Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A family of rod-shaped or filamentous bacteriophages consisting of single-stranded DNA. There are two genera: INOVIRUS and PLECTROVIRUS.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Techniques used in microbiology.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (1/3698)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems. (2/3698)

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

End group of naturally terminated and UV lesion terminated T7 in vitro RNA. (3/3698)

The 3' terminal nucleosides of RNA transcribed in vitro by E. coli RNA polymerase from T7 DNA and UV irradiated TN DNA were determined. The 3' terminal nucleoside of naturally terminated (t1 termination site) RNA cytidine. In the case of RNA terminated at UV lesions, it is cytidine in 0 per cent of the molecules and adenosine in the remaining 30 per cent. Cytidine trialcohols are labile in high concentrations of KOH and at high temperature and appear to convert to uridine.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage. (4/3698)

We report DNA and predicted protein sequence similarities, implying homology, among genes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages and prophages spanning a broad phylogenetic range of host bacteria. The sequence matches reported here establish genetic connections, not always direct, among the lambdoid phages of Escherichia coli, phage phiC31 of Streptomyces, phages of Mycobacterium, a previously unrecognized cryptic prophage, phiflu, in the Haemophilus influenzae genome, and two small prophage-like elements, phiRv1 and phiRv2, in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results imply that these phage genes, and very possibly all of the dsDNA tailed phages, share common ancestry. We propose a model for the genetic structure and dynamics of the global phage population in which all dsDNA phage genomes are mosaics with access, by horizontal exchange, to a large common genetic pool but in which access to the gene pool is not uniform for all phage.  (+info)

Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. (5/3698)

Lysogenic bacteriophages are major vehicles for the transfer of genetic information between bacteria, including pathogenicity and/or virulence determinants. In the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are phage encoded. The sequence and analysis of the Stx2 phage 933W is presented here. We find evidence that the toxin genes are part of a late-phage transcript, suggesting that toxin production may be coupled with, if not dependent upon, phage release during lytic growth. Another phage gene, stk, encodes a product resembling eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases. Based on its position in the sequence, Stk may be produced by the prophage in the lysogenic state, and, like the YpkA protein of Yersinia species, it may interfere with the signal transduction pathway of the mammalian host. Three novel tRNA genes present in the phage genome may serve to increase the availability of rare tRNA species associated with efficient expression of pathogenicity determinants: both the Shiga toxin and serine/threonine kinase genes contain rare isoleucine and arginine codons. 933W also has homology to lom, encoding a member of a family of outer membrane proteins associated with virulence by conferring the ability to survive in macrophages, and bor, implicated in serum resistance.  (+info)

Induction of prophages of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 with norfloxacin. (6/3698)

Norfloxacin (NFLX) caused induction of prophages VT1 and VT2 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 at subinhibitory concentrations. In time course experiments, we observed the following sequential events: upon induction, the phage genomes underwent multiplication; the amount of stx genes increased; and subsequently, large quantities of toxins VT1 and VT2 were produced. Further studies showed that the molecular mechanism of prophage induction is closely related to the RecA system since the prophage VT2 was not induced with NFLX in a recA mutant strain.  (+info)

A complex control circuit. Regulation of immunity in temperate bacteriophages. (7/3698)

Temperate bacteriophages can display in a stable way two essentially different behaviours. In the immune state, a gene (cI) produces a repressor which prevents expression of all the other viral genes; in the non-immune state the typically viral functions are expressed. The choice between the two pathways and the establishment of one of them have much in common with cell determination and differentiation. This choice depends on a complex control system, in fact one of the most intricate nets of regulation known in some detail. Our paper provides a formal description and partial analysis of this regulatory net. It is shown that even for relatively simple known models, this kind of analysis uncovers predictions which had previously remained hidden. Some of these predictions were checked experimentally. The experimental part chiefly deals with the efficiency of lysogenization by thermoinducible lambda phage carrying mutations in one or more of the regulatory genes, N, cro and cII. Although N- mutations are widely known for preventing efficient integration, and both N- and cII mutations for preventing efficient establishment of immunity, it is shown that, as predicted by a simple model, both N- and cII- phage efficiently lysogenize at low temperature if they are in addition cro-. In contrast with lambda N- cro+, lambda N- cro- is not propagated as a plasmid at low temperature, precisely because it establishes immunity too efficiently. Genetic control circuits are described in terms of sets of logic equations, which relate the state of expression of genes or of chemical reactions (functions) to input (genetic and environmental) variables and to the presence of gene and reaction products (internal, or memorization varibles). From the set of equations, one derives a matrix which shows the stable stationary states (if any) of the system, and from which one can derive the pathways (temporal sequences of states) consistent with the model. This kind of analysis is complementary to the more widely used analysis based on differential equations; it allows one to analyze in less detail more complex systems. The language might be used as well, mutatis mutandis, in fields very different from genetics. The last part of the discussion deals with the role of positive feedback loops in our specific problem (establishment and maintenance of immunity in temperate bacteriophages) and in developmental genetics in general. As a generalization of an old idea, it is suggested that cell determination (for a given character) depends on a set of genes whose interaction constitutes a positive feedback loop. Such a system has two stable stationary states: which one is chosen will usually depend on additional controls grafted on the loop.  (+info)

Filamentous phage replication initiator protein gpII forms a covalent complex with the 5' end of the nick it introduced. (8/3698)

Rolling circle type DNA replication is initiated by introduction of a nick in the leading strand of the origin by the initiator protein, which in most cases binds covalently to the 5' end of the nick. In filamentous phage, however, such a covalent complex has not been detected. Using a suitable substrate and short reaction time, we show that filamentous phage initiator gpII forms a covalent complex with nicked DNA, which rapidly dissociates unless gpII is inactivated. A peptide-DNA complex was isolated from trypsin digest of the complex by ion-exchange column chromatography and gel filtration, and its peptide sequence was determined. The result indicated that gpII was linked to DNA by the tyrosine residue at position 197 from the N-terminus. The mutant protein in which this tyrosine was replaced by phenylalanine did not show any detectable activity to complement gene II amber mutant phage in vivo. In vitro, the mutant protein recognized the origin and bent DNA as well as the wild-type does, but failed to introduce a nick and to relax the superhelicity of cognate DNA.  (+info)

Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda ATCC ® 77359™ Designation: pLDR10 TypeStrain=False Application: contains sequence attachment site integrating vector
Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 ATCC ® 11303-B4™ Designation: T4 TypeStrain=False Application: Testing of aerosol containment on cell sorters
In the original article it was suggested that bacterial debris controls exhibited no cytokine response when incubated with PBMC. However, a subsequent data audit and additional statistical analysis has revealed that a number of the bacterial debris controls exhibited a positive cytokine response whereas others not, resulting in an inflated mean particularly for the TNF-α response (Supplementary table 1). These means were not significantly different to the response generated by the purified phages. This does not impact on the data presented or the statistical analysis that has been performed as part of Figure 2 (analysis was compared to commercial LPS or medium only) or any of the other analysis performed as part of the manuscript. However, it does mean that the bacterial debris controls are not suitable for showing the efficacy of the phage purification process and as such a component of the cytokine response generated may be due to remaining bacterial debris as suggested by Dufour et al. (2016)
Isolation, Molecular Characterization and Insight into the Genome Sequence of E. coli Bacteriophage ADB-2 from Poultry Fecal Sample Abstract.
In our country Diarrheal epidemics occur seasonally. Two peaks of outbreaks agreeably coincide with dry season and monsoon rain. Several factors control the outbreaks to occur and collapse. Bacteriophages are one of them which have been reported to trigger the collapse of the outbreaks. The concentration of the Vibrio cholerae specific bacteriophages is inversely correlated with the concentration of Vibrio cholerae in the environment. Therefore bacteriophages probably play an essential role in controlling the epidemics to occur or collapse. It is still not clear what factors trigger the onset of Diarrheal outbreaks. This study was design to see the effect of E. coli bacteriophages on the epidemics of Diarrheal disease. Routine isolation, estimation and molecular characterization reveal the prevalence E. coli phage. We have tried to characterize the isolated phages by analyzing the DNA using the technique called restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP ...
A suspension of MS2, an Escherichia coli bacteriophage virus, was used to artificially contaminate the hands of participants prior to using three different handdrying devices: jet air dryer, warm air dryer, paper towel dispenser. Virus was detected by plaque formation on agar plates layered with the host bacterium. Vertical dispersal of virus was assessed at a fixed distance (0.4 m) and over a range of different heights (0.0 - 1.8 m) from the floor. Horizontal dispersal was assessed at different distances of up to three metres from the hand-drying devices ...
The major coat protein of bacteriophage M13 is synthesized as a precursor, the procoat, with a typical leader (signal) sequence of 23 residues at its NH2-terminus. A fusion protein that contains the NH2-terminal 141 residues of cytoplasmic ribulokinase and all but the first ten residues of M13 procoat was made. The fusion protein inserts into the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli and is processed by leader peptidase to give rise to a leader peptide of 155 residues and the mature coat protein of 50 residues. The NH2-terminus of the leader peptide remains in the cytoplasm and is protected from protease added to the medium outside of the cell. This indicates that M13 procoat inserts into the membrane as a loop structure and that the NH2-terminus of a leader peptide remains within the cytoplasm during membrane insertion. ...
This HMM represents a family of phage and plasmid replication proteins. In bacteriophage IKe and related phage, the full-length protein is designated gene II protein. A much shorter protein of unknown function, translated from a conserved in-frame alternative initiator, is designated gene X protein. Members of this family also include plasmid replication proteins. This model is built as a fragment model to better detect translations from alternate intiators and other fragments relative to full length gene II protein ...
Growth characteristics of coliphage viruses indicate that they are adapted to live with their Eschericia coli hosts in the intestinal tract. However, coliphage experimentally introduced by ingestion persist only transiently if at all in the gut of humans and other animals. This study attempted to identify the barriers to long term establishment of exogenous coliphage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of laboratory mice. Intestinal contents were screened for the presence of coliphage and host bacteria, and strains of E. coli bacteria from different segments of the GI tract were tested for susceptibility to six common laboratory coliphages. Contrary to expectations, coliphage were not evident in the GI tracts of laboratory mice, although they were occasionally detected in feces. Commensal flora showed extreme variability within groups of mice despite identical handling and diet. Less than 20% of 48 mice tested carried E. coli in their gut, and of 22 commensal E. coli strains isolated and tested, 59%
Despite phages ubiquitous presence and great importance in shaping microbial communities, little is known about the diversity of specific phages in different ecological niches. Here, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized 38 Escherichia coli-infecting phages (coliphages) from poultry faeces to gain a better understanding of the coliphage diversity in the poultry intestine.
That communication can occur between virus-infected cells has been appreciated for nearly as long as has virus molecular biology. The original virus communication process specifically was that seen with T-even bacteriophages-phages T2, T4, and T6-resulting in what was labeled as a lysis inhibition. Another proposed virus communication phenomenon, also seen with T-even phages, can be described as a phage-adsorption-induced synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse. Both are mediated by virions that were released from earlier-lysing, phage-infected bacteria. Each may represent ecological responses, in terms of phage lysis timing, to high local densities of phage-infected bacteria, but for lysis inhibition also to locally reduced densities of phage-uninfected bacteria. With lysis inhibition, the outcome is a temporary avoidance of lysis, i.e., a lysis delay, resulting in increased numbers of virions (greater burst size). Synchronized lysis-inhibition collapse, by contrast, is an accelerated lysis which is
This thesis analyzes the interaction of two DNA-binding proteins with the plus strand replication origin of bacteriophage f1. The origin has a bipartite structure consisting of a required core origin region and an adjacent A +T- rich enhancer sequence that potentiates replication approximately 100-fold. The core origin binds the initiator protein, and the enhancer contains three binding sites for the E. coli integration host factor (IHF). Both activator proteins bend the DNA sequence to which they bind, implying that together they wrap the origin DNA into a higher order structure that is active in initiation. The replication initiator protein of bacteriophage f1 (gene II protein) is a multifunctional protein that participates in DNA replication at a number of levels. The gene II protein binds to the core origin in a novel two-step fashion. The first binding step involves interaction of two gene II protein molecules with an inverted repeat (β- γ) at the center of the core origin to form a binding
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size exclusion-based purification and PCR-based quantitation of MS2 bacteriophage particles for environmental applications. AU - Farkas, Kata. AU - Varsani, Arvind. AU - Marjoshi, Delphine. AU - Easingwood, Richard. AU - McGill, Erin. AU - Pang, Liping. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the Royal Society of New Zealand (Marsden Grant ESR-1001 ). D. Marjoshi was supported by a summer scholarship provided by the Royal Society of New Zealand and the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The authors thank the following people for their support and assistance: R. Fredericks (University of Canterbury, New Zealand), W. Williamson and M. Mackenzie (Institute of Environmental Science & Research Ltd, New Zealand). PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - MS2 bacteriophage is the most commonly used surrogate for pathogenic viruses in laboratory and field studies. In order to determine the number of infectious viral particles in samples, the use of accurate quantitation methods is ...
Biosynthesis of streptomyces griseus phage deoxyribonucleic acid by Judith Ann Shearer; 1 edition; First published in 1968; Subjects: DNA, Bacteriophages
Podana liczba cytowań wynika z analizy informacji dostępnych w Internecie i jest zbliżona do wartości obliczanej przy pomocy systemu Publish or Perish. ...
Those poor male bacteria! They have to contend with invading filamentous phage - something that Rogaine just cant cure! Well be talking more about male and female bacteria in a later lecture (sex in bacteria isnt quite the same concept as in eukaryotes).. What is significant here is that the virion of the filamentous phage (i.e. the viral particle) carries a single-strand of DNA - not a double helix. In the cell, this single-stranded genome (2.) is used as a template to synthesize a double-stranded replicative form (RF), which is essentially a plasmid (3.). The replicative form is used as a template to generate new single-stranded genomes (4.) that are packaged into virions (5.) to generate new phage. The cell doesnt die - it just grows more slowly and continues to secrete phage indefinitely.. The practical side of this story - if you use a cloning vector that is based on a filamentous bacteriophage (such as M13mp18 which is an engineered version of the phage M13) or merely contains an ...
Figure 8. Electrophoresis of Cytomedins in 1 % agarose gel after phenol-detergent extraction. Track 1 - molecular weight marker - bacteriophage lambda DNA treated with restriction endonuclease Hind III;. Track 2 - native DNA isolated from human blood lymphocytes (positive control);. Track 3 - Cortexin;. Track 4 - Retinalamin. The absence of luminescent material during ethidium bromide staining evidenced the lack of nucleic acids in bioregulators Cortexin and Retinalamin.. Cytamins were examined by the same method. The obtained results are exhibited in Figures 9 and 10. In Figure 9, the last tracks on the right and on the left display bacteriophage lambda DNA (molecular weight marker) treated with endonuclease Hind III. The second track on the left contains native DNA isolated by phenol-detergent method from human stomach mucous membrane (surgical material). Electrophoregram shows native human DNA as a discrete stripe above the bacteriophage lambda DNA fragment with the molecular weight of 23,000 ...
Escherichia coli ATCC ® 700078™ Designation: C Na1(r) TypeStrain=False Application: Coliphages in water Detection of bacteriophages Host strain for detection of somatic coliphages Water testing
Accepted name: dCTP diphosphatase. Reaction: dCTP + H2O = dCMP + diphosphate. Other name(s): deoxycytidine-triphosphatase; dCTPase; dCTP pyrophosphatase; deoxycytidine triphosphatase; deoxy-CTPase; dCTPase. Systematic name: dCTP nucleotidohydrolase. Comments: Also hydrolyses dCDP to dCMP and phosphate.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9024-87-7. References: 1. Zimmerman, S.B. and Kornberg, A. Deoxycytidine di- and triphosphate cleavage by an enzyme formed in bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1480-1486.. ...
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1GVP: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
Holin of 77 aas and 1 central TMS from E. coli phage ECBP5, Orf46. This protein is nearly identical to the pin-holin characterized for E. coli phage KBNP1315 (Lee et al. 2015). It infects a pathogenic avian E. coli strain (Lee et al. 2015 ...
Extensive nucleotide sequence data is new known for six small isometric phages, ([o with diagonal slash]Xl 74, G4, St-1, Sl3, [lowercase alpha]3 and [phi]K).Comparison of these sequences allows us to observe the role of ...
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1.Definición de Célula.  Es la unidad anatómico y funcional de todo ser vivo.  Tiene función de autoconservación y autorreproducción.  Es por esto, por lo q…
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. MS2 is a member of a family of closely related bacterial viruses that includes bacteriophage f2, bacteriophage Qβ, R17, and GA. In 1961, MS2 was isolated by Alvin John Clark and recognized as an RNA-containing phage very similar to bacteriophage f2. In 1976, the MS2 genome was the first genome to be completely sequenced. This was accomplished by Walter Fiers and his team, building upon their earlier milestone in 1972 of the first gene to be completely sequenced, the MS2 coat protein. These sequences were determined at the RNA level, whereas the next landmark achievement, the sequence of the bacteriophage ΦX174 genome in 1977, was determined using DNA. The first effort at a statistical analysis of the MS2 genome was a search for patterns in the nucleotide sequence. Several non-coding sequences were identified, however at the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replication of bacteriophage lambda DNA. AU - Enquist, L. W.. AU - Skalka, A. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1978/10. Y1 - 1978/10. N2 - When coliphage Lambda replicates its DNA, it commandeers portions of the host replication system for its own use. How phage and host functions interact and are regulated present interesting problems in the DNA replication program of phage Lambda.. AB - When coliphage Lambda replicates its DNA, it commandeers portions of the host replication system for its own use. How phage and host functions interact and are regulated present interesting problems in the DNA replication program of phage Lambda.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018071515&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018071515&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0968-0004(78)96033-4. DO - 10.1016/S0968-0004(78)96033-4. M3 - Review article. AN - SCOPUS:0018071515. VL - 3. SP - 279. EP - ...
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I am based in the laboratory of Assoc Prof Keith Shearwin (Biochemistry, Molecular and Biomedical Science) https://researchers.adelaide.edu.au/profile/keith.shearwin.. Research in the Shearwin lab integrates biochemistry, genetics and mathematical modelling to characterise fundamental mechanisms of gene control and how these mechanism are combined to create gene regulatory circuits with complex functions. Our primary experimental systems are two E. coli bacteriophages, lambda and 186. These temperate phages can replicate their genomes using alternative developmental pathways, lysis and lysogeny, and are some of the simplest organisms to make developmental decisions. Despite their relative simplicity, the phage systems combine a wide range of gene control mechanisms in complex ways and have many lessons to teach us.. The phage systems have been the springboard for my particular interests in DNA looping, molecular traffic on DNA and epigenetics.. DNA loops are created when proteins bound to ...
The DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs...Bacteriophage lambda DNA in its circular form contains 48,502 base-pairs and codes for about 60 proteins. According to abstract phage Lambda has 46 clearly defined ORFs and another ~20 putative ORFs, totaling ~66ORFs (~60 proteins according to p.730 2nd paragraph). The number of bases is for the double stranded circular chromosome. 48,514 bp according to Lewin, Genes VIII, 2004, p.335 fig.12.11 ...
Bacteria and their viruses (phages) are abundant across diverse ecosystems and their interactions influence global biogeochemical cycles and incidence of disease. Problematically, both classical and metagenomic methods insufficiently assess the host specificity of phages and phage-host infection dynamics in nature. Here we review emerging methods to study phage-host interaction and infection dynamics with a focus on those that offer resolution at the single-cell level. These methods leverage ever-increasing sequence data to identify virus signals from single-cell amplified genome (SAG) datasets or to produce primers/probes to target particular phage- bacteria pairs (digital PCR and phageFISH), even in complex communities. All three methods enable study of phage infection of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples, while the latter also discriminates between phage-host interaction outcomes (e.g., lytic, chronic, lysogenic) in model systems. Together these techniques enable quantitative,
When copper salts are mixed with substances containing thiol groups, complexes are formed whose composition is determined by the concentration of the two components. After mixing copper and thiol compounds in certain concentrations the mixtures became strongly virucidal for T3, T5 and φX 174 phages, while T2 and T4 were affected only at higher concentrations of copper. Unless otherwise stated, coliphage T5 was used as test organism in these experiments. Together with a final concentration of 5 × 10-5 m-CuCl2 the thiol compounds cysteine and dithio-pentaerythrite at certain concentrations had a strong virucidal activity, while no such activity was demonstrated for the corresponding disulphide compounds (Fig. 1). Dithio-pentaerythrite but not cysteine was active with a CuCl2 concentration of 5 × 10-6 m. At this copper concentration thioglycollic acid, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol and dihydrothioctic acid were also virucidal, while glutathione was active only with 5×10-5 m-CuCl2, and the disulphide compound
Usually bacteriophages lyse their hosts following infection, however a few so-called temperate phage undergo lysogeny. In lysogeny, the bacteriophage integrates its genome into that of its host. The phage, then, is replicated each time the bacterial cell divides. In the lysogenic state, the bacteriophage can have considerable influence over host physiology ...
Heineman et al. found that T7 phage could evolve the ability to discriminate between several host strains. T7wild-type was independently adapted in two mixes of Escherichia coli strains: C with either B or K12. In both adaptations, C was the permissive host, while the other (B or K12, depending on the adaptation) aborted T7 infections due to deletion of a host gene needed for viral replication. Both adapted phages evolved to largely avoid the nonpermissive host but maintained a high adsorption rate to C. Notably the phage evolved the ability to discriminate via single amino acid substitutions in the tail fiber gene (used to bind host receptors ...
- SS2378646 A bacteriophage, comprising a proteic envelope (called capsid), which contains its nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), and a tail. The tail includes a collar (covered with contractile proteins for the most elaborated bacteriophages, such as the T2 and T4 phages) and ending with tail fibers enabling it to attach to the bacteria it infects.
Regulation by a cascade in phages, Regulation of Gene Expression Cricuit of Lytic Cycle and Lysogeny in Bacteriophages, Genetics
A stylized image of a bacteriophage. The capsid, tail, tail fibers, base plague and contractile shield are shown. - Stock Image F002/0293
First, related to the question at the beginning of the thread, I do not think you have to take this into account: Hes talking about bacteriophage, You just a sensitive strain of bacteria, the one used for propagating the phage would be good ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are probably the most abundant entities in nature, often exceeding bacterial densities by an order of magnitude. As viral predators
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , bio-gentaur \ MS2 Bacteriophage \ GEN0810066 for more molecular products just contact us
నెల్లూరు: మనుబోలు మండలం బద్వేలు క్రాస్‌రోడ్డు దగ్గర కారు బోల్తా, ముగ్గురికి గాయాలు,కర్నూలు: 16 వ రోజు జగన్ ప్రజా సంకల్ప యాత్ర,రంగారెడ్డి: మైలార్‌దేవ్‌పల్లిలో కింగ్స్‌ కాలనీలో ముస్తఫా అనే వ్యక్తిపై దుండగుల కాల్పులు,కడప: జగన్ సీఎం అయితే తన ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి..చంద్రబాబు సీఎంగా ఉంటే ప్రజల ఆస్తులు పెరుగుతాయి: మంత్రి సోమిరెడ్డి,సిరిసిల్ల: అన్ని గ్రామాల్లో కేసీఆర్ గ్రామీణ ప్రగతి ...
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The usefulness of a recombinant phage library depends on the ability to screen a large number of phage and identify the clone that carries the DNA sequence of interest
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1.Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Fully describe 2 of these 3 classical experiments and indicate how each provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.a. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage re...
Для выдвижного усилия поршня шприца в инъекционных насосах VIT-FIT и насосах VIT-FIT HP высокого давления установлен качественный швейцарский двигатель. Его новая технология обеспечивает высокий крутящий момент и на порядок более долгий срок службы. Для того чтобы перевести вращательное движение в линейное перемещение применяется шариковинтовая пара, выдерживающая большие механические нагрузки. Тем не менее, эти дорогостоящие компоненты играют решающую роль в обеспечении жесткости хода толкателя. Это важно для неизменной непульсирующей линейной ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of bacteriophage particles containing antibiotic resistance genes in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. AU - Brown-Jaque, Maryury. AU - Oyarzun, Lirain Rodriguez. AU - Cornejo-Sánchez, Thais. AU - Martín-Gómez, Maria T.. AU - Gartner, Silvia. AU - de Gracia, Javier. AU - Rovira, Sandra. AU - Alvarez, Antonio. AU - Jofre, Joan. AU - González-López, Juan J.. AU - Muniesa, Maite. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - © 2018 Brown-Jaque, Rodriguez Oyarzun, Cornejo-Sánchez, Martín-Gómez, Gartner, de Gracia, Rovira, Alvarez, Jofre, González-López and Muniesa. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms ...
The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and utility of bacteriophage phi X174 immunization as a tool to assess the immune competence of HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease in vivo, and to assess the impact of viral load levels and therapy-induced changes in viral load levels on the response to immunization with the neo-antigen bacteriophage phi X174. Bacteriophage phi X174 immunization is a method that has been in use for more than 25 years to assess the immunity of patients with various types of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, including 48 HIV-infected patients. This is a prospective open-label, controlled study which will enroll 39 HIV-infected patients and 13 healthy volunteers, male or female with 18 years of age and over. The HIV-infected patients will be divided into 3 groups according to their CD4 cell count: less than 200 cells/mm(3), between 200 and 500 cells/mm(3) and greater than 500 cells/mm(3). After screening and a two week pre-study ...
Performance of the SBR in terms of commonly used physical, chemical and biological parameters has confirmed it to be a viable wastewater treatment option. This study further investigates the use of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and coliphages to evaluate the removal of selected microbiological indicators of potential pathogens by the SBR. Results from a pilot-scale SBR which received clarified sewage from a local treatment works treating a combined (domestic and industrial) sewage showed that increases in REACT time led to increases in the overall removal of the selected microorganisms. On average, up to 96% of total coliform and fecal coliform removals and up to 90% of coliphage removal was possible with the SBR operated with 2.5 h of REACT. During FILL, a long FILL (3h) resulted in reduction of coliforms while there was generally only a small reduction of coliphages. During REACT, a short REACT resulted in increase in selected microorganisms and the increase in coliphage numbers was ...
Phage therapy has also proven to be an effective therapeutic tool in fighting pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, particularly in preventing the development of colibacillosis, which initially develops in the respiratory tract and air sacs and then takes the form of sepsis, causing considerable mortality in poultry.. Phage suspensions applied directly to the air sac in 3-day-old birds in a range of titres from 106 to 103 PFU to treat E. coli infections substantially reduced mortality rates to 5% and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained after inoculation of a bacteriophage suspension in the drinking water of birds at 1 week of age (103 or 104 PFU of bacteriophages per mL) followed by air sac challenge with 103 CFU of E. coli phages. Mortality was decreased to 25% and 5%, respectively. No mortality was observed in chickens treated with 108 PFU of an E. coli bacteriophage mixture [38]. Bacteriophages have also been shown to be highly effective in treating sepsis and meningitis in ...
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
View DNA Rearrangements from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements
The large red cherry tomato Lycopersicon esculentum mill var. cerasiforme has a modified ripening phenotype resulting in the production of a more physiologically mature fruit that is able to withstand the rigors of the current production and distribution system. This was accomplished by inserting the sam-k gene encoding SAMase from the E. coli bacteriophage T3 (under a promoter that directs fruit-specific expression) into the tomato genome. SAMase degrades S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is the penultimate precursor in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway ...
Mouse anti-M13 phage coat protein g8p. Antibodies recognising M13 filamentous phage coat proteins are instrumental in the selection and detection of phages expressing specific antibody fragments or peptide sequences at their surface. The monoclonal antibodies manufactured and supplied by Exalpha react with either the pIII (g3p) or pVIII (g8p) proteins of M13 filamentous bacteriophage. All antibodies are available in a purified format. The antibodies are fully validated and are suitable for a wide range of techniques including ...
Why would they need lysogeny-or even, how could they lysogenize? I cant speak for them all, but MS2 is a (+)-stranded ssRNA phage. On infection, the RNA can be directly translated into proteins that replicate the phage RNA and direct the synthesis of any capsid proteins required to form new phage particles. The replicase enzyme makes copies of both plus and minus strands, though the latter are only used as a template to make more (+) strand for both translation and packaging into phage. To lysogenize, there needs to be a DNA phase to the replication cycle and there isnt any such phase for MS2 ...
1 ? What is the name of the process of bacterial â ¦ Specialized transduction is instrumental in the isolation of the genes in molecular biology, and in the discovery of insertion elements, which often serve as attachment sites for phage DNA integration. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. Based on how the DNA is packaged within the viral particle, there are two types of transduction: In generalized transduction, phage mistakenly packages bacterial DNA instead of their own phage DNA during phage assembly. Plasmid pQSR50, which contains transposon Tn 5 and encodes kanamycin and streptomycin resistance, was used in plasmid transduction assays. There are two kinds of transduction â specialized and generalized. Test your knowledge of the following with the quiz/worksheet combo: Be sure to check out the associated lesson, Bacterial Transduction: Definition, Process & Advantages, for further details. It is an example of vertical gene transfer. Answer: A. Save my name, email, and website in this ...
Bacteriophages (phages) are obligate intracellular parasites of bacteria. The basic life cycle of phages involves the use of bacterial cellular metabolism for production of new phage particles, release of those particles from their cellular confines, and then infection of new host cells (1). Phage infection is initiated by the phage binding to a specific receptor on the surface of the host bacterium, followed by the delivery of the phage genome to the host cell. Adsorption involves multiple steps, including reversible binding for the initial recognition and proper positioning, followed by irreversible binding to the final receptor. However, the molecular mechanisms by which phages deliver their genomes into a host are far from being elucidated.. Generally, a phage is able to infect a limited number of bacterial strains or related strains of the same species (2, 3). Interactions between a phage and the host bacteria is primarily dependent on the nature and structural characteristics of receptors ...
During PACE, host E. coli cells flow continuously into a fixed-volume vessel (a lagoon) containing a population of filamentous bacteriophages that encode a library of evolving proteins. The lagoon is continuously drained to a waste container after passing through an in-line luminescence monitor that measures expression from a gene III-luciferase cassette on the AP. Dilution occurs faster than cell division but slower than phage replication. Each phage carries a protein-encoding gene to be evolved instead of a phage gene (gene III) that is required for infection. Phage encoding active library members trigger expression of gene III on the AP in proportion to the desired activity and consequently produce infectious progeny. Phage encoding less active library members produce fewer infectious progeny and are lost by dilution. From: Nat. Chem. Biol. 10, 216-222 (2014). PDF. ...
The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly). As one...
Viruses are parasitic infectious agents with a nanoscale shell, known as the capsid, that encapsulates the genomic material. Most bacteriophage viruses invade bacteria by transferring their genome inside the host cell while leaving the capsid outside. Thus, the foremost event of bacteriophage infection is the ejection of genomic material into the host bacterium after the virus has recognized and bound to surface receptor sites. How ejection is triggered is yet unknown. We show, by manipulating individual mature T7 phage particles, that tapping the capsid wall with an oscillating atomic-force-microscope cantilever triggers rapid DNA ejection via the tail complex. Triggering rate increases exponentially as a function of force, hence follows transition-state theory, across an activation barrier of 23 kcal/mol at 1.2 nm along the reaction coordinate. The conformation of the ejected DNA molecule revealed that it had been exposed to a propulsive force. This force, arising from intra-capsid pressure, assists
1AE3: Analyses of the stability and function of three surface mutants (R82C, K69H, and L32R) of the gene V protein from Ff phage by X-ray crystallography.
Bacteriophages infecting bacteria, computer illustration. A bacteriophage, or phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. It consists of an icosahedral (20-sided) head, which contains the genetic material, a tail and tail fibres, which fix it to a specific receptor site on the bacterium. The tail injects the genetic material into the bacterium, and the cellular machinery of the bacterium is used to produce more copies of the virus. - Stock Image F016/7885
Proteome IDi ,p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the ,a href=http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual>proteome,/a>. It consists of the characters UP followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.,p>,a href=/help/proteome_id target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Help your students understand the connection between bacteriophages and human disease. This scholarly overview explores how bacteriophages have helped and hindered humans in their quest to overcome certain diseases. Use it as assigned reading or to kick off a classroom discussion.
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In article ,1995Jan4.145054.1 at icbr2.ifas.ufl.edu,, aris at icbr2.ifas.ufl.edu says: , ,Dear Colleagues, , , We are interested in using PCR to amplify inserts from lambda ,gt11, and are familiar with doing this using purified lambda DNA as ,template. Can inserts be amplified without purifying the lambda DNA? ,If so, and suspensions of lambda phage particles in SM buffer can be ,used in PCR, how is this done? How much plate or liquid lysate is ,needed? Is a published method(s) available? Related comments and ,anecdotes would be appreciated. , ,Thanks, , ,John Aris ,aris at icbr.ifas.ufl.edu , , Hi, hope this helps - did it myself successfully several times: You can use a phage suspension as template, basically no matter how you got it - just eluted from the topagarose plug, from a plate lysate, or a liquid lysate. The higher the concentration, the better. If you get 100.000 or more phage particles for your PCR rxn, it should be enough. Use as little suspension as possible to get the right ...
Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria. They were discovered independently by Frederick W. Twort in England in 1915 and by Felix d Herelle
For those molecular geneticists out there, you will appreciate the new discovery of using a genetically modified M13 phage as a source for making hydrogen fuel out of water! The M13 bacteriophage is often used in molecular genetics work as a cloning vector. The phage contains a single strand circular DNA genome of 6407 nucleotides…
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Bacteriophage phig1e Cng protein: a phage phi gle protein; amino acid sequence in first source; do not confuse with CNG channel (rod)
Research has suggested that bacteriophages derived and manipulated from ExPEC reservoirs are capable of combating infections caused by E.coli superbugs.
Cited in 6 publications. View Rabbit Polyclonal anti-fd/M13 bacteriophage Antibody (NB100-1633). Validated Applications: ELISA, Flow, LFA. Validated Species: Virus. Sample size available.
Postic, B., and M. Finland. 1961. Observations on bacteriophage typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Clin. invest. 40:2064-2075. ...
Postic, B., and M. Finland. 1961. Observations on bacteriophage typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Clin. invest. 40:2064-2075. ...
Host factor for Q beta, Host factor for Q beta, Host factor for Q beta, Host factor for Q beta, Host factor for Q beta, Host factor for Q beta, 5-R(*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*G)-3 ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as plan of creation, unity of design, etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
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Phages in this cluster are generally temperate. (This does not, however, guarantee that every single phage will be able to form lysogens, as some may have had important lysogeny genes deleted.). ...
T gjitha p rgatesat tona jan p rmendur dhe p rshkruar n k to faqe p r nj q llim t vet m q ju t jeni t informuar p r aktivitetet e p rgjithashme t Alkaloid it, e jo si k shill p r p rdorim t ndonj p rgatese n nj situat t caktuar. P r fardo lloj k shille n lidhje me p rdorimin e drejt t p rgatesave tona, kontaktoni me mjekun tuaj am ose farmacistin dhe lexoni me kujdes prospektet p r m nyr n e p rdorimit, q ndodhet n do paketim ...
T gjitha p rgatesat tona jan p rmendur dhe p rshkruar n k to faqe p r nj q llim t vet m q ju t jeni t informuar p r aktivitetet e p rgjithashme t Alkaloid it, e jo si k shill p r p rdorim t ndonj p rgatese n nj situat t caktuar. P r fardo lloj k shille n lidhje me p rdorimin e drejt t p rgatesave tona, kontaktoni me mjekun tuaj am ose farmacistin dhe lexoni me kujdes prospektet p r m nyr n e p rdorimit, q ndodhet n do paketim ...
Guanfacin (Teneks, Intuniv) je simpatolitik. On je selektivni agonist α2A receptora. Ti receptori su koncentrisani u prefrontalnom korteksu, te guanfacin potencijalno može da poboljša sposobnost pažnje putem modulisanja postsinaptičkih α2A receptora.[1] Guanfacin snižava sistolni i dijastolni krvni pritisak putem aktivacije α-2a norepinefrinskih autoreceptora centralnog nervnog sistema, što dovodi do redukcije perifernog simpatetičkog odliva i stoga do redukcije perifernog simpatetičkog tona.[2] Njegove nuspojave su zavisne od doze. Pri dozama do 2 mg efekat suvih usta se praktično ne javlja.[3] ...
Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Beaudoin J (September 1969). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. II. Two ... Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Erdahl WS (November 1966). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. I. ... Filamentous bacteriophage Rasched I, Oberer E (December 1986). "Ff coliphages: structural and functional relationships". ...
Fletcher RD (1965). "Activity and morphology of Vibrio coli phage". American Journal of Veterinary Research. 26 (111): 361-4. ...
"Southeast Asian experiences with the coliphage test". Toxicity Assessment. 3 (5): 551-564. doi:10.1002/tox.2540030510. Archived ...
Alterations of receptor specificities of coliphages of the T2 family. J. Mol. Biol. 240:105-110. The older phage literature, e. ...
Chow, S; Daub, E; Murialdo, H (1987). "The Overproduction of DNA Terminase of Coliphage Lambda". Gene. 60 (2-3): 277-289. doi: ...
Walker, J T; D H Walker (March 1983). "Coliphage P1 morphogenesis: analysis of mutants by electron microscopy". Journal of ...
Barondess JJ, Beckwith J (August 1990). "A bacterial virulence determinant encoded by lysogenic coliphage lambda". Nature. 346 ...
Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Beaudoin J (September 1969). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. II. Two ... Pratt D, Tzagoloff H, Erdahl WS (November 1966). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13. I. ...
Pratt, D. (1969). "Conditional lethal mutants of the small filamentous coliphage M13: II. Two genes for coat proteins". ...
"Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of microvirid coliphage genomes". Journal of Bacteriology. 188 (3): 1134-42. doi: ...
Stojković EA, Rothman-Denes LB (2007). "Coliphage N4 N-acetylmuramidase defines a new family of murein hydrolases". J Mol Biol ...
Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Evolution of Microvirid Coliphage Genomes. Journal of Bacteriology, 118(3) p1134-1142 ...
Additionally, Gp9 of E. coli phage phiE49 is similar in sequence. These proteins are short, 55 to 71 amino acyl residues (aas) ...
Chapman-McQuiston, E. (2007). "The Effect of Noisy Protein Expression on E. coli/Phage Dynamics". Cite journal requires , ...
Kozak, M; Nathans, D (14 September 1972). "Differential inhibition of coliphage MS2 protein synthesis by ribosome-directed ...
Some types of coliphages (a type of bacteriophage) are inactive in an of air-water-solid interface. This is due to the ... In a experiments that used E.coli phages, Qβ, fr, T4, and MS2 confirmed that viruses survive on a solid surface longer compared ...
Tomlinson S, Taylor PW (August 1985). "Neuraminidase associated with coliphage E that specifically depolymerizes the ...
Birkeland, N.K. and B.H. Lindqvist, Coliphage P2 late control gene ogr: DNA sequence and product identification. Journal of ... 39(4): p. 839-860 Lindqvist, B.H., Vegetative DNA of temperate coliphage P2. Molecular and General Genetics, 1971. 110(2): p. ... Site-specific recombination links the evolution of P2-like coliphages and pathogenic enterobacteria. Molecular Biology and ...
Barbirz S, Müller JJ, Uetrecht C, Clark AJ, Heinemann U, Seckler R (Jul 2008). "Crystal structure of Escherichia coli phage ...
These sediments release Copper and Chromium and have bactericidal properties that multiply coliphages reducing and ultimately ...
"Comparative genomics of the T4-Like Escherichia coli phage JS98: implications for the evolution of T4 phages". J. Bacteriol. ...
In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle. ...
... and coliphage HSA virus; each of enterocin AAR-71 class IIa, enterocin AAR-74 class IIa, and erwiniocin NA4 against coliphage ...
Nguyen, Huong Minh; Kang, Changwon (2014-02-01). "Lysis delay and burst shrinkage of coliphage T7 by deletion of terminator Tφ ...
In reference to E. coli phage lambda, the term is sometimes written as "χ site", using the Greek letter chi; for E. coli and ...
... coliphages). A system based on ultrafiltration system (unlike Reverse osmosis based units) is not able to filter out solutes ...
In this electron micrograph of bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell, the viruses are the size and shape of coliphage T1. ...
"Filamentous coliphage M13 as a cloning vehicle: Insertion of a HindII fragment of the lac regulatory region in M13 replicative ...
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ, officially Escherichia virus Lambda) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage ...
Enumeration of somatic coliphages ISO 10705-3:2003 Part 3: Validation of methods for concentration of bacteriophages from water ...
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Examples include Bacteriophage ... Coliphages at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) A science project targeted towards students ... showing an example of the use of Coliphages v t e. ...
A bacterial virulence determinant encoded by lysogenic coliphage lambda.. Barondess JJ1, Beckwith J. ...
Replication of coliphage lambda DNA.. Taylor K1, Wegrzyn G.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular Biology, University ...
This coliphage is supplied as filtered (sterile) peptone broth suspension of high relative infective titer (109 to 1011 plaque- ... Coliphage T4r, Living, 5 mL. Item # 124335 Coliphage T4 r , Living, 5 mL is rated 5.0 out of 5 by 3. ... This coliphage is supplied as filtered (sterile) peptone broth suspension of high relative infective titer (109 to 1011 plaque- ... This coliphage is supplied as filtered (sterile) peptone broth suspension of high relative infective titer in screw-cap vial. ...
This web site (www.coliphages.com) explains what coliphages are; how they reproduce; their use as viral indicators in water, ...
Misc.Comments : These data and their annotation were supplied to GenBank by Will Gilbert under the auspices of the GenBank Currator Program. Assembled from M13mp7 and M13tg130-Polylinker by F. Pfeiffer. M13 is not lytic; the phage extrude through the cell wall. The replicative RF I form in the cell is double-stranded and circular, and acts like a plasmid. The phage form outside the cell is linear and single-stranded. A series of deletions and replacements into the polylinker of M13mp7 creates the final polylinker. Amersham vector is 7195 bp ...
This coliphage is supplied as filtered (sterile) peptone broth suspension of high relative infective titer in screw-cap vial. ... Coliphage T4rllB, Deletion Mutation B, Living, 5 mL. Item # 124533 Online Only *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... This coliphage is supplied as filtered (sterile) peptone broth suspension of high relative infective titer in screw-cap vial. ... This coliphage is supplied as filtered (sterile) peptone broth suspension of high relative infective titer in screw-cap vial. ...
... coliphages persist longer than bacterial indicators once outside the gut. Based on these data, coliphages can be recommended as ... It would therefore seem advisable to include a viral indicator-for example, somatic coliphages-to monitor the functioning of ... As indicated in the studies reviewed herein, the concentrations of somatic coliphages in raw sewage remain consistently high ... The removal process for bacterial indicators and coliphages in traditional sewage treatments is similar, the concentrations in ...
Misc.Comments : Deposited by: Ichiro N. Maruyama Restriction digests of the clone give the following sizes (kb): HindIII--24.1, 17.6; EcoRI--22.0, 20.0; BamHI--24.8, 16.9; XbaI--32.7,9.0; NotI--41.7. (ATCC staff) Vector useful for constructing cDNA libraries. Permits positive selection for inserts using the Spi- phenotype, and excision of phagemid by lox/cre site-specific recombination. [1] To prepare phagemid from lambdaMGU2, grow recombinants on a RecA- host expressing the Cre protein (E. coli 1046[pCRE1], ATCC 77368) and select for ampicillin resistance. The pMGU product is 4.185 kb. [1] The order of the major features in the cloning region of the lambda vector is: lambda J - SmaI - SalI - loxP - EcoRI - M13 ori - ampR - pMB1 ori - HindIII - 3gam/BamHI/5gam - XhoI - loxP - SalI - lambda N. [1] Inserts can be amplified using the following primers flanking the BamHI cloning site: upstream 5-AAGAGGCAGAACTGGCAG-3 and downstream 5-ATCGATGCATAGCGATTC-3. [1] Efficiency of phagemid recovery is ...
Our aim was to determine which of these two organisms (coliphage or E. coli) was better at indicating norovirus survival under ... We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water ... Keywords: D-value; F-specific coliphage; chlorination; Norovirus; water D-value; F-specific coliphage; chlorination; Norovirus ... We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water ...
Here, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized 38 Escherichia coli-infecting phages (coliphages) from poultry faeces to gain a ... better understanding of the coliphage diversity in the poultry intestine. ... This study allowed for identification of several novel coliphages and provides new insights to the coliphage diversity in the ... Here, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized 38 Escherichia coli-infecting phages (coliphages) from poultry faeces to gain a ...
Article Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from marine waters using a dual layer filtration system. ... Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from .... Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from ... Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with ... No comments were found for Simultaneous concentration of enterococci and coliphage from marine waters using a dual layer ...
The capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli is the receptor of the capsule-specific coliphage K5, which harbors an ... of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli by the K5-specific coliphage: reexamination.. P Hänfling, A S Shashkov, B ... of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli by the K5-specific coliphage: reexamination. ... of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli by the K5-specific coliphage: reexamination. ...
Coliphage and C. perfringens counts suggested that the total removal and inactivation was more than 7 log10 viable ... Three of nine finished water samples of 20,000 liters each revealed residual levels of somatic coliphages at 0.03, 0.10, and ... By using multiple regression, the somatic coliphage counts were the only explanatory variable for the human enteric virus ... Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water treatment for viruses and ...
Distribution of coliphages in the general environment: general considerations, p.87 -124. In S. M. Goyal, C. P. Gerba, and G. ... Four T4-like coliphages with broad host ranges for diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli serotypes were isolated from stool ... In Vitro and In Vivo Bacteriolytic Activities of Escherichia coli Phages: Implications for Phage Therapy. Sandra Chibani- ... An ideal candidate for phage therapy of E. coli infections is the coliphage T4 family. T4 is arguably the best-characterized ...
... male-specific coliphages and somatic coliphages), and enteric viruses in wastewater in relation to potential viral indicator ... and estimates the potential economic impacts of coliphage-based RWQC on water resource recovery facilities. Published in 2019. ... The research examines the fate and persistence of coliphages and other indicator organisms at water resource recovery ... Evaluating Fate of Coliphages in WRRFs and Potential Costs to Reduce Coliphages in WRRF Effluents Research Investment. $370,745 ...
"Low-temperature T4-like coliphages vB_EcoM-VR5, vB_EcoM-VR7 and vB_EcoM-VR20, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Low-temperature T4-like coliphages vB_EcoM-VR5, vB_EcoM-VR7 and vB_EcoM-VR20. Low-temperature T4-like coliphages vB_EcoM-VR5, ... Low-temperature T4-like coliphages vB_EcoM-VR5, vB_EcoM-VR7 and vB_EcoM-VR20. Kaliniene, Laura; Klausa, Vytautas; Truncaite, ... A conserved genetic module that encodes the major virion components in both the coliphage T4 and the marine cyanophage S-PM2 ...
The present study aimed to establish the kinetics of the appearance of coliphage plaques using the double agar layer titration ... Use of non-linear mixed-effects modelling and regression analysis to predict the number of somatic coliphages by plaque ... The study indicates that the traditional coliphage plating technique has a reasonable potential to provide results in a single ... Repeated measurements of the appearance of plaques of coliphages titrated according to ISO 10705-2 at different times were ...
Recovery of somatic coliphages in wastewater and seawater samples in relation to bacterial indicator organisms and water ... Coliphages persisted in all seawater samples collected. Different hydrochemical parameters of the water samples were measured ... Faiza A. Fattouh, Mohamed A. El Shenawy, Sahar W. Hassan; Recovery of somatic coliphages in wastewater and seawater samples in ... Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to Recovery of somatic coliphages in wastewater and seawater samples in ...
Coliphage HK022 Nun blocks superinfection by coliphage λ by stalling RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation specifically on λ DNA ... Coliphage HK022 Nun blocks superinfection by coliphage λ by stalling RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation specifically on λ DNA ... Structural basis of transcription arrest by coliphage HK022 Nun in an Escherichia coli RNA polymerase elongation complex Elife ...
MS2 coliphage, a surrogate for human enteric viruses, is inactivated by singlet oxygen (1O2) produced via sunlight-mediated ... Abstract: MS2 coliphage, a surrogate for human enteric viruses, is inactivated by singlet oxygen (1O2) produced via sunlight- ... Association with Natural Organic Matter Enhances the Sunlight-Mediated Inactivation of MS2 Coliphage by Singlet Oxygen Kohn, T. ... Home , Association with Natural Organic Matter Enhances the Sunlight-Mediated Inactivation of MS2 Coliphage by Singlet Oxygen ...
Characterization of a T5-Like Coliphage, SPC35, and Differential Development of Resistance to SPC35 in Salmonella enterica ... Characterization of a T5-Like Coliphage, SPC35, and Differential Development of Resistance to SPC35 in Salmonella enterica ... Characterization of a T5-Like Coliphage, SPC35, and Differential Development of Resistance to SPC35 in Salmonella enterica ... Characterization of a T5-Like Coliphage, SPC35, and Differential Development of Resistance to SPC35 in Salmonella enterica ...
System Enables Rapid Coliphage MS2 Quantification in Environmental Waters ... Two R 2 gLAMP results System Enables Rapid Coliphage MS 2 Quantification ambient water RNA sample virus concentrations ... amplicon dot culture-based plaque assays water-quality analysis PRD pathogenic viruses Environmental Waters Model coliphages in ... Model coliphages (e.g., ΦX174, MS2, and PRD1) have been widely used as surrogates to study the fate and transport of pathogenic ...
... Sundram, A.; Jumanlal, N.; Ehlers, M.M. ( ... Male-specific F-RNA coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence has been presented that two of these ... A standard ISO method was used for the detection of F-RNA coliphages. Wastewater containing predominantly animal excreta was ... Genotyping of F-RNA coliphages isolated from wastewater and river water samples. Login ...
Ribonucleic acid synthesis by Escherichia coli C 3000/L after infection by the ribonucleic acid coliphage ZIK/1, and properties ... Ribonucleic acid synthesis by Escherichia coli C 3000/L after infection by the ribonucleic acid coliphage ZIK/1, and properties ... Ribonucleic acid synthesis by Escherichia coli C 3000/L after infection by the ribonucleic acid coliphage ZIK/1, and properties ... Ribonucleic acid synthesis by Escherichia coli C 3000/L after infection by the ribonucleic acid coliphage ZIK/1, and properties ...
Detection of Coliphages. Coliphages were detected from concentrated water samples using Escherichia coli K12 Hfr (ATCC) as the ... Coliphages have been shown to be complementary or equivalent to other indicators, therefore it is highly advisable to include ... Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical ... Positive samples for coliphages coincided more frequently with the positive samples for indicator bacteria than EV, or the ...
Fate of coliforms and coliphages in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Authors: Ng, W.J. Sim, G.S.. Ong, S.L. Ng, K.Y. ... Ng, W.J., Sim, G.S., Ong, S.L., Ng, K.Y., Ramasamy, M., Tan, K.N. (1993). Fate of coliforms and coliphages in the sequencing ... On average, up to 96% of total coliform and fecal coliform removals and up to 90% of coliphage removal was possible with the ... This study further investigates the use of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and coliphages to evaluate the removal of selected ...
The Bight 18 Microbiology element will do a side-by-side evaluation of how the Enterococcus and coliphage-based methods ... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency last year approved the coliphage-based method, officially known as EPA Method 1642, as ... Bight 18 Microbiology element preparing to kick off field sampling for coliphage method evaluation study. Posted August 7, ... Home » News » Bight 18 Microbiology element preparing to kick off field sampling for coliphage method evaluation study ...
USEPA Office of Water. Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Two-step Enrichment Procedure; EPA 821 ... USEPA Office of Water. Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Two-step Enrichment Procedure; EPA 821 ... Guzmán Luna, C., Costán-Longares, A., Lucena, F. and Jofre, J. Detection of somatic coliphages through a bioluminescence assay ... Method 1602: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Single Agar Layer (SAL) Procedure; EPA 821-R-01-029; USEPA ...
Unless otherwise stated, coliphage T5 was used as test organism in these experiments. Together with a final concentration of 5 ... Inactivation of Some Coliphages with Copper-Thiol Complexes * L. Edebo, M. P. Singh and S. Höglund ... Unless otherwise stated, coliphage T5 was used as test organism in these experiments. ...
  • A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects coliform bacteria such as Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized 38 Escherichia coli-infecting phages (coliphages) from poultry faeces to gain a better understanding of the coliphage diversity in the poultry intestine. (ilri.org)
  • Analysis of the enzymatic cleavage (beta elimination) of the capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli by the K5-specific coliphage: reexamination. (asm.org)
  • The capsular K5 polysaccharide of Escherichia coli is the receptor of the capsule-specific coliphage K5, which harbors an enzyme that degrades the capsular K5 polysaccharide to a number of oligosaccharides. (asm.org)
  • Four T4-like coliphages with broad host ranges for diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli serotypes were isolated from stool specimens from pediatric diarrhea patients and from environmental water samples. (asm.org)
  • This project evaluated the fate and treatability of bacterial indicators (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), viral indicators (male-specific coliphages and somatic coliphages), and enteric viruses in wastewater in relation to potential viral indicator updates to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). (waterrf.org)
  • A coliphage is defined as a bacteriophage able to infect Escherichia coli . (coliphages.com)
  • The efficacy of chloramine in the presence of copper chloride was evaluated for the inactivation of an indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and coliphage MS-2. (arizona.edu)
  • Here, we report the draft genome sequence and characterization of the commercial strain Escherichia coli DSM 12242 (=ATCC 13706/60 =NZRM 3262) derived from strain C (ATCC 13706), which is suitable for the isolation of coliphages from environmental and clinical samples. (asm.org)
  • Somatic coliphages are those which infect Escherichia coli WG5 through the cell wall and are detected by standardized methods (ISO 10705-2). (cdc.gov)
  • Some coliphages can infect coliform bacteria other than E. coli (for example Shigella or Klebsiella ). (coliphages.com)
  • Coliphages infect coliform bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Coliphage have traditionally been isolated from sewage, where they arrived, presumably, after passing through the GI tracts of animals inhabited by commensal coliform bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses which infect bacteria are known as bacteriophages, and those which infect coliform bacteria are called coliphages ( Figure 1 ). (jove.com)
  • Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The research examines the fate and persistence of coliphages and other indicator organisms at water resource recovery facilities utilizing different treatment configurations, evaluates the treatability of such organisms with common wastewater disinfectants, and estimates the potential economic impacts of coliphage-based RWQC on water resource recovery facilities. (waterrf.org)
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'Recovery of somatic coliphages in wastewater and seawater samples in relation to bacterial indicator organisms and water hydrochemical parameters in Kaiet Bay station, Alexandria' and will not need an account to access the content. (iwaponline.com)
  • Somatic coliphages were enumerated seasonally in addition to the traditional bacterial indicators total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci at different source points at Kaiet Bay wastewater treatment station in Alexandria. (iwaponline.com)
  • The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic) and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli , total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater), and coliphages (such as virus indicators). (hindawi.com)
  • To find the most suitable indicator of viral and parasitic contamination of drinking water, large-volume samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of pathogens (cultivable human enteric viruses, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts) and potential indicators (somatic and male-specific coliphages, Clostridium perfringens). (asm.org)
  • Abstract: MS2 coliphage, a surrogate for human enteric viruses, is inactivated by singlet oxygen (1O2) produced via sunlight-mediated excitation of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters. (epfl.ch)
  • Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this study was to assess if coliphage surrogates could be used in this testing in place of the currently required use of animal or human enteric viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Payment P. Fate of human enteric viruses, coliphages, and Clostridium perfringens during drinking-water treatment. (atcc.org)
  • Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water treatment for viruses and protozoan cysts. (asm.org)
  • Participants of the Southern California Bight 2018 Regional Monitoring Program's Microbiology element will initiate field sampling in August for a study evaluating the relevance and reliability of using coliphage viruses to assess microbial water quality at Southern California beaches. (sccwrp.org)
  • A positive test for coliphages indicates the water may be contaminated with feces or E. coli or viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Growth characteristics of coliphage viruses indicate that they are adapted to live with their Eschericia coli hosts in the intestinal tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EPA scientists have developed a variety of methods to detect, characterize and study bacteria, protozoans, viruses and coliphage. (epa.gov)
  • MS2 coliphage has been applied as a surrogate for pathogenic respiratory viruses, such as influenza, as it's safe for personnel to handle and requires less time and labor to measure virus infectivity. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to determine if MS2 coliphage could be applied as a surrogate for influenza A viruses for studying persistence when applied to the FFRs as a droplet. (cdc.gov)
  • Consequently, coliphages are also the most abundant bacteriophages present in the gut that are easy to cultivate. (coliphages.com)
  • Just like any other bacteriophages, coliphages have a narrow range of possible hosts . (coliphages.com)
  • As we explained when defining bacteriophages, we differentiate between somatic (entering the cell through the cell wall) and F-specific bacteriophages (entering the cell using the sexual pilli) , and this can be applied as well to coliphages. (coliphages.com)
  • Two groups of bacteriophages infecting E. coli , somatic and F-specific coliphages, have been investigated in academia for many years as both fecal and viral indicators . (coliphages.com)
  • Water quality--Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages--Part 2:Enumeration of somatic coliphages. (atcc.org)
  • Water quality --- Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages --- Part 2: Enumeration of somatic coliphages [BS EN ISO 10705-2:2001]. (atcc.org)
  • In fact, ATCC 13706/60 was reported as giving the highest PFU count out of 16 E. coli reference culture strains tested on effluents ( 5 ), and experiments with sewage samples also showed a 3-fold higher performance for the enumeration of coliphages with ATCC 13706/60 than that with ATCC 13706 ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Factors affecting the enumeration of coliphages in sewage and sewage-polluted waters. (atcc.org)
  • Ackermann H-W, Nguyen T (1983) Sewage coliphages studied by electron microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Obtain a sample of sewage or water containing coliphage. (jove.com)
  • By using multiple regression, the somatic coliphage counts were the only explanatory variable for the human enteric virus counts in settled water, while in filtered water samples it was C. perfringens counts. (asm.org)
  • Environmental Protection Agency Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Two-Step Enrichment Procedure. (atcc.org)
  • Environmental Protection Agency Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Single Agar Layer (SAL) Procedure. (atcc.org)
  • The application of EM-A containing pig manure also had a marked effect on some faecal organism counts in the manure and in the water of the fish ponds, but also reduced the somatic coliphage numbers significantly. (teraganix.com)
  • Results indicated that the dual layer filtration system recovered 83 ± 14% of the test bacteria (Enterococcus fecalis) and 81 ± 28% of the test virus (MS2 coliphage) on the top and bottom membranes, respectively. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency last year approved the coliphage-based method, officially known as EPA Method 1642, as an additional indicator to complement the established Enterococcus bacteria-based method for fecal contamination monitoring. (sccwrp.org)
  • Intestinal contents were screened for the presence of coliphage and host bacteria, and strains of E. coli bacteria from different segments of the GI tract were tested for susceptibility to six common laboratory coliphages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lack of sufficient susceptible host bacteria seems to be the most likely barrier to establishment of new coliphage infections in the mouse gut. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, susceptible host bacteria may not be present at high enough densities to allow persistent infection by coliphage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two groups of coliphages (F-specific and somatic) are being explored as indicators of viral fecal pollution in ambient water. (figshare.com)
  • Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study further investigates the use of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and coliphages to evaluate the removal of selected microbiological indicators of potential pathogens by the SBR. (nus.edu.sg)
  • An ideal candidate for phage therapy of E. coli infections is the coliphage T4 family. (asm.org)
  • Although there is evidence in some reports of coliphage replication in the gut, the phage infections are consistently transient, becoming undetectable in 3-10 days [ 2 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As for the morphology of coliphages, every group previously described ( Myoviridae , Syphoviridae , Podoviridae , Microviridae , Inoviridae and Leviviridae ) is represented among them. (coliphages.com)
  • F-specific coliphages , also named sexual coliphages, are those infecting E. coli through the sexual pili and comprise phages of the families Inoviridae and Leviviridae . (coliphages.com)
  • Coliphages do not infect humans or cause illness. (cdc.gov)
  • There was a highly significant correlation between counts of somatic coliphages, total coliforms and faecal coliforms but not faecal streptococci in all samples tested. (iwaponline.com)
  • We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water treated to an initial concentration of 50 ppm free chlorine and held at 4°C, 25°C, or 37°C for up to 28 days. (mdpi.com)
  • Our aim was to determine which of these two organisms (coliphage or E. coli ) was better at indicating norovirus survival under the conditions of the experiment. (mdpi.com)
  • Somatic coliphages are those infecting E. coli through the cell wall. (coliphages.com)
  • Less than 20% of 48 mice tested carried E. coli in their gut, and of 22 commensal E. coli strains isolated and tested, 59% were completely resistant to infection by lambda, M13, P1, T4, T7, and PhiX174 coliphage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coliphages in water are assayed by addition of a sample to soft or overlay agar along with a culture of E. coli in the log phase of growth. (jove.com)
  • Coliphage LSB-1 possesses a tailspike protein with endosialidase activity which is probably responsible for its specific enteroinvasive E.coli host range within the laboratory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was discovered in the early 90's through characterization of coliphage P1 recombination system. (igem.org)
  • Coliphage and C. perfringens counts suggested that the total removal and inactivation was more than 7 log10 viable microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • A bacterial virulence determinant encoded by lysogenic coliphage lambda. (nih.gov)
  • Replication of coliphage lambda DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Five different coliphages (MS-2, PRD1, ΦX-174, Qβ, and fr) were compared to the removal of poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab) by eight different water treatment devices/systems using a general case and a challenge case (high organic load, dissolved solids, and turbidity) test water as defined by the USEPA. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study aimed to establish the kinetics of the appearance of coliphage plaques using the double agar layer titration technique to evaluate the feasibility of using traditional coliphage plaque forming unit (PFU) enumeration as a rapid quantification method. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The study indicates that the traditional coliphage plating technique has a reasonable potential to provide results in a single working day without the need to invest in additional laboratory equipment. (iwaponline.com)
  • LSB-1, a reference coliphage strain, was classified as a member of the Podoviridae family with a cystic form (50 ± 5 nm diameter) and short tail (60 ± 5 nm long). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, nowadays there are many arguments to believe that the replication of somatic coliphages or F-specific coliphages outside the gut is very unlikely. (coliphages.com)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. (medconditions.net)
  • Samples were evaluated for levels of fecal contamination by using fecal coliforms and somatic coliphages. (cdc.gov)
  • Coliphage MS2 containing 5-fluorouracil. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Coliphage MS2 containing 5-fluorouracil. (elsevier.com)
  • During FILL, a long FILL (3h) resulted in reduction of coliforms while there was generally only a small reduction of coliphages. (nus.edu.sg)
  • During REACT, a short REACT resulted in increase in selected microorganisms and the increase in coliphage numbers was sequential to that of coliforms. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Host strains (for example CB390) counting total coliphages have been developed (Guzman et al. (coliphages.com)
  • Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encoding cereulide, diarrhoeic toxins (Nhe, Hbl, CytK1 and CytK2) and haemolysin (HlyII), as well as panC phylogenetic classification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, and a combined chlorine/ultraviolet irradiation treatment for the chlorine-resistant coliphages. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Three of nine finished water samples of 20,000 liters each revealed residual levels of somatic coliphages at 0.03, 0.10, and 0.26 per 100 liters. (asm.org)
  • This project paper addresses frequently asked questions regarding coliphage Recreational Water Quality Criteria. (waterrf.org)
  • Different hydrochemical parameters of the water samples were measured which showed variable correlation with coliphage counts. (iwaponline.com)
  • Biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, total nitrogen, reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus showed highly significant direct correlation with somatic coliphages counts for all water source points in all seasons tested. (iwaponline.com)
  • In summary, in using pass/fail criteria as recommended under USEPA guidelines for testing water treatment device/systems, the use of coliphages should be considered as an alternative to reduce cost and time of testing such devices/systems. (elsevier.com)
  • MS2 coliphage as a surrogate for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) in surface survival studies on N95 filtering facepiece respirators. (cdc.gov)
  • However, direct comparisons to determine the effectiveness of coliphage as a surrogate for influenza virus regarding droplet persistence on personal protective equipment such as N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are lacking. (cdc.gov)
  • The Bight '18 Microbiology element will do a side-by-side evaluation of how the Enterococcus and coliphage-based methods perform. (sccwrp.org)
  • The acid environment of the stomach would at first appear to be an obvious barrier, but coliphage have been shown to maintain their infectivity when passed through the stomach or exposed to gastric fluids [ 4 - 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the detection and quantification of coliphages still largely rely on time-consuming culture-based plaque assays. (figshare.com)
  • In this study, we developed an in-gel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (gLAMP) system enabling coliphage MS2 quantification within 30 min using standard laboratory devices. (figshare.com)
  • For practical purposes, coliphages are organized in operational groups rather than in taxons, mostly because of the current methods for their detection and quantification. (coliphages.com)
  • Although this model is adequate, to simplify its applicability two linear models were developed to predict the numbers of coliphages reliably, using the PFU counts as determined by the ISO after only 3 hours of incubation. (iwaponline.com)
  • Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to rank various parameters based on their effect on counts of somatic coliphages. (iwaponline.com)
  • Somatic coliphages' (SOMCPH) ability for acting as surrogates for enteroviruses was assessed in 47 sludge samples subjected to novel treatment processes. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Coliphages persisted in all seawater samples collected. (iwaponline.com)
  • Strain DSM 12242 (ATCC 13706/60), a nalidixic acid-resistant derivative of strain C (ATCC 13706), allows the supplementation of this antibiotic to the medium, suppressing the background microbes present in the samples and making it a suitable indicator host for the identification of somatic coliphages ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In coliphages the tail is a complex protein structure consisting of a hollow contractile sheath, with a plate at the base that contains long protein fibers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This study attempted to identify the barriers to long term establishment of exogenous coliphage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of laboratory mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Contrary to expectations, coliphage were not evident in the GI tracts of laboratory mice, although they were occasionally detected in feces. (biomedcentral.com)