and some forms of hormonal therapy. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when administering medication rectally, as improper administration can reduce the effectiveness of the medication or cause irritation or discomfort.

Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis), resulting in the formation of pseudomembranes – raised, yellowish-white plaques composed of fibrin, mucus, and inflammatory cells. The condition is most commonly caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile), which can overgrow in the gut following disruption of the normal gut microbiota, often after antibiotic use. Symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and dehydration. Severe cases can lead to complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending antibiotic, administering oral metronidazole or vancomycin to eliminate C. difficile, and managing symptoms with supportive care. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be considered as a treatment option.

Pouchitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the ileal pouch, a surgically created reservoir that is connected to the patient's anus in individuals who have undergone proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). This procedure is often performed in patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

Pouchitis can present with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The exact cause of pouchitis remains unclear, but it is thought to be related to changes in the microbiota or an overactive immune response in the ileal pouch.

The diagnosis of pouchitis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination of biopsies taken during endoscopy. Treatment options for pouchitis include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and probiotics, depending on the severity and frequency of the condition.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Enterocolitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis). This condition can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in infants and young children. The symptoms of enterocolitis may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

There are several types of enterocolitis, including:

1. Infectious Enterocolitis: This type is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection in the intestines. Common causes include Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and norovirus.
2. Antibiotic-Associated Enterocolitis: This type is caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the intestines following the use of antibiotics that kill off beneficial gut bacteria.
3. Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis: This is a severe form of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. diff).
4. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: This is a serious condition that primarily affects premature infants, causing inflammation and damage to the intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations and sepsis.
5. Ischemic Enterocolitis: This type is caused by reduced blood flow to the intestines, often due to conditions such as mesenteric ischemia or vasculitis.
6. Radiation Enterocolitis: This type occurs as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer treatment, which can damage the intestinal lining and lead to inflammation.
7. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: This is a rare condition characterized by an excessive buildup of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the intestinal tissue, leading to inflammation and symptoms similar to those seen in inflammatory bowel disease.

Treatment for enterocolitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, probiotics, or surgery in severe cases.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Colonic pouches, also known as pouch colon or reservoir, refer to an artificial structure created during a surgical procedure called restorative proctocolectomy. This is often performed in patients with certain types of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

During the surgery, the entire colon and rectum are removed. A pouch is then created using the patient's own small intestine, which is folded back on itself and sewn together to form a reservoir. This pouch is connected to the anus, allowing the patient to have relatively normal bowel movements.

The most common type of colonic pouch is the J-pouch, so named because of its J-shaped design. Other types include the S-pouch and the W-pouch. The choice of pouch depends on various factors, including the patient's anatomy and the surgeon's preference.

The purpose of creating a colonic pouch is to restore intestinal continuity and function after removing the diseased colon and rectum, thereby improving the patient's quality of life. However, it's important to note that living with a colonic pouch also requires significant lifestyle adjustments and ongoing medical management.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the modulation of immune responses. It is produced by various cell types, including T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. IL-10 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12, and downregulates the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. This results in the suppression of T cell activation and effector functions, which ultimately helps to limit tissue damage during inflammation and promote tissue repair. Dysregulation of IL-10 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Citrobacter rodentium is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a natural pathogen in mice and has been used as a model organism to study enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) infections in humans, due to its similar virulence mechanisms. C. rodentium primarily colonizes the large intestine, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and weight loss in mice. It is not considered a significant human pathogen, but there have been rare reports of Citrobacter species causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Ileitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine. The condition can have various causes, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease.

The symptoms of ileitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, and nausea or vomiting. The diagnosis of ileitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI.

Treatment for ileitis depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation. In cases of infectious ileitis, antibiotics may be used to treat the infection. For autoimmune or inflammatory causes, medications that suppress the immune system may be necessary to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.

In severe cases of ileitis, surgery may be required to remove damaged portions of the intestine or to drain abscesses. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of ileitis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Helicobacter hepaticus" is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the liver of various animals, including primates. It was initially identified in 1992 and has been associated with chronic active hepatitis and hepatic adenocarcinoma (liver cancer) in mice. While its role in human disease is not fully understood, some studies have suggested a possible link between H. hepaticus infection and liver inflammation or cancer in humans. However, more research is needed to confirm this association and establish the clinical significance of H. hepaticus in human health.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

Toxic megacolon is a serious complication of colon inflammation that is characterized by non-obstructive dilation of the colon (diameter greater than 6 cm) and systemic toxicity. It is often associated with conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), infections (e.g., Clostridioides difficile infection), and ischemic colitis.

The dilation of the colon can lead to decreased blood flow, impaired motility, and increased risk of perforation, which can result in sepsis and even death if not promptly treated. The systemic toxicity may manifest as fever, tachycardia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalances, and mental status changes.

Toxic megacolon requires immediate medical attention, often involving hospitalization, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and possibly surgical intervention to remove the affected portion of the colon.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Oxazolone is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a chemical compound. It is commonly used in research and scientific studies as an experimental contact sensitizer to induce allergic contact dermatitis in animal models. Here's the general definition:

Oxazolone (C8H7NO3): An organic compound that belongs to the class of heterocyclic compounds known as oxazoles, which contain a benzene fused to a five-membered ring containing one oxygen atom and one nitrogen atom. It is used in research as an allergen to induce contact hypersensitivity reactions in skin sensitization studies.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Sigmoidoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a sigmoidoscope, a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, into the rectum and lower colon (sigmoid colon) to examine these areas for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. The procedure typically allows for the detection of issues in the sigmoid colon and rectum, and can help diagnose conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or colorectal cancer.

There are two types of sigmoidoscopy: flexible sigmoidoscopy and rigid sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more commonly performed because it provides a better view of the lower colon and is less uncomfortable for the patient. Rigid sigmoidoscopy, on the other hand, uses a solid, inflexible tube and is typically used in specific situations such as the removal of foreign objects or certain types of polyps.

During the procedure, patients are usually positioned on their left side with their knees drawn up to their chest. The sigmoidoscope is gently inserted into the rectum and advanced through the lower colon while the doctor examines the lining for any abnormalities. Air may be introduced through the scope to help expand the colon and provide a better view. If polyps or other abnormal tissues are found, they can often be removed during the procedure for further examination and testing.

Sigmoidoscopy is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some patients may experience mild discomfort, bloating, or cramping during or after the exam, but these symptoms typically resolve on their own within a few hours.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Proctitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon. The symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, discomfort, or a feeling of fullness; rectal bleeding, often in the form of mucus or blood; diarrhea; and urgency to have a bowel movement.

Proctitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections (such as sexually transmitted infections, foodborne illnesses, or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), radiation therapy, trauma, or autoimmune disorders. The diagnosis of proctitis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and sometimes endoscopic procedures to visualize the rectum and take tissue samples for further testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the cecum, where it joins the small intestine, to the anus. It is called "large" because it has a larger diameter compared to the small intestine and is responsible for several important functions in the digestive process.

The large intestine measures about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long in adults and consists of four main regions: the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The primary function of the large intestine is to absorb water and electrolytes from undigested food materials, compact the remaining waste into feces, and store it until it is eliminated through defecation.

The large intestine also contains a diverse population of bacteria that aid in digestion by breaking down complex carbohydrates, producing vitamins like vitamin K and some B vitamins, and competing with harmful microorganisms to maintain a healthy balance within the gut. Additionally, the large intestine plays a role in immune function and helps protect the body from pathogens through the production of mucus, antimicrobial substances, and the activation of immune cells.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Proctocolitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of both the rectum (proctitis) and the colon (colitis). It can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. The inflammation can be caused by various factors, including infections, immune-mediated disorders, or irritants. In some cases, the specific cause of proctocolitis may not be identified (known as idiopathic proctocolitis). Treatment for proctocolitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce inflammation, manage symptoms, and treat any underlying infections.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Bacterial translocation is a medical condition that refers to the migration and establishment of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to normally sterile sites inside the body, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, bloodstream, or other organs. This phenomenon is most commonly associated with impaired intestinal barrier function, which can occur in various clinical settings, including severe trauma, burns, sepsis, major surgery, and certain gastrointestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and liver cirrhosis.

The translocation of bacteria from the gut to other sites can lead to systemic inflammation, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which can be life-threatening in severe cases. The underlying mechanisms of bacterial translocation are complex and involve several factors, such as changes in gut microbiota, increased intestinal permeability, impaired immune function, and altered intestinal motility.

Preventing bacterial translocation is an important goal in the management of patients at risk for this condition, and strategies may include optimizing nutritional support, maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance, using probiotics or antibiotics to modulate gut microbiota, and promoting intestinal barrier function through various pharmacological interventions.

The mesentery is a continuous fold of the peritoneum, the double-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, which attaches the stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and rectum to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It provides blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels to these organs.

Traditionally, the mesentery was thought to consist of separate and distinct sections along the length of the intestines. However, recent research has shown that the mesentery is a continuous organ, with a single continuous tethering point to the posterior abdominal wall. This new understanding of the anatomy of the mesentery has implications for the study of various gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.

Clostridium infections are caused by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming, and often anaerobic organisms. These bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human gastrointestinal tract. Some Clostridium species can cause severe and potentially life-threatening infections in humans. Here are some of the most common Clostridium infections with their medical definitions:

1. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI): An infection caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile. It typically occurs after antibiotic use disrupts the normal gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile to overgrow and produce toxins that cause diarrhea, colitis, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases can lead to sepsis, toxic megacolon, or even death.
2. Clostridium tetani infection: Also known as tetanus, this infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The spores of this bacterium are commonly found in soil and animal feces. They can enter the body through wounds, cuts, or punctures, germinate, and produce a potent exotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw (lockjaw), which can lead to difficulty swallowing, breathing, and potentially fatal complications.
3. Clostridium botulinum infection: This infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and results in botulism, a rare but severe paralytic illness. The bacteria produce neurotoxins (botulinum toxins) that affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, botulism can lead to respiratory failure and death.
4. Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens infection): A rapidly progressing soft tissue infection caused by Clostridium perfringens or other clostridial species. The bacteria produce potent exotoxins that cause tissue destruction, gas production, and widespread necrosis. Gas gangrene is characterized by severe pain, swelling, discoloration, and a foul-smelling discharge. If left untreated, it can lead to sepsis, multi-organ failure, and death.
5. Clostridioides difficile infection (C. difficile infection): Although not caused by a typical clostridial species, C. difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in hospitalized patients or those who have recently taken antibiotics. The bacteria produce toxins A and B, which damage the intestinal lining and contribute to inflammation and diarrhea. C. difficile infection can range from mild to life-threatening, with complications such as sepsis, toxic megacolon, and bowel perforation.

Collagen diseases, also known as collagen disorders or connective tissue diseases, refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the body's connective tissues. These tissues provide support and structure for various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, and blood vessels.

Collagen is a major component of connective tissues, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining their strength and elasticity. In collagen diseases, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy collagen, leading to inflammation, pain, and damage to the affected tissues.

There are several types of collagen diseases, including:

1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, and lungs.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): This is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness.
3. Scleroderma: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissues, leading to restricted movement and organ damage.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory muscle disease that can also affect the skin, causing rashes and weakness.
5. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that combines symptoms of several collagen diseases, including SLE, RA, scleroderma, and dermatomyositis.

The exact cause of collagen diseases is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and physical therapy to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

A medical definition of an ulcer is:

A lesion on the skin or mucous membrane characterized by disintegration of surface epithelium, inflammation, and is associated with the loss of substance below the normal lining. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcers that occur in the gastrointestinal tract.

Another type of ulcer is a venous ulcer, which occurs when there is reduced blood flow from vein insufficiency, usually in the lower leg. This can cause skin damage and lead to an open sore or ulcer.

There are other types of ulcers as well, including decubitus ulcers (also known as pressure sores or bedsores), which are caused by prolonged pressure on the skin.

Mucin-2, also known as MUC2, is a type of mucin that is primarily produced by the goblet cells in the mucous membranes lining the gastrointestinal tract. It is a large, heavily glycosylated protein that forms the gel-like structure of mucus, which provides lubrication and protection to the epithelial surfaces. Mucin-2 is the major component of intestinal mucus and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier by preventing the adhesion and colonization of harmful microorganisms. Additionally, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may play a role in regulating immune responses in the gut.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Symptoms of ischemic colitis vary depending on the severity of the ischemia. The most common early signs of ischemic colitis ... Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large ... About 20% of patients with acute ischemic colitis may develop a long-term complication known as chronic ischemic colitis. ... Ischemic colitis is responsible for about 1 in 2000 hospital admissions and is seen on about 1 in 100 endoscopies. Men and ...
The blockage of blood flow to the large intestine (colon) is called ischemic colitis. Ischemia of the small bowel is called ... "Ischemic colitis - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2021-10-27. "Acute Mesenteric Ischemia - Digestive Disorders". ... Acute ischemic stroke is a neurological emergency typically caused by a blood clot blocking blood flow in a vessel in the brain ... Ischemic stroke is at times treated with various levels of statin therapy at hospital discharge, followed by home time, in an ...
... is termed ischemic colitis. Although uncommon in the general population, ischemic colitis occurs with greater frequency in the ... Ischemic colitis is usually suspected on the basis of the clinical setting, physical examination, and laboratory test results; ... Ischemic colitis and chronic mesenteric ischemia". Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 27 (4): 827-60, vi. doi:10.1016/S0889-8553(05) ... Patients with mild to moderate ischemic colitis are usually treated with IV fluids, analgesia, and bowel rest (that is, no food ...
Stage 4: the patient is vasopressor dependent and oliguric or anuric; subsequently develops ischemic colitis and lactic ...
Hope Lange, 72, American actress, ischemic colitis. Heinz Marquardt, 80, German Luftwaffe fighter ace during World War II and ...
Cardew Robinson, 75, English comedian, ischemic colitis. Vicente Rondón, 54, Venezuelan boxer. Chang Woon-soo, 64, South Korean ...
David A. Hamburg, 93, American psychiatrist, ischemic colitis. Aminul Haque, 76, Bangladeshi politician, MP (1991-2006), ... Richard E. Cole, 103, American air force officer, last surviving member of the Doolittle Raid. Pieter de Lange, 93, South ... Cole, dies at 103 Honouring memory of Prof Pieter de Lange Former Carlton forward Rod Galt dies on Gold Coast Умер чемпион ...
Ischaemic colitis). Infectious diseases (e.g. amebiasis, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis). Rectal endometriosis. Drugs. ... Long term injury to the rectal mucosa and ischemic trauma are thought to be the main mechanisms. In a report of 36 patients ... Colitis cystica profunda. Drug induced ulcer. Pressure ulcer. Trauma. Idiopathic (i.e. unknown cause). Investigations used in ... Gland entrapment in the submucosa is sometimes seen, which is termed colitis cystica profunda. Treatment of SRUS is difficult ...
Higgins PD, Davis KJ, Laine L (April 2004). "Systematic review: the epidemiology of ischaemic colitis". Alimentary Pharmacology ... Necrotising enterocolitis/pneumatosis coli Bowel cancer Ischemic bowel Steroids After laparotomy After laparoscopy Breakdown of ...
... complications of ischemic colitis. Pierluigi Chicca, 79, Italian fencer, Olympic silver (1964, 1968) and bronze medalist (1960 ...
Sultan S, Spector J, Mitchell RM (December 2006). "Ischemic colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary ... and ischemic colitis. Following an incident in which a healthy young man suffered a heart attack linked to bitter orange, a ... Bouchard NC, Howland MA, Greller HA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (April 2005). "Ischemic stroke associated with use of an ephedra- ...
Abdominal pain Ischemic colitis Kapadia S, Parakh R, Grover T, Agarwal S (2005). "Side-to-side aorto-mesenteric anastomosis for ...
Severe mesenteric ischemia may result in gangrene of the small intestine.[citation needed] Severe ischemic colitis may result ... Dry gangrene is a form of coagulative necrosis that develops in ischemic tissue, where the blood supply is inadequate to keep ... The limited oxygen in the ischemic limb limits putrefaction and bacteria fail to survive. The affected part is dry, shrunken, ... If ischemia is detected early, when ischemic wounds rather than gangrene are present, the process can be treated by ...
The colon can be involved, and can cause pseudo-obstruction or ischemic colitis. Rarer complications include pneumatosis ...
Hung, Alex; Calderbank, Tom; Samaan, Mark A.; Plumb, Andrew A.; Webster, George (1 January 2021). "Ischaemic colitis: practical ... Locations and associated conditions include: Diffuse Peritonitis Vascular: mesenteric ischemia, ischemic colitis, Henoch- ... ischemic colitis, mesenteric ischemia, and abdominal aortic aneurysms are other serious causes. Acute abdomen is a condition ... ulcerative colitis, microscopic colitis Obstruction: hernia, intussusception, volvulus, post-surgical adhesions, tumors, severe ...
Pippig won the 1996 Boston Marathon in the midst of ischemic colitis. This was incorrectly attributed[by whom?] to menstruation ...
... diverticulitis Colitis Ischaemic colitis Radiation colitis Infectious colitis Pseudomembranous colitis E. coli O157:H7 Shigella ... infectious colitis, or ischemic colitis; painless bleeding is characteristic of diverticular bleeding, arteriovenous ... Bleeding from a site where a colonic polyp was removed Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis ... disease while bloody diarrhea with fever and abdominal pain especially with recent travel history suggests infectious colitis; ...
557 Vascular insufficiency of intestine 557.0 Vascular insufficiency, acute, intestine 557.9 Ischemic bowel disease, unspec. ... 558 Other noninfectious gastroenteritis and colitis 558.9 Gastroenteritis, noninfectious, unspec. 560, Intestinal obstruction ... NOS 556 Idiopathic proctocolitis 556.9 Ulcerative colitis, unspec. ...
Robinson died of ischemic colitis in London on 27 December 1992 at the age of 75. His obituary in The Times, described him as " ...
... seizures and ischemic colitis; as well as severe skin reactions known as recurrent pseudo-scarlatina, systemic contact ...
Its use is restricted due to serious gastrointestinal adverse reactions, e.g. ischemic colitis and complications of ...
He died in Washington, D.C., on April 21, 2019 from ischemic colitis at the age of 93. Harvey V. Fineberg: David A. Hamburg ( ...
It can also be idiopathic (see colitis), vascular (as in ischemic colitis), or autoimmune (as in inflammatory bowel disease).[ ... Antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone and doxycycline, if there is infection[citation needed] Colitis Proctitis Online Medical ...
The FDA said it had reports of 49 cases of ischemic colitis and 21 cases of "severe constipation" and that ten of the 70 ... Severe adverse events continued to be reported, with a final total of 84 instances of ischaemic colitis, 113 of severe ... The cumulative incidence of ischaemic colitis was 2 in 1000, while serious complications arising from constipation (obstruction ... ischemic colitis, impaired intestinal circulation, thrombophlebitis, or hypercoagulable state; Crohn's disease or ulcerative ...
... and ischemic colitis. Micrograph showing intestinal crypt branching, a histopathological finding of chronic colitides. H&E ... Causes of crypt branching include: inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), persistent infectious ...
Adhesions Ischemic colitis Volvulus Vallicelli C, Coccolini F, Catena F, Ansaloni L, Montori G, Di Saverio S, Pinna AD (January ...
Neumar's cause of death was listed as sepsis, ischemic colitis, and ileus - symptoms that could point to death by arsenic ...
Arterial dissection, contrast-induced kidney failure, thromboembolizaton, ischemic colitis, groin hematoma, wound infection, ... possibly reversing the ischemic injury of the spinal tissue due to lessened blood supply. The benefits of this procedure have ...
It may refer to: Ischemic colitis, large intestine Mesenteric ischemia, small intestine Gangrene (disambiguation) This ...
The differential diagnoses include colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome, as ...
Symptoms of ischemic colitis vary depending on the severity of the ischemia. The most common early signs of ischemic colitis ... Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large ... About 20% of patients with acute ischemic colitis may develop a long-term complication known as chronic ischemic colitis. ... Ischemic colitis is responsible for about 1 in 2000 hospital admissions and is seen on about 1 in 100 endoscopies. Men and ...
This disease results in ischemic necrosis of varying severities that can range from superficial mucosal involvement to full- ... Ischemic colitis encompasses a number of clinical entities, all with an end result of insufficient blood supply to a segment or ... encoded search term (Ischemic Colitis Imaging) and Ischemic Colitis Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape ... in the diagnosis of ischemic colitis in 14 patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed ischemic colitis. Tc-99m ( ...
... here an interesting case of a healthy female with no risk factors who developed pseudoephedrine induced ischemic colitis. This ... Ischemic colitis due to medications is common, and a number of cases have been described with pseudoephedrine as the culprit ... Ischemic colitis is caused due to the sudden interruption of blood supply of the bowel, which results in ischemic injury ... Pseudoephedrine Induced Ischemic Colitis: A Case Report and Review of Literature. Muhammad Aziz. ,1Asad Pervez. ,2Rawish Fatima ...
Differentiating ischemic colitis from other Diseases. The differential of ischemic colitis is as follows:[1][2] ... Acute ischemic colitis ± Diffuse - + + Hyperactive then absent Leukocytosis CT scan Nausea & vomiting ... Ischemic colitis must be differentiated from the many other causes of abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and diarrhea such as ... The symptoms of colitis such as diarrhea, especially bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain are seen in all forms of colitis. ...
... and the increasing role of ischemic colitis (IC) in inpatient cases. Explore a comprehensive study of 464 patients admitted to ... Ischemic colitis (IC) has long been recognized as a common cause of LGIB. Due to a variety of contributing factors, we suspect ... Longo, W.E., Ballantyne, G.H. and Gusberg, R.J. (1992) Ischemic Colitis: Patterns and Prognosis. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum ... Newman, J.R. and Cooper, M.A. (2002) Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Ischemic Colitis. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology ...
We conclude that ischaemic colitis is one of the possible mechanisms leading to gastrointestinal blood loss in competitive ...
Ischemic Colitis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Symptoms and Signs of Ischemic Colitis Symptoms of ischemic colitis are milder and of slower onset than those of acute ... Ischemic colitis occurs mainly in older people (> 60) and is thought to be caused by small-vessel atherosclerosis ... Ischemic colitis is a transient reduction in blood flow to the colon. Symptoms are left lower quadrant pain and rectal bleeding ...
Ischemic colitis (IC) occurs when blood flow to part of the colon is temporarily reduced. Most patients with IC usually have ... Figure 2: The gross image of the resected colon with ischemic colitis and focal pseudomembranous colitis on the transverse ... Ischemic colitis (IC) occurs when blood flow to part of the colon is temporarily reduced. Most patients with IC usually have ... The control of chronic renal impairment was the most significant risk factor for ischemic colitis in our patient. A number of ...
... occurs when a part of the colon experiences a decrease in blood flow. It can cause serious ... Risk factors for ischemic colitis include:. *Age. The condition occurs mostly frequently in adults older than age 60. Ischemic ... Bowel obstruction (ischemic stricture). Since the cause of ischemic colitis isnt always clear, theres no certain way to ... Sex. Ischemic colitis is more common in women.. *Clotting abnormalities. Conditions that affect the way the blood clots, such ...
Colitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon). ... Colitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon). ... Ulcerative colitis. *Lack of blood flow to the colon (ischemic colitis). *Past radiation to the colon (radiation colitis and ... Biologic agents are very effective in controlling symptoms of Crohn colitis.. *Ulcerative colitis can usually be controlled ...
Ischemic colitis is the most common form of ischemic injury of the gastrointestinal tract and can present either as an ... Ischemic colitis: clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment.. Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Angeliki Theodoropoulou (2008) ... The etiology of ischemic colitis is multifactorial and the clinical presentation variable. The diagnosis is based on a ... In this regard, the effects of PDRN in the experimental model of ischemic colitis are abolished using DMPX, a specific ...
Ischemic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Colitis, Ischemic" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... "Colitis, Ischemic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Colitis, Ischemic" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Colitis, Ischemic". ...
Ischemic Colitis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Prognosis for Ischemic Colitis Nearly all people with ischemic colitis improve and recover over a period of 1 to 2 weeks. ... Symptoms of Ischemic Colitis Usually, the person has abdominal pain. The pain is felt more often on the left side, but it can ... Endoscopes... read more (examination of the large intestine with a flexible viewing tube) to distinguish ischemic colitis from ...
Ischemic Colitis. A case report from 2011 suggested that one case of ischemic colitis was caused by Hydroxycut. This condition ... Muhammed, S., Samo, S., Sulaiman, S., & Gaziano,J.H. (2013). Ischemic colitis induced by the newly reformulated ... Hydroxycut has been suggested as a contributor to some cases of ulcerative colitis. And psychiatric researchers. in Australia ... Sivarajah, V., Abdul, Q., Pardoe, H., & Lunniss,P. (2013, January 3). Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight ...
The term colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. It may be associated with enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine ... Ischemic colitis. Ischemic colitis is a form of vasculitis that results from inflammation and ischemia of colonic mucosa, which ... Allergic colitis. In children aged 2 weeks to 1 year, the most common form of colitis is allergic colitis, which results from ... Infectious colitis. Infectious colitis is the most common cause of pediatric colitis, particularly beyond the first year of ...
decreased blood flow to the intestine (ischemic colitis). There have been reports of ischemic colitis in people who have taken ... Ischemic Colitis. There have been reports of ischemic colitis in patients with use of GaviLyte-H and 20 mg bisacodyl delayed- ... Ischemic colitis has been reported with use of GaviLyte-H and 20 mg and 10 mg bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, USP for colon ... These may be symptoms of ischemic colitis.. The most common side effects of GaviLyte-H and bisacodyl delayed-release tablet, ...
Home/ischemic colitis diet. ischemic colitis diet. * Health A - Z. Natural Health NewsDecember 25, 2014. 0 260 ... Ischemic Colitis Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. What Is Ischemic Colitis? It occurs when the flow of blood to a ...
Ischemic colitis is a serious health condition that affects as much as 1 in ever 2, 000 people who make a visit to the ... 10 Natural Remedies to Help You Treat Ischemic Colitis. Search for Articles Here >> ... Here are 8 great natural remedies to help you treat ischemic colitis. ... this is because ischemic colitis is usually caused by a lack of blood flowing through to the colon, which can cause perforation ...
ISSN: 1130-0108 Year of publication: 2010 Volume: 102 Issue: 8 Pages: 478-483 Type: Article ...
A case of ischemic colitis caused by inferior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークなフィンガープリントを構成します。 ... A case of ischemic colitis caused by inferior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula. M. Kamo, S. Huwa, M. Ishiyama, T. Nozaki, Y. ... A case of ischemic colitis caused by inferior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula. / Kamo, M.; Huwa, S.; Ishiyama, M. その他. In: ... Kamo, M., Huwa, S., Ishiyama, M., Nozaki, T., Onoda, Y., Oikado, K., &
Pseudomembranous colitis. Pseudomembranous colitis occurs as an overgrowth of C difficile.C difficile assay findings are ... Complications that may result from infection include pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, perforations of the colon, ...
... transient ischemic attack. ... Ulcerative colitis/Crohns disease. K50-K51. *ICD-10-AM, ...
Ischemic Colitis. *Joint Pain. *Lactose Intolerance. *Liver Damage from Alcohol. *Mallory-Weiss Syndrome ...
Toxic megacolon is the clinical term for an acute toxic colitis with dilatation of the colon. The dilatation can be either ... pseudomembranous colitis must always be considered, even in patients with IBD. Educate patients about ulcerative colitis, Crohn ... Fulminant amoebic colitis following loperamide use. J Travel Med. 2007 Jan-Feb. 14(1):61-2. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Fulminant ulcerative colitis in late pregnancy and the puerperium. J R Soc Med. 1987 Aug. 80(8):492-4. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [ ...
Ischaemic colitis results from a chronic or acute drop in the blood supply to the bowel and accounts for 6%-18% of the causes ... In this report, we present a case of ischaemic colitis in haemodialysis with a good response to conservative treatment. ... aortic surgery and peripheral vascular disease have also been suggested to be predisposing factors for ischaemic colitis. ...
ischemic colitis (inflammation of the colon). Other considerations. If you have certain health problems, your doctor may do ...
Rosen, Douglas M.: Ischemic Colitis * Full Text * HTML * PDF (78 kb) 205 Sanchez, Noel C.: Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding * ...
Gastrointestinal: ischemic colitis. General: asthenia. Immune System: hypersensitivity reactions including rash, swelling, and ... and reduce intestinal permeability via the restoration of tight junction protein complexes in ex vivo studies of ischemic ...
Ischemic colitis following left antegrade sclerotherapy for idiopathic varicocele: the role of forensic clinical anatomy ... Boscolo-Berto, R., Macchi, V., Porzionato, A., Morra, A., & De Caro, R. (2017). Ischemic colitis following left antegrade ... The Tauber procedure, i.e. antegrade sclerotherapy for varicocele, can be complicated by ischemic colitis. Its possible ... only a few clinical cases reporting an ischemic colitis following the Taubers procedure were found in contemporary literature ...
Vascular disorders: ischemic colitis and enteritis.. Enterocolitis: infectious entrocolitis, viral and bacterial ... Ischemic heart disease: pathogenesis and morphological features of angina pectoris, chronic ischemic heart disease, myocardial ... Vascular diseases: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral infarct, intracranial hemorrhage, primitive intraparenchymal ... post-ischemic ventricular aneurysm, cerebral complications of myocardial infarction. ...
  • Indeterminate colitis is a term to describe a chronic idiopathic colitis that cannot be separated based on conventional diagnostic modalities to either Crohn colitis or ulcerative colitis. (
  • As possible risk factors related to IBD, we analysed the presence of complex IBD which, in the case of Crohn's disease (CD), we defined as the presence of stricturing or penetrating behaviour or the need for bowel resection surgery, and, in the case of ulcerative colitis (UC), as an E3 extension or the need for colectomy. (
  • Ulcerative colitis can usually be controlled with medicines. (
  • Ulcerative Colitis and Blood Clots: Can Anticoagulant Medications Help? (
  • Ulcerative colitis is mostly a disease that causes inflammation in the large intestine, but some people can also experience health effects beyond the intestine. (
  • Some patients with ulcerative colitis also experience hypercoagulability, which means their risks for blood clots is increased. (
  • Does ulcerative colitis cause bleeding or blood clots? (
  • Those with ulcerative colitis are three times more likely to experience a thromboembolism (blood clot) compared with those who don't have ulcerative colitis. (
  • Authors of one study examined laboratory values for some of these compounds to find out if they were higher in people with ulcerative colitis compared to the general population. (
  • The authors found that people with inflammatory bowel diseases (both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease ) were more likely to have higher levels of fibrinogen and factor VII. (
  • One of the more serious complications of ulcerative colitis is rectal bleeding . (
  • A doctor will take into consideration your overall health, including your ulcerative colitis, when prescribing these medications. (
  • Doctors first connected an increased risk of blood clots with ulcerative colitis when they observed young people experiencing blood clots at a younger-than-expected age. (
  • If you have ulcerative colitis, it's important to be aware of your increased clotting risk, but also to know the incidence of a clot is about 1% to 8% of all people with ulcerative colitis. (
  • What is the safest medication for ulcerative colitis with bleeding? (
  • However, anticoagulant medications can increase your risks for more severe rectal bleeding when you have an ulcerative colitis flare up . (
  • Treatment of ischemic colitis is supportive with IV fluids, bowel rest, and antibiotics. (
  • A reliable diagnosis of ischemic colitis can be made only when the radiologic findings are correlated with the clinical results. (
  • Diagnosis of ischemic colitis is made by CT or colonoscopy. (
  • Ischemic colitis is the most common form of intestinal ischemia. (
  • Ischemic colitis is the most common form of intestinal ischemia, and accounts for 1 in 1,000 hospitalizations. (
  • Although uncommon in the general population, ischemic colitis occurs with greater frequency in the elderly, and is the most common form of bowel ischemia. (
  • occasionally, after severe ischemia, patients may develop long-term complications such as a stricture or chronic colitis. (
  • Symptoms of ischemic colitis vary depending on the severity of the ischemia. (
  • Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow, which doctors call ischemia, cause ischemic ulcers. (
  • Diagnosing ischemic ulcers involves a physical exam to look for signs of ischemia, such as a lack of pulse or a bluish or pale appearance of the skin. (
  • The radiologic features of ischemic colitis are nonspecific and may be seen in other inflammatory disorders of the colon. (
  • Pseudomembranous colitis is a form of inflammatory colitis characterized by the pathologic presence of pseudomembranes consisting of mucin, fibrin, necrotic cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). (
  • This diagnosis falls into the differential diagnoses of the pseudomembranous colitis inflammatory pattern, which is seen on the provided slide. (
  • Avoid use in patients who are at risk for developing constipation or impaction (including those with history of impaction, chronic constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, vascular intestinal atherosclerosis, previous bowel resection, or bowel obstruction). (
  • Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply. (
  • Ischemic colitis is injury of the large intestine that results from an interruption of blood flow. (
  • Ischemic colitis is an inflammation and injury of the large intestine (colon) due to reduced blood flow. (
  • Their assessment suggested infectious diarrhea as the most likely diagnosis, followed by ischemic colitis and diverticular disease. (
  • Patients with mild to moderate ischemic colitis are usually treated with IV fluids, analgesia, and bowel rest (that is, no food or water by mouth) until the symptoms resolve. (
  • Three progressive phases of ischemic colitis have been described: A hyperactive phase occurs first, in which the primary symptoms are severe abdominal pain and the passage of bloody stools. (
  • Diagnostic imaging is helpful for evaluating abdominal symptoms, and previous studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. (
  • A doctor may suspect ischemic colitis on the basis of the symptoms of pain and bleeding, especially in a person older than 60. (
  • Biologic agents are very effective in controlling symptoms of Crohn colitis. (
  • As with other 5-hydroxytryptamine1 (5-HT1) receptor agonists naratriptan should not be used in patients who have had a myocardial infarction or have ischaemic heart disease, or Prinzmetal's angina/coronary vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease or patients who have symptoms or signs consistent with ischaemic heart disease. (
  • This article explores ischemic ulcers and provides an overview of their symptoms, causes, and treatments. (
  • This disease results in ischemic necrosis of varying severity that can range from superficial mucosal involvement to full-thickness transmural necrosis. (
  • Surgery is rarely required, unless ischemic colitis is a complication of a vascular procedure or there is full-thickness necrosis. (
  • Cases of intestinal necrosis, which may be fatal, and other serious gastrointestinal adverse events (bleeding, ischemic colitis, perforation) have been reported in association with Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate, USP use. (
  • citation needed] In addition, ischemic colitis is a well-recognized complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, when the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery is covered by the aortic graft. (
  • The most common mechanism of ischemic colitis is an acute, self-limited compromise in intestinal blood, which is inadequate for meeting the metabolic demands of a region of the colon. (
  • Ischemic colitis encompasses a number of clinical entities, all with an end result of insufficient blood supply to a segment or the entire colon. (
  • Ischemic colitis is a condition where the blood supply to the colon is reduced greatly causing massive abdominal pains, as well as suffocation and a tight chest among others. (
  • Any part of the colon can be affected, but ischemic colitis most commonly causes pain on the left side of the belly area. (
  • Ischemic colitis is a transient reduction in blood flow to the colon. (
  • Ischemic colitis, stemming from reduced blood flow to the colon, is a growing concern in the medical community. (
  • The term colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. (
  • Colitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon). (
  • This case first appeared as Performance Improvement Program in Surgical Pathology (PIP) 2020, Case 17, and is Clostridioides difficile colitis in the colon. (
  • While ischemic ulcers are primarily a skin condition, they can also affect internal organs, such as the colon. (
  • Ischemic colitis is a condition that occurs due to reduced blood flow to the colon, leading to inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal lining. (
  • Inflamación del COLON debida a ISQUEMIA cólica por alteraciones en la circulación sistémica o vascularización local. (
  • Both infectious and ischemic colitis can produce the above CT findings. (
  • He began by searching the literature on infectious hemorrhagic colitis and learned that the major bacterial causes are Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Vibrio, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Clostridium spp. (
  • The most common early signs of ischemic colitis include abdominal pain (often left-sided), with mild to moderate amounts of rectal bleeding. (
  • TIA, transient ischemic attack. (
  • Naratriptan should not be administered to patients with a history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). (
  • Although every antibiotic has been reported to be associated with pseudomembranous colitis, cephalosporin and beta-lactam antibiotics are most frequently implicated in children. (
  • Pseudomembranous colitis can usually be cured with appropriate antibiotics. (
  • Classically, C. difficile colitis-associated antibiotics are clindamycin and fluroquinolones, but many different classes of antibiotics have been implicated. (
  • I missed my daughter's birthday party after spending the night before in the ER when the pain was so intense only to be sent home with a strong course of antibiotics and told I must have some colitis as a result of the surgery. (
  • There are several types of colitis, which cause bowel inflammation. (
  • Research is ongoing to elucidate the role of soluble factors and ECM in immunopathological mechanisms in IBD [ 4 ], but no such studies have so far been performed on microscopic colitis (MC) where the inflammation is subtler. (
  • No, neither of the Big Cs, but norovirus…with complications of course: ischemic colitis. (
  • An ischemic ulcer is a chronic wound that occurs due to a lack of blood supply in an area of the body, such as the legs. (
  • Severe CMV colitis may result in distention and even perforation. (
  • CMV colitis can produce colonic wall thickening. (
  • Pseudomembranous colitis is most commonly induced by C. difficile infection. (
  • The diagnosis of Clostridioides difficile infection is dependent on both (1) the presence of diarrhea or radiologic evidence of ileus or toxic megacolon and (2) positive stool test for toxigenic C. difficile or its toxins, or colonoscopy/histologic evidence of pseudomembranous colitis. (
  • The actor's managing agency Company issued a statement: "Lee Je Hoon went to the hospital on the night of October 1 due to severe abdominal pain, and he was diagnosed with ischemic colitis. (
  • Milder cases of ischemic colitis usually translate to shorter hospital stays and fewer medications, making the treatment journey less financially burdensome. (
  • We have established an in vitro model to investigate the regulatory role of soluble factors from inflamed intestinal mucosa of collagenous colitis (CC) patients in the differentiation of T cells. (
  • MC comprises two entities, collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). (
  • Our aims were to evaluate the frequency of ASCVD [ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA)] after IBD diagnosis and to identify the risk factors associated with its development. (
  • The sensitivity of findings among 73 patients were: abdominal pain (78%) lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding (62%) diarrhea (38%) Fever higher than 38 °C (100.4 °F) (34%) Physical examination abdominal pain (77%) abdominal tenderness (21%) Ischemic colitis is often classified according to the underlying cause. (
  • [ 3 ] Ischemic colitis is the most prevalent ischemic injury of the GI tract and includes features such as acute abdominal pain, hematochezia,and diarrhea. (
  • Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity, and the diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. (
  • Findings in ischemic colitis may be similar. (
  • Where do ischemic ulcers occur? (
  • Ischemic ulcers most commonly affect the lower limbs, particularly the feet and toes. (
  • The lower legs are also prone to swelling and pressure, which can further compromise blood flow and contribute to the development of ischemic ulcers. (
  • Venous and arterial ulcers are both types of ischemic ulcers, which describes ulcers that occur due to a lack of blood flow in general. (
  • In contrast, ischemic ulcers are often symmetrical in shape with defined borders. (
  • What causes ischemic ulcers? (
  • This form of colitis is pathognomonic of infection by toxin-producing Clostridium difficile and develops as a result of altered normal microflora (usually by antibiotic therapy) that favors overgrowth and colonization of the intestine by Clostridium difficile and production of its toxins. (
  • Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurs in 1-6 per 1,000 live full-term births ( 1 ). (
  • Although uncommon in the general population, ischemic colitis occurs with greater frequency in the elderly (age-related reduction in blood flow). (
  • In children aged 2 weeks to 1 year, the most common form of colitis is allergic colitis, which results from hypersensitivity, commonly to cow's milk and soy milk. (
  • Viral, bacterial, and parasitic colitis can be cured with appropriate medicines. (
  • Colitis, Ischemic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Bloody diarrhea and leukocytosis in the postoperative period are essentially diagnostic of ischemic colitis. (
  • NEC is a common cause of colitis in newborns (see the image below). (
  • An ischemic ulcer is a type of wound or sore that develops when the arteries do not deliver enough blood flow to a specific area. (
  • Results with all modalities may be normal in patients with established ischemic colitis. (
  • [ 11 ] Elramah et al found that cocaine-related ischemic colitis is associated with a high mortality. (
  • Predictive factors of mortality after colectomy in ischemic colitis: an ACS-NSQIP database study. (
  • Ischemic colitis primarily affects people who are 60 or older. (
  • In addition, numerous different conditions can cause colitis, each of which has its own pathophysiology. (
  • To identify conditions in a patient that may be associated with ischemic colitis. (
  • Pseudoephedrine and several other types of medications are known to cause narrowing of blood vessels (vasoconstriction), so a risk of ischemic colitis cannot be ruled out entirely in susceptible people (e.g. those with other underlying conditions, etc. (
  • In a 1991 review concerning 2137 patients the accidental inferior mesenteric artery ligation was the most common cause (74%) of ischemic colitis. (
  • At the time of the review, no Canadian cases of ischemic colitis were reported with the use of pseudoephedrine. (
  • A review of international data from the World Health Organization's case report database identified 24 cases of ischemic colitis, 7 of which involved the use of single ingredient pseudoephedrine. (
  • A review of the scientific and medical literature identified 9 cases of ischemic colitis associated with the use of pseudoephedrine, 2 cases of which could not be assessed due to limited information. (
  • More advanced cases of ischemic colitis result in linear or punctate collections of gas in the bowel wall. (
  • Ischemic colitis can occur if there is a significant decrease in perfusion of the bowel. (
  • [ 13 ] Barium enema results are abnormal in 90% of patients with ischemic colitis. (