A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
Vitamin B 12
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
SOS Response (Genetics)
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
Amino Acid Sequence
Membrane Transport Proteins
Escherichia coli K12
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Estimation of the number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments in proteins using circular dichroism spectroscopy. (1/848)A simple approach to estimate the number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments from protein circular dichroism spectra is described. The alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations in globular protein structures, assigned by DSSP and STRIDE algorithms, were divided into regular and distorted fractions by considering a certain number of terminal residues in a given alpha-helix or beta-strand segment to be distorted. The resulting secondary structure fractions for 29 reference proteins were used in the analyses of circular dichroism spectra by the SELCON method. From the performance indices of the analyses, we determined that, on an average, four residues per alpha-helix and two residues per beta-strand may be considered distorted in proteins. The number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments and their average length in a given protein were estimated from the fraction of distorted alpha-helix and beta-strand conformations determined from the analysis of circular dichroism spectra. The statistical test for the reference protein set shows the high reliability of such a classification of protein secondary structure. The method was used to analyze the circular dichroism spectra of four additional proteins and the predicted structural characteristics agree with the crystal structure data. (+info)
Simplified methods for pKa and acid pH-dependent stability estimation in proteins: removing dielectric and counterion boundaries. (2/848)Much computational research aimed at understanding ionizable group interactions in proteins has focused on numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, incorporating protein exclusion zones for solvent and counterions in a continuum model. Poor agreement with measured pKas and pH-dependent stabilities for a (protein, solvent) relative dielectric boundary of (4,80) has lead to the adoption of an intermediate (20,80) boundary. It is now shown that a simple Debye-Huckel (DH) calculation, removing both the low dielectric and counterion exclusion regions associated with protein, is equally effective in general pKa calculations. However, a broad-based discrepancy to measured pH-dependent stabilities is maintained in the absence of ionizable group interactions in the unfolded state. A simple model is introduced for these interactions, with a significantly improved match to experiment that suggests a potential utility in predicting and analyzing the acid pH-dependence of protein stability. The methods are applied to the relative pH-dependent stabilities of the pore-forming domains of colicins A and N. The results relate generally to the well-known preponderance of surface ionizable groups with solvent-mediated interactions. Although numerical PB solutions do not currently have a significant advantage for overall pKa estimations, development based on consideration of microscopic solvation energetics in tandem with the continuum model could combine the large deltapKas of a subset of ionizable groups with the overall robustness of the DH model. (+info)
Structure in the channel forming domain of colicin E1 bound to membranes: the 402-424 sequence. (3/848)To explore the structure of the pore-forming fragment of colicin E1 in membranes, a series of 23 consecutive single cysteine substitution mutants was prepared in the sequence 402-424. Each mutant was reacted with a sulfhydryl-specific reagent to generate a nitroxide labeled side chain, and the mobility of the side chain and its accessibility to collision with paramagnetic reagents was determined from the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. Individual values of these quantities were used to identify tertiary contact sites and the nature of the surrounding solvent, while their periodic dependence on sequence position was used to identify secondary structure. In solution, the data revealed a regular helix of 11 residues in the region 406-416, consistent with helix IV of the crystal structure. Upon binding to negatively charged membranes at pH 4.0, helix IV apparently grows to a length of 19 residues, extending from 402-420. One face of the helix is solvated by the lipid bilayer, and the other by an environment of a polar nature. Surprisingly, a conserved charged pair, D408-R409, is located on the lipid-exposed face. Evidence is presented to suggest a transmembrane orientation of this new helix, although other topographies may exist in equilibrium. (+info)
A cytotoxic ribonuclease targeting specific transfer RNA anticodons. (4/848)The carboxyl-terminal domain of colicin E5 was shown to inhibit protein synthesis of Escherichia coli. Its target, as revealed through in vivo and in vitro experiments, was not ribosomes as in the case of E3, but the transfer RNAs (tRNAs) for Tyr, His, Asn, and Asp, which contain a modified base, queuine, at the wobble position of each anticodon. The E5 carboxyl-terminal domain hydrolyzed these tRNAs just on the 3' side of this nucleotide. Tight correlation was observed between the toxicity of E5 and the cleavage of intracellular tRNAs of this group, implying that these tRNAs are the primary targets of colicin E5. (+info)
Characterization of nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17 fimbriae isolated from diarrheic lambs and goat kids. (5/848)Forty-five ovine and caprine nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17-related fimbriae were characterized with respect to the fimbrial structural subunit and adhesin subtypes produced. In addition, several characteristics related to the virulence of strains producing F17 fimbriae were studied. Most of the strains (73%) possessed the f17cA structural subunit gene, whereas the f17aA and f17dA genes were detected only on three (6%) and two (4%) strains, respectively. The f17bA gene was not detected. All but one of these strains possessed the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. The only strain having the f17G gene of subfamily I possessed the structural subunit gene f17dA. Sequencing of the f17A and f17G genes of four selected strains confirmed the association of f17cA and f17dA structural subunit genes with the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. These results indicated that adhesins of the subfamily II are prominent among ovine and caprine isolates and that they are indistinctly associated with the F17 structural subunit subtypes on these field strains. CS31A- and CNF2-related genes were not detected. Most of the strains adhered in vitro to ovine intestinal brush borders (36 of 45) and agglutinated the erythrocytes of different species in the presence of D-mannose (39 of 45). F17-positive strains produced colicin V (57%) and were resistant to the bactericidal effect of serum (91%) in significantly higher percentages than F17-negative strains (34% produced colicin V, and 66% were serum resistant). Thus, most of the studied ovine and caprine strains showed phenotypic characteristics of septicemic strains. (+info)
A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny. (6/848)A mathematical model describing the dynamics of a colicinogenic and a colicin-sensitive population propagated under serial transfer culture conditions was formulated. In addition, a series of in vitro invasion experiments using six representatives of the E colicin group was undertaken, together with the estimation of the growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics of the strains. Growth rates among the strains varied by up to 44%. There were 14-fold differences among strains in their lysis rates and there were up to 10-fold differences in the amount of colicin produced per lysed cell. The in vitro serial transfer invasion experiments revealed that regardless of initial frequency all colicinogenic strains succeeded in displacing the sensitive cell populations. The amount of time required for the colicin-sensitive cell population to be displaced declined as the initial frequency of the colicinogenic population increased and strains producing higher titres of colicin tended to displace the sensitive strain more rapidly. Overall, the observed dynamics of the invasion of colicinogenic strains was adequately described by the theoretical model. However, despite there being substantial differences among the strains in their growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics there were relatively few differences, observed or predicted, in the invasion dynamics of the six colicinogenic strains. These results suggest that the characteristics of different colicinogenic strains cannot be used to explain the extensive variation in the relative abundance of different colicins in natural populations of bacteria. (+info)
Characterization of colicin S4 and its receptor, OmpW, a minor protein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. (7/848)Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli colicin S4 determinant revealed 76% identity to the pore-forming domain of the colicin A protein, 77% identity to the colicin A immunity protein, and 82% identity to the colicin A lysis protein. The N-terminal region, which is responsible for the Tol-dependent uptake of colicin S4, has 94% identity to the N-terminal region of colicin K. By contrast, the predicted receptor binding domain shows no sequence similarities to other colicins. Mutants that lacked the OmpW protein were resistant to colicin S4. (+info)
Colicin E1 forms a dimer after urea-induced unfolding. (8/848)Unfolding of the soluble colicin E1 channel peptide was examined with the use of urea as a denaturant; it was shown that it unfolds to an intermediate state in 8.5 M urea, equivalent to a dimeric species previously observed in 4 M guanidinium chloride. Single tryptophan residues, substituted into the peptide at various positions by site-directed mutagenesis, were employed as fluorescent probes of local unfolding. Unfolding profiles for specific sites within the peptide were obtained by quantifying the shifts in the fluorescence emission maxima of single tryptophan residues on unfolding and plotting them against urea concentration. Unfolding reported by tryptophan residues in the C-terminal region was not characteristic of complete peptide denaturation, as evidenced by the relatively blue-shifted values of the fluorescence emission maxima. Unfolding was also monitored by using CD spectroscopy and the fluorescent probe 2-(p-toluidinyl)-naphthalene 6-sulphonic acid; the results indicated that unfolding of helices is concomitant with the exposure of protein non-polar surface. Unfolding profiles were evaluated by non-linear least-squares curve fitting and calculation of the unfolding transition midpoint. The unfolding profiles of residues located in the N-terminal region of the peptide had lower transition midpoints than residues in the C-terminal portion. The results of unfolding analysis demonstrated that urea unfolds the peptide only partly to an intermediate state, because the C-terminal portion of the channel peptide retained significant structure in 8.5 M urea. Characterization of the peptide's global unfolding by size-exclusion HPLC revealed that the partly denatured structure that persists in 8.5 M urea is a dimer of two channel peptides, tightly associated by hydrophobic interactions. The presence of the dimerized species was confirmed by SDS/PAGE and intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (+info)
High Levels of Colicin Resistance in Escherichia coli | Riley Lab
Colicins are plasmid-encoded antibiotics that are produced by and kill Escherichia coli and other related species. The frequency of colicinogeny is high, on average 30% of E. coli isolates produce colicins. Initial observations from one collection of 72 strains of E. coli (the ECOR collection) suggest that resistance to colicin killing is also ubiquitous, with over 70% of strains resistant to one or more colicins. To determine whether resistance is a common trait in E. coli, three additional strain collections were surveyed. In each of these collections levels of colicin production were high (from 15 to 50% of the strains produce colicins). Levels of colicin resistance were even higher, with most strains resistant to over 10 colicins. A survey of 137 non-E. coli isolates revealed even higher levels of resistance. We discuss a mechanism (pleiotropy) that could result in the co-occurrence of such high levels of colicin production and colicin resistance ...
Colicin - Wikipedia
A colicin is a type of bacteriocin produced by and toxic to some strains of Escherichia coli. Colicins are released into the environment to reduce competition from other bacterial strains. Colicins bind to outer membrane receptors, using them to translocate to the cytoplasm or cytoplasmic membrane, where they exert their cytotoxic effect, including depolarisation of the cytoplasmic membrane, DNase activity, RNase activity, or inhibition of murein synthesis. Channel-forming colicins (colicins A, B, E1, Ia, Ib, and N) are transmembrane proteins that depolarize the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to dissipation of cellular energy. These colicins contain at least three domains: an N-terminal translocation domain responsible for movement across the outer membrane and periplasmic space; a central domain responsible for receptor recognition; and a C-terminal cytotoxic domain responsible for channel formation in the cytoplasmic membrane. One domain regulates the target and binds to the receptor on the ...
Investigating the molecular mechanisms of colicin import into Escherichia coli cells - Nottingham ePrints
This work has studied colicin translocation by using a periplasmic protection assay combined with an in vivo lux-reporter assay and a potassium release assay. Expressing the translocation domain of colicin A in the periplasm and challenging the cells with external colicins showed that the translocation of group A colicins is inhibited as it requires an interaction with the Tol system. Surprisingly, the TolA protein was found to play the major role during the translocation of both ColA and the endonuclease colicin E9 even though the latter colicin has no direct interaction with the TolA protein. This study also suggests that the interaction with TolB is important for both colicins A and E9. Moreover, a series of ColA constructs with a truncated T domain were made by site directed mutagenesis to define the important residues of the TolA and TolB boxes for their interaction with Tol proteins. The results showed that tyrosine 58 residue of the TolA box of colicin A is essential for TolA binding, ...
Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins. AU - Schulz, Steve. AU - Stephan, Anett. AU - Hahn, Simone. AU - Bortesi, Luisa. AU - Jarczowski, Franziska. AU - Bettmann, Ulrike. AU - Paschke, Anne Katrin. AU - Tusé, Daniel. AU - Stahl, Chad H.. AU - Giritch, Anatoli. AU - Gleba, Yuri. AU - Arntzen, Charles J.. PY - 2015/10/6. Y1 - 2015/10/6. N2 - Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli ...
Membrane Topology of the Colicin A Pore-forming Domain Analyzed by Dis by Denis Duche, Jacques Izard et al.
Four colicin A double-cysteine mutants possessing a disulfide bond in their pore-forming domain were constructed to study the translocation and the pore formation of colicin A. The disulfide bonds connected a-helices 1 and 2, 2 and 10, 3 and 9, or 3 and 10 of the poreforming domain. The disulfide bonds did not prevent the colicin A translocation through the Escherichia coli envelope. However, the mutated colicins were able to exert their in vivo channel activity only after reduction of their disulfide bonds. In vitro studies with brominated phospholipid vesicles and planar lipid bilayers revealed that the disulfide bond that connects the a-helices 2 and 10 prevented the colicin A membrane insertion, whereas the other double-cysteine mutants inserted into lipid vesicles. The disulfide bonds that connect either the a-helices 1 and 2 or 3 and 10 were unable to prevent the formation of a conducting channel in presence of membrane potential. These results indicate that a-helices 1, 2, 3, and 10 remain at the
Colicins exploit native disorder to gain cell entry: a hitchhikers guide to translocation | Biochemical Society Transactions
The translocation of protein toxins into a cell relies on a myriad of protein-protein interactions. One such group of toxins are enzymatic E colicins, protein antibiotics produced by Escherichia coli in times of stress. These proteins subvert ordinary nutrient uptake mechanisms to enter the cell and unleash nuclease activity. We, and others, have previously shown that uptake of ColE9 (colicin E9) is dependent on engagement of the OM (outer membrane) receptors BtuB and OmpF as well as recruitment of the periplasmic protein TolB, forming a large supramolecular complex. Intriguingly, colicins bind TolB using a natively disordered region to mimic the interaction of TolB with Pal (peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein). This is thought to trigger OM instability and prime the system for translocation. Here, we review key interactions in the assembly of this colicin translocon and discuss the key role disorder plays in achieving uptake. ...
Membrane action of colicin E1: detection by the release of carboxyfluorescein and calcein from liposomes. | Semantic Scholar
Colicin E1 induces the efflux of carboxyfluorescein and calcein from liposomes whose phospholipid composition is similar to that of Escherichia coli. This colicin action takes place at protein-to-liposome ratios and within pH ranges that are physiologically meaningful. Colicin-induced permeability of carboxyfluorescein is not limited to the initial phase of colicin membrane interaction but is sustained thereafter. Colicin E1 requires negatively charged phospholipids in the liposomal membrane in order to bind and induce efflux.
Immunhistochemische Untersuchungen zur lokoregionären Verteilung von mTOR, p-mTOR und 4E-binding protein im Prostataraum...
Immunhistochemische Untersuchungen zur lokoregionären Verteilung von mTOR, p-mTOR und 4E-binding protein im Prostataraum tumortragender Prostaten mittels der Tissue Microarray- ...
Colicin E3 immunity protein superfamily
The SCOP classification for the Colicin E3 immunity protein superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section D Volume 57, Part 10, October 2001
Two cases of successful molecular replacement using NMR trial models are presented. One is the crystal structure of the E. coli colicin immunity protein Im7; the other is the previously unreported crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal SH2 domain from the p85α subunit of human phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase complexed to a PDGF receptor-derived specificity peptide ...
A, comparison of the colicin M amino acid sequence with | Open-i
A, comparison of the colicin M amino acid sequence with the sequences of predicted bacteriocins of Burkholderia amifaria MC40-6 (accession number AOTM72), Burkh
BMRB Entry 15666
Authors: Figueiredo, Angelo; Whittaker, Sara; Knowling, Stuart; Radford, Sheena; Moore, Geoffrey. Citation: Knowling, Stuart; Figueiredo, Angelo Miguel; Whittaker, Sara B-M; Moore, Geoffrey; Radford, Sheena. Amino acid insertion reveals a necessary three-helical intermediate in the folding pathway of the colicin E7 immunity protein Im7. J. Mol. Biol. 392, 1074-1086 (2009).. Assembly members: ...
Colicin Ia inserts into negatively charged membranes at low pH with a tertiary but little secondary structural change. -...
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Lactococcin-A immunity protein elisa and antibody
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E coli tolQ protein Summary Report | CureHunter
E coli tolQ protein: from E coli; are involved in uptake of group A colicins & infection by filamentous bacteriophages; homologous to exbB protein; amino acid sequence given in first source
Linear diagram showing the approximate lengths of whole | Open-i
Linear diagram showing the approximate lengths of whole colicin Ia and the four carboxy-terminal fragments, CT-S, CT-M, CT-L, and CT-XL. The boundaries of the T
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Microbiology Society Journals | Evolution of colicin BM plasmids: the loss of the colicin B activity gene
Colicins, a class of antimicrobial compounds produced by bacteria, are thought to be important mediators of intra- and interspecific interactions, and are a significant factor in maintaining microbial diversity. Colicins B and M are among the most common colicins produced by Escherichia coli, and are usually encoded adjacently on the same plasmid. In this study, the characterization of a collection of E. coli isolated from Australian vertebrates revealed that a significant fraction of colicin BM strains lack an intact colicin B activity gene. The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. A phylogenetic analysis of the colicin M and B operons and characterization of the plasmids suggested that ColBM plasmids with a truncated B activity gene have evolved on at
Cell entry mechanism of enzymatic bacterial colicins: porin recruitment and the thermodynamics of receptor binding. - Oxford...
Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in the translocation of the cytotoxic nuclease into the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and release of its tightly bound immunity protein. A dogma of colicin biology is that the toxin coiled-coil connecting its functional domains must unfold or unfurl to span the periplasm, with recent reports claiming this reaction is initiated by receptor binding. We report isothermal titration calorimetry data of BtuB binding the endonuclease toxin ColE9 and a disulfide form (ColE9S-S) where unfolding of the coiled-coil is prevented and, as a consequence, the toxin is biologically inactive. Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of the colicin translocon that assembles at the cell surface after BtuB
ColV Plasmid-Mediated, Colicin V-Independent Iron Uptake System of Invasive Strains of Escherichia coli | Infection and Immunity
Evidence is presented that ColV plasmid-mediated iron uptake, an important component of the virulence of invasive strains of Escherichia coli, is independent of colicin V synthesis and activity. A mutant of E. coli K-12 deficient in the biosynthesis of enterochelin (strain AN1937) was unable to grow on minimal agar containing the chelating agent α,α′-dipyridyl unless it was harboring the plasmid ColV-K30 (strain LG1315). Acquisition of the active plasmid-specified iron sequestering system was accompanied by marked enhancement of pathogenicity in experimental infections of mice. Mutants of strain LG1315 were isolated that were defective in iron uptake due to plasmid mutations. They were unchanged with respect to colicin production, but were significantly less virulent than the parent strain. Conversely, mutants isolated as defective in colicin V synthesis were normal for the plasmid-coded iron uptake mechanism and showed the same lethality for infected mice as did strain LG1315. Furthermore, ...
Structural and functional alterations of a colicin-resistant mutant of OmpF porin from Escherichia coli | PNAS
A strain of Escherichia coli, selected on the basis of its resistance to colicin N, reveals distinct structural and functional alterations in unspecific OmpF porin. A single mutation [Gly-119--,Asp (G119D)] was identified in the internal loop L3 that contributes critically to the formation of the construction inside the lumen of the pore. X-ray structure analysis to a resolution of 3.0 A reveals a locally altered peptide backbone, with the side chain of residue Asp-119 protruding into the channel, causing the area of the constriction (7 x 11 A in the wild type) to be subdivided into two intercommunicating subcompartments of 3-4 A in diameter. The functional consequences of this structural modification consist of a reduction of the channel conductance by about one-third, of altered ion selectivity and voltage gating, and of a decrease of permeation rates of various sugars by factors of 2-12. The structural modification of the mutant protein affects neither the beta-barrel structure nor those ...
Determining the Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli ST131 Containing Bacteriocin-Encoding Plasmids Using Short- and Long...
Escherichia coli ST131 is a clinical challenge due to its multidrug resistant profile and successful global spread. They are often associated with complicated infections, particularly urinary tract infections (UTIs). Bacteriocins play an important role to outcompete other microorganisms present in the human gut. Here, we characterized bacteriocin-encoding plasmids found in ST131 isolates of patients suffering from a UTI using both short- and long-read sequencing. Colicins Ia, Ib and E1, and microcin V, were identified among plasmids that also contained resistance and virulence genes. To investigate if the potential transmission range of the colicin E1 plasmid is influenced by the presence of a resistance gene, we constructed a strain containing a plasmid which had both the colicin E1 and blaCMY-2 genes. No difference in transmission range was found between transformant and wild-type strains. However, a statistically significantly difference was found in adhesion and invasion ability. ...
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Bacteriocins | Riley Lab
The Role of Bacteriocins in Mediating Bacterial Competitive Interactions. Explaining the coexistence of competing species is a major challenge in community ecology. In bacterial systems, competition is often driven by the production of bacteriocins, which are narrow-spectrum proteinaceous toxins that serve to kill closely related species, providing the producer better access to limited resources. Bacteriocin producers have been shown to competitively exclude sensitive, nonproducing strains. However, the dynamics between bacteriocin producers, each lethal to its competitor, are largely unknown. In this study, we used in vitro, in vivo and in silico models to study competitive interactions between bacteriocin producers. Two Escherichia coli strains were generated, each carrying a DNA-degrading bacteriocin (colicins E2 and E7). Using reporter-gene assays, we showed that each DNase bacteriocin is not only lethal to its opponent but, at lower doses, can also induce the expression of its opponents ...
Proteolytic and chemical modification of colicin E3 activity.
Proteolyses of colicin E3 by both trypsin and subtilisin yield fragments of various molecular weights. On the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, tryptic cleavage yields peptides of molecular weight about 42 000 and 18 000, while the
Penn State Agricultural Law Blog: Study Uses GE Plants to Eliminate E. coli in Food Products
On September 8, 2015, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published a study online titled, Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixture of plant-produced colicins. The study advocates that colicins, which are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins that kill or inhibit the growth of other competing E. coli strains, could be used to effectively mitigate the risk of E. coli in meat and produce ...
TolA: a membrane protein involved in colicin uptake contains an extended helical region | PNAS
The group A colicins and the DNA of many single-stranded filamentous bacteriophage are able to use combinations of the Tol proteins to gain entrance into or across the membrane of Escherichia coli. The TolA protein is a 421-amino acid residue integral membrane protein composed of three domains. Domain I, consisting of the amino-terminal 47 amino acids, contains a 21-residue hydrophobic segment that anchors the protein in the inner membrane. The remaining 374 amino acids, containing the other two domains, reside in the periplasmic space. Domain III, consisting of the carboxyl-terminal 120 residues, is considered to be the functional domain based on the location of the tolA592 deletion mutation. The internal 262 amino acids comprise domain II, which connects domains I and III together via short regions of polyglycine. It contains a large number of 3- to 5-residue polyalanine stretches, many of which have a repeat of the sequence Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-(Glu/Asp). Circular dichroism analysis of different ...
Gasdermins: Effectors of Pyroptosis - PubMed
Pyroptosis is a form of lytic programmed cell death initiated by inflammasomes, which detect cytosolic contamination or perturbation. This drives activation of caspase-1 or caspase-11/4/5, which cleave gasdermin D, separating its N-terminal pore-forming domain (PFD) from the C-terminal repressor dom …
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Study finds immunity protein that ramps up inflammation, and agents that can block it
Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have discovered a new biological pathway of innate immunity that ramps up inflammation and then identified agents that can block it, leading to increased survival ...
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TV Guide - Fired X Factor Judge Cheryl Cole Wins Payout From Producers - News - Washington Times-Reporter - Washington, IL -...
Former X Factor judge Cheryl Cole has won an undisclosed sum from the producers of the shows U.S. edition after she was fired early in the first season, the BBC reports.Cole, 30, was reportedly axed during the singing competitions... Read ...
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People: Natalie Cole remembers the greats | StAugustine.com
ANAHEIM, Calif. (AP) - Natalie Cole knows a little something about musical influences. First, there was her father, Nat King Cole. Then, there were all of his friends.
Cheryl Cole Reportedly Not Returning To X Factor UK - NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth
British pop singer Cheryl Cole will no longer Factor into Simon Cowells reality singing competition plans stateside or back in her native United Kingdom, according to multiple reports out of Great Britain.
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Susan Cole | C-SPAN.org
Watch the C-SPAN collection of videos, access clips including recent appearances by Susan Cole. View positions held along with a brief bio.
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Today I wanted to share amazing news about my friend Courtney Cole!! Her new title, Dantes Girl, is officially ready for your reading pleasure! Without further ado, I present to you the first chapter of Dantes Girl, below the cover and blurb (sorry for any wonky formatting, but I promise it doesnt take away from…
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Cheryl Cole OUT As British X-Factor Judge Too | TMZ.com
Cheryl Cole was a judge on two different versions of The X-Factor. What a difference a week makes!The judges for this season of the popular British show…
Questionnaire numérique à lécole - Enquêtes, études, questionnaires, entretiens - Forums Enseignants du primaire
Bonjour, Dans nous sommes trois étudiantes en sciences de léducation. Dans le cadre de nos études, nous avons réalisé un questionnaire à distribuer à des enseignants du primaire. Ce questionnaire porte sur le numérique à lécole, les représentations concernant ce sujet, les utilisations possibles ...
Cheryl Cole Has Wardrobe Malfunction At Elle Style Awards
Cheryl Cole looked stunning at the Elle Style Awards, but tit tape was on show. Photos: Getty Nobody could deny that Chezza looked the best.What do you think?See all the stars and style at the Ell...
Keyshia Cole Arrested For Battery
Keyshia Cole was arrested for battery and wreckless driving after she walked into Birdmans condo, her rumored boyfriend, and allegedly assaulted another woman she found inside.
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মিশেল ফুকো - উইকিপিডিয়া
ফুকো ১৯৫০ সালে তার agrégation সম্পন্ন করেন। École Normale-তে কিছু সময়ের জন্য কাজ করার পর তিনি লিলে বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে একটি পদ পেয়ে যান। এখানে ১৯৫৩ থেকে ১৯৫৪ সাল পর্যন্ত দর্শনের প্রভাষকের পদে চাকরি করেন। ১৯৫৪ সালে তার প্রথম বই প্রকাশিত হয় যার নাম ছিল Maladie mentale et personnalité। পরবর্তিতে তিনি এই বইটি লিখেননি বলে দাবী করেছিলেন। ফুকো তখন বেশ বুঝতে পারছিলেন যে, শিক্ষকতা তার দ্বারা হবেনা। এই চিন্তা থেকেই ফ্রান্স ...
Hello! Here is an episode of Tim and Erics Bedtime Stories called SQUAT I helped create and animate a new character called TRENT.
Lecture-1-Themes-in- 42852 - theproductsof>...
View Notes - Lecture-1-Themes-in-_42852 from HE 012928 at École Normale Supérieure. Thebiologicalworldandallofitsinherentfeaturesare theproductsof|3billionyearsofchange;changethat:
Channel-forming colicins (colicins A, B, E1, Ia, Ib, and N) are transmembrane proteins that depolarize the cytoplasmic membrane ... Colicins are released into the environment to reduce competition from other bacterial strains. Colicins bind to outer membrane ... The colicins are highly effective toxins. Virtually all colicins are carried on plasmids. The two general classes of ... Most colicins are able to translocate the outer membrane by a two-receptor system, where one receptor is used for the initial ...
The colicins similarly form pores in lipid bilayers. Structural homology therefore suggests that Bcl-2 family members that ... The arrangement of the α-helices in Bcl-X(L) resembles that for diphtheria toxin and the colicins. Diphtheria toxin forms a ...
Outer membrane receptor
The TonB protein also interacts with some colicins. Most of these proteins contain a short conserved region at their N-terminus ...
In fact, one of the oldest known so-called colicins was called colicin V and is now known as microcin V. It is much smaller and ... Colicins are bacteriocins found in the Gram-negative E. coli. Similar bacteriocins (CLBs, colicin-like bacteriocins) occur in ... As of 2009, some bacteriocins, cytolysin, pyocyn S2, colicins A and E1, and the microcin MccE492 had been tested on cancer cell ... The bacteriocins from E. coli are called colicins (formerly called 'colicines', meaning 'coli killers'). They are the longest ...
Outer membrane protein W family
This protein may form the receptor for S4 colicins in Escherichia coli. Braun V, Pil sl H, Smajs D (1999). "Characterization of ...
For example, colicins consume nucleic acids of cells by using several enzymes. To prevent such toxicity, host cells produce ... Sometimes the producer organism needs to create a pore at its own membrane to release such cytolysins, like the case colicins ... Biochim Biophys Acta 947:445-464 James R, Kleanthous C, Moore GR (1996) The biology of E-colicins - paradigms and paradoxes. ...
In all likelihood, however, they are as common and as diverse as the colicins, making it very unlikely that these initial ... They were first discovered in 1962, considerably after the original bacteriocins, the colicins, which were discovered in 1925. ... along with some colicins, as potential chemotherapeutic agents. The mode of action appears to be nuclease activity resulting in ...
ApoL1 has a membrane pore forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins. This domain is flanked by the ...
... has also been shown to transport vitamin B12, and colicins B and D as well. This protein belongs to family of ligand-gated ... 1987). "Nucleotide sequence of the colicin B activity gene cbs: consensus pentapeptide among TonB-dependent colicins and ...
Mei Hong (chemist)
Other membrane proteins that Hong's group has studied include β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides, channel-forming colicins, and ...
Colicins Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) systems: CdiA toxins Rhs toxins "Extended" VgrG toxins "Extended" Hcp toxins ... The most studied PT families encompass colicins, toxic effectors of type V secretion systems, some toxic effectors of type VI ... including colicins) in the environment. Polymorphic toxins are bacterial exotoxins which share common features regarding their ...
Polypeptide toxins and many antibacterial peptides, such as colicins or hemolysins, and certain proteins involved in apoptosis ...
Membrane transport protein
... including colicins, diphtheria toxin, and others Nonribosomally synthesized channels such as gramicidin Holins; which function ...
... colicins, transposons, and other unknown factors. As a woman in a male-dominated field and the wife of Nobel laureate Joshua ...
Frontiers | Colicins and Salmocins - New Classes of Plant-Made Non-antibiotic Food Antibacterials
... economic and business aspects of the antibacterial proteins colicins and salmocins as new food processing aids. ... economic and business aspects of the antibacterial proteins colicins and salmocins as new food processing aids. ... Colicins exert three types of cytotoxic activities. Colicins with nuclease (DNase and RNase) activities (e.g., colicins E2-E9) ... Plant-Made Colicins. We selected sequences of 23 (almost all) colicins available in public databases (Figure 2B) and expressed ...
"Non-Canonical Functions Of The Bacterial Sos Response" by Amanda Samuels
This finding calls into question the importance of colicins in an unperturbed environment. Finally, with increased recognition ... MP1 has an antimicrobial colicin under control of the SOS response, and colicins are hypothesized to function in inter-species ... MP1 has an antimicrobial colicin under control of the SOS response, and colicins are hypothesized to function in inter-species ... This finding calls into question the importance of colicins in an unperturbed environment. Finally, with increased recognition ...
Expansion of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters - Volume 22, Number 5-May 2016...
Science Clips - Volume 12, Issue 13, April 28, 2020
Preslaughter interventions could reduce E. coli in cattle | 2012-04-05 | Food Engineering
Microbial production of bacteriocins and its applications in food preservation: A review.
Colicins are classified into 2 classes if based on translocation and into 3 classes if based on their mode of action. Microcins ... The first report on bacteriocin production was from E. coli in 1925 and this peptide was named colicins to reflect the ... Bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are grouped into 2 categories, colicins and microcins. Genes encoding these ... Bacteriocins are produced both by Gram-positive (lantibiotics) and gram-negative microorganisms (colicins, microcins) and few ...
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MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
Unscramble CLOXACILLINS - 238 Words You Can Make
Microbiome Structure in Biofilms From a Volcanic Island in Maritime Antarctica Investigated by Genome-Centric Metagenomics and...
SMART: BCL domain annotation
Intimin (eae) and virulence membrane protein pagC genes are associated with biofilm formation and multidrug resistance in...
Structural evidence that colicin a protein binds to a novel binding site of TolA protein in Escherichia coli periplasm -...
Volume 161, Issue 3 | Microbiology Society
Group A colicins bind to members of the TolQRAB complex in the periplasm and heterotrimeric complexes of colicin-TolA-TolB have ... Most colicins kill Escherichia coli cells by membrane pore formation or nuclease activity and, superficially, the mechanisms ... effectively preventing formation of the larger complex used by other colicins. ColN binding to TolA was by β-strand addition ...
The Antibiotic Efflux Protein TolC Is a Highly Evolvable Target under Colicin E1 or TLS Phage Selection<...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Colicinogenicity and enteropathogenicity of Escherichia coli associated with gastroenteritis in man.
Translocation of inserted foreign epitopes by a channel-forming protein - Fingerprint - Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Para Comprar Xenical Alli Beacita Elimens Linestat Orliloss Orlidunn Necesito Receta Medica, Comprar xenical alli beacita...
Colicins are protein antibiotics deployed by Escherichia coli to eliminate competing strains. Colicins frequently exploit outer ... Some colicins form ion-gated pores in the inner membrane of attacked bacteria that are lethal to their target. Colicin Ia was ... In the case of colicins, the pore-forming domain of colicin A (ColA-P) has been shown both to undergo a clear acidic unfolding ... Colicins were the first such antibacterial system identified, yet how these bacteriocins cross the outer membrane (OM) of ...
Bacteriocin-encoding genes and ExPEC virulence determinants are associated in human fecal Escherichia coli strains | BMC...
Online Interorganisatorische Wissensnetzwerke: Mit Kooperationen Zum Erfolg 2004
ECMDB: Cobinamide (ECMDB06902) (M2MDB000705)
Threesology Research Journal
Overview of Prebiotics and Probiotics: Focus on Performance, Gut Health and Immunity - A Review
Genre: Articles / Publisher: The Nation / Exhibit Tags: biographical and politics - Salvador E. Luria - Profiles in Science...
Shigella boydii serotype 4 Protein TolB (tolB) GENTAUR-58bd6a1f87201 | Gentaursearch
Diamond Publications - Search Results
We find that DNase pyocins and colicins are both highly elongated molecules even though the order of their constituent domains ... Our study explains how colicins exploit porins to deliver epitope signals to the bacterial periplasm and, more broadly, how the ... known as E-type colicins and S-type pyocins, respectively, bound to their specific immunity (Im) proteins. First, we report the ...
- The arrangement of the alpha-helices in Bcl-xL is reminiscent of the membrane translocation domain of bacterial toxins, in particular diphtheria toxin and the colicins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Several research teams have searched for antibiotic alternatives, and in particular, attempted development of non-antibiotic antibacterial proteins derived from bacteria ( E. coli colicins and colicin-like molecules) and bacteriophages (endolysins or "lysins") for control of bacterial pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
- These preslaughter interventions include bacteriophages, prebiotics, probiotics, colicins, natural product extracts, vaccines and sodium chlorate (a chemical that kills the STEC O157:H7 strain). (foodengineeringmag.com)
- We present results of new research and development and summarize regulatory, economic and business aspects of the antibacterial proteins colicins and salmocins as new food processing aids. (frontiersin.org)
- Group A colicins, such as ColA, parasitize the Tol network through interactions with TolA and/or TolB to facilitate translocation through the cell envelope to reach their cytotoxic site of action. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- The episome is a derivative of the Fredericq F-prime and contains genes for colicins V and B and the tonB-cysB region of the chromosome that includes the trp operon, with a suppressible trpA mutation. (yale.edu)
- Probiotics may be used to fight off harmful microorganisms, create antibacterial compounds (such as bacteriocins or colicins), and alter the immunological response of the host, according to the National Institutes of Health. (microbiology.pl)
- The klebicin gene cluster, as well as the plasmid backbone, is a chimera, with regions similar to those of pore-former colicins, nuclease pyocins and colicins as well as noncolicinogenic plasmids. (umass.edu)
- The toxin binds to a specific cell surface receptor on the outer membrane and is translocated through the cell envelope by either the Tol or the TonB machinery to its target, which is the inner membrane for ionophore colicins and the cytoplasm for nuclease colicins. (thesnakeranch.com)
- Compared with results for controls, DNase colicins (E8/9) facilitated an 8- to 64-fold increase in production of Stx2, while RNase colicins (E3/5) suppressed Stx production in only two strains. (nih.gov)
- The RT-PCR results clearly indicated a marked increase in mRNA levels of SOS reaction-associated genes after the addition of DNase colicins. (nih.gov)
- The encoded klebicin B protein is similar in sequence to the DNase pyocins and colicins, suggesting that klebicin B functions as a nonspecific endonuclease. (umass.edu)
- As a result of Nomura's work, Luria turned his focus to colicins. (nih.gov)
- These interactions were extensively studied in bacteriocins produced by Escherichia coli, the colicins. (bgu.ac.il)
- The O157 strains were cultured in the presence of colicinogenic bacteria or extracted colicins. (nih.gov)
- In 1963, Masayasu Nomura demonstrated that colicins are able to kill bacteria by damaging the membrane of the bacterial cell. (nih.gov)
- Colicins are polypeptide toxins produced by and active against E.coli and closely related bacteria. (proteopedia.org)
- That is, vesicles prepared from colicin Ia-immune strains are significantly less sensitive to depolarization by colicin Ia relative to vesicles prepared from a non-immune strain, but maintain full sensitivity to colicins Ib and El. (illinois.edu)
- The biosensor assay revealed induction of stress for all DNA-degrading reference colicins (E2, E7, and E8). (edu.au)
- is intrinsic towards the transfer system of group A colicins. (biomasswars.com)