Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.
A condition characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. This syndrome was first described in 1980 by Read and associates. Subtypes include COLLAGENOUS COLITIS and LYMPHOCYTIC COLITIS. Both have similar clinical symptoms and are distinguishable only by histology.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES in the superficial EPITHELIUM and the underlying connective tissue (lamina propria).
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A surgical procedure involving the excision of the COLON and RECTUM and the formation of an ILEOANAL RESERVOIR (pouch). In patients with intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, this procedure avoids the need for an OSTOMY by allowing for transanal defecation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
An acute form of MEGACOLON, severe pathological dilatation of the COLON. It is associated with clinical conditions such as ULCERATIVE COLITIS; CROHN DISEASE; AMEBIC DYSENTERY; or CLOSTRIDIUM ENTEROCOLITIS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Inflammation of the RECTUM and the distal portion of the COLON.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.
Historically, a heterogeneous group of acute and chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, etc. This classification was based on the notion that "collagen" was equivalent to "connective tissue", but with the present recognition of the different types of collagen and the aggregates derived from them as distinct entities, the term "collagen diseases" now pertains exclusively to those inherited conditions in which the primary defect is at the gene level and affects collagen biosynthesis, post-translational modification, or extracellular processing directly. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1494)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.

Responses of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells to Shiga toxins 1 and 2 and pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis. (1/2654)

Endothelial damage is characteristic of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Because Stx-mediated endothelial cell damage at the site of infection may lead to the characteristic hemorrhagic colitis of STEC infection, we compared the effects of Stx1 and Stx2 on primary and transformed human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to those on macrovascular endothelial cells from human saphenous vein (HSVEC). Adhesion molecule, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and Stx receptor expression, the effects of cytokine activation and Stx toxins on these responses, and Stx1 and Stx2 binding kinetics and bioactivity were measured. Adhesion molecule and IL-8 expression increased in activated HIMEC, but these responses were blunted in the presence of toxin, especially in the presence of Stx1. In contrast to HSVEC, unstimulated HIMEC constitutively expressed Stx receptor at high levels, bound large amounts of toxin, were highly sensitive to toxin, and were not further sensitized by cytokines. Although the binding capacities of HIMEC for Stx1 and Stx2 were comparable, the binding affinity of Stx1 to HIMEC was 50-fold greater than that of Stx2. Nonetheless, Stx2 was more toxic to HIMEC than an equivalent amount of Stx1. The decreased binding affinity and increased toxicity for HIMEC of Stx2 compared to those of Stx1 may be relevant to the preponderance of Stx2-producing STEC involved in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis and its systemic complications. The differences between primary and transformed HIMEC in these responses were negligible. We conclude that transformed HIMEC lines could represent a simple physiologically relevant model to study the role of Stx in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis.  (+info)

Tissue distribution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the acute phase of murine DSS-induced colitis. (2/2654)

In the present study, we examined histochemically the tissue distribution of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the acute phase of murine colitis induced by administering DSS in the drinking water. DSS was mainly observed in the Kupffer cells of the liver, in the macrophages of the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and in the lamina propria of the large intestine after administration of DSS. We followed the time course of DSS distribution and found that DSS, which was considered as a large and negatively charged molecule that can not easily cross membranes, was distributed in the liver, the MLN, and the large intestine 1 day after the start of administration of DSS.  (+info)

Protein kinase C mediates experimental colitis in the rat. (3/2654)

Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the cell signal transduction of many physiological processes. In contrast to these physiological responses, increases in PKC activity have also been associated with inflammatory disease states, including ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to examine the role of PKC as a causative mediator in initiation of experimentally induced colitis in the rat. Colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal (0.6 ml) instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS; 75 mg/kg in 50% ethanol) or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1.5-3.0 mg/kg in 20% ethanol). Gross and histological mucosal damage, mucosal neutrophil infiltration, mucosal PKC activity, and PKC protein content for PKC isoforms alpha, beta, delta, and epsilon were assessed 2 h to 14 days after an inflammatory challenge. Both PKC activity and mucosal injury increased significantly within 4 h of TNBS treatment. PKC activity was maximal at 7 days and declined at 14 days, whereas mucosal damage became maximal at 1 day and declined after 7 days. In contrast, neutrophil infiltration as assessed by myeloperoxidase activity only increased 12 h after TNBS treatment, became maximal 1 day after TNBS administration, and declined thereafter. PKCbeta, -delta, and -epsilon were increased in response to TNBS, whereas PKCalpha protein content was decreased. The PKC antagonists staurosporine and GF-109203X (25 ng/kg iv) reduced TNBS-induced changes in mucosal PKC activity and the degree of mucosal damage. In contrast, neutropenia induced by antineutrophil serum treatment did not significantly affect the degree of injury or mucosal PKC activity. Furthermore, activation of mucosal PKC activity with PMA also induced mucosal damage, which was also inhibited by pretreatment with a PKC antagonist. In conclusion, these results suggest that increases in PKC activity play a causative role in TNBS-induced colitis. The PKC-mediated response to TNBS does not appear to involve neutrophil infiltration.  (+info)

Prolonged colonic epithelial hyporesponsiveness after colitis: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase. (4/2654)

Colonic epithelial secretion is an important host defense mechanism. We examined whether a bout of colitis would produce long-lasting changes in epithelial function that persisted after resolution of mucosal inflammation. Colitis was induced in rats with intracolonic trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Six weeks later, colonic damage and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and activity were measured. Segments of distal colon were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of permeability and responsiveness to secretory stimuli. Basal electrolyte transport parameters and permeability were not different from untreated controls. Despite normal macroscopic and histological appearance, secretory responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and carbachol were significantly depressed (by 60-70%) relative to controls. iNOS mRNA expression and enzyme activity were significantly elevated. Dexamethasone reversed epithelial hyporesponsiveness and significantly reduced iNOS mRNA expression. A selective iNOS inhibitor normalized the secretory responses to EFS and IBMX but not to carbachol. These data suggest that ongoing synthesis of nitric oxide by iNOS contributes to chronic suppression of epithelial secretory function after episodes of colitis.  (+info)

Neurotensin is a proinflammatory neuropeptide in colonic inflammation. (5/2654)

The neuropeptide neurotensin mediates several intestinal functions, including chloride secretion, motility, and cellular growth. However, whether this peptide participates in intestinal inflammation is not known. Toxin A, an enterotoxin from Clostridium difficile, mediates pseudomembranous colitis in humans. In animal models, toxin A causes an acute inflammatory response characterized by activation of sensory neurons and intestinal nerves and immune cells of the lamina propria. Here we show that neurotensin and its receptor are elevated in the rat colonic mucosa following toxin A administration. Pretreatment of rats with the neurotensin receptor antagonist SR-48, 692 inhibits toxin A-induced changes in colonic secretion, mucosal permeability, and histologic damage. Exposure of colonic explants to toxin A or neurotensin causes mast cell degranulation, which is inhibited by SR-48,692. Because substance P was previously shown to mediate mast cell activation, we examined whether substance P is involved in neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation. Our results show that neurotensin-induced mast cell degranulation in colonic explants is inhibited by the substance P (neurokinin-1) receptor antagonist CP-96,345, indicating that colonic mast activation in response to neurotensin involves release of substance P. We conclude that neurotensin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of C. difficile-induced colonic inflammation and mast cell activation.  (+info)

Expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in acute and chronic inflammation. (6/2654)

The objective of this study was to quantify, in vivo, constitutive and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-enhanced expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in different tissues from healthy wild-type mice (C57BL/6) as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice with and without active colitis. Using the dual radiolabel monoclonal antibody technique, we found substantial constitutive expression of MAdCAM-1 in the intestine, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes. MAdCAM-1 expression in these tissues was significantly enhanced, in a time-dependent manner, by systemic administration of TNF-alpha. Maximum surface expression was observed at 18 h after TNF-alpha administration and remained significantly elevated at 48 h post-TNF-alpha injection. No significant constitutive nor TNF-alpha-induced expression of MAdCAM-1 was detected in skeletal muscle, brain, or heart. In IL-10-deficient (IL-10 k/o) mice with no clinical or histological evidence of colitis, constitutive and TNF-alpha-induced expression of MAdCAM-1 in the intestine, cecum, and colon was not different from those values obtained with healthy wild-type controls. IL-10-deficient mice with active colitis exhibited a four- to fivefold greater expression of MAdCAM-1 in the cecum and colon compared with their healthy controls or to IL-10 k/o mice with no evidence of colitis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TNF-alpha enhances surface expression of MAdCAM-1 in intestinal and colonic tissues to the same extent in both wild-type and IL-10 k/o mice with no colonic inflammation, whereas IL-10 k/o mice with active colitis exhibited a profound up-regulation of MAdCAM-1 in the colon.  (+info)

A novel urease-negative Helicobacter species associated with colitis and typhlitis in IL-10-deficient mice. (7/2654)

A spiral-shaped bacterium with bipolar, single-sheathed flagella was isolated from the intestines of IL-10 (interleukin-10)-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice with inflammatory bowel disease. The organism was microaerobic, grew at 37 and 42 degrees C, and was oxidase and catalase positive but urease negative. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and biochemical and phenotypic criteria, the organism is classified as a novel helicobacter. Cesarean section-rederived IL-10(-/-) mice without helicobacter infection did not have histological evidence of intestinal inflammation. However, helicobacter-free IL-10(-/-), SCID/NCr, and A/JNCr mice experimentally inoculated with the novel urease-negative Helicobacter sp. developed variable degrees of inflammation in the lower intestine, and in immunocompetent mice, the experimental infection was accompanied by a corresponding elevated immunoglobulin G antibody response to the novel Helicobacter sp. antigen. These data support other recent studies which demonstrate that multiple Helicobacter spp. in both naturally and experimentally infected mice can induce inflammatory bowel disease. The mouse model of helicobacter-associated intestinal inflammation should prove valuable in understanding how specific microbial antigens influence a complex disease process.  (+info)

Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig. (8/2654)

Activation of neurons in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) was assessed using c-fos, JunB, and c-Jun expression in the guinea pig IMG and colonic myenteric plexus during mechanosensory stimulation and acute colitis in normal and capsaicin-treated animals. Intracolonic saline or 2% acetic acid was administered, and mechanosensory stimulation was performed by passage of a small (0.5 cm) balloon either 4 or 24 hr later. Lower doses of capsaicin or vehicle were used to activate primary afferent fibers during balloon passage. c-Jun did not respond to any of the stimuli in the study. c-fos and JunB were absent from the IMG and myenteric plexus of untreated and saline-treated animals. Acetic acid induced acute colitis by 4 hr, which persisted for 24 hr, but c-fos was found only in enteric glia in the myenteric plexus and was absent from the IMG. Balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in only a small subset of IMG neurons and no myenteric neurons. However, balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in IMG neurons (notably those containing somatostatin) and the myenteric plexus of acetic acid-treated animals. After capsaicin treatment, c-fos and JunB induction by balloon passage was inhibited in the IMG, but there was enhanced c-fos expression in the myenteric plexus. c-fos and JunB induction by balloon stimulation was also mimicked by acute activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. These data suggest that colitis enhances reflex activity of the IMG by a mechanism that involves activation of both primary afferent fibers and the myenteric plexus.  (+info)

The development of colitis is temporally and spatially regulated by a variety of immune cells in concert with colonic epithelial cells.2-4 ,8-12 However, the key cellular signals that trigger exacerbation of colitis remained unclear until the recent finding that the ATP-P2X7 signalling axis in mast cells is pivotal to intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis.8 Based on this knowledge, we demonstrate in the present study that the ceramide-LMIR3 interaction suppresses experimental colitis by inhibiting ATP-mediated mast cell activation.. Comparative analysis of DSS-induced colitis between WT and LMIR3−/− mice demonstrated that LMIR3−/− mice were more prone to colonic inflammation than WT mice under the same experimental conditions including genetic background and the dose of DSS administration: low-dose (1.5%) DSS treatment caused only mild colitis in WT C57BL/6 mice, but induced severe colitis in LMIR3−/− mice; high-dose (2.5%) DSS treatment induced lethal colitis only in most ...
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP) comprise a family of enzymes which catalyse poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DNA-binding proteins. Multiple researches indicate the importance of PARP in promoting cell recruitment and thereby inducing organ injury in various forms of inflammation, such as colitis. We have evaluated the effects of two PARP inhibitors, nicotinamide and 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline, in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Nicotinamide (20-40 mg/kg) and 1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (4-8 mg/kg) were administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis as well as 24 h later. 48 h after colitis induction the lesions were blindly scored and quantified as ulcer index. Histological study and colonic inflammation were assessed by gross appearance and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Inflammation following TNBS
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells can prevent and resolve intestinal inflammation in the murine T cell transfer model of colitis. Using Foxp3 as a marker of regulatory T cell activity, we now provide a comprehensive analysis of the in vivo distribution of Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ cells in wild-type mice, and during cure of experimental colitis. In both cases, Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ cells were found to accumulate in the colon and secondary lymphoid organs. Importantly, Foxp3+ cells were present at increased density in colon samples from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease, suggesting similarities in the behavior of murine and human regulatory cells under inflammatory conditions. Cure of murine colitis was dependent on the presence of IL-10, and IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ T cells were enriched within the colon during cure of colitis and also under steady state conditions. Our data indicate that although CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing Foxp3 are present within both lymphoid organs and the colon, subsets of IL-10
Animal models of intestinal inflammation are indispensable for our understanding of the pathogenesis of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Here, we provide protocols for establishing murine 2,4,6-trinitro benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-, oxazolone- and both acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, the most widely used chemically induced models of intestinal inflammation. In the former two models, colitis is induced by intrarectal administration of the covalently reactive reagents TNBS/oxazolone, which are believed to induce a T-cell-mediated response against hapten-modified autologous proteins/luminal antigens. In the DSS model, mice are subjected several days to drinking water supplemented with DSS, which seems to be directly toxic to colonic epithelial cells of the basal crypts. The procedures for the hapten models of colitis and acute DSS colitis can be accomplished in about 2 weeks but the protocol for chronic DSS colitis
It is generally assumed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related carcinogenesis occurs as a result of chronic inflammation. We previously developed a novel colitis-related mouse colon carcinogenesis model initiated with azoxymethane (AOM) and followed by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In the present study we investigated whether a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor nimesulide and ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), troglitazone (a PPARγ ligand) and bezafibrate (a PPARα ligand) inhibit colitis-related colon carcinogenesis using our model to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in prevention of IBD-related colon carcinogenesis. Female CD-1 (ICR) mice were given a single intraperitoneal administration of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight) and followed by one-week oral exposure of 2% (w/v) DSS in drinking water, and then maintained on the basal diets mixed with or without nimesulide (0.04%, w/w), troglitazone (0.05%, w/w), and bezafibrate (0.05%, w/w) for 14 weeks. The inhibitory
MARQUES JR, Oswaldo et al. Cytomegaloviral colitis in HIV positive patients: endoscopic findings. Arq. Gastroenterol. [online]. 2007, vol.44, n.4, pp.315-319. ISSN 0004-2803. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-28032007000400007.. BACKGROUND: Diarrhea in seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients is one of the most important and disabling symptoms, and often decreases their quality of life. Cytomegalovirus colitis is among the principal causes of this symptom and colonoscopy is the gold standard examination to diagnose it. AIM: To define the main endoscopic findings in seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients with cytomegalovirus colitis. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-three colonoscopies were performed in 200 seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients with diarrhea associated or not to abdominal pain or gastrointestinal bleeding, over 10-year period, whom 51 patients were diagnosed with cytomegalovirus colitis. Full length colonoscopy with ileum intubation was always tried ...
This article focuses on discussing specific histologic features in biopsies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis, Crohn colitis, and colitis of indeterminate type. It also offers suggestions as to how to separate the IBDs from other chronic colitides, such as lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, diverticular disease -associated colitis, diversion colit...
During swelling, in DSS-induced and T cell-mediated colitis, CX3CR1int cells are either defined as inflammatory M? [15,18], which are sessile cells unable to migrate, Mo-DCs, or even cDCs, capable of migration and antigen demonstration [9,48,49]. The classification of CD14+CD163? MNPs infiltrating CD and UC colon into inflammatory monocyte-derived-DCs (Inf Mo-DCs), monocyte-derived M? (Inf M?), monocyte-like cells (Inf Mo-like), or DCs (Inf DCs) remains demanding. Andarine (GTX-007) with IBD. gene signature was enriched in CD163? cells, whereas the second one expressing was enriched in CD163hi M? [31]. The four remaining clusters were enriched in cells bearing the gene signature of IFNA1 pDCs (e.g., and and and and [46] with inflammatory CD14+CD163? MNPs in adult IBD [31]. Collectively, inflamed IBD mucosa is definitely mainly infiltrated by a swarm of pro-inflammatory CD14+CD163? MNPs that cohabit with CD14+CD163+ M? and cDCs and potentially travel T cell intestinal swelling in IBD (Number 4 ...
Acute colitis Acute colitis is an acute inflammatory response of the mucous membrane of the colon in response to infectious, toxic, pharmacological or endogenous factors.
In this study, we analyzed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) in an experimental colitis model. Seventeen Wistar Alb..
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Fisher on handling distal colitis condition: ileo-rectal anastamosis. You can always go back to colostomy. Consult with your surgeon regarding specific advice in your case. for topic: Handling Distal Colitis Condition
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The usual treatment of colitis with suppressive drugs is based on the assumption that colitis is due to germ infection, which it is not. The suppressive drugs drive back into the system the toxic matter in the colon which nature is endeavouring to eliminate in the form of mucus. They suppress the symptoms temporarily, without removing the cause. In such cases, the symptoms of colitis recur and colitis becomes chronic. Plain warm water or warm water with a little olive oil used as a wash-out is the only method of softening and removing the accumulations of hardened matter sticking to the walls of the colon. Diet plays an important part in the treatment of colitis. It is advisable to observe a juice fast for five days or so in most cases of ulcerative colitis. The juices may be diluted with a little boiled water. Papaya juice, raw cabbage and carrot juices will be especially beneficial. Citrus juices should be avoided. The bowel should be cleansed daily with a warm water enema. After the juice ...
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Colitis in the adult horse is a challenge to definitively diagnose and often costly to successfully treat. It is also a difficult disease to explain to horse owners.. Colitis is inflammation of the large colon, the lower part of the intestine where most of the critical fermentation, digestion, and absorption of feed takes place. The colon is a piece of intestine that is approximately 9 feet long, 10 inches in diameter and weighing 150 lbs when it contains feed. When this giant organ is unhealthy, so is the horse. The key to understanding colitis is understanding the delicate bacterial balance that exists in the colon. Anything that disrupts this balance, including infectious agents or antibiotics, can cause life threatening disease. Colitis is usually caused by Salmonella, Clostridial infection, and Potomac Horse Fever (protozoal infection).. My approach to acute colitis is to treat as it aggressively as possible early in the course of disease. This provides the best chance for survival and ...
Evidence strongly supported a link between inflammation and cancer. Patients with colitis have high risk for development of colon cancer. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B), partially induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, is a vital molecule in supervising the transformation of colitis to colon cancer. It could be a good strategy to prevent colitis carcinogenesis for targeting LPS/TLR4/NF-B pathway. In the present study, we obtained an oligogalactan composed of five galacturonic acids from apple pectin and evaluated its protective efficacy on intestinal toxicities and carcinogenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The apple oligogalactan (AOG) was highly effective against intestinal toxicities and carcinogenesis and decreased the elevated levels of TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) induced by inflammation in vivo in this model system. In vitro studies, AOG alone only ...
We explored the function of endogenous type I IFNs (IFN-1) in the colon using the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis. Colon mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) constitutively produced IFN-1 in a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β-dependent manner. Transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells from wild-type (WT) or IFN-α/β receptor subunit 1 knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice into RAG(-/-) hosts resulted in similar onset and severity of colitis. In contrast, RAG(-/-) × IFNAR1(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice developed accelerated severe colitis compared with RAG(-/-) hosts when transferred with WT CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. IFNAR signaling on host hematopoietic cells was required to delay colitis development. MPs isolated from the colon lamina propria of IFNAR1(-/-) mice produced less IL-10, IL-1R antagonist, and IL-27 compared with WT MPs. Accelerated colitis development in DKO mice was characterized by early T cell proliferation and accumulation of CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells in the mesenteric
Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Inflammatory cell apoptosis is a key mechanism regulating ulcerative colitis. American ginseng (AG) is a putative antioxidant that can suppress hyperactive immune cells. We have recently shown that AG can prevent and treat mouse colitis. Because p53 levels are elevated in inflammatory cells in both mouse and human colitis, we tested the hypothesis that AG protects from colitis by driving inflammatory cell apoptosis through a p53 mechanism. We used isogenic p53+/+ and p53−/− inflammatory cell lines as well as primary CD4+/CD25− effector T cells from p53+/+ and p53−/− mice to show that AG drives apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. Moreover, we used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in C57BL/6 p53+/+ and p53−/− mice to test whether the protective effect of AG against colitis is p53 dependent. Data indicate that AG induces apoptosis in p53+/+ but not in ...
Herbs and Colitis Herbs can help the symptoms of all forms of colitis including mucus colitis, ulcerative colitiis, Crohns colitis, and help to prevent cancer. The ColitisLess herbal medicine contains herbs that are specific for the colitis and crohns condition and typical symptoms. It has given significant help to a great many patients down the years. Take the tonic at 5ml
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a major role in suppressing inflammation in the gut. However, the mechanisms of this suppression remain unclear. In this paper, Bauché et.al. show that Tregs suppress group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3)-driven colitis by suppressing interleukin-22 (IL-23) and IL-1β production by gut-resident macrophages. Furthermore, they show that latent activation gene-3 (LAG-3) on Tregs binds to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II on gut-resident macrophages to mediate this suppression.. The authors used an anti-CD40-induced colitis mouse model in which IL-22-producing ILC3 cells are known to play a key role in driving the disease pathology. Upon adoptive transfer of Tregs, they observed a reduction in IL-22-producing ILC3 cells and disease severity. Conversely, depletion of Tregs using Foxp3DTR mice led to an increase in IL-22-producing ILC3 cells and exacerbated disease severity. These results support a role for Tregs in suppressing ILC3-driven colitis. In ...
Preclinical evaluation of potential drug candidates for human inflammatory bowel disease is performed in murine models of colitis. The most widely used model is dextran-sodium sulfate(DSS)-induced colitis. Non-invasive imaging of murine experimental colitis by Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with radiotracers is feasible and offers the opportunity of serial follow-up investigations. This technique significantly reduces the number of test animals. More... ...
The role of infliximab in the treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in Asia is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of infliximab therapy in Korean U
Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), are characterized by high levels of IL-22 production. Rodent studies revealed that this cytokine is protective during colitis but whether this is true in IBDs is unclear. We show here that levels of the soluble inhibitor of IL-22, interleukin 22-binding protein (IL-22BP), are significantly enhanced during IBDs owing to increased numbers of IL-22BP-producing eosinophils, that we unexpectedly identify as the most abundant source of IL-22BP protein in human gut. In addition, using IL-22BP-deficient rats, we confirm that endogenous IL-22BP is effective at blocking protective actions of IL-22 during acute colitis. In conclusion, our study provides new important insights regarding the biology of IL-22 and IL-22BP in the gut and indicates that protective actions of IL-22 are likely to be suboptimal in IBDs thus making IL-22BP a new relevant therapeutic target.
Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10 -/-) mice show a hyper-reaction to normal intestinal bacteria and develop spontaneous colitis similar to that of human Crohn's disease when raised under conventional (but not germ-free) conditions. The lack of IL10 protein in these mice leads to changes in intestinal metabolic and signalling processes. The first aim of this study was to identify changes in the bacterial community of the caeca at 7 weeks of age (preclinical colitis) and at 12 weeks of age (when clinical signs of colitis are present), and establish if there were any changes that could be associated with the mouse genotype. We have previously shown that dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and affect colonic gene expression profiles in Il10 -/- mice; therefore, we also aimed to test the effect of the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) on the bacterial community of caeca in both Il10 -/- and C57 mice fed these
/PRNewswire/ -- Protagonist Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: PTGX) today announced that the Company is discontinuing the Phase 2b PROPEL study of PTG-100, its...
Stress or chronic Colitis in Dogs. What to do when canine colitis is brought on by stress? And how to recognize Stress or chronic Colitis in Dogs? Go here!
Looking for colitis? Find out information about colitis. inflammation of the colon, or large intestine intestine, muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach... Explanation of colitis
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathophysiologic hallmark of the aging heart. In the uninjured heart, cardiac fibroblasts exist in the quiescent state, but little is known about how proliferation rates and fibroblast transcriptional programs change throughout the lifespan of the organism from the immediate postnatal period to adult life and old age. Using EdU pulse labeling, we demonstrate that more than 50% of cardiac fibroblasts are actively proliferating in the first day of post-natal life. However, within 4 weeks of birth in the juvenile animal, only 10% of cardiac fibroblasts are proliferating. By early adulthood, the fraction of proliferating cardiac fibroblasts further decreases to approximately 2%, where it so remains throughout the rest of the organisms life span. Examination of absolute cardiac fibroblast numbers demonstrated concordance with age related changes in fibroblast proliferation with no significant differences in absolute cardiac fibroblast numbers between animals 14 weeks and 1.5 ...
Canine colitis is the inflammation of the colon. It can be acute or chronic. The typical symptom of colitis in dogs is chronic diarrhea. Here are the symptoms, causes and treatment of colitis in dogs.
Gasdermin D (GSDMD) induces pyroptosis via the pore-forming activity of its N-terminal domain, cleaved by activated caspases associated with the release of IL-1β. Here, we report a nonpyroptotic role of full-length GSDMD in guiding the release of IL-1β-containing small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In response to caspase-8 inflammasome activation, GSDMD, chaperoned by Cdc37/Hsp90, recruits the E3 ligase, NEDD4, to catalyze polyubiquitination of pro-IL-1β, serving as a signal for cargo loading into secretory vesicles. GSDMD and IL-1β colocalize with the exosome markers CD63 and ALIX intracellularly, and GSDMD and NEDD4 are required for release of CD63+ sEVs containing IL-1β, GSDMD, NEDD4, and caspase-8. Importantly, increased expression of epithelial-derived GSDMD is observed both in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and those with experimental colitis. While GSDMD-dependent release of IL-1β-containing sEVs is detected in cultured colonic
The Th2-linked reaction is stimulated by recognition of antigens. In mice with colitis, an infection provoked shifting to Th1-associated responses and higher focus of specific IgG1 to L4 larvae at 6 DPI but the focus of particular IgA and IgE was only marginally decreased. A significant manifestation of immunity to gastro-intestinal nematodes is the failure of infective larvae to build and experienced to grown ups in the gut. The improvements in the modest intestine of mice provoked by colitis brought on greater adaptation of the L3 larvae and worm growth. Only roughly 20% of L3 larvae had not adapted in the intestine and were expelled from the intestine. This striking outcome compares with an institution of 40% or less in sensitive strains of mice. In mice with colitis, pre-maturation mortality was decrease. It was probably linked with the phenomenon of arrested larvae at the L4 (hypobiosis of larvae) and was related with increased resistance of the hosts to the parasites [eighteen]. The ...
Intestinal permeability and contractility in murine colitis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In this study, we have analyzed the role of IL-10 signaling in CD4 T cells by generating dominant-negative IL-10Rα TG mice. Our results indicated that direct IL-10 signals control colitis development, in particular when caused by the Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo memory/effector CD4 T cell population. This has also spotlighted characteristic differences in the mechanism of colitis development mediated by CD45RBhi cells or Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells.. It was previously reported by others that activation could reduce the expression of IL-10R1 (IL-10Rα) mRNA in human T cell clones (Liu et al., 1994). We found that although expression of mouse IL-10Rα is reduced upon activation, it recovered after 24-48 h both at the level of mRNA (not depicted) and cell surface protein expression (Fig. S1). In addition, the surface expression of IL-10Rα is detectable at any time of activation by flow cytometry. The IL-10Rα on the surface of T cells is functional after IL-10 stimulation as Stat3 ...
In this study, we have analyzed the role of IL-10 signaling in CD4 T cells by generating dominant-negative IL-10Rα TG mice. Our results indicated that direct IL-10 signals control colitis development, in particular when caused by the Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo memory/effector CD4 T cell population. This has also spotlighted characteristic differences in the mechanism of colitis development mediated by CD45RBhi cells or Treg cell-depleted CD45RBlo CD4+ T cells.. It was previously reported by others that activation could reduce the expression of IL-10R1 (IL-10Rα) mRNA in human T cell clones (Liu et al., 1994). We found that although expression of mouse IL-10Rα is reduced upon activation, it recovered after 24-48 h both at the level of mRNA (not depicted) and cell surface protein expression (Fig. S1). In addition, the surface expression of IL-10Rα is detectable at any time of activation by flow cytometry. The IL-10Rα on the surface of T cells is functional after IL-10 stimulation as Stat3 ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplemental Material kvir-10-01-1573050-s001. for mucosal curing. (ETEC) causes diarrhea through secretion of enterotoxins, whereas enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. can be a mouse pathogen that uses the same system mainly because EPEC and EHEC to colonize epithelial cells. During the order Olaparib mid-point of contamination, the host response to is usually primarily Th1/Th17 driven, whereas cytokines of Th2/anti-inflammatory type appear during clearance: interferon gamma (become up-regulated throughout contamination whereas mRNA become upregulated during clearance only [1]. Colonic mucus consists of two layers: an inner, firm, nominally sterile layer and an outer, loose layer, which is a niche for commensal bacteria [2]. Bacterial penetration of the inner mucus layer and access to the epithelium are important determinants of colitis, both in murine colitis models and in ...
Transplanting gut bacteria from healthy donors was used to successfully treat patients suffering from severe colitis caused by treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) - Featured https://debuglies.com
The mechanisms of wound healing in the gut are poorly understood but are mediated by cytokines in other tissues. In this study we wanted to determine which cytokines were expressed after nonspecific colonie injury, the kinetics of that expression, and how cytokine expression correlated with tissue histology. At 0,4, 8,12,24,48, and 72 h after intrarectal administration of 3% acetic acid to C3H/HeJ mice, their colons were removed for histology, organ culture, and RNA extraction. Cytokine mRNA expression for various cytokines was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for each cytokine. Cytokine production in organ cultures was measured with bioassays. Shortly after colonie injury and during colonie regeneration, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-lβ (IL-lβ), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were expressed. In contrast, expression of T cell-derived ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous group of mucosal inflammatory cells that participate in chronic intestinal inflammation. We investigated the role of interleukin 6 (IL6) in inducing activation of ILCs in mice and in human beings with chronic intestinal inflammation. METHODS: ILCs were isolated from colons of Tbx21(-/-) × Rag2(-/-) mice (TRUC), which develop colitis; patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); and patients without colon inflammation (controls). ILCs were characterized by flow cytometry; cytokine production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine bead arrays. Mice were given intraperitoneal injections of depleting (CD4, CD90), neutralizing (IL6), or control antibodies. Isolated colon tissues were analyzed by histology, explant organ culture, and cell culture. Bacterial DNA was extracted from mouse fecal samples to assess the intestinal microbiota. RESULTS: IL17A- and IL22-producing, natural cytotoxicity ...
The results demonstrate that the PAR2 antagonist GB88 has significant disease-modifying benefits in experimental colitis, supporting a pivotal role for PAR2 in the pathogenesis of IBD. Until now, there has been no potent or orally bioavailable PAR2 antagonist available to investigate PAR2 antagonism in vivo. We have found here that a PAR2 agonist induces acute symptoms of colitis-like inflammation (edema, mastocytosis, mucin depletion, and mucosal erosion) in rats and demonstrated that the PAR2 antagonist GB88 ameliorates colonic inflammation in this model. Moreover, GB88 was also efficacious in a more general chronic (TNBS-induced) model of experimental colitis in rats, being more effective than the clinically used sulfasalazine (at 10% of the dose). The data support the development of PAR2 antagonists for treating IBDs.. In rats receiving intracolonic PAR2 agonist, we have also made the novel finding of an inverse relationship between PAR2 expression in the cytosol of mucosal goblet cells and ...
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Bevezetés: Európában 2012 óta engedélyezett adalimumab alkalmazása terápiarefrakter colitis ulcerosa kezelésére. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja volt, hogy colitis ulcerosás betegek körében országos szinten felmérjék az adalimumab hatásosságát és biztonságosságát. Módszer: Prospektív tanulmányban felmérték a tartós klinikai válasz, a teljes remisszió, illetve elsődleges vagy másodlagos hatásvesztés arányát a kezelés 12., 30. és 52. hetében. Értékelték az 52. héten a nyálkahártya-gyógyulás megoszlását. Eredmények: A vizsgálatba 73 aktív colitis ulcerosás beteget vontak be. Rövid távú klinikai válasz a betegek 75,3%-ában alakult ki a 12. hétre. Az adalimumabkezelés fenntarthatóságának valószínűsége az 52. hétig 48,6% volt, amelyet tartós klinikai válasz kísért a betegek 92%-ánál. Nyálkahártya-gyógyulás a betegek 48,1%-ában volt kimutatható az 52. héten. A betegek 17,6%-ánál terápiamódosításra, 5,4%-ánál ...
ANSWER: Dogs with colitis often have fresh, red blood and/or mucus in their stools. In some cases, your dog may seem constipated and strain without producing any feces. With acute colitis, your dog might show no other signs of being sick except diarrhea or straining to defecate.
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The key role of interleukin (IL)-23 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders is supported by the identification of IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) susceptibility alleles associated with inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. IL-23-driven inflammation has primarily been linked to the actions of T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells. Somewhat overlooked, IL-23 also has inflammatory effects on innate immune cells and can drive T-cell-independent colitis. However, the downstream cellular and molecular pathways involved in this innate intestinal inflammatory response are poorly characterized. Here we show that bacteria-driven innate colitis is associated with an increased production of IL-17 and interferon-gamma in the colon. Stimulation of colonic leukocytes with IL-23 induced the production of IL-17 and interferon-gamma exclusively by innate lymphoid cells expressing Thy1, stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1), retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-gammat and IL-23R, and
In humans, colonoscopy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of inflammatory changes of the colon wall. Aim of this study was the identification of less i
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The complement system is a potent effector of innate immunity. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we evaluated the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in genetically complement C5-deficient mice. We used DBA2/J mice, which are genetically deficient in complement C5. DBA1/J mice have a normal complement system, and were used as controls. Experimental colitis was induced by the oral administration of 3.5% (w/v) DSS in their drinking water for 10 days. On day 10, all mice were sacrificed and their colons were collected. The development of colitis was assessed by the histological score, disease activity index, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and macroscopic changes of the colon. Body weight loss was more apparent in the DBA2/J mice than in control DBA1/J mice. The colon length was shorter in the DBA2/J mice than in DBA1/J mice. The disease activity index, histological colitis score, and MPO activity were all ...
ECCO - European Crohn´s and Colitis Organisation. The European Crohn\s and Colitis Organisation is a highly active non-profit association focusing on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD).
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Chengxin Shi,1,* Fengli Yue,2,* Feiyu Shi,1 Qian Qin,1 Lizhao Wang,1 Guanghui Wang,1 Lijun Mu,1 Dan Liu,1 Yaguang Li,1 Tianyu Yu,1 Junjun She1 1Department...
Title:Possible Molecular Mechanisms by which Vitamin D Prevents Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colitis-associated Colorectal Cancer. VOLUME: 24 ISSUE: 9. Author(s):Zijian Luan, Yiming Ma, Yu Xin, Jiaming Qian* and Hongying Wang*. Affiliation:Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing. Keywords:Vitamin D, IBD, colitis-associated colorectal cancer, inflammation, NF-κ B, EMT, cancer stem cell.. Abstract:It is well accepted that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effect of amphipterygium adstringens extract on dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. AU - Rodriguez-Canales, Mario. AU - Jimenez-Rivas, Ruben. AU - Canales-Martinez, Maria Margarita. AU - Garcia-Lopez, Ana Judith. AU - Rivera-Yañez, Nelly. AU - Nieto-Yañez, Oscar. AU - Ledesma-Soto, Yadira. AU - Sanchez-Torres, Luvia Enid. AU - Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam. AU - Terrazas, Luis Ignacio. AU - Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - © 2016 Mario Rodriguez-Canales et al. Amphipterygium adstringens is an endemic species in Mexico commonly known as cuachalalate. Healers to treat gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer have traditionally used the bark. We investigated the effects of alcoholic extract of A. adstringens (AaEE) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. The protective effect of AaEE was determined at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage for 10 days. We determine the effect of AaEE on clinical features (disease activity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plant polysaccharide supplements reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in colonic tissue of mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. AU - Ramberg, Jane E.. AU - Nelson, Erika D.. AU - Jacoby, Henry I.. AU - Li, Quan Zhen. AU - Koetzner, Lee. AU - Zhang, Bo. AU - Boulet, Jamie. AU - Sinnott, Robert A.. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Oral ingestion of polysaccharides can elicit immunomodulatory effects, both systemically and in the gut, but their mechanisms of action are not well understood In a recent study, two aloe vera gel-based mixed polysaccharide dietary supplements (Advanced Ambrotose® powder and Ambrotose® complex) protected rats against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC). To better understand the mechanisms by which these supplements protect against colonic inflammation, we examined the effect of supplement feeding, with exposure to 5% DSS during the last eight days, on colonic gene activity in mice. DSS exposure ...
Table of Contents. 1. Report Introd Ulcerative Colitis. 2. Executive Summary. 3. SWOT analysis. 4. Ulcerative Colitis Patient Share (%) Overview at a Glance. 5. Ulcerative Colitis Market Overview at a Glance. 6. Ulcerative Colitis Disease Background and Overview. 7. Ulcerative Colitis Epidemiology and Patient Population. 8. Country-Specific Patient Population of Ulcerative Colitis. 9. Ulcerative Colitis Current Treatment and Medical Practices. 10. Unmet Needs. 11. Ulcerative Colitis Emerging Therapies. 12. Ulcerative Colitis Market Outlook. 13. Country-Wise Ulcerative Colitis Market Analysis (2017-2030). 14. Market Access and Reimbursement of Therapies. 15. Market drivers. 16. Market barriers. 17. Appendix. 18. Ulcerative Colitis Report Methodology. 19. DelveInsight Capabilities. 20. Disclaimer. 21. About DelveInsight. Related Reports:. Ulcerative Colitis Pipeline Ulcerative Colitis Pipeline Insight, 2021 report by DelveInsight outlines comprehensive insights of present clinical development ...
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a biologically active peptide which has been tested as a new therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in animal models and in patients with severe ulcerative colitis. We used an inducible knockout (KO) mouse model for AM to evaluate the effects of endogenous levels of this peptide on the development and degree of pathogenesis of IBD. Acute colitis was induced in mice of both sexes by rectal instillation of 3 mg 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in 100 µL of 50% ethanol. Control mice received the same volume of saline in 50% ethanol. During the following 5 days, the weight and the disease severity index of all animals were recorded. After sacrifice, the inflammatory response was macroscopically assessed by analyzing the weight of the colon; by histomorphometrical analysis on histological sections; and by qRT-PCR determination of different inflammatory, adhesion, and regeneration molecules. TNBS administration caused a significantly more severe colitis in KO mice, and
|span class=paragraphSection||div class=boxTitle|Abstract|/div||div class=boxTitle|Introduction:|/div|α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to assess the role of α7 nAChRs in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in male and female mouse. We first compared disease activity and pathogenesis of colitis in α7 knockout and wild-type mice. We then evaluated the effect of several α7 direct and indirect agonists on the severity of disease in the DSS-induced colitis.|div class=boxTitle|Methods:|/div|Male and female adult mice were administered 2.5% DSS solution freely in the drinking water for 7 consecutive days and the colitis severity (disease activity index) was evaluated as well as colon length, colon histology, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha colonic levels.|div class=boxTitle|Results:|/div|Male, but not female, α7 knockout mice displayed a significantly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytomegalovirus colitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. T2 - Radiologic spectrum. AU - Frager, David H.. AU - Frager, Joseph D.. AU - Wolf, Ellen L.. AU - Rand, Lawrence G.. AU - Onge, Geraldine St. AU - Mitsudo, Sumi. AU - Bodner, Leonard. AU - Brandt, Lawrence J.. AU - Beneventano, Thomas C.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Six cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis are described. The radiographic manifestations of this colitis are nonspecific and usually mimic the findings of ulcerative colitis with diffuse mucosal ulceration or granulomatous colitis with aphthous ulceration and skip areas. Terminal ileal involvement was noted in 1 patient. Nonspecific edema was present in 2 other cases. One patient demonstrated unusual cecal and ascending colonic nodularity due to pseudomembranes and, in another, large flat discrete ulcerations were identified. Angiography, in 1 case, demonstrated marked hypervascularity and identified a site of hemorrhage in the ascending colon. ...
Small heterodimer partner interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) is an orphan nuclear receptor and a member of the bZIP family of proteins. We investigated the mechanism by which SMILE suppressed the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using a DSS-induced colitis mouse model and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Metformin, an antidiabetic drug and an inducer of AMPK, upregulated the level of SMILE in human intestinal epithelial cells and the number of SMILE-expressing cells in colon tissues from DSS-induced colitis mice compared to control mice. Overexpression of SMILE using a DNA vector reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis and colitis-associated intestinal fibrosis compared to mock vector. Furthermore, SMILE transgenic mice showed ameliorated DSS-induced colitis compared with wild-type mice. The mRNA levels of SMILE and Foxp3 were downregulated and SMILE expression was positively correlated with Foxp3 in PBMCs from patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fucose ameliorates tryptophan metabolism and behavioral abnormalities in a mouse model of chronic colitis. AU - Borisova, Mariya A.. AU - Snytnikova, Olga A.. AU - Litvinova, Ekaterina A.. AU - Achasova, Kseniya M.. AU - Babochkina, Tatiana I.. AU - Pindyurin, Alexey V.. AU - Tsentalovich, Yuri P.. AU - Kozhevnikova, Elena N.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/2/11. Y1 - 2020/2/11. N2 - Growing evidence suggests that intestinal mucosa homeostasis impacts immunity, metabolism, the Central Nervous System (CNS), and behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of the monosaccharide fucose on inflammation, metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and social behavior in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model. Our data show that chronic colitis is accompanied by the decrease of the serum tryptophan level and the depletion of the intestinal ...
Introduction. Ischemic colitis represents the most common form of intestinal ischemia with an incidence estimated between 4.5 and 44 cases per 100,000 person-years (1). Age represents an important risk factor as up to 90% of ischemic colitis occurs in patients over 60 years of age (2). Rarely, ischemic colitis has been reported in young and otherwise healthy individuals with no known risk factors (3). Many drugs have been associated with ischemic colitis including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, vasopressors, cytotoxic agents, and neuroleptics (4). Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic commonly prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes, has been linked to several reports of ischemic colitis (5-7). The underlying mechanism is believed to involve blockage of peripheral anticholinergic and antiserotonergic receptors leading to severe gastrointestinal hypomotility (8). Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic with a similar pharmacological profile to clozapine (9), has ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD45RC(high)CD4+ intestinal mucosal lymphocytes infiltrating in the inflamed colonic mucosa of a novel rat colitis model induced by TNB immunization. AU - Watanabe, Mamoru. AU - Hosoda, Yasuo. AU - Okamoto, Susumu. AU - Yamazaki, Motomi. AU - Inoue, Nagamu. AU - Ueno, Yoshitaka. AU - Iwao, Yasushi. AU - Ishii, Hiromasa. AU - Watanabe, Noriaki. AU - Hamada, Yoshiki. AU - Yamada, Takaya. AU - Suzuki, Tatsuo. AU - Hibi, Toshifumi. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - To clarify the role of CD4+ intestinal mucosal lymphocytes in chronic intestinal inflammation, we developed a new rat colitis model by immunization with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNB) in an emulsion with an adjuvant followed by transrectal administration of a low dose of TNB. Moreover, we assessed the therapeutic effect of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on this model. In concert with the development of serum anti-TNB Abs, transmural and segmental colitis that mimics some characteristics of human Crohns disease ...
Although Western diet and dysbiosis are the most prominent environmental factors associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), the corresponding host factors and cellular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report that the TSC1/mTOR pathway in the gut epithelium represents a metabolic and innate immune checkpoint for intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. mTOR hyperactivation triggered by Western diet or Tsc1 ablation led to epithelium necroptosis, barrier disruption, and predisposition to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and inflammation-associated colon cancer. Mechanistically, our results uncovered a critical role for TSC1/mTOR in restraining the expression and activation of RIPK3 in the gut epithelium through TRIM11-mediated ubiquitination and autophagy-dependent degradation. Notably, microbiota depletion by antibiotics or gnotobiotics attenuated RIPK3 expression and activation, thereby alleviating epithelial necroptosis and colitis driven by mTOR hyperactivation. mTOR ...
Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 carrying Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and an N-terminal deletion mutant of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 genes was applied to dextran sodium sulfate treated female Wistar rats. Stool quality, food and water intake were monitored. Markers of oxidative stress, interleukin 1, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were quantified. No differences were found in body weights, markers of oxidative stress in plasma and inflammatory markers in colon homogenates. Plasma concentrations of Il1, Il6 were lower in the treatment groups than in the dextran sodium sulfate group. However, dextran sodium sulfate induced inflammation could not be confirmed by plasma levels of Il1, Il6 and TNFalpha. Although some parameters showed a tendency to improve, the inflammation caused by administration of 4% dextran sodium sulfate during 7 days was low and contradictory to other studies. Results showed the potential synergic effect of combined bacteria-mediated antioxidative and ...
Ischemic colitis occurs when blood flow to part of the large intestine (colon) is reduced, usually due to narrowed or blocked blood vessels (arteries). The diminished blood flow doesnt provide enough oxygen for the cells in your digestive system.. Ischemic colitis can cause pain and may damage your colon. Any part of the colon can be affected, but ischemic colitis usually causes pain on the left side of the belly area (abdomen).. The condition can be misdiagnosed because it can easily be confused with other digestive problems. Ischemic colitis may heal on its own. But you may need medication to treat ischemic colitis or prevent infection, or you may need surgery if your colon has been damaged.. Signs and symptoms of ischemic colitis can include:. ...
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD) constitute the two major inflammatory bowel diseases in man. Both are serious chronic illnesses of the intestine with severe debilitating effects. The etiology of the diseases is unknown, but involvement of both adaptive and innate immune reactions seems to be major factors in the pathogenesis. In this thesis the roles of key molecules of the adaptive immunity, i.e. interleukin-2 (IL-2), and innate immunity, i.e. β-defensins, were studied both in human inflammation of the large intestine and in mouse colitis models.. β-defensins are small endogenous peptides with antimicrobial activity. Previous studies showed that expression of human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2), hBD-3, and hBD-4 is induced in colonic epithelial cells of UC patients. Here we demonstrate that cells expressing these three β-defensins are present also in the colonic lamina propria of UC patients and less frequently in CD patients, and controls. These cells were identified as mature ...
Calcitriol Inhibits the Th1 and Promotes the Th2 Profile in Mice with TNBS Colitis. Th1 lymphocyte differentiation is known to be based on a sequence of cell-intrinsic and exogenous, DC-derived factors, including augmentation of the transcription factor T-bet following activation by DC-derived IL-12. The observed reduction of the Th1 mediators, especially after treatment with the combination of dexamethasone and calcitriol, was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis of the T-bet. The combined administration of calcitriol and dexamethasone led to a significant reduction of T-bet protein expression compared with dexamethasone monotherapy (P , 0.001 versus dexamethasone, Fig. 3, A and B). As a next step to assess a possible role of calcitriol and dexamethasone in promoting the Th2 subset, we analyzed IL-4 production as well as the relevant Th2 lineage commitment factor GATA3. Calcitriol significantly up-regulated IL-4, whereas dexamethasone alone did not cause any significant change in IL-4 ...
The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the sequential changes in gut microbiota and metabolites from the onset of colitis to the recovery in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice were characterized by using meta 16S rRNA sequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis. Mice in the colitis progression phase showed the transient expansions of two bacterial families including Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae and the depletion of major gut commensal bacteria belonging to the uncultured Bacteroidales family S24-7, Rikenellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. After the initiation of the recovery, commensal Lactobacillus members promptly predominated in gut while other normally abundant bacteria excluding the Erysipelotrichaceae remained
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR down-regulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells (VDRf/f;Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC) or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust TH1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells ...
ECCO - European Crohn´s and Colitis Organisation. The European Crohn\s and Colitis Organisation is a highly active non-profit association focusing on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD).
In this report we have added to our understanding of the role of ILK in intestinal pathophysiology, specifically in the setting of bacterial infection. Similar to the findings reported for DSS-induced colitis we show that there is a reduced inflammatory response, associated with a reduction in CCL2 expression, an important immune cell chemoattractant. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the pattern but not the magnitude of epithelial C. rodentium binding is altered in the ILK-ko mice, with preserved apical binding but reduced lateral epithelial cell binding/migration, in between adjacent crypts. Although the reduced expression of fibronectin may account for this finding, we cannot exclude alterations in other extracellular matrix components, or alterations in the levels of other cell surface integrins as being involved in this response. An additional role for ILK is indicated by the reduced crypt hyperplasia observed associated with decreased cyclin D1 on immunohistochemistry, in ILK-ko ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) ligand on the permeability and structure of small intestine tight junctions (TJs) in an animal model of experimental colitis, induced by dinitrobenzene sulfuric acid (DNBS). Four days after colitis induction with DNBS, the ileal TJs were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy using lanthanum nitrate and immunohistochemistry of occludin, zonula occludens 1, and claudin 2. Administration of DNBS to wild-type mice induced colon injury associated with a significant increase of plasma and colon tumor necrosis factor-α levels and with a significant increase of ileal permeability. Distal colitis in mice induced an increase of TJ permeability throughout the entire small intestine, and the extent of alterations correlates with colonic damage. Small intestinal permeability was associated with the presence of apoptosis (evaluated by FAS ligand expression and terminal ...
Ischaemic colitis. Endoscopic view of the interior of a patients colon (large intestine) affected by ischaemic colitis. Ischaemic colitis is the inflammation of the colon due to reduced blood supply. Ischaemia is an uncommon cause of colitis and is caused by narrowing of the arteries supplying the intestines by atherosclerosis (the build up of plaque on the inner lining of an artery). Bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain may be a symptom of chronic conditions. - Stock Image C025/0068
Most people with chronic ischemic colitis recover with medication, and those experiencing severe ischemic colitis can have surgery. People may need to make some lifestyle changes to prevent the condition from returning.. Examples of helpful lifestyle changes include quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a balanced diet. People may need to stop taking medications that contribute to ischemic colitis, with a doctors advice.. Acute ischemic colitis has a poorer outlook and a higher mortality rate than chronic ischemic colitis because it often causes gangrene. Swift medical treatment is crucial in acute cases.. People who experience symptoms of ischemic colitis should see a doctor promptly to improve the outlook and reduce the risk of complications. People should not ignore bloody stools. Seek emergency medical attention for severe abdominal pain that makes it difficult to sit down or get comfortable.. ...
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In our most recent study, we demonstrated that the consumption of supplemental psyllium fibre increased the expression of intestinal cytoprotective Hsp25 expression and increased intestinal tissue resistance to oxidative stress in mice( 9 ). In the present study, DNA microarray analysis was used to examine the colonic expression of Hsp25 and other cytoprotective proteins in mice that were fed psyllium fibre to determine the protective effect on DSS-induced colitis. The supplemental psyllium fibre increased ECM-associated proteins, such as collagens and fibronectins, and Hsp25 in the colons of normal mice. In colitic mice, the supplemental psyllium fibre effectively reduced colonic inflammation and intestinal barrier impairment. In the final experiment, examination of intestinal Caco-2 cells provided direct evidence of intestinal barrier regulation by collagen and fibronectin, which were induced by psyllium fibre consumption. Therefore, increased expression of Hsp25 and ECM-associated proteins ...
Background. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities have been reported for maprotiline, a strong norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. In addition, some other antidepressant drugs have shown beneficial effects in experimental colitis. Methods. All the animals were divided into normal and depressed groups. In normal rats colitis was induced by instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid and after 2 hours, maprotiline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered. In reserpinised depressed rats, depression was induced by injection of reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 h prior to colitis induction, and then treated with maprotiline (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg). Treatment continued daily for four days. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was given as a reference drug. On day five following colitis induction, animals were euthanized and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically (assessment of myeloperoxidase activity). Results. Maprotiline significantly improved macroscopic and ...
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the colon. Despite the best medical management, ulcerative colitis patients often experience episodic flare-ups with symptoms that include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Flare-ups are sometimes triggered by stress, and there is a great deal of interest in stress-reduction interventions that might improve quality of life and reduce flare-ups, and defining those ulcerative colitis subpopulations that might benefit most from such techniques.. Jedel et al. [Digestion] studied MBSRs effectiveness in preventing ulcerative colitis flare-ups in a randomized, double-blind study. Fifty-five moderately severe ulcerative colitis patients in remission were assigned to either MBSR or a placebo (lectures and videos on mind/body medicine). Moderate severity of disease status was defined by a Mayo Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index of 6-12. Measures taken at baseline, post-treatment, and 6 and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulatory role of B-1 B cells in chronic colitis. AU - Shimomura, Yasuyo. AU - Mizoguchi, Emiko. AU - Sugimoto, Ken. AU - Kibe, Ryoko. AU - Benno, Yoshimi. AU - Mizoguchi, Atsushi. AU - Bhan, Atul K.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - According to the hygiene hypothesis, enhanced microbial exposure due to early childhood infections leads to a reduction of Th 2-mediated allergic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this hypothesis, we studied development of Th2-mediated colitis of the TCRα knockout (KO) mouse in both a specific pathogen-free (SPF) facility and a conventional (CV) facility. After more than five generations in each facility, TCRα KO mice kept in the CV facility developed dramatically less colitis than mice that were kept in the SPF facility. Surprisingly, the suppression of colitis in the CV facility correlated with a significant increase in natural IgM production by B-1 B cells. In contrast, B cell-deficient ...
Background and aims: Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a p35/p40 heterodimer, plays a pivotal rote in the immune response in Crohns disease (CD). Since IL-12 p40 dimers act as IL-12 antagonists, we assayed p40 dimer proteins to modulate chronic intestinal inflammation. Methods: We generated a fusion protein consisting of the IL-12(p40) subunit fused to the constant region of IgG2b. IL-12(p40)-IgG2b was tested in a murine 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis model and in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) from patients with CD in vitro. Results: Dimeric IL-12(p40)-IgG2b fusion protein bound specifically to the IL-12 receptor. In concentrations ...
Background MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in most inflammatory diseases, but its physiological role in gut inflammation and tissue injury is poorly understood. The goal of this work is to understand the role of miR-21 in colitis and damage progression of intestine in a genetically modified murine model. Methods Experimental colitis was induced in miR-21 KO and wild-type (WT) mice by 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) administration for 7 days. Disease activity index(DAI), blood parameters, intestinal permeability, histopathologic injury, cytokine and chemokine production, and epithelial cells apoptosis were examined in colons of miR-21 KO and WT mice. Results miR-21 was overexpressed in intestine of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and acute intestinal obstruction (AIO) patients when compared with normal intestinal tissues. Likewise, miR-21 was up-regulated in colon of IL-10 KO mice when compared with control mice. WT mice rapidly lost weight and were moribund 5 days after treatment with 3.5%
sodium sulfate is a very cheap material. The largest use is as filler in powdered home laundry detergents, consuming approx. 50% of world production. This use is waning as domestic consumers are increasingly switching to compact or liquid detergents that do not include sodium sulfate. Another formerly major use for sodium sulfate, notably in the US and Canada, is in the Kraft process for the manufacture of wood pulp. Organics present in the black liquor from this process are burnt to produce heat, needed to drive the reduction of sodium sulfate to sodium sulfide.. The glass industry provides another significant application for sodium sulfate, as second largest application in Europe. Sodium sulfate is used as a fining agent, to help remove small air bubbles from molten glass. It fluxes the glass, and prevents scum formation of the glass melt during refining. The glass industry in Europe has been consuming from 1970 to 2006 a stable 110,000 tonnes annually.. Sodium sulfate is important in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development and validation of a novel prognostic scoring model for ischemic colitis. AU - Chung, Joo Won. AU - Cheon, Jae Hee. AU - Park, Jae Jun. AU - Jung, Eun Suk. AU - Choi, Eun Hee. AU - Kim, Hannah. PY - 2010/9/1. Y1 - 2010/9/1. N2 - PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify prognostic factors affecting the course of ischemic colitis and to develop a prognostic scoring model. METHODS: We analyzed medical records of consecutive patients with ischemic colitis treated between October 2002 and September 2008 at Severance Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Patients were excluded if results of endoscopy were unavailable. Patients were classified as having severe ischemic colitis on the basis of outcome (improvement delayed for more than 2 weeks, complications requiring surgery, or death). Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection were used to identify clinical, endoscopic, and laboratory variables associated with ...
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation in the lining of the rectum and colon. Ulcers form where inflammation has injured the cells that usually line the colon, which then may bleed and create pus. This inflammation also causes the colon to empty frequently, producing diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis can be debilitating and sometimes lead to life-threatening complications.. Ulcerative colitis can be difficult to diagnose because symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea are often seen in other intestinal disorders. About half the people diagnosed with ulcerative colitis have mild symptoms. Others may suffer frequent fever, bloody diarrhea, nausea and severe abdominal cramps. It may also cause problems such as arthritis, inflammation of the eye, liver disease and osteoporosis. It is not known why these problems occur outside the colon, but scientists think it may be the result of inflammation triggered by the immune system. Some of these problems go ...
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Activation of the IL-6/Stat3 via IL-6 trans-signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is a large bowel cancer and occurs with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease. The role of the IL-6/Stat3 in the development of CAC has not been fully understood. We investigate whether IL-6 trans-signaling contributes to the development of CAC using a mouse colitis-associated premalignant cancer (CApC) model. Chronic colitis (CC) was induced in BALB/c mice using dextran sodium sulfate. CApC was induced by dextran sodium sulfate treatment to CC-affected mice. IL-6 expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining in colon. Phospho-Stat3 expression was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. The expression of IL-6 receptors (i.e., the IL-6R alpha-chain and gp130) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme in the colon was examined by laser-capture microdissection and ...
Animals. BALB/cByJ-Lpin1fld/J mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory and bred in the Service of Animal Research and Welfare of the University of Valladolid, as previously described (16). Most of the experiments were conducted with 12-week-old female animals.. Colitis induction. Acute experimental colitis was induced by adding 3% (w/v) DSS, 36-50 kDa (MP Biomedicals, Inc.) to drinking water. Fresh DSS solution was prepared daily. Six days after initiation of treatment, animals were just kept on regular drinking water for 2 additional days. Control groups received regular drinking water during the whole experiment. Body weight and DAI were evaluated daily as an indirect measure of colitis severity. DAI was evaluated as the combined scores of weight loss, stool consistency, and fecal blood (27). At day 3 or 8 after induction of colitis, mice were sacrificed under ketamine and xylazine (100 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively) and cervical dislocation. The abdominal cavity was exposed and ...
Although alterations in gut microbiota composition during acute colitis have been repeatedly observed, associated functional changes and the recovery from dysbiosis received little attention. In this study, we investigated structure and function of the gut microbiota during acute inflammation and recovery in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-colitis mouse model using metatranscriptomics, bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and monitoring of selected host markers. Parallel to an increase of host markers of inflammation during acute colitis, we observed relative abundance shifts and alterations in phylotype composition of the dominant bacterial orders Clostridiales and Bacteroidales, and an increase of the low abundant Enterobacteriales, Deferribacterales, Verrucomicrobiales and Erysipelotrichales. During recovery, the microbiota began to resume, but did not reach its original composition until the end of the experiment. Microbial gene expression was more resilient to disturbance, with ...
Ulcerative colitis[edit]. Adalimumab may be effective and well tolerated in ulcerative colitis. It was approved by the US Food ... ulcerative colitis (a disease causing inflammation and ulcers in the lining of the gut);[4] ... Although only approved for ulcerative colitis from late 2012, by the FDA in the disease's management, it had been used for ... "FDA approves Humira to treat ulcerative colitis" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 September 2012. ...
Colitis[edit]. Clostridium difficile colitis may occur in connection with the use of any antibacterial drug, especially those ...
... (1846-1945) gospel song writer. Stebbins was born February 26, 1846, in Orleans County, New York, where ... Free scores by George Coles Stebbins at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Coles_Stebbins&oldid=798681031" ...
C. difficile colitis[edit]. Initial antibiotic therapy for less-severe Clostridioides difficile infection colitis ( ... It is an option for a first episode of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile colitis if vancomycin or fidaxomicin is ... pseudomembranous colitis) consists of metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin by mouth.[6] In 2017, the IDSA generally ... pseudomembranous colitis, aspiration pneumonia, rosacea (topical), fungating wounds (topical), intra-abdominal infections, lung ...
Coca-Cola[edit]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations ... Quincy was once rumored to be home to many millionaires due to the Coca-Cola boom. Mr. Pat Munroe, a banker, father of 18 ... In perspective, a single share of Coca-Cola stock bought in 1919 for $40 would be worth $6.4 million today, if all dividends ... "Coke millions fortify a town Shareholders: The Coca-Cola stock that some Quincy, Fla., tobacco farmers bought 74 years ago is ...
Mexican Coke - a variant of Coca-Cola made with cane sugar. *Pepsi True and Coca-Cola Life - variants that use stevia and sugar ... In a rare move of no competition within the Cola Wars, Coca-Cola had no plans, as of early December 2012, to release a sugar- ... "Pepsi-Cola Wild Cherry Made with Real Sugar" and "Pepsi-Cola Vanilla Made with Real Sugar". In addition to being sold in 20oz ... The Pepsi-Cola Made with Real Sugar, formerly called Throwback, is a brand of soft drink sold by PepsiCo in the United States ...
Cole Parker[edit]. 41-year-old Cole Parker started his stand-up career at the age of six after entering a talent contest in ... Cole was eliminated in week three. Rudi Lickwood[edit]. 49-year-old grandfather Rudi Lickwood has been on the circuit for two ... Cole, Tom (18 July 2011). "Is it The Apprentice? Is it The X Factor? No, it's Show Me the Funny". Radio Times. Archived from ... Davies, Copstick and guest judge Ross Noble sent Cole home. Four[edit]. The seven remaining comics tried their hand at hospital ...
Ulcerative colitis[edit]. Infliximab targets TNF, thought to be more related to Th1 cytokines. Ulcerative colitis was thought ... The Acute ulcerative Colitis Treatment trials (ACT1 and ACT2) to evaluate the utility of infliximab in ulcerative colitis ... Since February 2015 it is also approved for the treatment of ulcerative colitis where other treatments have not worked.[41] ... However, patients with ulcerative colitis have begun to be treated with infliximab on the basis of two large clinical trials ...
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... [edit]. In 2014, Pepsi Throwback was replaced in most regions by "Pepsi-Cola Made with Real ... In a rare move of no competition within the Cola Wars, Coca-Cola had no plans, as of early December 2012, to release a sugar- ... "Pepsi-Cola Wild Cherry Made with Real Sugar" and "Pepsi-Cola Vanilla Made with Real Sugar". In addition to being sold in 20oz ... The Pepsi-Cola Made with Real Sugar, formerly called Throwback, is a brand of soft drink sold by PepsiCo in the United States ...
Adam and Jamie placed a penny in cola and another in pure phosphoric acid, an ingredient used in cola but in low amounts. After ... he greased the bathroom again and had Jamie try to clean it with cola. The cola did not work at all, and Jamie forced Adam to ... Does Cola have special properties?. If a person is falling off a bridge, can they save themselves by throwing a hammer ahead of ... The MythBusters added cola to some slides and saline solution to others, then counted the number of live sperm they could see ...
Mark Pendergrast, For God, Country, and Coca-Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That ... Prohibition and Coca-Cola[edit]. Prohibition was a central issue in local and state politics from the 1880s into the 1920s. ... "Themes for Coca-Cola Advertising (1886-1999)". Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved 2007-02-11.. ... "Coca-Cola Television Advertisements: Dr. John S. Pemberton". Nation's Restaurant News. Archived from the original on July 10, ...
1994: Cole. *1995: Shearer. *1996: Shearer. *1997: Shearer. *1998: Dublin, Owen & Sutton ...
Adam Rhys Jones (born 8 March 1981) is a Welsh former professional rugby union player. Jones began his career with Neath before switching to the Ospreys with the regionalisation of Welsh rugby in 2003. Following several successful seasons at club level, Jones received a call up to the Wales squad in 2003, making his debut as a replacement against England during the 2003 Six Nations. Jones almost immediately pinned down the No.3 shirt and was selected for Wales' World Cup squad at the end of 2003. He featured in all of Wales' games at the tournament, starting in the crucial group games against Italy and New Zealand and the quarter final loss to England. At the time, fears over Jones' fitness led to him only playing the first half of games, a trend that he emphatically ended as his career developed. Jones continued to hold down the starting tighthead spot through the 2004 Six Nations and autumn Internationals. In 2005, Jones was a key member of the Welsh Grand Slam-winning side, starting all five ...
Coca-Cola. OK Soda was a soft drink created by The Coca-Cola Company in 1993 that courted the American Generation X demographic ... In 1993, Coca-Cola CEO Roberto Goizueta rehired Sergio Zyman to be the chief of marketing for all Coca-Cola beverage brands, a ... 1993]. "Chapter 21: Global Fizz". For God, Country and Coca-Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and ... "Vintage soda cans COCA COLA OK bank tops Project X 4-20-94 Set of 4 Very Rare". eBay. Retrieved 30 January 2019.. ...
Cole 10' Avila 15' Nanchoff 63' King 77' Heinemann 90'. Summary. Dawson 33' S. Rivera 76'. Stadium: Al Lang Stadium. Attendance ...
Nedvěd made his league debut for Lazio on 7 September 1996 in a 1-0 away defeat against Bologna.[14][15] He scored his first league goal for the club against Cagliari on 20 October 1996, finishing the 1996-97 season with seven goals.[15] He became an integral part of the side, scoring four goals in three matches early in the 1997-98 season.[16] The club had a 24-match unbeaten streak from November 1997 to April 1998, ending with a league match against Juventus in which Nedvěd was sent off.[17] That season, Lazio won the 1997-98 Coppa Italia and reached the final of the 1997-98 UEFA Cup.[18][19] Nedvěd and Lazio began the 1998-99 season with a victory in the Supercoppa Italiana, Nedvěd scoring as the club defeated Juventus 2-1.[20] He played a role in Lazio's road to the last-ever Cup Winners' Cup, scoring against Lausanne in the first round and in both legs of Lazio's 7-0 aggregate quarter-final victory over Panionios.[21] In the 1999 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final, Nedvěd scored the decisive ...
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Liaison Council on Medical Education. The residency programs of the medical school are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.[22] The doctor of medicine program is a full-time four-year program providing a general professional education that prepares students to pursue any career option in medicine. The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine curricular infrastructure combines a lecture-and problem-based curriculum with early and in-depth clinical experiences and an integrated organ systems approach to the pre-clinical sciences. The clinical years are characterized by an integrated clerkship structure and an emphasis on student flexibility. Key subject matter is longitudinally integrated throughout the curriculum, building upon a foundation of prior learning while providing a level-appropriate and well-synchronized introduction of new content. Scheduled instructional time in the first two ...
Brian Keith Greer (born May 14, 1959) is a former Major League Baseball player.[1]. Greer was drafted eighth overall in the 1977 draft. He appeared in five games with the San Diego Padres in 1977 and 1979. He was the youngest player on the Padres in 1977.. ...
Brooks/Cole.. *^ Dale, Jonathan (2000). "Starfish Science".. *^ "Macrobenthos of the North Sea - Echinodermata , Introduction" ...
Brooks/Cole. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-534-49349-3. .. *^ Burrows et al. 2008, p. 13. Harv error: no target: ...
Gordon Cole[edit]. Gordon Cole (played by David Lynch, and also named for a minor character in Sunset Boulevard[5]) is a ... alongside Gordon Cole and Tamara Preston. He later discloses to Cole that he was apparently contacted by Jeffries, which ... Lil the Dancer (Kimberly Anne Cole) is seen only in the movie Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me. Her movements and clothing are ... Cole uses a coded language, in the attire and gestures of Lil the Dancer, to inform the agents of what to expect in their ...
Ulcerative colitis an ulcerative form of colitis, is the other major inflammatory bowel disease which is restricted to the ... "Ulcerative Colitis". New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (18): 1713-1725. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1102942. PMID 22047562. S2CID ...
... , edema, is a severe and generalized edema with widespread subcutaneous tissue swelling.[1] It is usually caused by liver failure (cirrhosis of the liver), renal failure/disease, right-sided heart failure, as well as severe malnutrition/protein deficiency. The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive response. It can also be created from the administration of exogenous intravenous fluid. Certain plant-derived anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, such as docetaxel, cause anasarca through a poorly understood capillary leak syndrome.[2] In Hb Barts, the high oxygen affinity results in poor oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues, resulting in anasarca. ...
The skin of the face, normally around the mouth, and the mucosa of the mouth and/or throat, as well as the tongue, swell over the period of minutes to hours. The swelling can also occur elsewhere, typically in the hands. The swelling can be itchy or painful. There may also be slightly decreased sensation in the affected areas due to compression of the nerves. Urticaria (hives) may develop simultaneously. In severe cases, stridor of the airway occurs, with gasping or wheezy inspiratory breath sounds and decreasing oxygen levels. Tracheal intubation is required in these situations to prevent respiratory arrest and risk of death. Sometimes, the cause is recent exposure to an allergen (e.g. peanuts), but more often it is either idiopathic (unknown) or only weakly correlated to allergen exposure. In hereditary angioedema, often no direct cause is identifiable, although mild trauma, including dental work and other stimuli, can cause attacks.[4] There is usually no associated itch or urticaria, as it ...
The result of the model calculations are presented in a table given in the appendix for a range of Hi from 0.30 to 0.50 with ANH performed to minimum hematocrits from 0.30 to 0.15. Given a Hi of 0.40, if the Hm is assumed to be 0.25.then from the equation above the RCM count is still high and ANH is not necessary, if BLs does not exceed 2303 ml, since the hemotocrit will not fall below Hm, although five units of blood must be removed during hemodilution. Under these conditions, to achieve the maximum benefit from the technique if ANH is used, no homologous blood will be required to maintain the Hm if blood loss does not exceed 2940 ml. In such a case ANH can save a maximum of 1.1 packed red blood cell unit equivalent, and homologous blood transfusion is necessary to maintain Hm, even if ANH is used. This model can be used to identify when ANH may be used for a given patient and the degree of ANH necessary to maximize that benefit. For example, if Hi is 0.30 or less it is not possible to save a ...
Since salt restriction is the basic concept in treatment, and aldosterone is one of the hormones that acts to increase salt retention, a medication that counteracts aldosterone should be sought. Spironolactone (or other distal-tubule diuretics such as triamterene or amiloride) is the drug of choice since they block the aldosterone receptor in the collecting tubule. This choice has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.[16] Diuretics for ascites should be dosed once per day.[17] Generally, the starting dose is oral spironolactone 100 mg/day (max 400 mg/day). 40% of patients will respond to spironolactone.[14] For nonresponders, a loop diuretic may also be added and generally, furosemide is added at a dose of 40 mg/day (max 160 mg/day), or alternatively (bumetanide or torasemide). The ratio of 100:40 reduces risks of potassium imbalance.[17] Serum potassium level and renal function should be monitored closely while on these medications.[15] Monitoring diuresis: Diuresis can be monitored ...
Cole Konrad def. Pat Bennett Decision (unanimous) (30-26, 29-28, 30-27) 3 5:00 [c] ... Marcus Sursa replaces Wayne Cole on Thursday's Bellator 20 main card Archived 2012-06-26 at the Wayback Machine at the Yunkie. ... The bout between Eddie Sanchez and Wayne Cole was reported to be for a spot in Bellator's season three Heavyweight tournament. ... However, Cole pulled out of the fight and was replaced by Marcus Suers.[18] ...
Cole, August. "Lawmakers Pressure Pentagon to Release Funds for Controversial F-22 Fighter Jet". The Wall Street Journal, 5 ...
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[5] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[5] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[5][6] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[6] Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several streptococcal ...
... lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis) is an inflammation of the colon. Diarrhea and abdominal pain or cramping are the ... Colitis has many different causes. Some types of colitis are contagious and some are not contagious. Symptoms of colitis ... There are many different types of colitis with different causes. Some examples of colitis include: *infectious colitis caused ... There are two types of microscopic colitis: 1) lymphocytic colitis and 2) collagenous colitis. ...
Ulcerative colitis. References[edit]. *^ a b c d Park, Tina; Cave, David; Marshall, Christopher (2015-08-07). "Microscopic ... Personal experience with collagenous colitis[edit]. *. Chande N, Driman DK, Reynolds RP (March 2005). "Collagenous colitis and ... Yen E. F.; Pardi D. S. (May 2011). "Microscopic Colitis - Lymphocytic, Collagenous and Mast Cell Colitis". Alimentary ... The cause of collagenous colitis is unknown.[1] Diagnosis[edit]. On colonoscopy, the mucosa of the colon typically looks normal ...
Main article: List of people diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u ... radiation colitis (if prior exposure to radiation therapy), or chemical colitis. Pseudomembranous colitis may occur due to ... Ulcerative colitis at eMedicine *^ Walmsley RS, Ayres RC, Pounder RE, Allan RN (July 1998). "A simple clinical colitis activity ... "Ulcerative colitis:management". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Ulcerative colitis: management Clinical ...
The term colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. It may be associated with enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine ... encoded search term (What is colitis?) and What is colitis? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... The term colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. It may be associated with enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine ... Severe colitis noted during colonoscopy. The mucosa is grossly denuded, with active bleeding noted. This patient had her colon ...
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disorder that affects the digestive system . Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... Ulcerative colitis is one common form of inflammatory bowel disease. (IBD). Another type of IBD, Crohn disease, also causes ... Ulcerative colitis usually appears between ages 15 and 30, although it can develop at any age. The inflammation tends to flare ... Less commonly, ulcerative colitis causes problems with the skin, joints, eyes, kidneys, or liver, which are most likely due to ...
Find out about ulcerative colitis, a long-term (chronic) condition where the colon and rectum (large intestine or large bowel) ... Symptoms of ulcerative colitis. The main symptoms of ulcerative colitis are:. *recurring diarrhoea, which may contain blood, ... What causes ulcerative colitis?. Ulcerative colitis is thought to be an autoimmune condition. This means the immune system - ... How ulcerative colitis is treated. Treatment for ulcerative colitis aims to relieve symptoms during a flare-up and prevent ...
... and in seven biopsy specimens were abnormal with histological changes ranging from non-specific colitis to gross colitis with ... and histologically difficult to differentiate from ulcerative colitis and is a differential diagnosis in acute colitis. ... Campylobacter colitis.. Br Med J 1979; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.6167.857 (Published 31 March 1979) Cite this as: Br ... Severe campylobacter colitis may be clinically, sigmoidoscopically, ...
Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong illness with no specific cause or cure. ... Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the inner lining of the large intestine (large bowel or ... Acute severe ulcerative colitis: This rare form of colitis affects the entire colon and causes severe pain, profuse diarrhea, ... Ulcerative Colitis Diet Plan. An ulcerative colitis diet plan can help a person with the disease avoid foods and drinks that ...
Cole Sanchez was born on March 1, 1985 in Los Angeles, California, USA as Cole Phillip Sanchez. He is known for his work on ... Cole Sanchez, Art Department: Adventure Time with Finn & Jake. ... Cole Sanchez was born on March 1, 1985 in Los Angeles, ... How much of Cole Sanchezs work have you seen? .aux-content-widget-2.poll-widget-rhs ul li { margin-bottom: 0.5em; clear: left ... California, USA as Cole Phillip Sanchez. He is known for his work on Adventure Time (2010), Over the Garden Wall (2014) and ...
TO SEE THE SLOGANS OF THE COCA-COLA CO.CLICK HERE TO LEARN THE HISTORY OF THE COCA-COLA CO.CLICK HERE TO SEE MY COCA-COLA CAN ... TO VIEW COCA-COLA COMPANY PHONE NUMBERS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLDCLICK HERE FOR PHONE NUMBERS OF COCA-COLA BOTTLERSCLICK HERE. ... COOL COCA-COLA LINKS. TO GO TO THE OFFICIAL COCA-COLA WEB PAGECLICK HERE. ... This Coca-Cola 4 Fans and Collectors Web-Ring site owned by SETH LEIDY [ Previous 5 Sites , Previous , Next , Next 5 Sites , ...
Raised in Europe and the Far East, Cole attended thirty-two schools and visited or lived in as many countries. He recalls ... Allan Cole is a best-selling author, screenwriter and former prize-winning newsman who brings a rich background in travel and ... Allen Cole (II) Writer , Miscellaneous Crew , Actor Allan Cole is a best-selling author, screenwriter and former prize-winning ... 1984 Jessie (TV Movie) (as Allan Cole) 1984 Hunter (TV Series) (writer - 1 episode) - Legacy (1984) ... (writer - as Allan Cole ...
Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that happens only in the colon. It causes the inner lining of ... Colitis ulcerosa. What Is Ulcerative Colitis?. Ulcerative colitis is a condition that causes the inner lining of the large ... Who Gets Ulcerative Colitis?. Ulcerative colitis tends to run in families. But not everyone with ulcerative colitis has a ... What Causes Ulcerative Colitis?. The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not clear. It is probably a combination of genetics, ...
IONIZATION FOR COLITIS. Br Med J 1930; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.3643.757-a (Published 01 November 1930) Cite this ...
The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. Other symptoms include fatigue, weight ... Ulcerative colitis, inflammation of the large intestine (colon), especially of its mucous membranes, characterized by patches ... digestive system disease: Colitis. …colon) in the Western world, ulcerative colitis, is idiopathic (i.e., of unknown cause). ... Ulcerative colitis, inflammation of the large intestine (colon), especially of its mucous membranes, characterized by patches ...
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with Crohn disease (CD). Unlike Crohn disease, ... What is ulcerative colitis (UC)?. Updated: Apr 23, 2019 * Author: Ali Nawaz Khan, MBBS, FRCS, FRCP, FRCR; Chief Editor: Eugene ... The severity of ulcerative colitis can be graded as follows:. * Mild - Bleeding per rectum and fewer than 4 bowel motions per ... Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with Crohn disease (CD). Unlike Crohn disease, ...
Ulcerative colitis medications include corticosteroids and immunomodulators. Other medical and natural treatments, such as ... Ulcerative colitis stool: A visual guide. Ulcerative colitis may cause differences in the appearance of a persons stool. Learn ... Ulcerative colitis remission: What to know People with ulcerative colitis may experience flare-ups, times when symptoms are ... Surgery for ulcerative colitis: What to know Sometimes, medications for ulcerative colitis do not adequately control the ...
Treatments and Tools for colitis cure. Find colitis cure information, treatments for colitis cure and colitis cure symptoms. ... MedHelps colitis cure Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on colitis cure. Has anybody read the 10 Day Colitis Cure Book? - Colitis Expert Forum ... Is ulcerative colitis incurable? Has anyone on this site overcome ulcerative colitis? My ... ...
quiz How Much Do You Know About Ulcerative Colitis? article First in the Family with a Genetic Disease: What Its Like article ... Crohns and Ulcerative Colitis: Accepting Your Condition We are taught at a very young age not to discuss what happens behind ... the bathroom door, and even though Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis go far beyond the bathroom, patients often stay quiet ...
After diagnosis ulcerative colitis is treatment is undertaken by a gastroenterologist or a physician who deals with diseases of ... Treatment for moderately severe ulcerative colitis. Those with moderately severe ulcerative colitis are often treated with a ... After diagnosis ulcerative colitis is treatment is undertaken by a gastroenterologist or a physician who deals with diseases of ... I am suffering from Ulcerative Colitis for past 4 years. Now I am taking mesacol 800 2 pcs daily. Still I have blood in my ...
... colitis, diarrhea, chronic, cholestyramine, weight - Answer: Hi Beeka, Ive been using/experimenting cholestyramine for 2 ... ... colitis, diarrhea, chronic, cholestyramine, weight, microscopic colitis. Details:. I have biopsy confirmed collagenous colitis ... Cholestyramine - Collagenous colitis?. Asked. 10 Jan 2015 by Beeka. Updated. 21 January 2016. Topics. ... I was prescribed Apriso for Collagenous Colitis but am having some side effects and want to know if?. Updated 19 Jun 2015 • 1 ...
Colitis Foundation today announced the launch of its DNA Data Bank, a newly created resource ... The Crohns & Colitis Foundation of Americas mission is to cure Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, and to improve the ... About Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis are painful, medically incurable illnesses ... The Crohns & Colitis Foundation today announced the launch of its DNA Data Bank, a newly created resource containing DNA ...
Ulcerative colitis. Definition. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that is characterized by chronic ... Evolving therapeutic goals in ulcerative colitis: towards disease clearance In ulcerative colitis, treating beyond endoscopic ... FMT for ulcerative colitis: closer to the turning point A new study shows that a sustainable faecal microbiota transplantation ... Therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice with reference to interleukin-17 expression ...
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Cole is a retired policewoman and former paramedic. Using her life experiences and training... ...
After careful consideration BioBreez partnered up with Paul Cole and tasked Paul with this complex project. ...
Throwing for (Triple-A) Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Cole Hamels pitches against Syracuse at Lackawanna County Stadium in Moosic, PA ... Throwing for (Triple-A) Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Cole Hamels pitches against Syracuse at Lackawanna County Stadium in Moosic, PA ... Throwing for (Triple-A) Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Cole Hamels pitches against Syracuse at Lackawanna County Stadium in Moosic, PA ... Throwing for (Triple-A) Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Cole Hamels pitches against Syracuse at Lackawanna County Stadium in Moosic, PA ...
Spread on the cooled Coca-Cola Cake. Back to Kitchen Index. If coke bottles are not already dancing, please be patient.They ... Coca~Cola Cake. *1 cup Coca-Cola *1/2 cup vegetable oil *1 stick margarine *3 T. cocoa powder *2 cups sugar *2 cups flour *1/2 ... Coca~Cola Baked Beans. *2 cans (16 oz.each) great northern beans *1/2 can Coca~Cola *1/4 cup onion - diced *1/4 cup green bell ... Coca Cola Baked Ham *1 - 10 lb(approx.) semi-boneless ham *1 T. dry mustard *6 cups Coca-Cola *2 T spicy brown prepared mustard ...
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (two related conditions that are caused by abnormalities of the body's immune system in which the body inappropriately makes antibodies and chemicals that attack the colon). (medicinenet.com)
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are also referred to as inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Infectious, radiation, ischemic, ulcerative, and Crohn's colitis all have visible abnormalities of the inner lining of the colon. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some experts suspect that microscopic colitis is an autoimmune disorder similar to the autoimmune disorders that cause chronic ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease . (medicinenet.com)
  • [1] It is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) along with Crohn's disease and microscopic colitis . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] [8] Together, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease affect about a million people in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragments of Citrullinated and MMP-degraded Vimentin and MMP-degraded Type III Collagen Are Novel Serological Biomarkers to Differentiate Crohn's Disease from Ulcerative Colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Douglas D. Biomarkers May Help Differentiate Crohn's From Colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Children with ulcerative colitis (and Crohn's disease) often will have colonoscopies when their symptoms increase and your doctor is discussing changing the treatment. (massgeneral.org)
  • In addition, people with colitis (either from ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease) have an increased risk of colon cancer over the course of their lifetime. (massgeneral.org)
  • It is recommended to start screening colonoscopies 7 to 8 years after the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (or Crohn's disease of the large intestine) and to have them at regular intervals. (massgeneral.org)
  • We are taught at a very young age not to discuss what happens behind the bathroom door, and even though Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis go far beyond the bathroom, patients often stay quiet about their disease. (healthcentral.com)
  • I'm using it for chronic diarrhea due to short bowel syndrome, due to my 8th bowel resection, I have Crohn's /Colitis for 38 yrs., now. (drugs.com)
  • The Crohn's & Colitis Foundation today announced the launch of its DNA Data Bank , a newly created resource containing DNA samples and detailed phenotype data on a large number of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. (prweb.com)
  • The launch of the DNA Data Bank symbolizes that we are within reach of our long term goal of improving treatment and minimizing the overall impact of Crohn's and colitis. (prweb.com)
  • Blood samples were obtained from patients with well-characterized Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. (prweb.com)
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are painful, medically incurable illnesses that attack the digestive system. (prweb.com)
  • Crohn's disease may attack anywhere from the mouth to the anus, while ulcerative colitis inflames only the large intestine (colon). (prweb.com)
  • Some 1.4 million American adults and children suffer from Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, with as many as 150,000 under the age of 18. (prweb.com)
  • The Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America's mission is to cure Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to improve the quality of life of children and adults affected by these diseases. (prweb.com)
  • The Crohn's & Colitis Foundation's spin4 crohn's & colitis cures event is an exciting outdoor cycle relay event. (idealist.org)
  • It is estimated that as many as 3.1 million Americans are living with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis - YOU can use your #power2cure by supporting our event. (idealist.org)
  • Q:I have recently been discharged from hospital having had colitis and Crohn's disease diagnosed. (healthy.net)
  • The measles vaccine may trigger ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, both bowel conditions, in adulthood. (healthy.net)
  • ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease , but in a proportion of cases the diagnosis remains non-specific. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine affecting a wide spectrum of the ages. (massgeneral.org)
  • Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis face unique challenges. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Crohn's and Colitis Center brings together a personal care team of digestive health specialists to provide expert diagnosis, leading-edge medical and surgical interventions and personalized, ongoing care to help patients manage their condition. (massgeneral.org)
  • Our gastroenterologists with a focused expertise in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis form the core of the treatment team, and our providers have been recognized both nationally and internationally for their groundbreaking research and outstanding patient care. (massgeneral.org)
  • A diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis is typically based on medical history, physical exam, laboratory evaluation, radiologic studies, and endoscopic evaluation. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Crohn's and Colitis Center also offers the latest innovations in diagnosis, including novel endoscopic imaging such as chromoendoscopy. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Crohn's and Colitis Center offers the full range of conventional and innovative medical therapies. (massgeneral.org)
  • Crohn s disease and ulcerative colitis differ in that ulcerative colitis almost always involves only the large bowel whereas Crohn's can occur in any part of the digestive tract. (medindia.net)
  • Incidence and Phenotype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Based on Results from the Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study. (medindia.net)
  • There has been another consistent observation, though, and that is that most people with inflammatory bowel disease (either Crohn's or ulcerative colitis) seem to respond favorably to the probiotic Primal Defense . (mercola.com)
  • Crohn's disease (CD) - another type of IBD that often leads to colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeterminate colitis is the classification for colitis that has features of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeterminate colitis' behaviour is usually closer to ulcerative colitis than Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis nears those of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike ulcerative colitis, which affects only the inner surface of the large intestine, Crohn disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, and the inflammation extends deeper into the intestinal tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD ) that affects the inner lining of the large intestine (large bowel or colon) leading to erosion and ulcers. (medicinenet.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a condition that causes the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) to get red and swollen with sores called ulcers. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis , inflammation of the large intestine ( colon ), especially of its mucous membranes, characterized by patches of tiny ulcers in the inflamed membranese. (britannica.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition of the large intestine, which people also call the colon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagenous colitis affects the colon, which is the large intestine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disorder that affects the large intestine and results in severe stomach pain , bloody diarrhea , fever, and fatigue . (webmd.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong condition, unless the large intestine is surgically removed. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine that can result in abdominal pain and diarrhea. (wikihow.com)
  • Doctors may use blood tests, stool tests, and endoscopy of the large intestine to diagnose ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors order endoscopy of the large intestine with biopsies to diagnose ulcerative colitis and rule out other digestive conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Colitis in dogs is a condition which occurs when the large intestine, or colon, becomes inflamed. (vetinfo.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) - a chronic colitis that affects the large intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagenous colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the colon specifically with peak incidence in the 5th decade of life, affecting women more than men . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that happens only in the colon. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with Crohn disease (CD). (medscape.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon. (nature.com)
  • Mesalazine, marketed as Asacol, is widely used for inflammatory bowel disease (colitis) and has the rare distinction of making its second appearance as Drug of the Month. (healthy.net)
  • Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that is an autoimmune disease affecting the colon -- it can devastate people's lives. (mercola.com)
  • Types of colitis include: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic colitides. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with ulcerative colitis usually present with diarrhea mixed with blood , [13] of gradual onset that persists for an extended period of time (weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • During a flare-up, some people with ulcerative colitis also experience symptoms elsewhere in their body. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Poor appetite, diarrhea, and poor digestion of nutrients can make it hard for people with ulcerative colitis to get the calories and nutrients the body needs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Researchers say the results of this study suggest that probiotics may provide an alternative treatment for people with ulcerative colitis who don't respond to conventional treatments. (webmd.com)
  • Inflammation of the liver ducts occurs in some people with ulcerative colitis. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Most people with ulcerative colitis do not have their colon removed. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • For some people with ulcerative colitis, this includes spicy foods and milk products. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • There are two types of microscopic colitis: 1) lymphocytic colitis and 2) collagenous colitis. (medicinenet.com)
  • In collagenous colitis, there is an additional layer of collagen ( scar tissue ) just below the lining. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some experts believe that lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis represent different stages of the same disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Micrograph of collagenous colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of collagenous colitis is often challenging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probiotic treatment of collagenous colitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have biopsy confirmed collagenous colitis. (drugs.com)
  • I was diagnosed with collagenous colitis 4 years so I sympathize with you. (drugs.com)
  • I was prescribed Apriso for Collagenous Colitis but am having some side effects and want to know if? (drugs.com)
  • What is collagenous colitis? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagenous colitis refers to a type of microscopic colitis characterized by a thick band of collagen under the lining of the colon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagenous colitis is a type of inflammation that can only be seen under a microscope. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagenous colitis is a type of microscopic colitis, characterized by a thick, non-elastic band of collagen under the lining of the colon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Unlike most inflammatory bowel conditions, collagenous colitis is not considered a risk factor for colon cancer . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The term microscopic colitis usually refers to both collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some research also shows that collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis may, in fact, be different stages of the same condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagenous colitis is considered a rare disorder, with the highest incidence in adults over 45 years of age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Only about 42 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with collagenous colitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The severity, frequency, and duration of collagenous colitis symptoms vary. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Collagenous colitis causes general inflammation of the epithelium or base layer of cells that lining the colon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In cases of collagenous colitis, the layer of collagen - a connective tissue protein that helps support the epithelial cells - becomes roughly five times thicker than normal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Much like many other inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions, researchers are not sure why collagenous colitis occurs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Women are more likely than men to develop collagenous colitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2003). Collagenous and lympho-cytic colitis: Evaluation of clinical and histological features, response to treatment, and long-term follow-up. (springer.com)
  • 1989). Lymphocytic ('microscopic') colitis: A comparative histopathologic study with particular reference to collagenous colitis. (springer.com)
  • Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bile acid diarrhea is found in 41% of patients with collagenous colitis and 29% with lymphocytic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histological features of colonic biopsies indicating microscopic colitis are: greater than 20 intraepithelial lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells and, additionally, 10-20 μm of a thickened subepithelial collagen band in collagenous colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of the lamina propria, with mainly mononuclear cells, may be observed in collagenous colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An additional distinguishing feature of collagenous colitis is a thickened subepithelial collagen layer, which may be up to 30 micrometres thick, that occurs in addition to the features found in lymphocytic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis have both been shown in randomized, placebo-controlled trials to respond well to budesonide, a glucocorticoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prognosis for lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis is good, and both conditions are considered to be benign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in North America found incidence rates of 7.1 per 100,000 person-years and 12.6 per 100,000 person-years for collagenous colitis for lymphocytic colitis, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagenous colitis was recognised earlier, in 1976. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is microscopic colitis? (medicinenet.com)
  • Microscopic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon that is only visible when the colon's lining is examined under a microscope. (medicinenet.com)
  • The appearance of the inner colon lining in microscopic colitis is normal by visual inspection during colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. (medicinenet.com)
  • The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is made when a doctor, while performing colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy, takes biopsies (small samples of tissue) of the normal-appearing lining, and then examines the biopsies under a microscope. (medicinenet.com)
  • What causes microscopic colitis? (medicinenet.com)
  • The cause(s) of microscopic colitis is unknown. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is often classified under the umbrella entity microscopic colitis , that it shares with a related condition, lymphocytic colitis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic colitis causes chronic watery diarrhea with greater than 10 bowel movements per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mirtazapine causing diarrhea as a result of microscopic colitis? (drugs.com)
  • It is described as a type of microscopic colitis because the inflammation it causes can only be seen under the microscope. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Working Group of Digestive Diseases of the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) (2015) Histology of microscopic colitis-review with a practical approach for pathologists. (springer.com)
  • Microscopic colitis is the diagnosis in around 10% of cases investigated for chronic non-bloody diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • A higher incidence of autoimmune diseases, for example arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, thyroid disorders, and celiac disease, has been reported in people with microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, cigarette smoking has been identified as a significant risk factor of microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the changes are often patchy, an examination limited to the rectum may miss cases of microscopic colitis, and so a full colonoscopy is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic colitis is characterized by an increase in inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes, in colonic biopsies with an otherwise normal appearance and architecture of the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that the two types of microscopic colitis share many features including epidemiology, risk factors and, response to therapy has led to the suggestion that they are actually subtypes of the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of a number of other agents including antidiarrheals, bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol), mesalazine/mesalamine (alone or in combination with cholestyramine), systemic corticosteroids, cholestyramine, immunomodulators, and probiotics have shown to be less effective than budesonide for treating both forms of microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • split ileostomy, diverting ileostomy, and subtotal colectomy are options for management of steroid-dependent or refractory microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, surgery is still considered for patients with severe, unresponsive microscopic colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who develop microscopic colitis are characteristically, though not exclusively, middle-aged females. (wikipedia.org)
  • The condition of microscopic colitis was first described as such in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 6 February 2019 Coles Express announced a new alliance partnership with their fuel partner Viva Energy (Shell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Emerson Elvin Cole (December 10, 1927 - June 4, 2019) was an American football fullback and linebacker who played for the Cleveland Browns and Chicago Bears in the National Football League in the early 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoscopic image of a colon affected by ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both men and women seem to be equally affected by ulcerative colitis. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Severe campylobacter colitis may be clinically, sigmoidoscopically, and histologically difficult to differentiate from ulcerative colitis and is a differential diagnosis in acute colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Predictive models of disease burden at diagnosis in persons with adult-onset ulcerative colitis using health administrative data. (medscape.com)
  • Ulcerative colitis diagnosis. (medhelp.org)
  • After diagnosis ulcerative colitis is treatment is undertaken by a gastroenterologist or a physician who deals with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. (news-medical.net)
  • Beswick L, Ye B, van Langenberg DR. Toward an algorithm for the diagnosis and management of CMV in ptients with colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Cytomegalovirus colitis in intensive care unit patients: difficulties in clinical diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • To confirm a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, most patients have either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • However, there are some general signs for colitis that can let you know that you need to look more closely for the specific diagnosis. (wikihow.com)
  • Once the intestinal tissue is tested, an accurate diagnosis of colitis can be made. (vetinfo.com)
  • for example, an individual with ulcerative colitis is talking about their disease with a physician who knows the diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not an accepted diagnosis per se and, as such, a colitis that cannot be definitively classified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here's recipes with Coca~Cola as an ingredient! (angelfire.com)
  • Pour on the Coca-Cola. (angelfire.com)
  • Pour Coca-Cola over the ham to about 1/2" depth in the pan. (angelfire.com)
  • Bake at 350 for 2 to 3 hours, basting with Coca-Cola several times. (angelfire.com)
  • Add enough Coca-cola to form a thick paste. (angelfire.com)
  • Spread with the coca-cola paste. (angelfire.com)
  • Spread on the cooled Coca-Cola Cake. (angelfire.com)
  • DISCLAIMER: All pictures on these pages are registered trademarks of the Coca-Cola Co. This site is intended for pure entertainment. (angelfire.com)
  • explaining about IMC plans of Coca cola Inc. This is very useful for presentations in colleges, MBA institutes etc. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. Introduction  Coca-Cola was invented in May 1886 by pharmacist Dr. John S. Pemberton in Atlanta, Georgia. (slideshare.net)
  • Coca-Cola currently offers more than 500 brands in over 200 countries and serves over 1.6 billion servings each day. (slideshare.net)
  • The company operates a franchised distribution system dating from 1889 where the Coca-Cola Company only produces syrup concentrate which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world who hold an exclusive territory. (slideshare.net)
  • Coca-cola was asked by the Indian government to leave the country along with I.B.M in 1977 due to investment violations. (slideshare.net)
  • 5. IMC in Coca Cola  Coca cola uses IMC in order to communicate with its target. (slideshare.net)
  • Coca-Cola uses the concept of aggressive advertising to promote its products. (slideshare.net)
  • 8. Slogans- A Memorable Journey  Coca Cola continuously uses new slogans in various countries ( also in India) and are very cheerful & attractive! (slideshare.net)
  • Those slogans are Thanda Matlab Cola-Cola  Jo chaho ho jae Cola-Cola enjoy  Coca-Cola-Piyo sir utha ke  Brrrrrrr! (slideshare.net)
  • National Student Advertising Competition 2007: Coca-Cola. (slideshare.net)
  • Like industry leader Coca-Cola, the drink was largely made of sugar and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Unlike Coca-Cola, however, Pepsi did not find success quickly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Instead Pepsi struggled to challenge Coca-Cola for dominance in the nearly century-long Cola War. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Charles Guth of Loft Incorporated, attracted to Pepsi only after Coca-Cola refused to grant price concessions on the sale of Coke in his drugstores, resurrected the beverage in 1932. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At one point Guth sent ambassadors to Atlanta to attempt to sell the rights of Pepsi to Coca-Cola. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Despite its growing success, Pepsi manufacturers did not have the advertising capital of industry leader Coca-Cola. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During World War II , sales of Pepsi, while substantial, paled in comparison to those of Coca-Cola. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I'm sitting opposite the large Coca-Cola bottling plant next to the village of Plachimada in the southern Indian state of Kerala. (theecologist.org)
  • Coca-Cola arrived in Plachimada three years ago. (theecologist.org)
  • Quite why Kerala needed Coca-Cola at all was a bit of a puzzle to me: on my visit I passed stalls all over the place selling delicious freshly blended fruit juices in a multitude of flavours. (theecologist.org)
  • Needless to say, Coca-Cola pays nothing to the local villagers for their precious groundwater. (theecologist.org)
  • It wasn't long after Coca-Cola arrived that our problems began,' says Veloor Somindan, the leader of the campaign against the Plachimada bottling plant. (theecologist.org)
  • A year after Coca-Cola arrived, the water in the local wells turned a strange colour, and villagers began complaining of fever, stomach pains, headaches and diarrhoea. (theecologist.org)
  • No one is totally sure what caused the poisoning of the local water supply, but all the theories on offer link the problem to Coca-Cola. (theecologist.org)
  • Shortly after these results were made public, Coca-Cola stopped dumping its sludge on local farmers. (theecologist.org)
  • July 30 (Reuters) - Coca-Cola Co announced a new operating structure on Monday, dividing its global business into three main units, with new heads that will report to the chief executive. (reuters.com)
  • Pseudomembranous colitis is a form of inflammatory colitis characterized by the pathologic presence of pseudomembranes consisting of mucin, fibrin, necrotic cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). (medscape.com)
  • Although every antibiotic has been reported to be associated with pseudomembranous colitis, cephalosporin and beta-lactam antibiotics are most frequently implicated in children. (medscape.com)
  • It classically forms pseudomembranes and is often referred to as pseudomembranous colitis, which is its (nonspecific) histomorphologic description. (wikipedia.org)
  • These individuals may have symptoms that mimic colitis such as diarrhea, abdominal pain , and mucus in stool. (medicinenet.com)
  • The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are abdominal pain and cramping and frequent diarrhea, often with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This rare form of colitis affects the entire colon and causes severe pain , profuse diarrhea , bleeding, fever , and the inability to eat. (medicinenet.com)
  • The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are cramping belly pain and diarrhea . (kidshealth.org)
  • Symptoms of ulcerative colitis are repeated attacks of pain, diarrhea and bleeding from the rectum. (medindia.net)
  • Extensive involvement or pan colitis can give rise to repeated diarrhea, bleeding, and severe crampy pain, necessitating intense medical treatment. (medindia.net)
  • The first description of Ulcerative Colitis dates back to 640 BC and many physicians upto 170 AD including Hippocrates described a condition with a type of chronic diarrhea associated with blood and ulcerations of the bowel. (medindia.net)
  • If you have diarrhea because of ulcerative colitis, it may help. (webmd.com)
  • Common symptoms of colitis may include: mild to severe abdominal pains and tenderness (depending on the stage of the disease), persistent hemorrhagic diarrhea with pus either present or absent in the stools, fecal incontinence, flatulence, fatigue, loss of appetite and unexplained weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2018 Coles Express started trialling standalone convenience sites in Victoria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Crohn disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis characteristically involves the large bowel UC mainly affects the rectum and sigmoid colon, but it may involve the entire colon and the terminal ileum. (medscape.com)
  • Accuracy of abdominal ultrasound and MRI for detection of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in children. (medscape.com)
  • Indeterminate colitis is a term to describe a chronic idiopathic colitis that cannot be separated based on conventional diagnostic modalities to either Crohn colitis or ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • If you've been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and think you may be having a severe flare-up, contact your GP or care team for advice. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The severity of ulcerative colitis is usually described as mild, moderate or severe. (medicinenet.com)
  • Severe conditions are characterized by increased number of stools, bloody stools, wide ranging symptoms indicating malnutrition and complications of ulcerative colitis and lack of general wellbeing. (news-medical.net)
  • Those with moderately severe ulcerative colitis are often treated with a medication called aminosalicylates. (news-medical.net)
  • Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay and blood cytomegalovirus DNA PCR for cytomegaloviral colitis patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Accutane - Would you take isotretinoin if your father has severe ulcerative colitis? (drugs.com)
  • Retrieved on October 01, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Ulcerative-Colitis-Treatment.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Ulcerative colitis ( UC ) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis affects the inner lining of the rectum and colon. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Diet and stress may make symptoms worse, but probably don't cause ulcerative colitis. (kidshealth.org)
  • Stress doesn't cause ulcerative colitis. (webmd.com)
  • Published: Harold L. Cole & Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez, 2016. (nber.org)
  • Dear Sir, My Mrs. has recently diagnosed as ulcerative colitis on colonoscopy(Done for lo. (medhelp.org)
  • ischemic colitis (such as blockage of an artery in the colon by a blood clot. (medicinenet.com)
  • This immune response may lead to chronic inflammation and the digestive problems characteristic of ulcerative colitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Through both his lauded work fronting the Commotions and his more eclectic solo efforts, Lloyd Cole established himself as one of the most articulate and acute songwriters of the post-punk era. (spotify.com)
  • There are two types of colitis: acute and chronic. (vetinfo.com)
  • While acute colitis is something that occurs rather suddenly and may not last long, chronic colitis continues over a period of time and can continue over the span of your dog's life. (vetinfo.com)
  • If your dog suffers from acute colitis, there may not be any visible signs of a problem. (vetinfo.com)
  • Because acute colitis occurs suddenly and chronic colitis develops over time, the effect on your dog can be quite different depending on which one he is experiencing. (vetinfo.com)
  • Acute colitis typically presents itself with very few symptoms. (vetinfo.com)
  • Colitis may be acute and self-limited or long-term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence, detection rate and outcome of cytomegalovirus infection in ulcerative colitis patients requiring colonic resection. (medscape.com)
  • Colitis means inflammation of the colon. (medicinenet.com)
  • The term colitis refers to inflammation of the colon. (medscape.com)
  • Colitis is the medical term for inflammation of the colon. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Because colitis causes an inflammation of the colon, it's important to notice any abnormal changes in your dog's bowel movements. (vetinfo.com)
  • There are many different types of colitis with different causes. (medicinenet.com)
  • The different types of colitis have different causes, and therefore different symptoms and treatments. (wikihow.com)
  • Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis (UC) Clinical Decision Support Tool. (medscape.com)
  • New guideline provides recommendations for the treatment of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Aminosalicylates are used both in mild and moderate ulcerative colitis. (news-medical.net)
  • In the study, researchers evaluated the effects of six weeks of treatment with probiotics in 32 people with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis . (webmd.com)
  • In this clinical trial, 77 percent of those treated with a probiotic bacteria mixture experienced relief of their mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. (mercola.com)
  • In this Seminar we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, natural history, medical and surgical management, and main disease-related complications of ulcerative colitis, and briefly outline novel treatment options. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors use blood tests to check for signs of ulcerative colitis and complications, such as anemia. (nih.gov)
  • Ulcerative colitis is diagnosed with a combination of blood tests, stool tests, and X-rays. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis may cause differences in the appearance of a person's stool. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors may use stool tests to check for conditions other than ulcerative colitis, such as infections that could be causing your symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • medical citation needed] Symptoms suggestive of colitis are worked-up by obtaining the medical history, a physical examination and laboratory tests (CBC, electrolytes, stool culture and sensitivity, stool ova and parasites et cetera). (wikipedia.org)
  • The severity of ulcerative colitis symptoms depends on the extent of involvement of the intestines, with limited involvement causing milder symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • The signs and symptoms of colitis are quite variable and dependent on the cause of the given colitis and factors that modify its course and severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the early signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis? (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the other signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis? (medicinenet.com)
  • Cole Hamels has struggled in recent starts and is showing signs of frustration. (philly.com)
  • However, with chronic colitis, your dog may show more of the clinical signs. (vetinfo.com)
  • Ulcerative Colitis Clinical Practice Guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ulcerative colitis presents unresolved challenges to identify predictive biomarkers of response to therapies. (nature.com)
  • In ulcerative colitis, treating beyond endoscopic healing has shown a reduction of relapse and hospitalization, pushing for histological remission to be embraced in clinical practice and clinical trials. (nature.com)
  • Colitis interrupts the normal patterns of your dog's bowel movements and can lead to a variety of uncomfortable symptoms. (vetinfo.com)
  • Factors that increase the risk of colon cancer are a larger area of inflammation, how long the inflammation has been there and some liver problems associated with colitis. (massgeneral.org)
  • Ulcerative colitis substantially increases the risk of colon cancer. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • If you have ulcerative colitis, your colon cancer risk more than doubles. (healthcentral.com)
  • This form of colitis is pathognomonic of infection by toxin-producing Clostridium difficile and develops as a result of altered normal microflora (usually by antibiotic therapy) that favors overgrowth and colonization of the intestine by Clostridium difficile and production of its toxins. (medscape.com)
  • Coexisting cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent patients with Clostridium difficile colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment for ulcerative colitis aims to relieve symptoms during a flare-up and prevent symptoms from returning (known as maintaining remission). (www.nhs.uk)
  • What is the treatment of ulcerative colitis? (medicinenet.com)
  • anyone heard of fecal biotheripy for treatment of ulcerative colitis? (medhelp.org)
  • Here, we propose the concept of disease clearance (symptomatic, endoscopic and histological remission) as the ultimate goal in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. (nature.com)
  • Long-term outcome of inflammatory bowel diseases with cytomegalovirus colitis: effect of antiviral treatment. (medscape.com)
  • [2] X Research source Colitis can have a variety of causes, and treatment depends on cause and type. (wikihow.com)
  • Treatment of colitis depends on the cause, and can range from home care to prescription medications. (wikihow.com)
  • Not all treatment methods can cure a dog entirely of colitis. (vetinfo.com)
  • Because colitis will continue to recur if underlying conditions are not corrected, they need to be diagnosed, so the treatment for colitis will be effective. (vetinfo.com)
  • Postevacuation image obtained after a single-contrast barium enema study shows extensive mucosal ulceration resulting from Shigella colitis. (medscape.com)
  • Even though the inheritance pattern of this condition is unclear, having a family member with ulcerative colitis increases the risk of developing the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) increases the risk of flares of ulcerative colitis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Born January 31, 1961 in Buxton, England, Lloyd Cole formed the Commotions in 1982 while studying philosophy at the University of Glasgow. (spotify.com)
  • In children aged 2 weeks to 1 year, the most common form of colitis is allergic colitis, which results from hypersensitivity, commonly to cow's milk and soy milk. (medscape.com)
  • Eight had definite proctitis, and in seven biopsy specimens were abnormal with histological changes ranging from non-specific colitis to gross colitis with goblet-cell depletion and crypt-abscess formation. (bmj.com)
  • Here, the authors combine mouse colitis time course with patient biopsy transcriptomes, achieving unsupervised clustering of UC patients correlating with therapeutic outcomes in independent data sets. (nature.com)
  • An important investigation in the assessment of colitis is biopsy. (wikipedia.org)