Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. There are two genera: INOVIRUS and PLECTROVIRUS.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "geese" is a common name for certain species of waterfowl and doesn't have a medical definition. It is not related to medical terminology or healthcare.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Techniques used in microbiology.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/3698)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems. (2/3698)

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

End group of naturally terminated and UV lesion terminated T7 in vitro RNA. (3/3698)

The 3' terminal nucleosides of RNA transcribed in vitro by E. coli RNA polymerase from T7 DNA and UV irradiated TN DNA were determined. The 3' terminal nucleoside of naturally terminated (t1 termination site) RNA cytidine. In the case of RNA terminated at UV lesions, it is cytidine in 0 per cent of the molecules and adenosine in the remaining 30 per cent. Cytidine trialcohols are labile in high concentrations of KOH and at high temperature and appear to convert to uridine.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage. (4/3698)

We report DNA and predicted protein sequence similarities, implying homology, among genes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages and prophages spanning a broad phylogenetic range of host bacteria. The sequence matches reported here establish genetic connections, not always direct, among the lambdoid phages of Escherichia coli, phage phiC31 of Streptomyces, phages of Mycobacterium, a previously unrecognized cryptic prophage, phiflu, in the Haemophilus influenzae genome, and two small prophage-like elements, phiRv1 and phiRv2, in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results imply that these phage genes, and very possibly all of the dsDNA tailed phages, share common ancestry. We propose a model for the genetic structure and dynamics of the global phage population in which all dsDNA phage genomes are mosaics with access, by horizontal exchange, to a large common genetic pool but in which access to the gene pool is not uniform for all phage.  (+info)

Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. (5/3698)

Lysogenic bacteriophages are major vehicles for the transfer of genetic information between bacteria, including pathogenicity and/or virulence determinants. In the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are phage encoded. The sequence and analysis of the Stx2 phage 933W is presented here. We find evidence that the toxin genes are part of a late-phage transcript, suggesting that toxin production may be coupled with, if not dependent upon, phage release during lytic growth. Another phage gene, stk, encodes a product resembling eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases. Based on its position in the sequence, Stk may be produced by the prophage in the lysogenic state, and, like the YpkA protein of Yersinia species, it may interfere with the signal transduction pathway of the mammalian host. Three novel tRNA genes present in the phage genome may serve to increase the availability of rare tRNA species associated with efficient expression of pathogenicity determinants: both the Shiga toxin and serine/threonine kinase genes contain rare isoleucine and arginine codons. 933W also has homology to lom, encoding a member of a family of outer membrane proteins associated with virulence by conferring the ability to survive in macrophages, and bor, implicated in serum resistance.  (+info)

Induction of prophages of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 with norfloxacin. (6/3698)

Norfloxacin (NFLX) caused induction of prophages VT1 and VT2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 at subinhibitory concentrations. In time course experiments, we observed the following sequential events: upon induction, the phage genomes underwent multiplication; the amount of stx genes increased; and subsequently, large quantities of toxins VT1 and VT2 were produced. Further studies showed that the molecular mechanism of prophage induction is closely related to the RecA system since the prophage VT2 was not induced with NFLX in a recA mutant strain.  (+info)

A complex control circuit. Regulation of immunity in temperate bacteriophages. (7/3698)

Temperate bacteriophages can display in a stable way two essentially different behaviours. In the immune state, a gene (cI) produces a repressor which prevents expression of all the other viral genes; in the non-immune state the typically viral functions are expressed. The choice between the two pathways and the establishment of one of them have much in common with cell determination and differentiation. This choice depends on a complex control system, in fact one of the most intricate nets of regulation known in some detail. Our paper provides a formal description and partial analysis of this regulatory net. It is shown that even for relatively simple known models, this kind of analysis uncovers predictions which had previously remained hidden. Some of these predictions were checked experimentally. The experimental part chiefly deals with the efficiency of lysogenization by thermoinducible lambda phage carrying mutations in one or more of the regulatory genes, N, cro and cII. Although N- mutations are widely known for preventing efficient integration, and both N- and cII mutations for preventing efficient establishment of immunity, it is shown that, as predicted by a simple model, both N- and cII- phage efficiently lysogenize at low temperature if they are in addition cro-. In contrast with lambda N- cro+, lambda N- cro- is not propagated as a plasmid at low temperature, precisely because it establishes immunity too efficiently. Genetic control circuits are described in terms of sets of logic equations, which relate the state of expression of genes or of chemical reactions (functions) to input (genetic and environmental) variables and to the presence of gene and reaction products (internal, or memorization varibles). From the set of equations, one derives a matrix which shows the stable stationary states (if any) of the system, and from which one can derive the pathways (temporal sequences of states) consistent with the model. This kind of analysis is complementary to the more widely used analysis based on differential equations; it allows one to analyze in less detail more complex systems. The language might be used as well, mutatis mutandis, in fields very different from genetics. The last part of the discussion deals with the role of positive feedback loops in our specific problem (establishment and maintenance of immunity in temperate bacteriophages) and in developmental genetics in general. As a generalization of an old idea, it is suggested that cell determination (for a given character) depends on a set of genes whose interaction constitutes a positive feedback loop. Such a system has two stable stationary states: which one is chosen will usually depend on additional controls grafted on the loop.  (+info)

Filamentous phage replication initiator protein gpII forms a covalent complex with the 5' end of the nick it introduced. (8/3698)

Rolling circle type DNA replication is initiated by introduction of a nick in the leading strand of the origin by the initiator protein, which in most cases binds covalently to the 5' end of the nick. In filamentous phage, however, such a covalent complex has not been detected. Using a suitable substrate and short reaction time, we show that filamentous phage initiator gpII forms a covalent complex with nicked DNA, which rapidly dissociates unless gpII is inactivated. A peptide-DNA complex was isolated from trypsin digest of the complex by ion-exchange column chromatography and gel filtration, and its peptide sequence was determined. The result indicated that gpII was linked to DNA by the tyrosine residue at position 197 from the N-terminus. The mutant protein in which this tyrosine was replaced by phenylalanine did not show any detectable activity to complement gene II amber mutant phage in vivo. In vitro, the mutant protein recognized the origin and bent DNA as well as the wild-type does, but failed to introduce a nick and to relax the superhelicity of cognate DNA.  (+info)

Coliphages are viruses that infect and replicate within certain species of bacteria that belong to the coliform group, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli). These viruses are commonly found in water and soil environments and are frequently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water quality testing. Coliphages are not harmful to humans or animals, but their presence in water can suggest the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that may pose a health risk. There are two main types of coliphages: F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic (or non-F specific) DNA coliphages.

Leviviridae is a family of small, nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses that infect only bacteria. These viruses, also known as leviphages or "ssRNA phages," have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and consist of only three structural proteins. Leviviridae is divided into two genera: Allolevivirus and Levivirus. Members of this family are important tools in molecular biology research due to their simplicity and ease of manipulation. They have been used to study various aspects of gene expression, RNA replication, and virus assembly.

RNA phages are a type of bacteriophage, which is a virus that infects bacteria. Unlike most other bacteriophages, RNA phages have an RNA genome instead of a DNA genome. These viruses infect and replicate within bacteria that have an RNA genome or those that can incorporate RNA into their replication cycle.

RNA phages are relatively simple in structure, consisting of an icosahedral capsid (protein shell) containing the single-stranded RNA genome. The genome may be either positive-sense (+) or negative-sense (-), depending on whether it can serve directly as messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation or if it must first be transcribed into a complementary RNA strand before translation.

Examples of well-known RNA phages include the MS2, Qβ, and φ6 phages. These viruses have been extensively studied as model systems to understand fundamental principles of RNA biology, virus replication strategies, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology, such as in the development of RNA-based vaccines and gene therapy vectors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Inoviridae" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a family of viruses known as "inoviruses," which are filamentous bacteriophages - viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. These viruses have a unique structure and method of infection, but they are not typically associated with human or animal diseases. If you have any more questions about microbiology or virology, I'd be happy to try and help!

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

Sewage is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine. Sewage is the wastewater that is produced by households and industries, which contains a variety of contaminants including human waste, chemicals, and other pollutants. It can contain various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause diseases in humans if they come into contact with it or consume contaminated food or water. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of sewage is essential to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect public health.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Fluid waste disposal in a medical context refers to the proper and safe management of liquid byproducts generated during medical procedures, patient care, or research. These fluids can include bodily excretions (such as urine, feces, or vomit), irrigation solutions, blood, or other biological fluids.

The process of fluid waste disposal involves several steps:

1. Collection: Fluid waste is collected in appropriate containers that are designed to prevent leakage and contamination.
2. Segregation: Different types of fluid waste may require separate collection and disposal methods based on their infectious or hazardous nature.
3. Treatment: Depending on the type and volume of fluid waste, various treatments can be applied, such as disinfection, sterilization, or chemical neutralization, to reduce the risk of infection or harm to the environment and personnel.
4. Disposal: Treated fluid waste is then disposed of according to local regulations, which may involve transporting it to a designated waste management facility for further processing or disposal in a safe and environmentally friendly manner (e.g., deep well injection, incineration, or landfilling).
5. Documentation and tracking: Proper records should be maintained to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and to enable effective monitoring and auditing of the waste disposal process.

It is essential to handle fluid waste disposal carefully to minimize the risk of infection, protect the environment, and maintain regulatory compliance. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding fluid waste management to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and the community.

I'm not aware of a widely recognized or established medical term called "F factor." It is possible that it could be a term specific to certain medical specialties, research, or publications. In order to provide an accurate and helpful response, I would need more context or information about where you encountered this term.

If you meant to ask about the F-plasmid, which is sometimes referred to as the "F factor" in bacteriology, it is a type of plasmid that can be found in certain strains of bacteria and carries genes related to conjugation (the process by which bacteria transfer genetic material between each other). The F-plasmid can exist as an independent circular DNA molecule or integrate into the chromosome of the host bacterium.

If this is not the term you were looking for, please provide more context so I can give a better answer.

Pseudomonas phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. These phages are important in the study of Pseudomonas species, which include several significant human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. Phages can be used for therapeutic purposes to treat bacterial infections, including those caused by Pseudomonas. Additionally, they are also useful tools in molecular biology and genetic research.

It's worth noting that while "Pseudomonas phages" refers specifically to phages that infect Pseudomonas bacteria, the term "phage" on its own is used to describe any virus that infects and replicates within a bacterial host.

Bacteriophage P2 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within a specific bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli). It's a double-stranded DNA virus that was first isolated in the 1950s. Bacteriophage P2 is known for its ability to integrate its genetic material into the host bacterium's chromosome and establish lysogeny, where it can remain dormant until environmental conditions trigger its replication.

Bacteriophage P2 has been extensively studied as a model system in molecular biology due to its unique life cycle and genetic characteristics. It has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, and lysogeny. However, it's important to note that bacteriophage P2 is not typically used for medical purposes like treating bacterial infections.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Flocculation is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a term that is used in various scientific and medical contexts to refer to the process of forming flocs or clumps. Flocs are aggregates of small particles that come together to form larger, visible clumps.

In medical contexts, flocculation may be used to describe the formation of clumps in biological samples such as urine or blood. For example, the presence of flocculent material in urine may indicate the presence of a protein abnormality or kidney disease. Similarly, flocculation of red blood cells may occur in certain medical conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), where red blood cells are susceptible to complement-mediated lysis and can form clumps in the blood.

Overall, while flocculation is not a term with a specific medical definition, it is a process that can have implications for various medical diagnoses and conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geese" is not a medical term. It refers to various waterbirds constituting the family Anatidae and the genus Branta, characterized by a long neck, wide wings, and a honking call. They are not related to human health or medicine. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to help you with those!

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Levivirus" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a type of small, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA virus that infects bacteria. They are also known as "Leviviridae" and are studied in the field of virology, not typically in medical practice. If you have any questions about bacteriophages or other types of viruses that might be more medically relevant, I'd be happy to help with those!

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Filtration in the medical context refers to a process used in various medical treatments and procedures, where a substance is passed through a filter with the purpose of removing impurities or unwanted components. The filter can be made up of different materials such as paper, cloth, or synthetic membranes, and it works by trapping particles or molecules based on their size, shape, or charge.

For example, filtration is commonly used in kidney dialysis to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood. In this case, the patient's blood is pumped through a special filter called a dialyzer, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood based on size differences between these substances and the blood cells. The clean blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Filtration is also used in other medical applications such as water purification, air filtration, and tissue engineering. In each case, the goal is to remove unwanted components or impurities from a substance, making it safer or more effective for use in medical treatments and procedures.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Chloroform is a volatile, clear, and nonflammable liquid with a mild, sweet, and aromatic odor. Its chemical formula is CHCl3, consisting of one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms. Chloroform is a trihalomethane, which means it contains three halogens (chlorine) in its molecular structure.

In the medical field, chloroform has been historically used as an inhaled general anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensibility to pain quickly. However, its use as a surgical anesthetic has largely been abandoned because of several safety concerns, including its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias, liver and kidney damage, and a condition called "chloroform hepatopathy" with prolonged or repeated exposure.

Currently, chloroform is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine but may still be encountered in laboratory settings for various research purposes. It's also possible to find traces of chloroform in drinking water due to its formation during the disinfection process using chlorine-based compounds.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Enterococcus is a genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the normal gut microbiota but can also cause a variety of infections, particularly in hospital settings. Enterococci are known for their ability to survive in harsh environments and can be resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat. Some species, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, are more commonly associated with human infections.

In medical terms, an "Enterococcus infection" refers to an infection caused by any species of the Enterococcus genus. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the urinary tract, bloodstream, and abdominal cavity. They can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and pain, depending on the location of the infection. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Enterococcus species, although resistance to multiple antibiotics is a growing concern.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Ribonucleases (RNases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules by hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as RNA processing, turnover, and quality control. They can be classified into several types based on their specificities, mechanisms, and cellular localizations.

Some common classes of ribonucleases include:

1. Endoribonucleases: These enzymes cleave RNA internally, at specific sequences or structural motifs. Examples include RNase A, which targets single-stranded RNA; RNase III, which cuts double-stranded RNA at specific stem-loop structures; and RNase T1, which recognizes and cuts unpaired guanosine residues in RNA molecules.
2. Exoribonucleases: These enzymes remove nucleotides from the ends of RNA molecules. They can be further divided into 5'-3' exoribonucleases, which degrade RNA starting from the 5' end, and 3'-5' exoribonucleases, which start at the 3' end. Examples include Xrn1, a 5'-3' exoribonuclease involved in mRNA decay; and Dis3/RRP6, a 3'-5' exoribonuclease that participates in ribosomal RNA processing and degradation.
3. Specific ribonucleases: These enzymes target specific RNA molecules or regions with high precision. For example, RNase P is responsible for cleaving the 5' leader sequence of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) during their maturation; and RNase MRP is involved in the processing of ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial RNA molecules.

Dysregulation or mutations in ribonucleases have been implicated in various human diseases, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and viral infections. Therefore, understanding their functions and mechanisms is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Coliphage originate almost ... Coliphage levels reflect the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and have been proposed as an indicator of ... Coliphages at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) A science project targeted towards students ... Nappier SP, Hong T, Ichida A, Goldstone A, Eftim SE (April 2019). "Occurrence of coliphage in raw wastewater and in ambient ...
Hancock, Robert Ernest William (1974). Cross resistance amongst coliphages (PhD thesis). University of Adelaide. Retrieved 2021 ...
Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Beaudoin J (September 1969). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. II. Two ... Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Erdahl WS (November 1966). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. I. ... "Ff coliphages: structural and functional relationships". Microbiological Reviews. 50 (4): 401-27. doi:10.1128/MR.50.4.401- ...
Fletcher RD (1965). "Activity and morphology of Vibrio coli phage". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 26 (111): 361-4. ...
Suan, Sim Tiow; Chuen, Ho Yueh; Sivaborvorn, Komol (September 9, 1988). "Southeast Asian experiences with the coliphage test". ...
Alterations of receptor specificities of coliphages of the T2 family. J. Mol. Biol. 240:105-110. The older phage literature, e. ...
"Sequence organization of the origins of DNA replication in lambdoid coliphages". Gene. 14 (1-2): 91-101. doi:10.1016/0378-1119( ...
Chow, S; Daub, E; Murialdo, H (1987). "The Overproduction of DNA Terminase of Coliphage Lambda". Gene. 60 (2-3): 277-289. doi: ...
Walker, J T; D H Walker (March 1983). "Coliphage P1 morphogenesis: analysis of mutants by electron microscopy". Journal of ...
Barondess JJ, Beckwith J (August 1990). "A bacterial virulence determinant encoded by lysogenic coliphage lambda". Nature. 346 ...
Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Beaudoin J (September 1969). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. II. Two ... Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Erdahl WS (November 1966). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. I. ...
Pratt, D. (1969). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13: II. Two genes for coat proteins". ...
"Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of microvirid coliphage genomes". Journal of Bacteriology. 188 (3): 1134-42. doi: ...
Stojković EA, Rothman-Denes LB (2007). "Coliphage N4 N-acetylmuramidase defines a new family of murein hydrolases". J Mol Biol ...
Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Evolution of Microvirid Coliphage Genomes. Journal of Bacteriology, 118(3) p1134-1142 ...
Additionally, Gp9 of E. coli phage phiE49 is similar in sequence. These proteins are short, 55 to 71 amino acyl residues (aas) ...
Kozak, M; Nathans, D (14 September 1972). "Differential inhibition of coliphage MS2 protein synthesis by ribosome-directed ...
Chapman-McQuiston, E. (2007). The Effect of Noisy Protein Expression on E. coli/Phage Dynamics (Thesis). Blake, W. J.; et al. ( ...
Some types of coliphages (a type of bacteriophage) are inactive in an of air-water-solid interface. This is due to the ... In a experiments that used E.coli phages, Qβ, fr, T4, and MS2 confirmed that viruses survive on a solid surface longer compared ...
Tomlinson S, Taylor PW (August 1985). "Neuraminidase associated with coliphage E that specifically depolymerizes the ...
Birkeland, N.K. and B.H. Lindqvist, Coliphage P2 late control gene ogr: DNA sequence and product identification. Journal of ... 39(4): p. 839-860 Lindqvist, B.H., Vegetative DNA of temperate coliphage P2. Molecular and General Genetics, 1971. 110(2): p. ... Site-specific recombination links the evolution of P2-like coliphages and pathogenic enterobacteria. Molecular Biology and ...
Bruttin A, Brüssow H (July 2005). "Human volunteers receiving Escherichia coli phage T4 orally: a safety test of phage therapy ... They investigated the oral administration of Escherichia coli phage T4 and found no adverse effects of the treatment. ... February 2016). "Oral Phage Therapy of Acute Bacterial Diarrhea with Two Coliphage Preparations: A Randomized Trial in Children ...
Barbirz S, Müller JJ, Uetrecht C, Clark AJ, Heinemann U, Seckler R (Jul 2008). "Crystal structure of Escherichia coli phage ...
These sediments release Copper and Chromium and have bactericidal properties that multiply coliphages reducing and ultimately ...
"Comparative genomics of the T4-Like Escherichia coli phage JS98: implications for the evolution of T4 phages". J. Bacteriol. ...
In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle. ...
... and coliphage HSA virus; each of enterocin AAR-71 class IIa, enterocin AAR-74 class IIa, and erwiniocin NA4 against coliphage ...
They determined the relationship between Salmonella phage P22 and coliphage lambda, and discovered that bacteriophage genomes ...
Nguyen, Huong Minh; Kang, Changwon (2014-02-01). "Lysis delay and burst shrinkage of coliphage T7 by deletion of terminator Tφ ...
In reference to E. coli phage lambda, the term is sometimes written as "χ site", using the Greek letter chi; for E. coli and ...
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Coliphage originate almost ... Coliphage levels reflect the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and have been proposed as an indicator of ... Coliphages at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) A science project targeted towards students ... Nappier SP, Hong T, Ichida A, Goldstone A, Eftim SE (April 2019). "Occurrence of coliphage in raw wastewater and in ambient ...
Furthermore, since coliphages have been reported to cross-infect certain Shigella spp., we also evaluated the ability of the ... Furthermore, since coliphages have been reported to cross-infect certain Shigella spp., we also evaluated the ability of the ... A quest of great importance-developing a broad spectrum Escherichia coli phage collection. ... A Quest of Great Importance-Developing a Broad Spectrum Escherichia coli Phage Collection, Viruses, 11(10), 899. (19pp.) DOI: ...
Coliphages infect coliform bacteria. Coliphages do not infect humans or cause illness. A positive test for coliphages indicates ... Coliphage: A virus that infects bacteria is called a phage. Phages infect specific species of bacteria. ... Fecal coliform indicators: Groups of microbes, such as E. coli, enterococci, and coliphage, used under the Groundwater Rule to ...
These coliphage data will be compared to samples collected during times when birds are less abundant and to the other types of ... These coliphage data will be compared to samples collected during times when birds are less abundant and to the other types of ... Although the coliphage method is highly sensitive, it is limited to four groups of animals that are only typically associated ... Although the coliphage method is highly sensitive, it is limited to four groups of animals that are only typically associated ...
Somatic coliphages were detected in 98% of samples (geometric mean 24 +/- 4.1 PFU per 100 ml), and F+ coliphages were detected ... Hepatitis E virus and coliphages in waters proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations. ... and all of the F+ RNA coliphages belonged to genogroup I. Although the pervasiveness of swine CAFOs in this area prevented a ... and coliphages. HEV was detected in one sample. ... of the F+ coliphage isolates were RNA phage, ...
Evaluation of a male-specific DNA coliphage persistence within Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) - (Peer Reviewed Journal ... Evaluation of a male-specific DNA coliphage persistence within Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Food and Environmental ...
Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high- ... Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses. Int J Environ Health Res 23:484-506. ...
Study to Compare Current Fecal Bacteria Monitoring With Fecal Coliphage Monitoring on an Equivalent Volume Basis ...
Quarterly for coliphage (both somatic and male specific presence/absence) and Cryptosporidium/Giardia. If two subsequent ...
Coliphages ; Escherichia coli ; Klebsiella pneumoniae ; Aquatic microbiology ; Ammonia ; Chlorine ; Temperature ; Reprints ; ... Effect of the Method of Preparing Monochloramine upon Inactivation of MS2 Coliphage, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella ...
Payment, P.; Franco, E. Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water ...
The ICR might also require monthly monitoring for Clostridium perfringens and coliphage. + One organism per liter of water. & ...
... to provide broad protection against various types of dsDNA coliphages. ...
Tiny coliphage viruses surround an E. coli cell. Coliphage, which is a virus that infects E. coli and other fecal bacteria, has ... In advance of the EPAs possible release of coliphage thresholds, the Bight 18 monitoring program tested the new coliphage ... Coliphage, which is a virus that infects some fecal bacteria, more closely mimics the viral pathogens that sicken humans, ... At the same time, the study found that if public health decisions were to be made based on the coliphage data instead of the ...
coliphages 77% * Effects of short-term exposure of paracetamol in the gonads of blue mussels Mytilus edulis. Koagouw, W. & ...
... including pathovariant strains of Escherichia coli. Phage sequences can likewise be used to distinguish between closely related ...
... the T-even coliphages. Are they parts of defective phages? Are they involved in killing the prey? Much is left to be learned… ...
These include β-galactosidase -antibody linked immunoassays and immunohistochemistry, coliphage detection based on β- ...
... coli phage λ chooses between two developmental pathways, lysogeny (integration of a repressed prophage into the host chromosome ...
Concentration and enumeration methods of somatic coliphages in water samples Ing. Jana Zuzáková, Bc. David Janák and doc. RNDr ... Somatic coliphages are a new indicator for monitoring the efficiency of water treatment and purification in the Directive (EU) ...
This precession nutation and wobble of the earth 2015 is that C-reactive DNA traces accumulate wherein coliphage. The ...
COLIPHAGE (FOR GWR). Returned To Compliance - Dec 22, 2021. 1. 903404353. Y. Nov 01, 2020. Nov 30, 2020. EP-A. LCR. Corrosion ...
MS2 - Fr Coliphage. PATHOGENIC BACTERIA, CYSTS AND PARASITES >99.9999%. Coli - Klebsiella Terrigena - Pseudomonas Aeruginosa - ...
Coliphage f-2………………… 100%. Enterobacter cloaceae………100%. Actual performance results may vary based on the level of organic ...
Bromine and Chlorine Disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts, Bacillus atrophaeus Spores, and MS2 Coliphage in Water. ...
Fast and easy methods for the detection of coliphages. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 173, p. 105940 . ISSN: 0167-7012 ... Evaluation of New Components in Modified Scholtens Medium for the Detection of Somatic Coliphages. Food And Environmental ... F-specific coliphage detection by the Bluephage method. Water Research, 184, p. 116215 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres. ...
  • A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distribution of Escherichia coli, coliphages and enteric viruses in water, epilithic biofilms and sediments of an urban river in Germany. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Coliphage, which is a virus that infects E. coli and other fecal bacteria, has been shown in a Bight '18 microbiology study to be an effective complement to established Enterococcus bacteria-based methods for tracking fecal contamination. (sccwrp.org)
  • Coliphage, which is a virus that infects some fecal bacteria, more closely mimics the viral pathogens that sicken humans, underscoring the value of developing coliphage as a viral contamination indicator complementing Enterococcus and other bacteria indicators. (sccwrp.org)
  • Coliphages infect coliform bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, since coliphages have been reported to cross-infect certain Shigella spp. (ucc.ie)
  • Coliphages do not infect humans or cause illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Somatic coliphages are those which infect cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Coliphage are viruses that infect the host bacteria E.coli , and their presence in the environment is directly related to the presence of the host. (usgs.gov)
  • Samples were evaluated for levels of fecal contamina- tion by using fecal coliforms and somatic coliphages. (cdc.gov)
  • Somatic coliphages were enumerated according to can also transduce resistance genes from Salmonella enter- the standard method. (cdc.gov)
  • Somatic coliphages were detected in 98% of samples (geometric mean 24 +/- 4.1 PFU per 100 ml), and F+ coliphages were detected in 85% of samples (geometric mean 6.8 +/- 5.0 PFU per 100 ml). (cdc.gov)
  • The method comparison study, described in an article published in November by the journal Water Research, involved testing water quality at 12 Southern California beaches using a commonly used Enterococcus method alongside a newer alternative method that uses coliphage viruses to detect fecal contamination. (sccwrp.org)
  • In advance of the EPA's possible release of coliphage thresholds, the Bight '18 monitoring program tested the new coliphage method's utility side by side with a decades-old Enterococcus testing method. (sccwrp.org)
  • At the same time, the study found that if public health decisions were to be made based on the coliphage data instead of the Enterococcus data, fewer beaches would be closed and fewer beachgoers would be warned about potentially polluted waters - meaning that using coliphage testing method would, on average, be less likely to protect beachgoers from exposure to contaminated waters. (sccwrp.org)
  • The coliphage and Enterococcus methods produced statistically similar results at 73% of study sites. (sccwrp.org)
  • The results of the Bight '18 study suggest that the coliphage method is a valuable supplement to - but not an appropriate replacement for - Enterococcus testing at Southern California beaches. (sccwrp.org)
  • Coliphage levels reflect the persistence of pathogenic viruses in the environment and have been proposed as an indicator of fecal contamination in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2018, the EPA released an approved coliphage-based method for quantifying fecal contamination at beaches and other recreational water bodies. (sccwrp.org)
  • Prior to 2018, an EPA-approved coliphage method for detecting fecal contamination did not exist for beaches and other recreational waters, although a coliphage method for testing groundwater has been available since 2001. (sccwrp.org)
  • A positive test for coliphages indicates the water may be contaminated with feces or E. coli or viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Tiny coliphage viruses surround an E. coli cell. (sccwrp.org)
  • E. coli K-12, B and W) to provide broad protection against various types of dsDNA coliphages. (phys.org)
  • The study's goal was to evaluate the efficacy of routine monitoring of Southern California beaches using coliphage as an indicator for the presence of fecal contamination. (sccwrp.org)
  • The study also found that both methods generally perform reliably for detecting fecal contamination at beaches, although the coliphage method is comparatively more difficult to perform and requires larger water sample volumes. (sccwrp.org)
  • No U.S. regulatory agency has indicated that coliphage-based fecal contamination testing will become a requirement for routine beach water-quality testing. (sccwrp.org)
  • Hepatitis E virus and coliphages in waters proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations. (cdc.gov)
  • Surface water samples (n=154) were collected from public access waters in proximity to swine CAFO spray fields for six months and were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) and coliphages. (cdc.gov)
  • The study, conducted as part of Bight '18 and led by SCCWRP, was motivated by recent efforts by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop regulatory thresholds for coliphage that will define for water-quality managers the levels at which coliphage contamination becomes indicative of a health threat to swimmers and others who enter recreational waters. (sccwrp.org)
  • The Bight '18 beach water-quality study showed that coliphage-based monitoring is more likely to protect the health of beachgoers in certain scenarios, including where a fresh sewage source is present, such as beaches in southern San Diego County where lightly treated sewage can travel north from Mexico and contaminate coastal waters. (sccwrp.org)
  • Bromine and Chlorine Disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts, Bacillus atrophaeus Spores, and MS2 Coliphage in Water. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although there is evidence in some reports of coliphage replication in the gut, the phage infections are consistently transient, becoming undetectable in 3-10 days [ 2 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Temperate coliphage HK97 was isolated from pig dung. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mutation to extended host range and the occurrence of phenotypic mixing in the temperate coliphage lambda. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Temperate coliphages: classification and correlation with habitat. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here I present a two-part study into (i) the diversity of E. coli prophages within the human UMB and (ii) the ability of UMB temperate coliphages to be induced from a native host, engineered to be obligately lytic to then infect and lyse a non-native UMB host. (luc.edu)
  • This study shows that there is substantial diversity in UMB E. coli prophages and shows that some temperate coliphages can be induced, engineered to be obligately lytic, and lyse non-native hosts. (luc.edu)
  • While a handful of E. coli infecting phages (coliphages) have been characterized, little is known about the diversity of coliphages of the human UMB or their role within this microbial community. (luc.edu)
  • It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted. (bvsalud.org)
  • Seven wells tested positive for enterococci and Arcobacter (an emerging bacterial pathogen), and F + -specific coliphage was present in four wells. (nih.gov)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Less than 20% of 48 mice tested carried E. coli in their gut, and of 22 commensal E. coli strains isolated and tested, 59% were completely resistant to infection by lambda, M13, P1, T4, T7, and PhiX174 coliphage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Observation of Coliphage T4 DNA in the absence and presence of 1 by fluorescence microscopy suggested that 1 bound to DNA along its groove. (doshisha.ac.jp)
  • This study attempted to identify the barriers to long term establishment of exogenous coliphage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of laboratory mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although HK97 is antigenically unrelated to coliphage λ , it has similar morphology, host range and immunity properties, and can recombine with it. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Morphological, host range, and genetic characterization of two coliphages. (cdc.gov)