Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Disease Models, Animal
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Severity of Illness Index
Meta-analysis: budesonide treatment for collagenous colitis. (1/35)BACKGROUND: Collagenous colitis is typified by chronic watery diarrhoea and characteristic histological alterations of the colonic mucosa without endoscopic abnormalities. Budesonide, a corticosteroid with high first-pass metabolism has been examined in collagenous colitis, but studies to date have had small numbers, and relatively low statistical power. AIM: A meta-analysis of existing published trials was undertaken to evaluate the treatment effect of budesonide in collagenous colitis. METHODS: All pertinent literature sources were searched for published reports in English of budesonide use in collagenous colitis. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed, as well as bibliographies from published articles and available abstracts from relevant meetings. Literature that met prespecified criteria was selected for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three trials were included in the meta-analysis. Budesonide significantly decreased stool frequency (budesonide vs. placebo OR: 20.1, 95% CI: 7.0-57.5, P < 0.0001). In general, budesonide treatment was well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Budesonide is clinically effective short-term in collagenous colitis, and seems to be relatively well-tolerated. Clinicians can consider this drug as a reasonable option for patients with this disorder. (+info)
Activation of nuclear factor kappaB in colonic mucosa from patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. (2/35)BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is greatly upregulated in the colonic mucosa of patients with collagenous and ulcerative colitis. As the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) is a major inducer of iNOS gene expression, we compared activation and transcriptional activity of NFkappaB in colonic mucosal biopsies from these patients. PATIENTS: Eight patients with collagenous colitis, six with relapsing ulcerative colitis, and eight with uninflamed bowel were studied. METHODS: NFkappaB DNA binding activity was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and inhibitor of NFkappaB (IkappaB) kinase (IKK) activity by immunocomplex kinase assay. In vivo recruitment of NFkappaB to the iNOS promoter was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and transcriptional activity by NFkappaB gene expression profiling arrays. Cells showing NFkappaB activation were identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In collagenous and ulcerative colitis, as opposed to uninflamed bowel, IKKbeta activity and strong NFkappaB DNA binding gave rise to activation of identical NFkappaB subunits and recruitment of transcriptionally active p65 to the iNOS promoter. In collagenous colitis, activated NFkappaB was observed only in epithelial cells while up to 10% of lamina propria macrophages showed activation in ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: In collagenous and ulcerative colitis, colonic mucosal NFkappaB is activated and recruited to the iNOS promoter in vivo via an IKKbeta mediated pathway. As collagenous colitis is not associated with tissue injury, these data challenge the prevailing view that activation of NFkappaB per se mediates tissue injury. Our results suggest that downstream inflammatory reactions leading to tissue damage originate in lamina propria immune cells, as increased NFkappaB activity in collagenous colitis was localised solely in epithelial cells, but present also in macrophages in ulcerative colitis. (+info)
Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis. (3/35)AIM: To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes, osmotic gap and pH. METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) (40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC); 11 with collagenous colitis (CC)); 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration. RESULTS: Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11+/-5.38 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 54.14+/-8.42 mmol/L (P<0.05) than in CG 34.28+/-2.98 mmol/L. Potassium concentration in LC 74.65+/-5.29 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 75.53+/-8.78 mmol/L (P<0.05) was significantly less compared to CG 92.67+/-2.99 mmol/L. Chloride concentration in CC 36.07+/-7.29 mmol/L was significantly higher than in CG 24.11+/-2.05 mmol/L (P<0.05). Forty-four (86.7%) patients had a secretory diarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways. (+info)
Long-term follow-up of collagenous colitis after induction of clinical remission with budesonide. (4/35)BACKGROUND: Budesonide (Entocort) is effective for the treatment of collagenous colitis. AIM: To assess the long-term outcome of patients after induction of clinical remission by budesonide treatment. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with chronic diarrhoea and histologically proven collagenous colitis were enrolled in randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial using budesonide 9 mg daily for 6 weeks. Patients in clinical remission after either initial or crossover budesonide treatment were followed using standardized questionnaires. Clinical relapse was defined as five or more loose stools/day for at least 4 consecutive days. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients achieved clinical remission (85% per-protocol). During a median follow-up of 16 months, clinical relapse occurred in 20 patients (61%), after a median time of 2 weeks (range: 1-104, mean: 10 weeks). Patient age <60 years was identified as a significant risk factor for clinical relapse (OR = 7.4, P = 0.048). Budesonide was used for treatment of clinical relapse in 80% of patients achieving clinical response in all of them. CONCLUSIONS: Budesonide is effective in the treatment of collagenous colitis. Clinical relapses may occur in a considerable number of patients, particularly in those <60 years. Treatment of clinical relapse with budesonide appears to be an effective option. (+info)
Role of matrix metalloproteinases in intestinal inflammation. (5/35)Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by several structural cells. The balance between MMPs and TIMPs is essential for many physiological processes in the gut. However, imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diverse intestinal inflammatory conditions. We reviewed the role of the MMP/TIMP system in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammatory diseases and pharmacologic perspectives for the use of compounds that restore the MMP/TIMP balance. (+info)
Resolution of paraneoplastic collagenous enterocolitis after resection of colon cancer. (6/35)A 52-year-old woman developed severe watery diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and hypoalbuminemia. A localized colon cancer was detected. Subsequently, extensive collagenous mucosal involvement of the small and large intestine was discovered. After resection of the colon cancer, her symptoms resolved. In addition, resolution of the inflammatory process occurred, including the subepithelial collagen deposits. Despite extensive small and large intestinal involvement, both clinical and histological resolution of collagenous inflammatory disease was evident. Collagenous enterocolitis is an inflammatory process that may represent a distinctive and reversible paraneoplastic phenomenon. (+info)
Microscopic colitis demonstrates a T helper cell type 1 mucosal cytokine profile. (7/35)BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. AIM: To characterise the mucosal cytokine profile of MC, with a view to understanding its potential pathogenic mechanisms. METHODS: Cytokine profiles of mucosal biopse specimens taken at flexible sigmoidoscopy from 18 patients (8 with lymphocytic colitis and 10 with collagenous colitis) were analysed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, in comparison with those from 13 aged-matched controls with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Biopsy specimens from six patients with histologically documented remission were available for comparative analysis. Biopsy specimens were also taken to determine the cellular expression of cytokine and cytokine-related proteins using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Mucosal mRNA levels were 100 times greater for interferon (IFN)gamma and interleukin (IL) 15, 60 times greater for tumour necrosis factor alpha, and 35 times greater for inducible nitric oxide synthase in MC compared with controls. Apart from a trend for increased levels of IL10, levels of other T helper cell type 2 (T(H)2) cytokines including IL2 and IL4 were too low to be accurately quantified. Mucosal IFNgamma mRNA levels correlated with the degree of diarrhoea, and returned to normal in remission. The immunohistochemical expression of cell junction proteins E-cadherin and ZO-1 was reduced in active disease. No differences were noted between lymphocytic and collagenous colitis for any of the above parameters. CONCLUSIONS: MC demonstrates a T(H)1 mucosal cytokine profile with IFNgamma as the predominantly upregulated cytokine, with concurrent induction of nitric oxide synthase and down regulation of IFNgamma-related cell junction proteins. This pattern is similar to that in coeliac disease and suggests that it might represent a response to a luminal antigen. (+info)
Budesonide treatment is associated with increased bile acid absorption in collagenous colitis. (8/35)BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption is frequent in collagenous colitis and harmful bile acids may play a pathophysiological role. Glucocorticoids increase ileal bile acid transport. Budesonide have its main effect in the terminal ileum. AIMS: To evaluate whether the symptomatic effect of budesonide is linked to increased uptake of bile acids. METHODS: Patients with collagenous colitis were treated with budesonide 9 mg daily for 12 weeks. Prior to and after 8 weeks of treatment, the (75)SeHCAT test, an indirect test for the active uptake of bile acid-s, measurements of serum 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, an indicator of hepatic bile acid synthesis, and registration of symptoms were performed. RESULTS: The median (75)SeHCAT retention increased from 18% to 35% (P < 0.001, n = 25) approaching the values of healthy controls (38%). The 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one values decreased significantly among those with initially high synthesis (from 36 to 23 ng/mL, P = 0.04, n = 9); however, for the whole group the values were not altered (19 ng/mL vs. 13 ng/mL, P = 0.23, N.S., n = 19). CONCLUSION: The normalization of the (75)SeHCAT test and the reduction of bile acid synthesis in patients with initially high synthetic rate, suggests that the effect of budesonide in collagenous colitis may be in part due to decreased bile acid load on the colon. (+info)
The most common type of colitis is ulcerative colitis, which affects the rectum and lower part of the colon. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis can include:
* Diarrhea (which may be bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Rectal bleeding
* Weight loss
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
Microscopic colitis is another type of colitis that is characterized by inflammation in the colon, but without visible ulcers or bleeding. The symptoms of microscopic colitis are similar to those of ulcerative colitis, but may be less severe.
Other types of colitis include:
* Infantile colitis: This is a rare condition that affects babies and young children, and is characterized by diarrhea, fever, and vomiting.
* Isomorphic colitis: This is a rare condition that affects the colon and rectum, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Radiation colitis: This is a condition that occurs after radiation therapy to the pelvic area, and is characterized by inflammation and symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis.
* Ischemic colitis: This is a condition where there is a reduction in blood flow to the colon, which can lead to inflammation and symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea.
The diagnosis of colitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Colonoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the colon and rectum.
* Endoscopy: This is a test that uses a flexible tube with a camera on the end to visualize the inside of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
* Stool tests: These are tests that analyze stool samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Blood tests: These are tests that analyze blood samples for signs of inflammation or infection.
* Biopsy: This is a test that involves taking a small sample of tissue from the colon and examining it under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.
Treatment for colitis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as:
* Aminosalicylates: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the colon and relieve symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. Examples include sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) and mesalamine (Asacol).
* Corticosteroids: These are medications that help to reduce inflammation in the body. They may be used short-term to control acute flares of colitis, or long-term to maintain remission. Examples include prednisone and hydrocortisone.
* Immunomodulators: These are medications that help to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran) and mercaptopurine (Purinethol).
* Biologics: These are medications that target specific proteins involved in the inflammatory response. Examples include infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira).
In addition to medication, lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques may also be helpful in managing colitis symptoms. Surgery may be necessary in some cases where the colitis is severe or persistent, and involves removing damaged portions of the colon and rectum.
It's important to note that colitis can increase the risk of developing colon cancer, so regular screening for colon cancer is recommended for people with chronic colitis. Additionally, people with colitis may be more susceptible to other health problems such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, and liver disease, so it's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to monitor for these conditions and take steps to prevent them.
UC can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and there is no known cure. However, with proper management, it is possible for people with UC to experience long periods of remission and improve their quality of life. Treatment options include medications such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators, as well as surgery in severe cases.
It's important for individuals with UC to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their specific symptoms and needs. With the right treatment and support, many people with UC are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.
The term "ischemic" refers to the reduction of blood flow, which can be caused by a blockage in the blood vessels or a narrowing of the vessels. Ischemic colitis is often caused by atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
Treatment for ischemic colitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the reduced blood flow and managing the symptoms. In some cases, this may involve medications to dissolve blood clots or widen the blood vessels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or bypass the damaged blood vessels.
It is important to note that ischemic colitis can be a serious condition and may require prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as infection, perforation of the colon, or death.
There are two main types of microscopic colitis:
1. Lymphocytic colitis: This type is characterized by an excessive growth of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the colon, which can cause damage to the colonic mucosa and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
2. Collagenous colitis: This type is characterized by the deposition of a substance called collagen in the colon, which can cause inflammation and scarring. Symptoms are similar to those of lymphocytic colitis.
The exact cause of microscopic colitis is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response to normal gut bacteria. It is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 40 and 70.
Symptoms of microscopic colitis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue. The condition is usually diagnosed with a colonoscopy and biopsy, which can show inflammation and abnormal cells in the colon. Treatment typically involves medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms. In some cases, dietary changes or avoiding certain foods that may trigger symptoms may also be recommended.
The term "collagenous" refers to the presence of collagen in the affected tissue or organ. Collagen is a major component of connective tissue, which provides structure and support to various organs and tissues throughout the body. In the case of colitis, collagenous, the immune system mistakenly attacks the collagen in the colon, leading to inflammation and damage to the tissue.
The cause of colitis, collagenous is not well understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system is reacting abnormally to a normal substance. It can occur in people of all ages and is more common in women than men. Treatment options include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics, as well as dietary changes and lifestyle modifications.
LC can be challenging to diagnose, as it can resemble other conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diagnosis of LC is based on the combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological features. Endoscopy can help to identify characteristic signs such as erythema, edema, and ulceration in the colonic mucosa, while histopathology can confirm the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates.
There are several risk factors that have been associated with the development of LC, including age (it is more common in older adults), gender (females are more commonly affected than males), and a family history of autoimmune disorders. The exact cause of LC remains unknown, but it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to enteric bacteria or other antigens in the colon.
Treatment for LC typically involves immunosuppressive medications such as corticosteroids, which can help to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected portions of the colon. Management of LC also includes lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and stress reduction techniques, which can help to improve symptoms and quality of life.
The prognosis for LC is generally good, with most patients experiencing improvement in symptoms within a few months of treatment. However, some patients may experience persistent symptoms or develop complications such as colonic strictures or fistulas, which can impact long-term outcomes. Therefore, ongoing monitoring and management are essential to prevent these complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients with LC.
In summary, LC is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the colon and is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. While the exact cause of LC remains unknown, it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to enteric bacteria or other antigens in the colon. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and lifestyle modifications, and management requires ongoing monitoring and attention to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients with LC.
Crohn disease can occur in any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the ileum (the last portion of the small intestine) and the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn disease can lead to the formation of scar tissue, which can cause narrowing or blockages in the intestines. This can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction or abscesses.
The exact cause of Crohn disease is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract. Genetic factors and environmental triggers such as smoking and diet also play a role in the development of the disease.
There is no cure for Crohn disease, but various treatments can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, and biologics, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.
Crohn disease can have a significant impact on quality of life, and it is important for individuals with the condition to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with Crohn disease are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
Crohn's disease can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, and causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and rectum and causes symptoms such as bloody stools, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic conditions, meaning they cannot be cured but can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment options for IBD include anti-inflammatory medications, immunosuppressants, and biologics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.
There is no known cause of IBD, although genetics, environmental factors, and an abnormal immune response are thought to play a role. The condition can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly if left untreated or poorly managed. Complications of IBD include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and increased risk of colon cancer.
Preventing and managing IBD requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, dietary changes, stress management, and regular follow-up with a healthcare provider. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with IBD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or brain, and can cause life-threatening complications. The disease is typically spread through contaminated food or water, and can be diagnosed with a stool sample or blood test. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medication and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, safe drinking water, and good sanitation practices. Dysentery, Amebic is a significant public health problem in developing countries where access to clean water and sanitation is limited.
PSE can be a serious condition, especially in older adults or those with weakened immune systems, as it can lead to life-threatening complications such as inflammation of the bowel wall, perforation of the bowel, and sepsis. PSE is often diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fluid replacement, pain management, and wound care. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the intestine.
Prevention measures for PSE include proper hand hygiene, isolation precautions, and environmental cleaning to reduce the transmission of C. diff spores. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut, have also been shown to be effective in preventing PSE recurrence.
Symptoms of Pouchitis:
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Blood in stool
Treatment of Pouchitis:
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Increased fluid and electrolyte intake to prevent dehydration
* Use of anti-inflammatory medications such as mesalamine or corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the pouch and replace it with a colostomy bag.
Prevention of Pouchitis:
* Proper care and maintenance of the pouch, including regular cleaning and drying
* Avoiding use of harsh soaps or chemicals near the pouch
* Avoiding insertion of any foreign objects into the pouch
* Following a balanced diet and avoiding spicy or fatty foods that can irritate the pouch.
1) The patient was diagnosed with enterocolitis after presenting with severe abdominal pain and diarrhea.
2) The doctor suspected enterocolitis based on the patient's symptoms, but further testing was needed to confirm the diagnosis.
3) Enterocolitis can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
Symptoms of ileitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Treatment for ileitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
In some cases, ileitis can lead to complications such as intestinal obstruction or perforation, which can be life-threatening. Prompt medical attention is essential to prevent these complications and ensure proper treatment.
In medical terminology, "toxic" refers to the presence of harmful substances or poisonous materials in the body. In the case of megacolon, the term "toxic" is used to describe the potential for the condition to cause serious complications or death if left untreated.
Synonyms: Megacolon, toxic; Megacolitis, toxic; Toxic megacolon.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
1. Ulcerative colitis: This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
2. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic condition that affects the digestive tract, including the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
3. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
4. Diverticulitis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the colon and become inflamed. Symptoms can include fever, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel movements.
5. Colon cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the colon. Symptoms can include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
6. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
7. Rectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the rectum, which is the final portion of the colon. Symptoms can include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
8. Anal fissures: These are small tears in the skin around the anus that can cause pain and bleeding.
9. Rectal prolapse: This is a condition where the rectum protrudes through the anus. Symptoms can include rectal bleeding, pain during bowel movements, and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the rectal area.
10. Hemorrhoids: These are swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding.
It's important to note that some of these conditions can be caused by other factors as well, so if you're experiencing any of these symptoms, it's important to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of proctitis may include:
* Pain and discomfort in the rectum and anus
* Blood in the stool
* Discharge of pus from the anus
* Itching or burning sensation in the anus
* Difficulty passing stools
* Abdominal pain
If you suspect that you may have proctitis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional will be able to diagnose proctitis through a physical examination and may also perform additional tests such as a rectal swab or biopsy. Treatment for proctitis usually involves antibiotics to clear up any underlying infection, as well as measures to manage symptoms such as pain relief and increased fluid intake. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue.
Preventing proctitis includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding anal sex, and taking steps to prevent constipation. If you have a history of proctitis, it is important to follow a healthcare professional's recommendations for managing the condition and preventing future episodes.
The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune condition, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy bile duct cells, leading to inflammation and scarring.
Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis can include:
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching all over the body
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
If sclerosing cholangitis is not treated, it can lead to complications such as:
* Bile duct cancer
* Intestinal obstruction
* Sepsis (a potentially life-threatening infection of the bloodstream)
Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis typically involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications used to treat the condition include:
* Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which helps to dissolve bile stones and reduce inflammation
* Antibiotics, which help to prevent or treat infections
* Immunosuppressive drugs, which help to suppress the immune system and prevent further damage to the bile ducts
Surgery may be necessary to remove damaged or blocked bile ducts. In some cases, a liver transplant may be required if the condition is severe and there is significant liver damage.
There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:
1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.
Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.
 Mayo Clinic. Proctocolitis. Retrieved from
 MedlinePlus. Proctocolitis. Retrieved from
 HealthLine. Proctocolitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment. Retrieved from
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:
* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and dizziness
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:
* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:
* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:
* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:
* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
There are many different types of collagen diseases, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common examples include:
* Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): A genetic disorder that affects the development of bones and connective tissue, leading to fragile bones, joint deformities, and other complications.
* Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS): A group of genetic disorders that affect the production and structure of collagen, leading to loose joints, bruising, and other symptoms.
* Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, particularly the heart, blood vessels, and joints. It can cause tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
* Cutis laxa: A rare genetic disorder that affects the production of collagen in the skin, leading to loose, wrinkled skin and other complications.
* Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE): A genetic disorder that affects the elastic tissue in the skin, leading to mineral deposits and changes in the skin's texture and color.
Collagen diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental exposures, and autoimmune disorders. Treatment for these conditions can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the disease, but may include medication, physical therapy, and surgery.
There are several types of ulcers, including:
1. Peptic ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers are caused by excess acid production and are often associated with stress, spicy foods, and certain medications.
2. Stomal ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs in the stoma (the opening) of a surgically created ostomy (a procedure that creates an artificial opening in the abdominal wall).
3. Pressure ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs as a result of prolonged pressure on the skin, often seen in people who are bedridden or have mobility issues.
4. Venous ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs on the legs and is caused by poor blood flow and increased pressure in the veins.
5. Diabetic foot ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs on the feet of people with diabetes, often as a result of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor blood flow.
The symptoms of an ulcer can vary depending on its location and severity, but may include:
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Redness and swelling around the ulcer
* Discharge or pus from the ulcer
* Fever or chills
* Difficulty healing
Treatment for an ulcer will depend on its cause and severity, but may include:
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Medications to reduce acid production or protect the stomach lining
* Wound care and dressing changes to promote healing
* Surgery to close the ulcer or remove any dead tissue
* Changes to diet and lifestyle to manage underlying conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody
St. Augustine Monster
List of diseases (C)
List of MeSH codes (C06)
Inflammatory bowel disease
Collagen, type X, alpha 1
List of skin conditions
Microscopic Colitis - NIDDK
Collagenous Colitis: Symptoms, Triggers, Treatment, and More
Distribution of collagenous colitis: utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy - PubMed
Collagenous Colitis Diet | Healthy Living
Association of collagenous colitis with prurigo nodularis. | Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol;21(8): 946-51, 2009 Aug. | MEDLINE
Large Intestine Diseases | Colonic Diseases | MedlinePlus
I. Emre Gorgun, MD | Cleveland Clinic
Depression - Digital Naturopath
Danny T. Shearer, MD| Gastroenterology | MedStar Health
Colorectal surgical management of colitis induced by vasculitis in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease: a case report and...
Brainerd Diarrhea | CDC
Celiac disease, Eau Claire Gastroenterology - Mayo Clinic Health System
PA-06-301: Pilot And Feasibility Clinical Research Studies In Digestive Diseases And Nutrition (R21)
Yersinia Enterocolitica Differential Diagnoses
Frankincense's Efficacy in Treating Osteoarthritis | Natural Medicine Journal
Frequency of clonal intraepithelial T lymphocyte proliferations in enteropathy-type intestinal T cell lymphoma, coeliac disease...
Alterations in the histological features of the intestinal mucosa in malnourished adults of Bangladesh | Scientific Reports
Dr. Richard Rafoth
Table of Contents - December 01, 2015, 35 (12) | Anticancer Research
Chronic Digestive Disorders | Page 2 | Mayo Clinic Connect
IMSEAR at SEARO: Search
Clinical Trials : Colitis, Lymphocytic
BIRD Research papers
- Microscopic colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which abnormal reactions of the immune system cause inflammation of the inner lining of your colon. (nih.gov)
- Anyone can develop microscopic colitis, but the disease is more common in older adults and in women. (nih.gov)
- The most common symptom of microscopic colitis is chronic diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- Experts aren't sure what causes microscopic colitis but think genes and abnormal immune reactions play a role. (nih.gov)
- To help diagnose microscopic colitis, your doctor may order medical tests to check for signs of conditions that cause symptoms similar to those of microscopic colitis. (nih.gov)
- Doctors order a colonoscopy with biopsies to diagnose microscopic colitis. (nih.gov)
- To treat microscopic colitis, your doctor may recommend changing the medicines you take, changing your diet, quitting smoking, and taking medicines to help manage symptoms. (nih.gov)
- In some cases, doctors may recommend changing your diet to help reduce diarrhea symptoms in microscopic colitis. (nih.gov)
- Microscopic colitis is a type of colitis that's best identified by looking at colon cells under a microscope. (healthline.com)
- The main subtypes of microscopic colitis are collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. (healthline.com)
- Other studies indicate that these medications also trigger microscopic colitis and collagenous colitis. (healthline.com)
- According to a 2021 study , if these medications are associated with increased rates of microscopic colitis and collagenous colitis, it may be because they make diarrhea worse. (healthline.com)
- In 2016, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) released its guidelines on microscopic colitis. (healthline.com)
- 1. [Microscopic colitis in patients with chronic diarrhea]. (nih.gov)
- 2. Microscopic colitis: prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea. (nih.gov)
- 4. [Prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea predominance]. (nih.gov)
- 6. [Microscopic colitis - review]. (nih.gov)
- 9. Prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with chronic diarrhea in Egypt: a single-center study. (nih.gov)
- 10. Microscopic colitis in children with chronic diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- Incidence of collagen colitis and microscopic colitis]. (nih.gov)
- A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS , characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY . (nih.gov)
- Persistent, watery diarrhea could be a sign of microscopic colitis. (stclair.org)
- Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that causes persistent watery diarrhea. (stclair.org)
- Incomplete microscopic colitis, in which there are mixed features of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. (stclair.org)
- The symptoms of microscopic colitis can come and go frequently. (stclair.org)
- It's not clear what causes the inflammation of the colon found in microscopic colitis. (stclair.org)
- Autoimmune disease associated with microscopic colitis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease or psoriasis. (stclair.org)
- Microscopic colitis is most common in people ages 50 to 70. (stclair.org)
- Women are more likely to have microscopic colitis than are men. (stclair.org)
- Some studies suggest an association between post-menopausal hormone therapy and microscopic colitis. (stclair.org)
- People with microscopic colitis sometimes also have an autoimmune disorder, such as celiac disease, thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes or psoriasis. (stclair.org)
- Research suggests that there may be a connection between microscopic colitis and a family history of irritable bowel syndrome. (stclair.org)
- Recent research studies have shown an association between tobacco smoking and microscopic colitis, especially in people ages 16 to 44. (stclair.org)
- Some research studies indicate that using certain medications may increase your risk of microscopic colitis. (stclair.org)
- Most people are successfully treated for microscopic colitis. (stclair.org)
- Your doctor will also ask about any medications you are taking - particularly aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve), proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - which may increase your risk of microscopic colitis. (stclair.org)
- Revs up the total anabolic treatment in adults with Microscopic Colitis (Collagenous given female hormones to compensate. (condorviajes.com)
- Your doctor should check for these often treatment in adults with Microscopic Colitis (Collagenous achieved by a controlled laser burn to the superficial dermis. (pourchat.com)
Lymphocytic or collagenous colitis1
- 14. [Functional diarrheas are not, in most cases, minor clinical forms of lymphocytic or collagenous colitis]. (nih.gov)
- Whether you're suffering from Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or another type of inflammatory bowel condition, the Cedars-Sinai Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Center offers a full range of diagnosis and treatment options. (cedars-sinai.org)
- Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are lifelong chronic illnesses and patients can have symptoms ranging from mild to severe. (cedars-sinai.org)
- Association between KIR-HLA combination and ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in a Japanese population. (cdc.gov)
- In collagenous colitis, a thick layer of collagen - a type of connective protein - forms within the colon tissue. (healthline.com)
- We investigated the distribution of the collagen band in 33 patients with collagenous colitis to estimate the likelihood of the disease being diagnosed in biopsy specimens from the left side of the colon, such as those obtained using flexible sigmoidoscopy. (nih.gov)
- In 17 patients undergoing full colonoscopy with a thickened collagen band, collagenous colitis was frequently patchy, even though overall the thickened collagen band was almost equally distributed throughout the colon. (nih.gov)
- Flexible sigmoidoscopy with multiple biopsy specimens from several sites is a reasonable initial investigation but not sufficient to exclude collagenous colitis when based on the presence of a thickened collagen band alone. (nih.gov)
- A worsening case of diarrhea then prompts a doctor to make a diagnosis of colitis. (healthline.com)
- Collagenous colitis is a condition of the colon involving chronic diarrhea. (azcentral.com)
- 8. [Collagenous colitis as a cause of acute diarrhea]. (nih.gov)
- Care should be taken to exclude other causes of chronic diarrhea, both infectious and noninfectious (e.g., lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, tumors, drug reactions). (cdc.gov)
- If you don't have an existing lactose intolerance condition, colitis may cause one if there is lactose present in a damaged colon. (azcentral.com)
- Extensive serological testing revealed elevated cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) and eosinophilia, leading to a diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) and vasculitis-induced colitis. (nih.gov)
- Colitis caused by vasculitis is a rare and poorly understood pathology. (nih.gov)
- Nineteen studies were found documenting vasculitis-induced colitis in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (nih.gov)
- Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis also are considered inflammatory bowel diseases but are often not grouped together with the classic inflammatory bowel diseases. (bswhealth.com)
- The symptoms of collagenous colitis can come and go, and vary in severity. (healthline.com)
- ABX464 Treatment Evaluation for ulcerative Colitis Therapy â? (who.int)
- Deep Resequencing of Ulcerative Colitis-Associated Genes Identifies Novel Variants in Candidate Genes in the Korean Population. (cdc.gov)
- Collagenous colitis may also be more common among people who currently smoke and people with a family history of the condition. (healthline.com)
- Researchers believe collagenous (kuh-LAYJ-uh-nus) colitis and lymphocytic colitis may be different phases of the same condition. (stclair.org)
- Plus, I have collagenous colitis, which is an auto-immune condition, so it's hitting me hard. (blogspot.com)
- Since fats don't digest properly, it can lead to a further inflammation of the colon making it difficult for the colitis to clear up. (azcentral.com)
- Researchers have noticed that the number of collagenous colitis cases is increasing. (healthline.com)
- In addition, people who have celiac disease are more likely to have collagenous colitis. (healthline.com)
- If you are already lactose intolerant, the presence of lactose may negatively affect the healing process of the colitis, and the colitis might actually make the intolerance worse. (azcentral.com)
- Systemic signs of vasculitis, hemorrhagic colitis, and progression to fulminant colitis were present. (nih.gov)
- See more studies on Collagenous and. (naturalnews.com)
- Association of collagenous colitis with prurigo nodularis. (bvsalud.org)
- Learn more about it and other forms of colitis. (healthline.com)
- Collagenous colitis is more common among women than men. (healthline.com)
- In some cases, collagenous colitis disappears on its own. (healthline.com)
- 15. Incidence of collagenous and lymphocytic colitis: a 5-year population-based study. (nih.gov)
- A healthy 20-year-old male patient presented with hemorrhagic colitis requiring total colectomy with end ileostomy. (nih.gov)