Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Bacteriocin Plasmids: Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Periplasmic Proteins: Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Ferrichrome: A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Escherichia coli K12: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)PeptidoglycanZinostatin: An enediyne that alkylates DNA and RNA like MITOMYCIN does, so it is cytotoxic.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nursing, Supervisory: Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hate: An enduring attitude or sentiment toward persons or objects manifested by anger, aversion and desire for the misfortune of others.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Teratology: A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.

Estimation of the number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments in proteins using circular dichroism spectroscopy. (1/848)

A simple approach to estimate the number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments from protein circular dichroism spectra is described. The alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformations in globular protein structures, assigned by DSSP and STRIDE algorithms, were divided into regular and distorted fractions by considering a certain number of terminal residues in a given alpha-helix or beta-strand segment to be distorted. The resulting secondary structure fractions for 29 reference proteins were used in the analyses of circular dichroism spectra by the SELCON method. From the performance indices of the analyses, we determined that, on an average, four residues per alpha-helix and two residues per beta-strand may be considered distorted in proteins. The number of alpha-helical and beta-strand segments and their average length in a given protein were estimated from the fraction of distorted alpha-helix and beta-strand conformations determined from the analysis of circular dichroism spectra. The statistical test for the reference protein set shows the high reliability of such a classification of protein secondary structure. The method was used to analyze the circular dichroism spectra of four additional proteins and the predicted structural characteristics agree with the crystal structure data.  (+info)

Simplified methods for pKa and acid pH-dependent stability estimation in proteins: removing dielectric and counterion boundaries. (2/848)

Much computational research aimed at understanding ionizable group interactions in proteins has focused on numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation, incorporating protein exclusion zones for solvent and counterions in a continuum model. Poor agreement with measured pKas and pH-dependent stabilities for a (protein, solvent) relative dielectric boundary of (4,80) has lead to the adoption of an intermediate (20,80) boundary. It is now shown that a simple Debye-Huckel (DH) calculation, removing both the low dielectric and counterion exclusion regions associated with protein, is equally effective in general pKa calculations. However, a broad-based discrepancy to measured pH-dependent stabilities is maintained in the absence of ionizable group interactions in the unfolded state. A simple model is introduced for these interactions, with a significantly improved match to experiment that suggests a potential utility in predicting and analyzing the acid pH-dependence of protein stability. The methods are applied to the relative pH-dependent stabilities of the pore-forming domains of colicins A and N. The results relate generally to the well-known preponderance of surface ionizable groups with solvent-mediated interactions. Although numerical PB solutions do not currently have a significant advantage for overall pKa estimations, development based on consideration of microscopic solvation energetics in tandem with the continuum model could combine the large deltapKas of a subset of ionizable groups with the overall robustness of the DH model.  (+info)

Structure in the channel forming domain of colicin E1 bound to membranes: the 402-424 sequence. (3/848)

To explore the structure of the pore-forming fragment of colicin E1 in membranes, a series of 23 consecutive single cysteine substitution mutants was prepared in the sequence 402-424. Each mutant was reacted with a sulfhydryl-specific reagent to generate a nitroxide labeled side chain, and the mobility of the side chain and its accessibility to collision with paramagnetic reagents was determined from the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. Individual values of these quantities were used to identify tertiary contact sites and the nature of the surrounding solvent, while their periodic dependence on sequence position was used to identify secondary structure. In solution, the data revealed a regular helix of 11 residues in the region 406-416, consistent with helix IV of the crystal structure. Upon binding to negatively charged membranes at pH 4.0, helix IV apparently grows to a length of 19 residues, extending from 402-420. One face of the helix is solvated by the lipid bilayer, and the other by an environment of a polar nature. Surprisingly, a conserved charged pair, D408-R409, is located on the lipid-exposed face. Evidence is presented to suggest a transmembrane orientation of this new helix, although other topographies may exist in equilibrium.  (+info)

A cytotoxic ribonuclease targeting specific transfer RNA anticodons. (4/848)

The carboxyl-terminal domain of colicin E5 was shown to inhibit protein synthesis of Escherichia coli. Its target, as revealed through in vivo and in vitro experiments, was not ribosomes as in the case of E3, but the transfer RNAs (tRNAs) for Tyr, His, Asn, and Asp, which contain a modified base, queuine, at the wobble position of each anticodon. The E5 carboxyl-terminal domain hydrolyzed these tRNAs just on the 3' side of this nucleotide. Tight correlation was observed between the toxicity of E5 and the cleavage of intracellular tRNAs of this group, implying that these tRNAs are the primary targets of colicin E5.  (+info)

Characterization of nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17 fimbriae isolated from diarrheic lambs and goat kids. (5/848)

Forty-five ovine and caprine nonenterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing F17-related fimbriae were characterized with respect to the fimbrial structural subunit and adhesin subtypes produced. In addition, several characteristics related to the virulence of strains producing F17 fimbriae were studied. Most of the strains (73%) possessed the f17cA structural subunit gene, whereas the f17aA and f17dA genes were detected only on three (6%) and two (4%) strains, respectively. The f17bA gene was not detected. All but one of these strains possessed the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. The only strain having the f17G gene of subfamily I possessed the structural subunit gene f17dA. Sequencing of the f17A and f17G genes of four selected strains confirmed the association of f17cA and f17dA structural subunit genes with the f17G genes of the adhesin subfamily II. These results indicated that adhesins of the subfamily II are prominent among ovine and caprine isolates and that they are indistinctly associated with the F17 structural subunit subtypes on these field strains. CS31A- and CNF2-related genes were not detected. Most of the strains adhered in vitro to ovine intestinal brush borders (36 of 45) and agglutinated the erythrocytes of different species in the presence of D-mannose (39 of 45). F17-positive strains produced colicin V (57%) and were resistant to the bactericidal effect of serum (91%) in significantly higher percentages than F17-negative strains (34% produced colicin V, and 66% were serum resistant). Thus, most of the studied ovine and caprine strains showed phenotypic characteristics of septicemic strains.  (+info)

A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny. (6/848)

A mathematical model describing the dynamics of a colicinogenic and a colicin-sensitive population propagated under serial transfer culture conditions was formulated. In addition, a series of in vitro invasion experiments using six representatives of the E colicin group was undertaken, together with the estimation of the growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics of the strains. Growth rates among the strains varied by up to 44%. There were 14-fold differences among strains in their lysis rates and there were up to 10-fold differences in the amount of colicin produced per lysed cell. The in vitro serial transfer invasion experiments revealed that regardless of initial frequency all colicinogenic strains succeeded in displacing the sensitive cell populations. The amount of time required for the colicin-sensitive cell population to be displaced declined as the initial frequency of the colicinogenic population increased and strains producing higher titres of colicin tended to displace the sensitive strain more rapidly. Overall, the observed dynamics of the invasion of colicinogenic strains was adequately described by the theoretical model. However, despite there being substantial differences among the strains in their growth rates and colicinogenic characteristics there were relatively few differences, observed or predicted, in the invasion dynamics of the six colicinogenic strains. These results suggest that the characteristics of different colicinogenic strains cannot be used to explain the extensive variation in the relative abundance of different colicins in natural populations of bacteria.  (+info)

Characterization of colicin S4 and its receptor, OmpW, a minor protein of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. (7/848)

Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli colicin S4 determinant revealed 76% identity to the pore-forming domain of the colicin A protein, 77% identity to the colicin A immunity protein, and 82% identity to the colicin A lysis protein. The N-terminal region, which is responsible for the Tol-dependent uptake of colicin S4, has 94% identity to the N-terminal region of colicin K. By contrast, the predicted receptor binding domain shows no sequence similarities to other colicins. Mutants that lacked the OmpW protein were resistant to colicin S4.  (+info)

Colicin E1 forms a dimer after urea-induced unfolding. (8/848)

Unfolding of the soluble colicin E1 channel peptide was examined with the use of urea as a denaturant; it was shown that it unfolds to an intermediate state in 8.5 M urea, equivalent to a dimeric species previously observed in 4 M guanidinium chloride. Single tryptophan residues, substituted into the peptide at various positions by site-directed mutagenesis, were employed as fluorescent probes of local unfolding. Unfolding profiles for specific sites within the peptide were obtained by quantifying the shifts in the fluorescence emission maxima of single tryptophan residues on unfolding and plotting them against urea concentration. Unfolding reported by tryptophan residues in the C-terminal region was not characteristic of complete peptide denaturation, as evidenced by the relatively blue-shifted values of the fluorescence emission maxima. Unfolding was also monitored by using CD spectroscopy and the fluorescent probe 2-(p-toluidinyl)-naphthalene 6-sulphonic acid; the results indicated that unfolding of helices is concomitant with the exposure of protein non-polar surface. Unfolding profiles were evaluated by non-linear least-squares curve fitting and calculation of the unfolding transition midpoint. The unfolding profiles of residues located in the N-terminal region of the peptide had lower transition midpoints than residues in the C-terminal portion. The results of unfolding analysis demonstrated that urea unfolds the peptide only partly to an intermediate state, because the C-terminal portion of the channel peptide retained significant structure in 8.5 M urea. Characterization of the peptide's global unfolding by size-exclusion HPLC revealed that the partly denatured structure that persists in 8.5 M urea is a dimer of two channel peptides, tightly associated by hydrophobic interactions. The presence of the dimerized species was confirmed by SDS/PAGE and intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer.  (+info)

*Colicin

Channel-forming colicins (colicins A, B, E1, Ia, Ib, and N) are transmembrane proteins that depolarize the cytoplasmic membrane ... Colicins are released into the environment to reduce competition from other bacterial strains. Colicins bind to outer membrane ... The colicins are highly effective toxins. Virtually all colicins are carried on plasmids. The two general classes of ... Most colicins are able to translocate the outer membrane by a two-receptor system, where one receptor is used for the initial ...

*Bcl-2 family

The colicins similarly form pores in lipid bilayers. Structural homology therefore suggests that Bcl-2 family members that ... The arrangement of the α-helices in Bcl-X(L) resembles that for diphtheria toxin and the colicins. Diphtheria toxin forms a ...

*Outer membrane receptor

The TonB protein also interacts with some colicins. Most of these proteins contain a short conserved region at their N-terminus ...

*Bacteriocin

In fact, one of the oldest known so-called colicins was called colicin V and is now known as microcin V. It is much smaller and ... Colicins are bacteriocins (CLBs) found in the Gram-negative E. coli. Similar bacteriocins occur in other Gram-negative bacteria ... The bacteriocins from E. coli are called colicins (formerly called 'colicines,' meaning 'coli killers'). They are the longest ... These include the bacteriocins from gram-positive bacteria, the colicins, the microcins, and the bacteriocins from Archaea. ...

*Outer membrane protein W family

This protein may form the receptor for S4 colicins in Escherichia coli. Braun V, Pil sl H, Smajs D (1999). "Characterization of ...

*Cytolysin

For example, colicins consume nucleic acids of cells by using several enzymes. To prevent such toxicity, host cells produce ... Sometimes the producer organism needs to create a pore at its own membrane to release such cytolysins, like the case colicins ... Biochim Biophys Acta 947:445-464 James R, Kleanthous C, Moore GR (1996) The biology of E-colicins - paradigms and paradoxes. ...

*Vibriocin

In all likelihood, however, they are as common and as diverse as the colicins, making it very unlikely that these initial ... They were first discovered in 1962, considerably after the original bacteriocins, the colicins, which were discovered in 1925. ... along with some colicins, as potential chemotherapeutic agents. The mode of action appears to be nuclease activity resulting in ...

*Trypanosoma brucei

ApoL1 has a membrane pore forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins. This domain is flanked by the ...

*FepA

... has also been shown to transport vitamin B12, and colicins B and D as well. This protein belongs to family of ligand-gated ... 1987). "Nucleotide sequence of the colicin B activity gene cbs: consensus pentapeptide among TonB-dependent colicins and ...

*Membrane protein

Polypeptide toxins and many antibacterial peptides, such as colicins or hemolysins, and certain proteins involved in apoptosis ...

*Polymorphic toxins

Colicins Contact-Dependent Growth Inhibition (CDI) systems: CdiA toxins Rhs toxins "Extended" VgrG toxins "Extended" Hcp toxins ... including colicins) in the environment. Polymorphic toxins are multi-domain proteins primarily involved in competition between ... both from auto-intoxication and from toxin produced by other strains The most studied PT families encompass colicins, toxic ...

*Membrane transport protein

... including colicins, diphtheria toxin, and others Nonribosomally synthesized channels such as gramicidin Holins; which function ...

*Esther Lederberg

... colicins, transposons, and other unknown factors. Esther Miriam Zimmer was the first of two children born in the Bronx, New ...
A colicin is a type of bacteriocin produced by and toxic to some strains of Escherichia coli. Colicins are released into the environment to reduce competition from other bacterial strains. Colicins bind to outer membrane receptors, using them to translocate to the cytoplasm or cytoplasmic membrane, where they exert their cytotoxic effect, including depolarisation of the cytoplasmic membrane, DNase activity, RNase activity, or inhibition of murein synthesis. Channel-forming colicins (colicins A, B, E1, Ia, Ib, and N) are transmembrane proteins that depolarize the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to dissipation of cellular energy. These colicins contain at least three domains: an N-terminal translocation domain responsible for movement across the outer membrane and periplasmic space; a central domain responsible for receptor recognition; and a C-terminal cytotoxic domain responsible for channel formation in the cytoplasmic membrane. One domain regulates the target and binds to the receptor on the ...
This work has studied colicin translocation by using a periplasmic protection assay combined with an in vivo lux-reporter assay and a potassium release assay. Expressing the translocation domain of colicin A in the periplasm and challenging the cells with external colicins showed that the translocation of group A colicins is inhibited as it requires an interaction with the Tol system. Surprisingly, the TolA protein was found to play the major role during the translocation of both ColA and the endonuclease colicin E9 even though the latter colicin has no direct interaction with the TolA protein. This study also suggests that the interaction with TolB is important for both colicins A and E9. Moreover, a series of ColA constructs with a truncated T domain were made by site directed mutagenesis to define the important residues of the TolA and TolB boxes for their interaction with Tol proteins. The results showed that tyrosine 58 residue of the TolA box of colicin A is essential for TolA binding, ...
Four colicin A double-cysteine mutants possessing a disulfide bond in their pore-forming domain were constructed to study the translocation and the pore formation of colicin A. The disulfide bonds connected a-helices 1 and 2, 2 and 10, 3 and 9, or 3 and 10 of the poreforming domain. The disulfide bonds did not prevent the colicin A translocation through the Escherichia coli envelope. However, the mutated colicins were able to exert their in vivo channel activity only after reduction of their disulfide bonds. In vitro studies with brominated phospholipid vesicles and planar lipid bilayers revealed that the disulfide bond that connects the a-helices 2 and 10 prevented the colicin A membrane insertion, whereas the other double-cysteine mutants inserted into lipid vesicles. The disulfide bonds that connect either the a-helices 1 and 2 or 3 and 10 were unable to prevent the formation of a conducting channel in presence of membrane potential. These results indicate that a-helices 1, 2, 3, and 10 remain at the
The translocation of protein toxins into a cell relies on a myriad of protein-protein interactions. One such group of toxins are enzymatic E colicins, protein antibiotics produced by Escherichia coli in times of stress. These proteins subvert ordinary nutrient uptake mechanisms to enter the cell and unleash nuclease activity. We, and others, have previously shown that uptake of ColE9 (colicin E9) is dependent on engagement of the OM (outer membrane) receptors BtuB and OmpF as well as recruitment of the periplasmic protein TolB, forming a large supramolecular complex. Intriguingly, colicins bind TolB using a natively disordered region to mimic the interaction of TolB with Pal (peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein). This is thought to trigger OM instability and prime the system for translocation. Here, we review key interactions in the assembly of this colicin translocon and discuss the key role disorder plays in achieving uptake. ...
Colicin E1 induces the efflux of carboxyfluorescein and calcein from liposomes whose phospholipid composition is similar to that of Escherichia coli. This colicin action takes place at protein-to-liposome ratios and within pH ranges that are physiologically meaningful. Colicin-induced permeability of carboxyfluorescein is not limited to the initial phase of colicin membrane interaction but is sustained thereafter. Colicin E1 requires negatively charged phospholipids in the liposomal membrane in order to bind and induce efflux.
Immunhistochemische Untersuchungen zur lokoregionären Verteilung von mTOR, p-mTOR und 4E-binding protein im Prostataraum tumortragender Prostaten mittels der Tissue Microarray- ...
The SCOP classification for the Colicin E3 immunity protein superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
A, comparison of the colicin M amino acid sequence with the sequences of predicted bacteriocins of Burkholderia amifaria MC40-6 (accession number AOTM72), Burkh
Authors: Figueiredo, Angelo; Whittaker, Sara; Knowling, Stuart; Radford, Sheena; Moore, Geoffrey. Citation: Knowling, Stuart; Figueiredo, Angelo Miguel; Whittaker, Sara B-M; Moore, Geoffrey; Radford, Sheena. "Amino acid insertion reveals a necessary three-helical intermediate in the folding pathway of the colicin E7 immunity protein Im7." J. Mol. Biol. 392, 1074-1086 (2009).. Assembly members: ...
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TATDN3 antibody (TatD DNase domain containing 3) for WB. Anti-TATDN3 pAb (GTX106682) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
E coli tolQ protein: from E coli; are involved in uptake of group A colicins & infection by filamentous bacteriophages; homologous to exbB protein; amino acid sequence given in first source
Linear diagram showing the approximate lengths of whole colicin Ia and the four carboxy-terminal fragments, CT-S, CT-M, CT-L, and CT-XL. The boundaries of the T
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Colicins, a class of antimicrobial compounds produced by bacteria, are thought to be important mediators of intra- and interspecific interactions, and are a significant factor in maintaining microbial diversity. Colicins B and M are among the most common colicins produced by Escherichia coli, and are usually encoded adjacently on the same plasmid. In this study, the characterization of a collection of E. coli isolated from Australian vertebrates revealed that a significant fraction of colicin BM strains lack an intact colicin B activity gene. The colicin B and M gene region was sequenced in 60 strains and it was found (with one exception) that all plasmids lacking an intact colicin B activity gene have an identical colicin gene structure, possessing a complete colicin B immunity gene and a 130 bp remnant of the B activity gene. A phylogenetic analysis of the colicin M and B operons and characterization of the plasmids suggested that ColBM plasmids with a truncated B activity gene have evolved on at
Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in the translocation of the cytotoxic nuclease into the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and release of its tightly bound immunity protein. A dogma of colicin biology is that the toxin coiled-coil connecting its functional domains must unfold or unfurl to span the periplasm, with recent reports claiming this reaction is initiated by receptor binding. We report isothermal titration calorimetry data of BtuB binding the endonuclease toxin ColE9 and a disulfide form (ColE9S-S) where unfolding of the coiled-coil is prevented and, as a consequence, the toxin is biologically inactive. Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of the colicin translocon that assembles at the cell surface after BtuB
A strain of Escherichia coli, selected on the basis of its resistance to colicin N, reveals distinct structural and functional alterations in unspecific OmpF porin. A single mutation [Gly-119--,Asp (G119D)] was identified in the internal loop L3 that contributes critically to the formation of the construction inside the lumen of the pore. X-ray structure analysis to a resolution of 3.0 A reveals a locally altered peptide backbone, with the side chain of residue Asp-119 protruding into the channel, causing the area of the constriction (7 x 11 A in the wild type) to be subdivided into two intercommunicating subcompartments of 3-4 A in diameter. The functional consequences of this structural modification consist of a reduction of the channel conductance by about one-third, of altered ion selectivity and voltage gating, and of a decrease of permeation rates of various sugars by factors of 2-12. The structural modification of the mutant protein affects neither the beta-barrel structure nor those ...
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The Role of Bacteriocins in Mediating Bacterial Competitive Interactions. Explaining the coexistence of competing species is a major challenge in community ecology. In bacterial systems, competition is often driven by the production of bacteriocins, which are narrow-spectrum proteinaceous toxins that serve to kill closely related species, providing the producer better access to limited resources. Bacteriocin producers have been shown to competitively exclude sensitive, nonproducing strains. However, the dynamics between bacteriocin producers, each lethal to its competitor, are largely unknown. In this study, we used in vitro, in vivo and in silico models to study competitive interactions between bacteriocin producers. Two Escherichia coli strains were generated, each carrying a DNA-degrading bacteriocin (colicins E2 and E7). Using reporter-gene assays, we showed that each DNase bacteriocin is not only lethal to its opponent but, at lower doses, can also induce the expression of its opponents ...
Proteolyses of colicin E3 by both trypsin and subtilisin yield fragments of various molecular weights. On the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, tryptic cleavage yields peptides of molecular weight about 42 000 and 18 000, while the
Pyroptosis is a form of lytic programmed cell death initiated by inflammasomes, which detect cytosolic contamination or perturbation. This drives activation of caspase-1 or caspase-11/4/5, which cleave gasdermin D, separating its N-terminal pore-forming domain (PFD) from the C-terminal repressor dom …
He will feel discontent and extended with himself, complain more than usual, and he essay have a laziness, emotional, physical, and spiritual collapse in a way Colicin v synthesis protein shakes. A lazy person tends to delay things or have someone else do the work, thinking that he cannot do it on his own and that his essay is inferior among the others knowledge, and be extended unfit.
Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have discovered a new biological pathway of innate immunity that ramps up inflammation and then identified agents that can block it, leading to increased survival ...
Former X Factor judge Cheryl Cole has won an undisclosed sum from the producers of the shows U.S. edition after she was fired early in the first season, the BBC reports.Cole, 30, was reportedly axed during the singing competitions... Read ...
Cole Outz is the assistant manager of the Atlanta MABL Black Sox and the unselfish field rep who makes sure everyone can play on the fields. For his efforts, Cole is our manager of the month
ANAHEIM, Calif. (AP) - Natalie Cole knows a little something about musical influences. First, there was her father, Nat King Cole. Then, there were all of his friends.
British pop singer Cheryl Cole will no longer Factor into Simon Cowells reality singing competition plans stateside or back in her native United Kingdom, according to multiple reports out of Great Britain.
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Watch the C-SPAN collection of videos, access clips including recent appearances by Susan Cole. View positions held along with a brief bio.
This cross-body bag will add polish to your look and ease to your life. Compact yet roomy, it features details, like pleating on the front and a chain-accented strap, that will elevate your outfit.Kenneth Cole Reaction faux-leather zip-top bagpleated fronttwo zip pockets on front with metal logo pullschain-accented cross-body strap with 22 dropinterior front-wall split-patch cell pocketinterior back-wall zip pocketsnap-closure pocket on backnylon lining11 wide, 7 tall, 3 deepimported
Map of 1429 Cole St Enumclaw, WA and surrounding areas. Get detailed driving directions with road conditions, live traffic updates, and reviews of local businesses along the way.
Today I wanted to share amazing news about my friend Courtney Cole!! Her new title, Dantes Girl, is officially ready for your reading pleasure! Without further ado, I present to you the first chapter of Dantes Girl, below the cover and blurb (sorry for any wonky formatting, but I promise it doesnt take away from…
A(z) Nathalie Cole : Inseparable.. című videót farkas5045 nevű felhasználó töltötte fel a(z) zene kategóriába. Eddig 28 alkalommal nézték meg.
Cheryl Cole was a judge on two different versions of The X-Factor. What a difference a week makes!The judges for this season of the popular British show…
Cheryl Cole looked stunning at the Elle Style Awards, but tit tape was on show. Photos: Getty Nobody could deny that Chezza looked the best.What do you think?See all the stars and style at the Ell...
Bonjour, Dans nous sommes trois étudiantes en sciences de léducation. Dans le cadre de nos études, nous avons réalisé un questionnaire à distribuer à des enseignants du primaire. Ce questionnaire porte sur le numérique à lécole, les représentations concernant ce sujet, les utilisations possibles ...
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A(z) Nathalie Cole című videót farkas5045 nevű felhasználó töltötte fel a(z) zene kategóriába. Eddig 14 alkalommal nézték meg.
View Notes - Lecture-1-Themes-in-_42852 from HE 012928 at École Normale Supérieure. Thebiologicalworldandallofitsinherentfeaturesare theproductsof|3billionyearsofchange;changethat:
To test if the our colicin brick worked, we cloned it together with a constitutive promoter + RBS BBa_K081005. Then, we grew overnight cultures with the Promoter+RBS+Colicin construct, and also with a negative control. The negative control were different in different experiments, but were always cells containing a non-expressing plasmid with ampicillin resistance, since the plasmid colicin was tested in, also had ampicillin resistance. After about 24 hours, LB was replaced with breaking buffer and the cells were sonicated. The lysed cells were centrifuged at 16000 g for 15 minutes to remove cell fragments, and the 3 ml lysate was added to a new 10 ml culture of newly inoculated E.coli cells with ampicillin resistance, but without the colicin immunity protein. Samples were taken regularly, and OD was measured. We performed two experiments; one experiment with two parallel cell cultures, where one was containing colicin and the other buffer (1), and one experiment with two parallels of cells with ...
As our project suggests the release of genetically modified bacterium into the environment, we feel it is necessary to contain the risk of horizontal gene transfer. To do so we are proposing a multi-containment system, consisting of three toxin/anti-toxin pairs - Holin / Anti-Holin Endolysin, Colicin-E3 / Colicin Immunity E3, and Endunuclease EcoRI / Methyltransferase EcoRI. Our system will also have an exonuclease component. Having such a system in place will prevent the transfer of synthetic genes into wild type bacteria; minimising the interference of our bacteria with the natural environment. Having more than one system is essential - even a system with 100% success at preventing horizontal gene transfer can be diminished by spontaneous mutations in the gene sequence. The use of three separate systems is far more robust as it will provide reinforcement if a single system is knocked out. (Ronchel et al. 2001) The system will be driven by a constitutive promoter (BBa_J23119), to ensure that ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Cheryl Cole: X Factor Finals: Photo #2503231. Cheryl Cole leaves the studio after the finale of The X Factor on Sunday (December 12) in London, England. The 27-year-old singer was very upset after her last…
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Discover pre-foreclosure listings in Cole County, MO. View latest photos, foreclosure listings status, property records, loan details, nearby schools and home prices for Cole County, MO.
Find Cole & Co located at 4012 Katella Ave Ste 101, Los Alamitos, California, 90720. Contact 5624310522. Ratings, reviews, hours, phone number and directions from ChamberofCommerce.com
See 31 photos and 9 tips from 991 visitors to Kenneth Cole. This store carries great shoes including 925 Technology for men & women, and the Made in...
Collection A/W de Samantha Cole London photographiée par la très talentueuse Rebecca Litchfield dont il faut que je reparle! ...
Visit Chevey Coles CaringBridge website where youll find the latest updates and a place to share messages of love, hope & compassion.
Drake brought out a slew of guests, including J. Cole, Lauryn Hill and others, on the second and final night of his annual OVO festival.
Michael J. Cole has been appointed director of admissions for operations at the Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University.
Cole slaw is one of the easiest summer side dishes to make. Its a shame folks settle for the soggy mess at the deli counter. No more! Make your own!
It feels like both an obligation and a frivolity to point out that Teju Coles new novel, Every Day Is for the Thief, is neither new nor, by any sort o ...
DentalPlans detailed profile of Cole Boerema, - Dentist in 55317. View plans, sample savings & pricing, patient reviews & practice information.
Thank you to one of our Dogsters, Judy, for writing a review on the book Ivy Cole and the Moon by author Gina Farago. Read what Judy had to say about it.
Were happy to bring you an exclusive clip from the voyeuristic thriller, 388 Arletta Avenue, from writer/director Randall Cole (Real Time) and Tribeca Film. Starring Nick Stahl (Sin City), Mia Kirshner (The L Word) and Devon Sawa (Final Destination), 388 … ...
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Fangrrls is about kicking down doors, breaking boundaries and celebrating female fans with fun, witty and entertaining content ...
EMMX proudly develops novel molecules and reagents to drug discovery and cancer research. We are scientists driven by a devotion to discovery and innovation, and we work hard every day to find new ways to streamline life science research.. ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The ribonuclease domain of the ribosome-inactivating colicin E3 in complex with its inhibitor immunity protein has been cystallized. The crystals belong to the space group P3121 or its enantiomorph, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.7, c = 76.2 Å. Assuming a single copy of the complex in the asymmetric unit yields a solvent content of 72% and when flash-frozen at 100 K these crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.4 Å ...
Whitley then reveals that he has joined with Ramse as he allows the men to seize control of the machine from Jones. Jones reminds Ramse that they would not be able to splinter without the power core he stole, but Ramse says that they dont have to worry about that. Jones tries to appeal to Adler after their experience together. Adler, however, throws back that all their work has led to nothing. Now, they can go on the offense. Ramse releases Cassie who asks about what happened to Cole. While Ramse admits that he did not shoot Cole directly, he advises not to be concerned about him since he is now on an opposing side. Just as Adler works on the machine, Cole arrives to hold the man at gunpoint. With the military surrounding his friend, Ramse advises Cole that he cant take out all of them. Cole actually agrees, saying he doesnt have to take all of them out. Cassie tackles Cole, diverting his shot to Adlers leg as the rest move out. Cassie fights Cole to submission, but Cole understands what ...
So Katlyn got to play with her little friend Cole. Cole was diagnosed with SCID as well and they were both in the IWK at the same time. During which time we became very close with his whole family. We were very lucky they opened their home up to us and allowed us to stay the night in order to be as close to the hospital as possible for early morning. Thank you guys so much. The kids had a great time. I know Katlyn will be very excited when we are going back and she sees Cole again. It was very nice to see Katlyn interact with a child her age, something she has never been able to do before ...
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Serious Sam 3: BFE is a prequel to the original indie fast action FPS and Game of the Year sensation - Serious Sam: The First Encounter!
Read writing from Rainie Cole on Medium. . Every day, Rainie Cole and thousands of other voices read, write, and share important stories on Medium.
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WASHINGTON (AP) - The Houston Astros handed the ball to Gerrit Cole, and he gave them a firm grip on the World Series. Minus ailing ace Max Scherzer, the Nationals were no match in this Washington wipeout. Cole looked exactly like the stud who dominated baseball most of this season, bouncing back from a Game […]
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Free shipping and returns on Cole Haan Air Tali Peeptoe Wedge at Nordstrom.com. An open-toe pump -one of Cole Haans best-selling styles - lifted by a sleek, understated wedge heel is cushioned with Nike Air® technology for comfort that lasts all day long.
Cole is a 6 year old with many health needs. Cole has had many surgeries and requires full time care by his parents and nurses. He is in desperate need of a bed that will grow with him and allow for all of his treatments.
Cheryl Cole has been confirmed as a judge on the US version of The X Factor.Simon Cowell has revealed the Promise This singer will join him and record executive L.A. Reid - as well as former American Idol judge Paula...
Lyrics to Down In Love by Samantha Cole: Written by russ desalvo, samantha cole, james greco. / Everytime I look in your eyes I see why
The New England Patriots re-signed cornerback Marquice Cole on Monday, one day after releasing him.Cole, 29, played in 14 regular-season games (one start) for the Patriots last year, finishing with 12 tackles and one interception
Lyrics to Your Eyes by Natalie Cole: (written by natalie cole) / Do you realize that I could see the windows of the world through your
Were still scratching our heads about the decision to axe both Express and Vintage Cellar brands. Express has been the bulwark for Coles hugely successful foray into forecourt marketing and with the sale of Myer, Vintage was the only premium brand left in the portfolio with neither Target or OfficeWorks filling that space. Its all down market from here; which leads us to ponder ...
Video created by École des Ponts ParisTech for the course Mobilités et véhicules électriques . |p|En introduction de ce MOOC, nous avons posé la question suivante : le véhicule électrique est-il réservé aux personnes riches des pays du ...
It was almost like I grew up in another generation musically, recalls singer-songwriter Paula Cole of her small-town childhood in Rockport, Mass. Music was something that my family always did together. It was a living art form and a way that we all expressed ourselves. If my dad was feeling happy, hed go and look…
If wins were given out for toughness and dedication to teammates, receivers Laveranues Coles and Jerricho Cotchery would have the Jets in a thick of a playoff...
As Scottish independence referendum draws ever closer, Cole Moreton takes a trip around Scotland to try and understand how the country will vote
Jude Cole Braking Wheels lyrics & video : Its your choice If you wanna go But this time, this time theres no Turning back Or draggin me down Into your blue ocean Into your g...
Keyshia Cole I Shouldve Cheated lyrics & video : Baby . . . [Verse 1:] First of all let me say You cant accuse me of all the things you know that you are guilty of And I see ...
With all the attention on the Eagles signing and Vince Youngs Dream Team comment, the Eagles know teams will be gunning for them, something Trent Cole says they embrace. - Daily News staff, Philadelphia Daily News
The Patriots have Cole on their scouting report this week. Its amazing to think that Bill Belichick is fully aware of a guy nobody was aware of months ago.
Cole Crop Diseases List of files and visuals associated with this text. Wirestem, Bottom Rot, Head Rot All 3 names apply to the same fungus.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Rex Cole, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Cole Hamels is going to the Rangers for a package of prospects in a trade designed to help Texas not this season, but for 2016 and beyond.
LOKARDE S POVRCEM IZ PECNICE Ako vas muci przenje,pecenje ribe u stanu,ako mrzite sto vam od plave ribe/koja je zdrava,ukusna i jeftina/cije ...
Debra Cole, Actress: The Toy. Debra Cole is an actress, known for The Toy (1982), The Hot Spot (1990) and The Equalizer (1985). She is married to Garth Weaver.
Getting to know our OtL subjects is one of the best parts of this job. I may not always get to speak to them in person, but I learn so much about...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
... ELLE.com brings you exclusive coverage of the latest Kenneth Cole collection. Browse past seasons of must-see runway shows from Kenneth Cole and shop the designers hottest looks.
CHAPTER 12. Dylan still remained sitting at the table at the police station. He stared at his phone as he clicked it on the wood before him. He sighed and stared at the timer that he had set that would let him know when it was safe to call his brother. He waited patiently as he watched the police men walk up and down the hall.. Cole still lay as quietly as he could under the huge dining room table. He looked out of the glass cover to the table to see what was going on. He was hiding and listening carefully for the stalker to lose him and go somewhere else. The stalker was in the kitchen, searching for him in every cabinet that Cole could fit in.. He finally gave up and began to walk towards the dining room. Cole stopped himself from breathing out loud. He stood as still as he could. The stalker heard a noise coming from the front door and walked off. Cole let out a deep breath, but not too loud. His phone started to vibrate in his pocket. He quickly grabbed it, thinking the stalker might hear ...
The Kenneth Cole REACTION Story. Fashion Styleer KENNETH COLE founded his company, Kenneth Cole Productions, with this debut of a ladies footwear collection in December of 1982. Today, this company manufactures internationally and also distributes mens and also womens footwear, accessories and also clothing under this Kenneth Cole, Reaction, and also unlisted.com labels, as well as offering over 30 product categories. The most recent addition being this Kenneth Cole Womens Collection due to debut for Fall 2000.. Kenneth Cole retail stores get expanded throughout this United States and also abroad in Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Singapore and also Taiwan. The Kenneth Cole Catalog mails to over 3 million consumers a year and also this award-winning Kenneth Cole and also Reaction websites receive thousands of hits per day. Kenneth Coles marketing savvy has earned this Company a renown image as a forerunner of fashion and also trends. His controversial advertising campaign has garnered worldwide ...
The structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1-Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Zinc atom in PDB 3gjn: Following Evolutionary Paths to High Affinity And Selectivity Protein-Protein Interactions Using COLICIN7 and Immunity Proteins
McAdams, D.G., and Cole, D., 2012, "Aberration correction for improving the performance of DMHL systems," 2012 SPIE Photonics West.. McAdams, D.R., and Cole, D., 2012, "Using a dwell-time increase to compensate forSLM pixelation-limited diffraction efficiency in DMHL," 2012 SPIE Photonics West.. Cole, D., 2011, "Adaptive identification and control for small modular reactors," ASME 2011 Small Modular Reactor Symposium.. Cole, D., 2011, "On nonlinear control of optical traps using pulling trajectory tracking for single-molecule experiments," 2011 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conference.. Kirsch, N.A., Cole, D., Vipperman, J.S., and Ludwick, S.J., 2011, "Characterization of periodic disturbance in rolling element bearings using an optical sensor," 2011 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Expo.. Kirsch, N.A., Cole, D., Vipperman, J.S., and Ludwick, S.J., 2011, "Characterization of periodic disturbances in rolling element bearings using an optical sensor," 2011 ...
The Yankees optioned RHP Jonathan Loaisiga to the minors following Mondays 5-3 loss to the Atlanta Braves and will reinstate RHP A.J. Cole off the 10-day disabled list.. Loaisiga, whom the Yankees promoted from Double-A Trenton last month to replace the injured Masahiro Tanaka, will likely be recalled for next Mondays doubleheader against the Baltimore Orioles.. He allowed three runs and five hits in four innings on Monday, throwing a season-high 92 pitches, while the bullpen was forced to throw seven innings.. Loaisiga has logged 18 innings in four MLB starts, going 2-0 with a 3.00 ERA and 21 strikeouts. He threw at least five scoreless innings in two of his outings.. Cole pinched a nerve while playing catch but has only been on the disabled list retroactive to June 20. The Yankees used five relievers on Monday, two days after they needed four relievers to log 6 2/3 innings in an 11-0 loss to the Red Sox.. The 26-year-old Cole has a 0.69 ERA in seven relief appearances with the Yankees this ...

Colicins-Exocellular lethal proteins of Escherichia coli | SpringerLinkColicins-Exocellular lethal proteins of Escherichia coli | SpringerLink

Colicins are toxic exoproteins produced by bacteria of colicinogenic strains of Escherichia coli and some related species of ... Synthesis of colicins is coded by genes located on Col plasmids. Until now more than 34 types of colicins have been described, ... Davies J.K., Reeves P.: Genetics of resistance to colicins inEscherichia coli K-12: cross-resistance among colicins of group B. ... Bradley D.E.: Colicins G and H and their host strains.Can. J. Microbiol.37, 751-757 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02816372

The Salvador E. Luria Papers: From Phage to Colicins, 1945-1972: DocumentsThe Salvador E. Luria Papers: From Phage to Colicins, 1945-1972: Documents

Effects of Colicins E1 and K on Cellular Metabolism. Journal of Bacteriology 97, 1 (January 1969): 64-77. Article. 14 Images. ... Effects of Colicins E1 and K on Transport Systems. Journal of Bacteriology 97, 1 (January 1969): 57-63. Article. 7 Images. ... From Phage to Colicins, 1945-1972: Documents. *Biographical Information *Genetics Lessons from Bacteriophage, 1938-1944 *From ... Phage to Colicins, 1945-1972 *Politics, Science, and Social Responsibility *Later Career: Teacher and Administrator, 1972-1991 ...
more infohttps://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/Narrative/QL/p-nid/166/p-docs/true

Archive ouverte HAL - Individual domains of colicins confer specificity in colicin uptake, in pore-properties and in immunity...Archive ouverte HAL - Individual domains of colicins confer specificity in colicin uptake, in pore-properties and in immunity...

These hybrid colicins were purified and their properties were studied. All of them were active against sensitive cells, ... Six different hybrid colicins were constructed by recombining various domains of the two pore-forming colicins A and E1. ... Abstract : Six different hybrid colicins were constructed by recombining various domains of the two pore-forming colicins A and ... Individual domains of colicins confer specificity in colicin uptake, in pore-properties and in immunity requirement. Hélène ...
more infohttps://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02130283

DNA and amino acid sequence analysis of structural and immunity genes of colicins Ia and Ib. | Journal of BacteriologyDNA and amino acid sequence analysis of structural and immunity genes of colicins Ia and Ib. | Journal of Bacteriology

DNA and amino acid sequence analysis of structural and immunity genes of colicins Ia and Ib.. J A Mankovich, C H Hsu, J Konisky ... The two colicins each consist of 626 amino acid residues. Comparison of the two sequences along their lengths revealed that the ... The C-terminal 220 amino acid residues of the colicins are only 60% identical, suggesting that this is the region most likely ... DNA and amino acid sequence analysis of structural and immunity genes of colicins Ia and Ib. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/168/1/228?ijkey=70252989cd2b52c377a0181a951977954ef09420&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Colicins exploit native disorder to gain cell entry: a hitchhikers guide to translocation | Biochemical Society TransactionsColicins exploit native disorder to gain cell entry: a hitchhiker's guide to translocation | Biochemical Society Transactions

Colicins exploit native disorder to gain cell entry: a hitchhikers guide to translocation. Daniel A. Bonsor, Nicola A. Meenan ... Intriguingly, colicins bind TolB using a natively disordered region to mimic the interaction of TolB with Pal (peptidoglycan- ... One such group of toxins are enzymatic E colicins, protein antibiotics produced by Escherichia coli in times of stress. These ... Colicins exploit native disorder to gain cell entry: a hitchhikers guide to translocation ...
more infohttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/36/6/1409

Transport of Vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: Common Receptor Sites for Vitamin B12 and the E Colicins on the Outer Membrane of...Transport of Vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: Common Receptor Sites for Vitamin B12 and the E Colicins on the Outer Membrane of...

Colicins E1 and E3 inhibited binding of B12 to the outer membrane B12 receptor sites, and CN-B12 protected cells against these ... Transport of Vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: Common Receptor Sites for Vitamin B12 and the E Colicins on the Outer Membrane of ... Transport of Vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: Common Receptor Sites for Vitamin B12 and the E Colicins on the Outer Membrane of ... Transport of Vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli: Common Receptor Sites for Vitamin B12 and the E Colicins on the Outer Membrane of ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/115/2/506?ijkey=9d5f123e05ab006a924fb0d82c0a5bac390e3662&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cell entry mechanism of enzymatic bacterial colicins: porin recruitment and the thermodynamics of receptor binding. - Oxford...Cell entry mechanism of enzymatic bacterial colicins: porin recruitment and the thermodynamics of receptor binding. - Oxford...

... are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of ... Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in ... Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in ... Cell entry mechanism of enzymatic bacterial colicins: porin recruitment and the thermodynamics of receptor binding. ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/310193

Staff Profile - Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy - Newcastle UniversityStaff Profile - Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy - Newcastle University

Colicins: prokaryotic killer-pores. Experientia 1990, 46(2), 180-92. * J. Lakey,F. Pattus. A Surprising Omission. Trends in ... Colicins - Prokaryotic Killer-Pores. Experientia 1990, 46(2), 180-192. * F. Pattus,D. Massotte,H. U. Wilmsen,J. Lakey,D. ... Electrostatics and the Unfolding of colicins at the membrane surface. In: J Freer;R Aitken;J.E. Alouf;G Boulnois;P Falmagne;F ... Displacement of OmpF loop 3 is not required for the membrane translocation of colicins N and A in vivo. Febs Letters 1998, 432 ...
more infohttps://www.ncl.ac.uk/csbb/people/profile/jeremylakey.html

Escherichia coli strains of phylogenetic group B2 and D and bacteriocin production are associated ...Escherichia coli strains of phylogenetic group B2 and D and bacteriocin production are associated ...

KW - Colicins. KW - Bacteriocins. KW - Colorectal adenoma. KW - Colorectal carcinoma. N2 - Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ... keywords = {Escherichia coli; Colicins; Bacteriocins; Colorectal adenoma; Colorectal carcinoma},. language = {eng},. issn = { ... A significantly higher frequency of simultaneous production of colicins and microcins was revealed in the group of patients ... A significantly higher frequency of simultaneous production of colicins and microcins was revealed in the group of patients ...
more infohttps://is.muni.cz/publication/1217984

Superbugs & Superdrugs 2020 : Pharmaceuticals : UKSuperbugs & Superdrugs 2020 : Pharmaceuticals : UK

9:10 Exploring new classes of non-antibiotic antibacterial proteins: Colicins and Colicin-like Bacteriocins. ...
more infohttps://www.smi-online.co.uk/pharmaceuticals/uk/superbugs-superdrugs?o=login&dl=cc&p1=5551&p2=2262

Proteolytic and chemical modification of colicin E3 activity.Proteolytic and chemical modification of colicin E3 activity.

Colicins / metabolism*. Escherichia coli / drug effects. Molecular Weight. Peptide Fragments / analysis, pharmacology. Protein ... 0/Amino Acids; 0/Carboxylic Acids; 0/Colicins; 0/Peptide Fragments; 0/RNA, Ribosomal; 151-21-3/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate; EC 3.4. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Proteolytic-chemical-modification-colicin-E3/782524.html

The Role of the Genitourinary Microbiome in Pediatric Urology: a Review | SpringerLinkThe Role of the Genitourinary Microbiome in Pediatric Urology: a Review | SpringerLink

Colicins prevent colonization of urinary catheters. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56(2):413-5. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/ ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11934-018-0763-6

Moore GR[au] - PubMed - NCBIMoore GR[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Intrinsically disordered proteins: lessons from colicins.. Hecht O, Macdonald C, Moore GR. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Moore+GR%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

ICAR2014 Conference | Formatex Research CenterICAR2014 Conference | Formatex Research Center

Bacteriocins (colicins, microcins, lantibiotics…). Archaeocins. Biocontrol approach to microbial invasions (probiotics, lactic ...
more infohttp://www.formatex.org/icar2014/topics.html

TonB-dependent receptor, plug domain superfamily (IPR037066) | InterPro | EMBL-EBITonB-dependent receptor, plug domain superfamily (IPR037066) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

The TonB protein also interacts with some colicins. Most of these proteins contain a short conserved region at their N terminus ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR037066

Normal microbiota Flashcards by Eleanor Price | BrainscapeNormal microbiota Flashcards by Eleanor Price | Brainscape

e.g. colicins, bacteriocins, fatty acids, metabolic waste products. Induction of cross-reactive antibodies. May have a ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/normal-microbiota-4355267/packs/6300991

Antievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Science BreakAntievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Science Break

word of the day: colicins!. http://www.popsci.com/scienti....ur-food ... word of the day: colicins!. http://www.popsci.com/scienti....ur-food. ... word of the day: colicins!. http://www.popsci.com/scienti....ur-food. ...
more infohttp://www.antievolution.org/cgi-bin/ikonboard/ikonboard.cgi?s=59c593bfeabe2480

Antievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Science BreakAntievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::Science Break

word of the day: colicins!. http://www.popsci.com/scienti....ur-food ... word of the day: colicins!. http://www.popsci.com/scienti....ur-food. ... word of the day: colicins!. http://www.popsci.com/scienti....ur-food. ...
more infohttp://www.antievolution.org/cgi-bin/ikonboard/ikonboard.cgi?s=5b2ba6b8deae0c6e

US6100043A - Recombinant clone selection system 
        - Google PatentsUS6100043A - Recombinant clone selection system - Google Patents

Colicins and related bacteriocins. Zinder et al. 1964. Host-dependent mutants of the bacteriophage f2 I. Isolation and ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6100043?oq=4740761

Patent US7005048 - Glucose sensor - Google PatentsPatent US7005048 - Glucose sensor - Google Patents

"Colicins"and "Bacteriocins" Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine.. 3. "Glucose Oxidase" Toyobo Enzymes ( ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7005048?dq=12/011,425

Patent US7005048 - Glucose sensor - Google PatentsPatent US7005048 - Glucose sensor - Google Patents

"Colicins"and "Bacteriocins" Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine.. 3. "Glucose Oxidase" Toyobo Enzymes ( ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US7005048

Retrospective: Masayasu Nomura (1927 - 2011)Retrospective: Masayasu Nomura (1927 - 2011)

The work he did on colicins was fascinating. He studied three different colicins and discovered that they killed target ... Nomura feared that the ribosome field would be a rat race and believed that work on colicins would be the secret to a tranquil ... Although Masayasu had done some work on ribosomes before coming to Madison, his early work in Madison focused on colicins - ... and I think its fair to say that colicins were at least warm, if not rat-race hot, in the early 1960s, thanks to the work of ...
more infohttp://www.asbmb.org/asbmbtoday/asbmbtoday_article.aspx?id=15402
  • The C-terminal 220 amino acid residues of the colicins are only 60% identical, suggesting that this is the region most likely recognized by their cognate immunity proteins. (asm.org)
  • A significantly higher frequency of simultaneous production of colicins and microcins was revealed in the group of patients with CRC, when compared to patients with CRA, p = 0.031. (muni.cz)
  • Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The TonB protein also interacts with some colicins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Professor Kleanthous Research Group at the University of Oxford study colicins extensively as a model system for characterising and investigating protein-protein interactions and recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 1969 Nobel Laureate speech, Salvador E. Luria speculated that colicins could only be this toxic by causing a domino effect that destabilized the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, evidence is presented that these B 12 receptor sites also function as the receptors for the E colicins, and that there is competition between B 12 and the E colicins for occupancy of these sites. (asm.org)
  • colicins have been classified according which receptors they bind to. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of the two sequences along their lengths revealed that the two colicins are nearly identical in the N-terminal 426 amino acid residues. (asm.org)
  • He studied three different colicins and discovered that they killed target bacteria by three different mechanisms (1). (asbmb.org)
  • Molecular structure and immunity specifity of colicin E6, an evolutionary intermediate between E-group colicins and cloacin DF13. (springer.com)
  • Nomura feared that the ribosome field would be a rat race and believed that work on colicins would be the secret to a tranquil life in science. (asbmb.org)