Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Disease Models, Animal
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Severity of Illness Index
Responses of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells to Shiga toxins 1 and 2 and pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis. (1/2654)Endothelial damage is characteristic of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Because Stx-mediated endothelial cell damage at the site of infection may lead to the characteristic hemorrhagic colitis of STEC infection, we compared the effects of Stx1 and Stx2 on primary and transformed human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to those on macrovascular endothelial cells from human saphenous vein (HSVEC). Adhesion molecule, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and Stx receptor expression, the effects of cytokine activation and Stx toxins on these responses, and Stx1 and Stx2 binding kinetics and bioactivity were measured. Adhesion molecule and IL-8 expression increased in activated HIMEC, but these responses were blunted in the presence of toxin, especially in the presence of Stx1. In contrast to HSVEC, unstimulated HIMEC constitutively expressed Stx receptor at high levels, bound large amounts of toxin, were highly sensitive to toxin, and were not further sensitized by cytokines. Although the binding capacities of HIMEC for Stx1 and Stx2 were comparable, the binding affinity of Stx1 to HIMEC was 50-fold greater than that of Stx2. Nonetheless, Stx2 was more toxic to HIMEC than an equivalent amount of Stx1. The decreased binding affinity and increased toxicity for HIMEC of Stx2 compared to those of Stx1 may be relevant to the preponderance of Stx2-producing STEC involved in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis and its systemic complications. The differences between primary and transformed HIMEC in these responses were negligible. We conclude that transformed HIMEC lines could represent a simple physiologically relevant model to study the role of Stx in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis. (+info)
Tissue distribution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the acute phase of murine DSS-induced colitis. (2/2654)In the present study, we examined histochemically the tissue distribution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the acute phase of murine colitis induced by administering DSS in the drinking water. DSS was mainly observed in the Kupffer cells of the liver, in the macrophages of the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and in the lamina propria of the large intestine after administration of DSS. We followed the time course of DSS distribution and found that DSS, which was considered as a large and negatively charged molecule that can not easily cross membranes, was distributed in the liver, the MLN, and the large intestine 1 day after the start of administration of DSS. (+info)
Protein kinase C mediates experimental colitis in the rat. (3/2654)Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the cell signal transduction of many physiological processes. In contrast to these physiological responses, increases in PKC activity have also been associated with inflammatory disease states, including ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to examine the role of PKC as a causative mediator in initiation of experimentally induced colitis in the rat. Colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal (0.6 ml) instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS; 75 mg/kg in 50% ethanol) or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1.5-3.0 mg/kg in 20% ethanol). Gross and histological mucosal damage, mucosal neutrophil infiltration, mucosal PKC activity, and PKC protein content for PKC isoforms alpha, beta, delta, and epsilon were assessed 2 h to 14 days after an inflammatory challenge. Both PKC activity and mucosal injury increased significantly within 4 h of TNBS treatment. PKC activity was maximal at 7 days and declined at 14 days, whereas mucosal damage became maximal at 1 day and declined after 7 days. In contrast, neutrophil infiltration as assessed by myeloperoxidase activity only increased 12 h after TNBS treatment, became maximal 1 day after TNBS administration, and declined thereafter. PKCbeta, -delta, and -epsilon were increased in response to TNBS, whereas PKCalpha protein content was decreased. The PKC antagonists staurosporine and GF-109203X (25 ng/kg iv) reduced TNBS-induced changes in mucosal PKC activity and the degree of mucosal damage. In contrast, neutropenia induced by antineutrophil serum treatment did not significantly affect the degree of injury or mucosal PKC activity. Furthermore, activation of mucosal PKC activity with PMA also induced mucosal damage, which was also inhibited by pretreatment with a PKC antagonist. In conclusion, these results suggest that increases in PKC activity play a causative role in TNBS-induced colitis. The PKC-mediated response to TNBS does not appear to involve neutrophil infiltration. (+info)
Prolonged colonic epithelial hyporesponsiveness after colitis: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. (4/2654)Colonic epithelial secretion is an important host defense mechanism. We examined whether a bout of colitis would produce long-lasting changes in epithelial function that persisted after resolution of mucosal inflammation. Colitis was induced in rats with intracolonic trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Six weeks later, colonic damage and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and activity were measured. Segments of distal colon were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of permeability and responsiveness to secretory stimuli. Basal electrolyte transport parameters and permeability were not different from untreated controls. Despite normal macroscopic and histological appearance, secretory responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and carbachol were significantly depressed (by 60-70%) relative to controls. iNOS mRNA expression and enzyme activity were significantly elevated. Dexamethasone reversed epithelial hyporesponsiveness and significantly reduced iNOS mRNA expression. A selective iNOS inhibitor normalized the secretory responses to EFS and IBMX but not to carbachol. These data suggest that ongoing synthesis of nitric oxide by iNOS contributes to chronic suppression of epithelial secretory function after episodes of colitis. (+info)
Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (5/2654)The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation. (+info)
Expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in acute and chronic inflammation. (6/2654)The objective of this study was to quantify, in vivo, constitutive and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-enhanced expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in different tissues from healthy wild-type mice (C57BL/6) as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice with and without active colitis. Using the dual radiolabel monoclonal antibody technique, we found substantial constitutive expression of MAdCAM-1 in the intestine, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes. MAdCAM-1 expression in these tissues was significantly enhanced, in a time-dependent manner, by systemic administration of TNF-alpha. Maximum surface expression was observed at 18 h after TNF-alpha administration and remained significantly elevated at 48 h post-TNF-alpha injection. No significant constitutive nor TNF-alpha-induced expression of MAdCAM-1 was detected in skeletal muscle, brain, or heart. In IL-10-deficient (IL-10 k/o) mice with no clinical or histological evidence of colitis, constitutive and TNF-alpha-induced expression of MAdCAM-1 in the intestine, cecum, and colon was not different from those values obtained with healthy wild-type controls. IL-10-deficient mice with active colitis exhibited a four- to fivefold greater expression of MAdCAM-1 in the cecum and colon compared with their healthy controls or to IL-10 k/o mice with no evidence of colitis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TNF-alpha enhances surface expression of MAdCAM-1 in intestinal and colonic tissues to the same extent in both wild-type and IL-10 k/o mice with no colonic inflammation, whereas IL-10 k/o mice with active colitis exhibited a profound up-regulation of MAdCAM-1 in the colon. (+info)
A novel urease-negative Helicobacter species associated with colitis and typhlitis in IL-10-deficient mice. (7/2654)A spiral-shaped bacterium with bipolar, single-sheathed flagella was isolated from the intestines of IL-10 (interleukin-10)-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice with inflammatory bowel disease. The organism was microaerobic, grew at 37 and 42 degrees C, and was oxidase and catalase positive but urease negative. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and biochemical and phenotypic criteria, the organism is classified as a novel helicobacter. Cesarean section-rederived IL-10(-/-) mice without helicobacter infection did not have histological evidence of intestinal inflammation. However, helicobacter-free IL-10(-/-), SCID/NCr, and A/JNCr mice experimentally inoculated with the novel urease-negative Helicobacter sp. developed variable degrees of inflammation in the lower intestine, and in immunocompetent mice, the experimental infection was accompanied by a corresponding elevated immunoglobulin G antibody response to the novel Helicobacter sp. antigen. These data support other recent studies which demonstrate that multiple Helicobacter spp. in both naturally and experimentally infected mice can induce inflammatory bowel disease. The mouse model of helicobacter-associated intestinal inflammation should prove valuable in understanding how specific microbial antigens influence a complex disease process. (+info)
Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig. (8/2654)Activation of neurons in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) was assessed using c-fos, JunB, and c-Jun expression in the guinea pig IMG and colonic myenteric plexus during mechanosensory stimulation and acute colitis in normal and capsaicin-treated animals. Intracolonic saline or 2% acetic acid was administered, and mechanosensory stimulation was performed by passage of a small (0.5 cm) balloon either 4 or 24 hr later. Lower doses of capsaicin or vehicle were used to activate primary afferent fibers during balloon passage. c-Jun did not respond to any of the stimuli in the study. c-fos and JunB were absent from the IMG and myenteric plexus of untreated and saline-treated animals. Acetic acid induced acute colitis by 4 hr, which persisted for 24 hr, but c-fos was found only in enteric glia in the myenteric plexus and was absent from the IMG. Balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in only a small subset of IMG neurons and no myenteric neurons. However, balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in IMG neurons (notably those containing somatostatin) and the myenteric plexus of acetic acid-treated animals. After capsaicin treatment, c-fos and JunB induction by balloon passage was inhibited in the IMG, but there was enhanced c-fos expression in the myenteric plexus. c-fos and JunB induction by balloon stimulation was also mimicked by acute activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. These data suggest that colitis enhances reflex activity of the IMG by a mechanism that involves activation of both primary afferent fibers and the myenteric plexus. (+info)
Colitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain medications. Symptoms of colitis can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, fever, and weight loss. Treatment for colitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and in severe cases, surgery.
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon and rectum. It is characterized by inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the colon and rectum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and weight loss. The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and stress management. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.
Colitis, ischemic refers to a type of inflammation of the colon (large intestine) that is caused by a lack of blood flow to the affected area. This can occur as a result of a blockage in the blood vessels that supply blood to the colon, or as a complication of other medical conditions such as heart disease or atherosclerosis. Symptoms of ischemic colitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and a feeling of urgency to have a bowel movement. In severe cases, ischemic colitis can lead to complications such as perforation of the colon or sepsis. Treatment for ischemic colitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as treating a blockage in the blood vessels or managing a related medical condition. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, and in severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damage to the colon or remove affected tissue.
Microscopic colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the inner lining of the colon. It is characterized by inflammation that is not visible to the naked eye, but can be detected through a biopsy of the colon. There are two main types of microscopic colitis: lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. Lymphocytic colitis is characterized by the presence of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the colon, while collagenous colitis is characterized by the presence of thickened collagen fibers in the colon. Symptoms of microscopic colitis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The cause of microscopic colitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in the colon. Treatment for microscopic colitis typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs. In some cases, a low-fiber diet may also be recommended.
Dextran sulfate is a polysaccharide compound that is derived from the bacterial fermentation of cornstarch. It is used in a variety of medical applications, including as a diagnostic tool for detecting blood clots, as an anticoagulant to prevent blood clots from forming, and as a component of certain types of chemotherapy drugs. Dextran sulfate is also used in the treatment of certain types of liver disease, such as cirrhosis, by helping to reduce the buildup of scar tissue in the liver. In addition, it has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as colon cancer, by helping to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells.
Colitis, collagenous is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon (large intestine). It is characterized by the presence of thickened folds of tissue in the colon, which are caused by an accumulation of collagen fibers. Collagenous colitis is typically diagnosed based on symptoms such as chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss, as well as the presence of characteristic histological changes in the colon. Treatment for collagenous colitis typically involves the use of medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, although the exact course of treatment may vary depending on the individual case.
In the medical field, the colon refers to the large intestine, which is the final part of the digestive system. The colon is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining indigestible food matter, forming and storing feces, and eliminating waste from the body. The colon is divided into several sections, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The colon is an important organ for maintaining overall health and wellbeing, and any issues with the colon can lead to a range of medical conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and diverticulitis.
Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a diagnostic tool for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is a strong acid that is used to induce colitis, or inflammation of the colon, in laboratory animals to study the disease and test potential treatments. TNBS is typically administered by injecting it into the colon of the animal, where it reacts with the lining of the colon to produce a chemical called trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid hydrochloride. This chemical causes inflammation and damage to the colon, which can be observed and studied by researchers. In humans, TNBS is not used as a diagnostic tool for IBD, as it is too toxic and can cause serious side effects. However, it has been used in clinical trials to study potential treatments for the disease.
Colitis, lymphocytic is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon (large intestine). It is characterized by the presence of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in the lining of the colon. The exact cause of colitis, lymphocytic is not known, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the colon. Symptoms of colitis, lymphocytic may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. The severity of symptoms can vary from person to person, and some people may have no symptoms at all. Treatment for colitis, lymphocytic typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue from the colon. It is important for people with colitis, lymphocytic to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the lining of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. The exact cause of Crohn's disease is not known, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults. Treatment for Crohn's disease typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged or diseased sections of the digestive tract.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the small intestine, colon, and rectum. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Crohn's Disease can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the colon. The inflammation in Crohn's Disease can be patchy and can move from one area to another over time. Ulcerative Colitis, on the other hand, affects only the colon and rectum. The inflammation in Ulcerative Colitis is continuous and affects the entire lining of the affected area. Both Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis are chronic conditions that can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition. They can also increase the risk of developing other health problems, such as anemia, osteoporosis, and colon cancer. Treatment for IBD typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and sometimes surgery. The goal of treatment is to reduce inflammation, manage symptoms, and prevent complications.
Mesalamine is a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It works by reducing inflammation in the lining of the digestive tract. Mesalamine is available in various forms, including tablets, suppositories, and enemas. It is usually taken as directed by a healthcare provider and may need to be taken for an extended period of time to achieve the full therapeutic effect. Common side effects of mesalamine include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea.
Sulfasalazine is a medication that is used to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It is a combination of two drugs: sulfapyridine and salicylic acid. Sulfapyridine is an antimicrobial agent that helps to reduce inflammation, while salicylic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that helps to reduce pain and inflammation. Sulfasalazine is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets or capsules. It is also sometimes used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.
Peroxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various substrates, including hydrogen peroxide, by transferring an electron from the substrate to molecular oxygen. In the medical field, peroxidase is often used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of certain diseases or conditions. One common use of peroxidase is in the detection of cancer. Certain types of cancer cells produce higher levels of peroxidase than normal cells, and this can be detected using peroxidase-based assays. For example, the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, which is used to screen for cervical cancer, relies on the detection of peroxidase activity in cells from the cervix. Peroxidase is also used in the diagnosis of other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, infections, and liver disease. In these cases, peroxidase activity is often measured in blood or other body fluids, and elevated levels can indicate the presence of a particular disease or condition. Overall, peroxidase is an important tool in the medical field for the diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and conditions.
A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which the colon (large intestine) is removed, either partially or completely. It is typically performed to treat conditions such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and colon polyps. The procedure may be performed laparoscopically or through a traditional open incision, depending on the patient's individual circumstances and the surgeon's preference. After a colectomy, the remaining healthy parts of the digestive system are reconnected, and the patient will need to adapt to a new diet and lifestyle to manage any changes in digestion and elimination.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Colonoscopy is a medical procedure that involves using a flexible, lighted tube called a colonoscope to examine the inside of the colon and rectum. The colonoscope is inserted through the anus and advanced into the colon, allowing the doctor to view the lining of the colon and any abnormalities that may be present. During a colonoscopy, the doctor may also take biopsies of any abnormal tissue or remove polyps (small growths on the lining of the colon) that are found. The procedure is typically performed under sedation to help the patient relax and tolerate the procedure more comfortably. Colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colon cancer, as it allows doctors to detect and remove precancerous polyps before they have a chance to develop into cancer. It is also used to diagnose and treat a variety of other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and colitis.
Dysentery, amebic is a type of inflammatory bowel disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. It is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood or mucus in the stool. The parasite can invade the lining of the colon and cause damage to the tissue, leading to symptoms such as fever, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, amebic dysentery can lead to complications such as liver abscesses or perforation of the colon. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to kill the parasite.
In the medical field, "Administration, Rectal" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances into the rectum through the anus. This method of administration is commonly used for medications that are not absorbed well through the digestive system or for medications that are intended to have a local effect on the rectal area. The rectum is the final section of the large intestine, and it is connected to the anus, which is the opening through which waste is eliminated from the body. Medications that are administered rectally are typically formulated as suppositories, enemas, or foams, and they are inserted into the rectum using a special applicator or syringe. Rectal administration can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and inflammatory bowel disease. It can also be used to deliver certain medications, such as antibiotics, pain relievers, and chemotherapy drugs, that are not absorbed well through the digestive system. It is important to note that rectal administration can be uncomfortable or even painful for some people, and it may not be suitable for everyone. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method of administration for a particular medication or condition.
Enterocolitis, pseudomembranous, also known as Clostridium difficile colitis, is an inflammatory condition of the colon that is caused by the overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile. This bacterium is normally present in the gut in small numbers, but when the balance of bacteria in the gut is disrupted, it can overgrow and produce toxins that damage the colon. The symptoms of pseudomembranous enterocolitis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and nausea. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death. Pseudomembranous enterocolitis is typically treated with antibiotics to target the overgrowth of C. difficile and the toxins it produces. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Pouchitis is a medical condition that affects the pouch that is created during surgery to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The pouch is a small-shaped structure that is created from the remaining part of the large intestine after the removal of the diseased colon and rectum. Pouchitis is characterized by inflammation and irritation of the lining of the pouch, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bleeding. It is a common complication of pouch surgery and can occur at any time after the procedure. Pouchitis can be classified as acute or chronic, depending on the duration of the symptoms. Acute pouchitis is usually caused by an infection and can be treated with antibiotics. Chronic pouchitis, on the other hand, is more difficult to treat and may require long-term management with medications and lifestyle changes. In some cases, pouchitis may lead to complications such as pouch strictures (narrowing of the pouch) or pouchitis-associated dysplasia (abnormal cell growth in the lining of the pouch), which can increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of pouchitis are important to prevent these complications.
Enterocolitis is an inflammation of the lining of the small and large intestines. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, as well as autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain medications. Symptoms of enterocolitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antidiarrheal medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent dehydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
In the medical field, "colonic pouches" typically refer to the small pouches or sacs that are created during certain types of colorectal surgery, such as a total colectomy or a proctocolectomy. These pouches are created by removing a section of the colon and reconnecting the remaining healthy sections to form a new, functional colon. There are several types of colonic pouches that may be created during surgery, including the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), the ileal pouch-colonic anastomosis (IPCA), and the ileal pouch-rectal anastomosis (IPRA). Each type of pouch is designed to function differently and may be used to treat different conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, or colorectal cancer. Colonic pouches can be subject to a variety of complications, including pouchitis (inflammation of the pouch), pouch dysfunction, and pouchitis-associated dysplasia (a precancerous condition). Proper care and management are essential to ensure the long-term success of colonic pouch surgery.
Acetic acid is a weak organic acid that is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic sour smell and is the main component of vinegar. In the medical field, acetic acid is used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used to clean and disinfect medical equipment, such as scalpels, needles, and syringes, to prevent the spread of infection. Acetic acid is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, it is used in the treatment of warts and other skin growths. It is applied topically to the affected area and can cause the wart to peel off over time. In addition, acetic acid is used in the production of certain medications, such as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is also used in the production of some types of plastics and other industrial products. Overall, acetic acid is a versatile compound with many uses in the medical field, including as a disinfectant, antiseptic, and medication ingredient.
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine, which is a type of signaling molecule that plays a role in regulating the immune system. It is produced by various immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells, in response to infection or inflammation. IL-10 has anti-inflammatory properties and helps to suppress the immune response, which can be beneficial in preventing excessive inflammation and tissue damage. It also has immunosuppressive effects, which can help to prevent autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. In the medical field, IL-10 is being studied for its potential therapeutic applications in a variety of conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. For example, IL-10 has been shown to be effective in reducing inflammation and improving symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions. It is also being investigated as a potential treatment for cancer, as it may help to suppress the immune response that allows cancer cells to evade detection and destruction by the immune system.
Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.
The cecum is a pouch-like structure located at the beginning of the large intestine, just below the ileocecal valve. It is about 6-10 cm long and is responsible for receiving and storing the waste matter that has passed through the small intestine from the ileum. The cecum is connected to the appendix, which is a small, finger-like projection that extends from the cecum. The appendix is often considered a vestigial organ, as it has no known function in the body. However, it can become inflamed and infected, a condition known as appendicitis. The cecum also contains the vermiform appendix, which is a small, finger-like projection that extends from the cecum. The vermiform appendix is often considered a vestigial organ, as it has no known function in the body. However, it can become inflamed and infected, a condition known as appendicitis.
Citrobacter rodentium is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a non-pathogenic strain of bacteria that is commonly found in the intestines of rodents, such as mice and rats. In humans, C. rodentium is typically considered to be a harmless commensal bacterium that is not associated with any disease. However, in laboratory settings, C. rodentium is often used as a model organism to study the pathogenesis of human enteric infections caused by other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Escherichia coli. This is because C. rodentium shares many similarities with these pathogens, including the ability to colonize the intestinal tract and cause inflammation and damage to the gut lining. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of C. rodentium as a model for studying the effects of the gut microbiome on human health and disease. This is because the gut microbiome plays a critical role in regulating the immune system and maintaining gut homeostasis, and disruptions to the microbiome have been linked to a wide range of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and diabetes.
Ileitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the ileum, which is the final section of the small intestine. The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of ileitis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Treatment for ileitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and in severe cases, surgery.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that are commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. They work by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation, pain, and fever. NSAIDs are available over-the-counter (OTC) or by prescription and are used to treat a variety of conditions, including headaches, menstrual cramps, arthritis, and muscle pain. Some common examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and celecoxib (Celebrex). While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can also have side effects, including stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, and increased risk of bleeding. Long-term use of high doses of NSAIDs can also increase the risk of serious side effects, such as stomach ulcers, kidney damage, and heart attack or stroke. Therefore, it is important to use NSAIDs only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of any potential side effects.
Megacolon, toxic is a medical condition characterized by a severe dilation or enlargement of the colon, often accompanied by inflammation and damage to the colon's lining. This condition is typically caused by a toxic substance or substance that irritates the colon, leading to inflammation and damage to the colon's lining. Symptoms of megacolon, toxic may include abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, fever, and nausea. In severe cases, the condition can lead to complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and sepsis. Treatment for megacolon, toxic typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as removing the toxic substance or treating the underlying infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the colon or to create a new pathway for waste to pass through the digestive system.
Oxazolone is a synthetic steroid hormone that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is a derivative of testosterone and has similar effects on the body, including increased muscle mass, strength, and endurance. Oxazolone is typically used to treat conditions such as anemia, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is usually administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Like all medications, oxazolone can have side effects, including fluid retention, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from a person's body for examination under a microscope. The sample is usually taken from a lump, growth, or other abnormal area, and is used to help diagnose a medical condition or disease. There are several types of biopsy procedures, including: 1. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: A sample of tissue is removed using a thin needle inserted into the abnormal area. 2. Core biopsy: A larger sample of tissue is removed using a hollow needle that takes multiple cores of tissue. 3. Excision biopsy: A larger piece of tissue is removed using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. 4. Endoscopic biopsy: A biopsy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, which is inserted into the body through a natural opening or a small incision. Biopsies are commonly used to diagnose cancer, but they can also be used to diagnose other medical conditions, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and genetic disorders. The results of a biopsy can help guide treatment decisions and provide important information about a person's prognosis.
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who are taking antibiotics or have weakened immune systems. It is commonly found in the environment and can be transmitted through contaminated surfaces, food, or water. Infection with C. difficile can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and bloody diarrhea, and can be life-threatening in severe cases. Treatment typically involves stopping the use of antibiotics and using antibiotics specifically effective against C. difficile.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
In the medical field, "Colon" and "Sigmoid" refer to specific parts of the large intestine. The colon is the final part of the large intestine, which is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining indigestible food matter, forming feces, and eliminating it from the body. The colon is divided into several parts, including the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The sigmoid colon is the final part of the colon, located on the left side of the abdomen, just below the spleen. It is a curved tube that connects the descending colon to the rectum. The sigmoid colon is responsible for storing feces before they are eliminated from the body. In some medical contexts, the term "sigmoid" may also refer to a specific type of sigmoidoscopy, which is a procedure used to examine the lower part of the colon and rectum using a flexible, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope.
In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. The colon is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining food matter in the digestive tract, and it also plays a role in the formation of feces. Colonic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory colonic diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Non-inflammatory colonic diseases include diverticulitis, polyps, and colon cancer. Inflammatory colonic diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Non-inflammatory colonic diseases, on the other hand, are not associated with inflammation and can have a variety of symptoms depending on the specific condition. Colonic diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and barium enema. Treatment for colonic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectum, which is the final part of the large intestine. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, injuries, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of proctitis may include rectal pain, bleeding, itching, discharge, and difficulty passing stool. Treatment for proctitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Cholangitis, sclerosing is a rare and serious condition that affects the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. In this condition, the bile ducts become inflamed and scarred, leading to a blockage that can cause damage to the liver and other organs. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Other possible causes include infections, genetic factors, and exposure to certain chemicals or toxins. Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests and a biopsy of the bile ducts. Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis may include medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, as well as procedures to remove blockages in the bile ducts or to bypass them altogether. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Azathioprine is a medication that is used to suppress the immune system. It is often prescribed to prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs, such as a kidney or liver. Azathioprine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by inhibiting the production of white blood cells, which are responsible for attacking foreign substances in the body. Azathioprine is usually taken as a pill and is often used in combination with other medications to treat these conditions.
Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign colonic neoplasms include polyps, which are small, non-cancerous growths that can develop on the inner lining of the colon. Polyps can be further classified as adenomas, which are made up of glandular tissue, or hyperplastic polyps, which are non-glandular. Malignant colonic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of colon cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the colon. Colonic neoplasms can be detected through various diagnostic tests, including colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood testing. Treatment options for colonic neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the overall health of the patient. Early detection and treatment of colonic neoplasms can significantly improve the chances of a successful outcome.
Proctocolitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the rectum and colon. It is typically characterized by symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and a feeling of urgency to have a bowel movement. Proctocolitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain medications. Treatment for proctocolitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriasis. It is also used to treat allergies, asthma, and other respiratory conditions, as well as to reduce swelling and inflammation in the body. In addition, prednisolone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops, and is typically prescribed by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine, a type of signaling protein, that plays a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, in response to infection, injury, or other stimuli. TNF-alpha has multiple functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting cell growth and differentiation, and mediating inflammation. It can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis, in some cells, which can be beneficial in fighting cancer. However, excessive or prolonged TNF-alpha production can lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, TNF-alpha is often targeted in the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs called TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and adalimumab, are used to block the action of TNF-alpha and reduce inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and other inflammatory conditions.
Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as an irritant and sensitizer. It is a white crystalline solid that is highly toxic and can cause severe skin irritation, burns, and respiratory problems if inhaled or ingested. In medical research, DNFB is often used as a model compound to study allergic reactions and the development of contact dermatitis. It is applied topically to the skin of laboratory animals or human volunteers to induce an allergic response, which can then be studied to better understand the underlying mechanisms of allergic reactions. DNFB is also used as a diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of certain skin conditions, such as allergic contact dermatitis, by applying it to the skin and observing the reaction. However, due to its toxicity, DNFB is not used in humans for this purpose and is only used in controlled laboratory settings.
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage, also known as GI bleeding, is a medical condition in which there is bleeding in the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or anus. The bleeding can be acute or chronic, and the severity can range from mild to life-threatening. The symptoms of gastrointestinal hemorrhage can include black or tarry stools, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and fainting. The cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be due to a variety of factors, including peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal tumors, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, and liver disease. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage typically involves a physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies such as endoscopy or colonoscopy, and sometimes angiography. Treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. It may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.
Bacterial translocation refers to the movement of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream or other organs of the body. This can occur as a result of various factors, including inflammation of the gut, damage to the intestinal lining, and disruption of the normal gut microbiota. Bacterial translocation can lead to serious health problems, including sepsis, endocarditis, and liver abscesses. It is a common complication of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, HIV/AIDS, and surgery on the gastrointestinal tract.
Clostridium infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the genus Clostridium. These bacteria are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. They can cause a variety of infections, including gas gangrene, botulism, and tetanus. Gas gangrene is a serious infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria release toxins that damage tissue and cause it to die. This can lead to the formation of gas bubbles in the affected tissue, which can cause severe pain and swelling. Botulism is a type of food poisoning caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Tetanus is a serious infection that occurs when Clostridium tetani bacteria release a toxin that affects the nervous system. Clostridium infections can be treated with antibiotics, antitoxins, and supportive care. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damage caused by the infection. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you or someone else may have a Clostridium infection, as prompt treatment is essential for a good outcome.
Collagen diseases, also known as collagenopathies, are a group of disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, which is made up of collagen fibers. Connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides support and structure to organs, tissues, and bones. Collagen diseases are caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for producing collagen or the enzymes that are needed to break down and recycle collagen. These mutations can lead to the production of abnormal collagen fibers or a deficiency in the amount of collagen produced, which can cause the connective tissue to become weak and brittle. There are many different types of collagen diseases, including: 1. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS): A group of inherited disorders that affect the skin, joints, blood vessels, and connective tissue. 2. Marfan syndrome: An inherited disorder that affects the connective tissue in the heart, blood vessels, and skeletal system. 3. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): An inherited disorder that affects the production of collagen in the bones, causing them to be fragile and prone to fractures. 4. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: An inherited disorder that affects the connective tissue in the blood vessels, heart, and skeletal system. 5. Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy: An inherited disorder that affects the connective tissue in the muscles, causing weakness and wasting. Treatment for collagen diseases depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissue.
CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T-cells or T-helper cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the immune system. They are a subset of T-cells that express the CD4 protein on their surface, which allows them to recognize and bind to antigens presented by other immune cells. CD4+ T-cells are involved in many aspects of the immune response, including the activation and proliferation of other immune cells, the production of cytokines (chemical messengers that regulate immune responses), and the regulation of immune tolerance. They are particularly important in the response to infections caused by viruses, such as HIV, and in the development of autoimmune diseases. In HIV infection, the virus specifically targets and destroys CD4+ T-cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and a weakened immune system. This is why CD4+ T-cell count is an important marker of HIV disease progression and treatment response.
An ulcer is a sore or open wound that forms on the surface of the skin, mucous membranes, or other tissues in the body. In the medical field, ulcers can occur in various locations, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, esophagus, and mouth. Stomach ulcers, also known as peptic ulcers, are the most common type of ulcer and are caused by a combination of factors, including the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and stress. Small intestine ulcers are often caused by Crohn's disease or celiac disease, while large intestine ulcers are often caused by ulcerative colitis. Esophageal ulcers, also known as Barrett's esophagus, are caused by chronic acid reflux and can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Mouth ulcers, also known as canker sores, are usually harmless and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. Treatment for ulcers depends on the location and cause of the ulcer. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat H. pylori infection, while NSAIDs may be stopped or replaced with other medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
Mucin-2 (MUC2) is a type of mucin, a family of glycoproteins that are found in mucus, a slimy substance that covers and protects the lining of various organs in the body, including the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive tract. MUC2 is a particularly important mucin in the colon, where it plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the gut lining. MUC2 is produced by goblet cells, which are specialized cells in the lining of the colon that secrete mucus. MUC2 is a large, complex protein that is composed of a central core region and two branching carbohydrate-rich regions. The core region contains a series of tandem repeats that are responsible for the protein's ability to form a gel-like matrix that helps to protect the gut lining from damage and infection. In addition to its protective role, MUC2 also plays a role in regulating the immune system and promoting the growth and differentiation of colon cells. Dysregulation of MUC2 production or function has been linked to a number of digestive disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and irritable bowel syndrome.
In the medical field, "administration, oral" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances to a patient through the mouth. This can include tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, or other forms of medication that are designed to be taken orally. Oral administration is one of the most common methods of medication delivery, as it is convenient and generally well-tolerated by patients. However, it is important to note that not all medications are suitable for oral administration, and some may require alternative routes of delivery, such as injection or inhalation. Additionally, the effectiveness of oral medication can be affected by factors such as the patient's age, health status, and the specific medication being used.
Crohn's & Colitis Foundation
Cord colitis syndrome
Lichtiger colitis activity index
Crohn's and Colitis UK
Checkpoint inhibitor induced colitis
Crohn's and Colitis Canada
Management of ulcerative colitis
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis
Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis
Simple clinical colitis activity index
Colitis - Wikipedia
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FDA Approves Mirikizumab for Ulcerative Colitis
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- for example, an individual with ulcerative colitis is talking about their disease with a physician who knows the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Ulcerative colitis (UC) - a chronic colitis that affects the large intestine. (wikipedia.org)
- Indeterminate colitis is the classification for colitis that has features of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
- Indeterminate colitis' behaviour is usually closer to ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Ulcerative colitis usually appears between the age of 15 and 30, although it can develop at any age. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are cramping abdominal pain and frequent diarrhea, often with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool. (medlineplus.gov)
- Toxic megacolon is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis that can be life-threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
- especially in people whose entire colon is inflamed and in those who have had ulcerative colitis for 8 years or more. (medlineplus.gov)
- Unlike ulcerative colitis, which affects only the inner surface of the large intestine, Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, and the inflammation extends deeper into the intestinal tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
- In North America, ulcerative colitis affects approximately 40 to 420 in 100,000 people. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ulcerative colitis is more common in white people and people of eastern and central European (Ashkenazi) Jewish descent than in people of other ethnic backgrounds. (medlineplus.gov)
- A variety of genetic and environmental factors are likely involved in the development of ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- This immune response may lead to chronic inflammation and the digestive problems characteristic of ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Genes that regulate the immune system may also contribute to ulcerative colitis, particularly genes that are involved in the maturation and function of immune cells called T cells . (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain genetic variations may make some individuals more prone to an overactive immune response to the bacteria and other microbes in the intestines, which may cause the chronic inflammation that occurs in people with ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Another possible explanation is that ulcerative colitis occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the cells of the intestines, causing inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
- The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved mirikizumab-mrkz (Omvoh, Eli Lilly) for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) in adults. (medscape.com)
- Bowel urgency is one of the most disruptive symptoms for patients with ulcerative colitis ," Michael Osso, president and chief executive officer of the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation, said in the news release. (medscape.com)
- Mirikizumab offers "new hope for those who have tried other therapies and still find themselves making accommodations for the uncertainty of bowel urgency-related accidents and other symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis," Osso added. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: FDA Approves Mirikizumab for Ulcerative Colitis - Medscape - Oct 27, 2023. (medscape.com)
- People from the Ulcerative Colitis community share their stories, challenges, goals and successes. (healthline.com)
- What Vegetables Can I Eat If I Have Ulcerative Colitis? (healthline.com)
- Some vegetables can trigger ulcerative colitis symptoms. (healthline.com)
- Many foods can trigger ulcerative colitis symptoms. (healthline.com)
- The more you know about managing Ulcerative Colitis, the easier it will be to manage it. (healthline.com)
- Indeterminate colitis is a term to describe a chronic idiopathic colitis that cannot be separated based on conventional diagnostic modalities to either Crohn colitis or ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
- Fecal calprotectin (FP) levels indicate mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but are too variable for this biomarker to reliably replace endoscopy and biopsy, according to a report published in the November issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology . (medscape.com)
- At this time, the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) index are used to assess mucosal healing, but endoscopy is invasive and is associated with complications. (medscape.com)
- Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are other common types of IBD. (nih.gov)
- There are host of digestive ailments which benefit enormously from a gluten free Paleo diet: IBS, Crohns, Celiac, diverticulitis…and ulcerative colitis . (robbwolf.com)
- Damien Roop has been kind enough to share his experience with Ulcerative Colitis and what a gluten free paleo diet has done for him. (robbwolf.com)
- I have Ulcerative Colitis (UC), and have had it for going on eight years now. (robbwolf.com)
- None of the others remained with me (although I can still get a bad rash from hard friction and extended contact with a neoprene brace or strap) save the good ol' Ulcerative Colitis. (robbwolf.com)
- In good news for patients with stubborn cases of ulcerative colitis, a serious intestinal disorder, a new research review suggests that the drug infliximab can be a useful alternative if other treatments don't work. (medindia.net)
- For people with active ulcerative colitis who do not respond to corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents, infliximab is effective in inducing clinical remission, inducing clinical response, promoting mucosal healing and reducing the need for colectomy, at least in the short term," said review co-author Dr. Anthony Kwaku Akobeng. (medindia.net)
- Akobeng, a gastroenterologist at Manchester Children's University Hospitals in England, and colleagues examined seven randomized controlled studies comprising 860 patients that evaluated infliximab as a treatment for ulcerative colitis. (medindia.net)
- According to Higgins, the causes of ulcerative colitis aren't clear, but they may have something to do with an interaction between a person's genetic makeup and another factor, such as infection or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a class of painkillers that includes ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen (Aleve). (medindia.net)
- In the review studies, patients were given either infliximab or a placebo for moderate and severe cases of ulcerative colitis. (medindia.net)
- Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the two major types of IBD. (medscape.com)
- Differentiation between ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease is critical to developing a treatment plan. (medscape.com)
- Crohn disease may involve the entire GI tract, whereas ulcerative colitis involves only the large bowel. (medscape.com)
- Microscopically, the inflammation in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease can appear to be the same, but noncaseating granulomas are present only in Crohn disease. (medscape.com)
- The inflammation of Crohn disease may be transmural, whereas it is confined to the mucosa and submucosa in ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
- All large series of proctocolectomies include a subset of patients (approximately 10%) who were preoperatively thought to have ulcerative colitis but were subsequently diagnosed with Crohn disease. (medscape.com)
- The traditional idea that ulcerative colitis involves only the large bowel has been challenged. (medscape.com)
- Significant gastroduodenal inflammation in children with ulcerative colitis has been reported. (medscape.com)
- [ 8 ] In addition, patchiness of the colonic mucosa suggestive of skip lesions may occur during the treatment phase of ulcerative colitis, leading one to question the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
- These patchy areas may be seen endoscopically in as many as 38% of patients with ulcerative colitis who undergo medical therapy. (medscape.com)
- Rectal sparing may also occur at some point during medical treatment of ulcerative colitis in as many as 44% of cases. (medscape.com)
- Distinguishing ulcerative colitis from Crohn disease is important. (medscape.com)
- The radiologic appearance of cathartic colon is similar to that of ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
- Murata I, Satoh K, Yoshikawa I, Masumoto A, Sasaki E, Otsuki M. Recurrent subcutaneous abscess of the sternal region in ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
- [ 4-7 ] Research over the past decade has indicated an increasing incidence for lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, with some studies noting an incidence at least as high as that of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (medscape.com)
- Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relatively un- attending a hospital in Jordan. (who.int)
- UC was distinguished from natural course of ulcerative colitis. (who.int)
- Two types of microscopic colitis are lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. (nih.gov)
- In collagenous colitis, the layer of collagen under the colon lining is thicker than normal. (nih.gov)
- The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of lymphocytic (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC) in the county Skåne (Scania), southern Sweden, during the period 2010-20 with focus both on the temporal and spatial variations. (lu.se)
- Other problems to be considered include collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis (rarely requires surgery, low risk for malignancy), infectious colitis, ischemic colitis in elderly patients, and radiation colitis. (medscape.com)
- [ 1-3 ] The disorder comprises two major subtypes: lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. (medscape.com)
- Ischemic colitis is a transient reduction in blood flow to the colon. (msdmanuals.com)
- Diagnosis of ischemic colitis is made by CT or colonoscopy. (msdmanuals.com)
- Treatment of ischemic colitis is supportive with IV fluids, bowel rest, and antibiotics. (msdmanuals.com)
- Surgery is rarely required, unless ischemic colitis is a complication of a vascular procedure or there is full-thickness necrosis. (msdmanuals.com)
- Ischemic colitis is injury of the large intestine that results from an interruption of blood flow. (msdmanuals.com)
- Ischemic colitis primarily affects people who are 60 or older. (msdmanuals.com)
- A doctor may suspect ischemic colitis on the basis of the symptoms of pain and bleeding, especially in a person older than 60. (msdmanuals.com)
- People with ischemic colitis are hospitalized. (msdmanuals.com)
- In lymphocytic colitis, the colon lining contains more white blood cells than normal. (nih.gov)
- What is microscopic colitis? (nih.gov)
- Microscopic colitis is a chronic disease in which abnormal reactions of the immune system cause inflammation on the inner lining of your colon . (nih.gov)
- Microscopic colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) . (nih.gov)
- Unlike the other types of IBD, microscopic colitis does not increase your risk of developing colon cancer . (nih.gov)
- Doctors call both types microscopic colitis, and they have the same symptoms and treatments. (nih.gov)
- Doctors can only see the inflammation caused by microscopic colitis by looking at colon tissue under a microscope. (nih.gov)
- How common is microscopic colitis? (nih.gov)
- Who is more likely to have microscopic colitis? (nih.gov)
- Anyone can develop microscopic colitis. (nih.gov)
- The average age at which people are diagnosed with microscopic colitis is 60 to 65 years. (nih.gov)
- 2 However, microscopic colitis may occur in people of any age, including children. (nih.gov)
- people who take medicines that have been linked to an increased risk for microscopic colitis. (nih.gov)
- What other health problems do people with microscopic colitis have? (nih.gov)
- Experts have found that some people with microscopic colitis also have other disorders related to the immune system. (nih.gov)
- What are the complications of microscopic colitis? (nih.gov)
- Compared with other types of IBD, microscopic colitis is less likely to lead to complications. (nih.gov)
- If microscopic colitis causes severe diarrhea, it may lead to weight loss and dehydration . (nih.gov)
- In rare cases, microscopic colitis may cause serious complications, such as ulcers or perforation of the colon. (nih.gov)
- The epidemiology of microscopic colitis in Olmsted County from 2002 to 2010: a population-based study. (nih.gov)
- Background: In microscopic colitis (MC), the incidence has increased over the last decades. (lu.se)
- Background Microscopic colitis shares certain common clinical manifestations with functional bowel disorders, especially diarrhoea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional diarrhoea. (medscape.com)
- However, the exact relationship between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders has not been systematically assessed. (medscape.com)
- Aim To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic overlap between functional bowel disorders and microscopic colitis. (medscape.com)
- Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases, as well as the abstract books of the major gastroenterology meetings, to investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients with functional bowel disorders (considering all subtypes of both disorders) and vice versa. (medscape.com)
- Conclusions There is a significant overlap of symptoms between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders, especially in diarrhoeal subtypes. (medscape.com)
- The high proportion of microscopic colitis among diarrhoea-dominant functional syndromes should serve as a call for more active diagnosis in selected patients. (medscape.com)
- Microscopic colitis (MC) is a term used to identify a group of chronic inflammatory bowel disorders characterised by chronic or recurrent watery diarrhoea in the absence of abnormal radiological examinations, with normal or near-normal endoscopic appearance and specific microscopic abnormalities in colonic biopsies. (medscape.com)
- Colitis is swelling or inflammation of the large intestine (colon). (wikipedia.org)
- The term colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. (medscape.com)
- There are a number of drug treatments for colitis, including steroids, which reduce inflammation by dampening the body's immune system, and aminosalicylates, which also help control inflammation. (medindia.net)
- The signs and symptoms of colitis are quite variable and dependent on the cause of the given colitis and factors that modify its course and severity. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Common symptoms of colitis may include: mild to severe abdominal pains and tenderness (depending on the stage of the disease), persistent hemorrhagic diarrhea with pus either present or absent in the stools, fecal incontinence, flatulence, fatigue, loss of appetite and unexplained weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
- Other less common or rare non-specific symptoms that may accompany colitis include: arthritis, mouth ulcers, painful, red and swollen skin and irritated, bloodshot eyes. (wikipedia.org)
- medical citation needed] Symptoms suggestive of colitis are worked-up by obtaining the medical history, a physical examination and laboratory tests (CBC, electrolytes, stool culture and sensitivity, stool ova and parasites et cetera). (wikipedia.org)
- In the present case, we assume that the immunocompetent patient had a chronic colitis due to H. trogontum and that she had an episode of acute colitis with bacteremia after several years of intermittent symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- Types of colitis include: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic colitides. (wikipedia.org)
- Pseudomembranous colitis is a form of inflammatory colitis characterized by the pathologic presence of pseudomembranes consisting of mucin, fibrin, necrotic cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). (medscape.com)
- It classically forms pseudomembranes and is often referred to as pseudomembranous colitis, which is its (nonspecific) histomorphologic description. (wikipedia.org)
- Although every antibiotic has been reported to be associated with pseudomembranous colitis, cephalosporin and beta-lactam antibiotics are most frequently implicated in children. (medscape.com)
- Until it became controlled by Viva Energy in May 2023, Coles Express was a trading name of Coles Group. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to delays with regulatory approval for the OTR acquisition, Viva announced in September 2023 that it would start transitioning Coles Express stations to a new brand, Reddy Express. (wikipedia.org)
- Primary intestinal lymphoma colitis. (who.int)
- As at July 2021, there were 723 Coles Express service stations and stand-alone convenience sites across Australia. (wikipedia.org)
- A biopsy report generally does not state the diagnosis, but should state any presence of chronic colitis, give an indication of disease activity, as well as state the presence of any epithelial damage (erosions and ulcerations). (wikipedia.org)
- It is not an accepted diagnosis per se and, as such, a colitis that cannot be definitively classified. (wikipedia.org)
- Histopathology findings generally associated with active colitis include: Neutrophilic cryptitis (neutrophils within crypt epithelium) Crypt abscesses (luminal neutrophilic aggregates) Gland destruction Ulceration (seen here as absence of epithelium, and granulation tissue with many fibroblasts) There are many types of colitis. (wikipedia.org)
- Gross specimen of bowel showing ulceration secondary to cytomegalovirus colitis. (medscape.com)
- Severe colitis is a however, they did respond to treatment for life-threatening complication of ulcerative chronic UC. (who.int)
- Histopathology findings generally associated with chronic colitis include: Crypt degeneration Crypt branching and other architectural distortions Paneth cell (pictured) or gastric metaplasia (only applies in the left colon and rectum) Other findings include basal plasmacytosis and mucin depletion. (wikipedia.org)
- After a hospital stay, the patient may be put on a daily medication to manage their chronic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
- In recent years, researchers have begun looking at infliximab also known by the brand name Remicade as a possible treatment for moderate and severe colitis. (medindia.net)
- On 6 February 2019 Coles Express announced a new alliance partnership with their fuel partner Viva Energy (Shell). (wikipedia.org)
- In September 2022 Coles Group announced it had agreed terms with Viva Energy to sell the Coles Express retail business. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2018 Coles Express started trialling standalone convenience sites in Victoria. (wikipedia.org)
- controlled by Coca-Cola Company (Coca-Cola) and PepsiCo (Pepsi), together claiming a combined 72% of the U.S. carbonated soft drink (CSD) market sales volume in 2009. (bartleby.com)
- Giant cell with inclusion body characteristic of cytomegalovirus colitis. (medscape.com)
- An important investigation in the assessment of colitis is biopsy for histopathology. (wikipedia.org)
- As part of the deal Flybuys will remain a partner and Coles will continue stocking its own-branded products. (wikipedia.org)
- When a customer spends over a qualifying amount in one transaction at Coles Supermarkets, Coles Central or Coles Online, they are entitled to a fuel discount of 4c per litre or 8 bonus Flybuys points per litre at Coles Express. (wikipedia.org)
- Coles has launched its own mobile wallet, integrating an NFC contactless payment sticker, smartphone app for iPhone and Android, its existing Coles MasterCard credit card program, and its Flybuys loyalty card program. (zdnet.com)
- The Coles Mobile Wallet comes around 18 months after the company first trialled its Coles Pay Tag NFC patch , and is also integrated with the company's Flybuys program in addition to its credit card program. (zdnet.com)
- According to Coles, the new mobile wallet is free and allows customers to view Flybuys accounts in-app, along with their Coles credit card account, available credit, and transaction history. (zdnet.com)
- Coles is touting its new Mobile Wallet as effectively being a credit card and a Flybuys card in one. (zdnet.com)
- Enterohemorrhagic colitis may be caused by Shiga toxin in Shigella dysenteriae or Shigatoxigenic group of Escherichia coli (STEC), which includes serotype O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
- the colitis, intensive medical therapy and Patients were actively followed up for prompt surgery when necessary have all an average of 4.4 years (range 1-7 years) contributed to improved outcome. (who.int)
- The nonuniform procedures hampered the ability to distinguish pancolitis from left-sided colitis. (medscape.com)
- Australian grocery retail giant, Coles, today announced the launch of its mobile wallet, combining a new smartphone app for iPhone and Android, near-field communications (NFC) sticker for contactless payment, and the integration of its existing Coles MasterCard. (zdnet.com)
- Riding on the 'clean label' sports nutrition movement, beverage giant Coca-Cola announced that it is acquiring a minority stake in BodyArmor, structured to lead to a full acquisition. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Record later admission dates below only if they occur within 30 days of COLO procedure (Procedure date = day 1 of 30). (cdc.gov)
- Legacy CPG companies PepsiCo and Coca-Cola have each snapped up or invested heavily in a functional food and beverage brand this year. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Coca-Cola and PepsiCo both say they have no current plans to enter the cannabis space, contrary to recent rumours. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- Professor Stewart Cole is an international authority in bacterial molecular-genetics and genomics. (epfl.ch)
- Here we demonstrate that Cd44v7 -deficient T cells - like Cd44 wild-type ( Cd44 WT ) T cells - provoked disease in two different colitis models: the model induced by CD4 + CD45RB high T-cell transfer into Rag2 -deficient mice and a new model based on ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell transfer into Rag -sufficient, OVA-challenged mice. (nature.com)
- As anticipated, probiotic treatment attenuated the DSS-induced colitis disease activity index in WT and AppNL-G-F mice . (bvsalud.org)
- The beverage " Coca-Cola " was what made the term widely known, and popularized the spelling with c instead of k . (wiktionary.org)
- 9-711-462 REV: MAY 26, 2011 DAVID B. YOFFIE RENEE KIM Cola Wars Conti inue: Coke an Peps in 201 C nd si 10 Fo more than a century, Co and Pepsi vied for "th or oke hroat share" o the world's beverage m of s market. (bartleby.com)
- Beverage brand development guru James Tonkin has warned wannabe entrepreneurs that going up against established brands such as Red Bull and Coca-Cola without some kind of 'silo vertical' protection is fruitless. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
- In order to understand the reasons why the industry has been hugely profitable despite the 'Cola Wars', an examination of the CSD industry with Porter's five forces analysis will be conducted. (bartleby.com)
- Today's pop culture is as intolerant as ever of aging and illness but Cole Porter's great wit remains ideal for expressions of love, solace, and desire in the age of AIDS. (popmatters.com)
- This form of colitis is pathognomonic of infection by toxin-producing Clostridium difficile and develops as a result of altered normal microflora (usually by antibiotic therapy) that favors overgrowth and colonization of the intestine by Clostridium difficile and production of its toxins. (medscape.com)
- Atypical colitis is a phrase that is occasionally used by physicians for a colitis that does not conform to criteria for accepted types of colitis. (wikipedia.org)