Organ Preservation Solutions
Delayed Graft Function
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Ischemic Attack, Transient
Disease Models, Animal
Spinal Cord Ischemia
Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
Calcium channel blocker and renal mitochondrial function in warm renal ischemia. (1/125)OBJECTIVE: Ions, particularly calcium ions, play an important role in ischemia-reperfusion cell injury. In this study, we investigated the action of verapamil on the mitochondrial function of kidneys submitted to ischemia without blood reperfusion in order to study isolated early and late ischemic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 44 rats were submitted to bilateral warm renal ischemia for 30 minutes. The kidneys were then immediately reperfused with saline or Euro-Collins (EC) solution, with and without previous administration of 0.35 mg/kg of verapamil. Mitochondrial function was assessed at the end of renal perfusion and after 24 hours of cold preservation. RESULTS: In kidneys perfused with saline, verapamil allowed a significant early preservation of state III mitochondrial respiration, a result that was no longer evident after 24 hours. In kidneys perfused with EC solution, verapamil did not change state III for either early or late evaluations. Comparison of the groups showed that the results obtained for kidneys perfused with EC were always superior to those obtained for the saline group, except for the initial analysis of kidneys treated with saline and verapamil, which showed results similar to those obtained with EC perfusion alone. CONCLUSION: Administration of verapamil before warm ischemia provides partial and short-lasting functional protection of the mitochondrial function in kidneys perfused with sodium rich saline. With Euro-Collins solution, verapamil did not show any additional beneficial effect. This fact permits us to conclude that protective action is effective only under conditions that facilitate increased sodium uptake and/or potassium loss. (+info)
Major effects of delayed graft function and cold ischaemia time on renal allograft survival. (2/125)BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence from experimental and clinical studies that the quality of organs from cadaver donors may be influenced by events occurring around the time of brain death, and that these may affect transplant outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of donor factors on renal allograft outcome in a homogeneous cohort of 518 patients transplanted in a single centre over a 9 year period. METHODS: Endpoints of the study were delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR), 1 year graft survival and long-term survival of those grafts that reached 1 year. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors that may have influenced the graft outcome indicators. RESULTS: DGF was the major predictor of graft failure overall with cold ischaemia time (CIT) as an important independent factor. The level of histocompatibility did not influence graft survival. DGF was the major factor affecting 1 year graft survival (P<0.0005) with effects persisting beyond 1 year. DGF was significantly influenced by CIT, donor age, female kidney into male recipient and donor creatinine (P<0.05). Other donor factors and factors associated with donor management were not risk factors for DGF, rejection episodes or graft survival. The risk factors for a number of AR episodes were HLA-DR mismatch and DGF (P<0.005). When grafts surviving for 1 year were considered, only CIT, recipient age and creatinine at 1 year (P<0.05) were found to affect graft survival significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis of well-matched transplant recipients show that CIT and DGF are the most important predictors of poor short and long-term graft survival. Therefore, in order to improve the long-term survival of renal allografts efforts should focus on limiting CIT and the damage that occurs during this period and on improving our understanding of DGF. (+info)
Glycine intravenous donor preconditioning is superior to glycine supplementation to low-potassium dextran flush preservation and improves graft function in a large animal lung transplantation model after 24 hours of cold ischemia. (3/125)OBJECTIVES: The potential role of glycine in combination with standard lung preservation with low-potassium dextran solution in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been investigated in a preclinical porcine transplant model. METHODS: In a control group (n = 6), donor lungs were flushed with 1 liter of low-potassium dextran solution. In a second group (LPD-glyc, n = 6), low-potassium dextran solution was supplemented with 3.75 g of glycine. In a third group (IV-glyc, n = 6), donor preconditioning was performed by intravenous administration of 3.75 g glycine 1 hour before low-potassium dextran preservation. Grafts were stored in low-potassium dextran at 4 degrees C for 24 hours. Posttransplant graft function was assessed throughout a 7-hour observation period. RESULTS: In the control group, 2 recipients died of right-sided heart failure caused by severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. All animals of the glycine groups survived the entire observation period. Pulmonary vascular resistance remained significantly (P < .01) lower in both glycine groups when compared with controls. At the end of the observation period pulmonary vascular resistance in the control group was higher (P < .01) compared with the glycine groups (1310 +/- 319 dyn x sec x cm(-5) vs 879 +/- 127 dyn x sec x cm(-5) [LPD-glyc] vs 663 +/- 191 dyn x sec x cm(-5) [IV-glyc]). Changes of lung tissue water content were lower in the IV-glyc group compared with the LPD-control (P < .01) and LPD-glyc lungs (P < .05). Oxygenation (PO2/FiO2) was higher in the IV-glyc group compared with the LPD-glyc and control lungs (445 +/- 110 mm Hg vs 388 +/- 124 mm Hg [P < .01] vs 341 +/- 224 mm Hg [P < .001], respectively). DISCUSSION: Modification of low-potassium dextran solution with glycine or donor preconditioning ameliorates ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung transplantation. This intriguing approach merits further evaluation with respect to the mechanisms involved and may improve results in clinical lung preservation. (+info)
In situ demonstration of improvement of liver mitochondria function by melatonin after cold ischemia. (4/125)In a previous investigation, reperfusion with a melatonin-containing medium was demonstrated to enhance bile production and tissue ATP levels in rat livers, cold-preserved with University of Wisconsin (UW) or Celsior solutions, with respect to melatonin-free reperfusion; lipid peroxidation products in the perfusate were not influenced by the indole. This was ascribed to an increased efficiency of the hepatocyte mitochondria induced by melatonin. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally leak from the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and excessive ROS production is presumed to mediate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage. A histochemical reaction was used to demonstrate ROS on the same model. Compared to the lobular zonation of ROS in control livers, the stained area of cold-preserved livers reperfused without melatonin was restricted to a narrow portal region, in keeping with the much lower ATP content. When reperfusion was performed with melatonin, the liver morphology was improved and the ROS reaction in hepatocytes more intense, though not reaching the control liver pattern. Sinusoidal cells were poorly-stained in both cases. In conclusion, with this different approach, melatonin was confirmed to improve mitochondrial performance and to discriminate parenchymal from sinusoidal cell behavior. Our observations confirm that melatonin mitigates I/R injury and support its potential in liver transplantation. (+info)
Cardioprotective effects of tetrahydrobiopterin in cold heart preservation after cardiac arrest. (5/125)BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), reduces ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to determine if supplementation with BH4 after cardiac arrest followed by cold heart preservation would exert a cardioprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 4 degrees C cold ischemia and reperfusion. Hearts were treated with cold cardioplegic solution with or without BH4 just before ischemia and during the first 5 min of reperfusion period. Effects of BH4 on left ventricular function, myocardial contents of high-energy phosphates, and nitrite plus nitrate were measured in the perfusate, before ischemia and after reperfusion. Moreover, the effect of BH4 on the cold-heart preservation followed by normothermic (37 degrees C) ischemia was determined. RESULTS: BH4 improved the contractile and metabolic abnormalities in reperfused cold preserved hearts that were subjected to normothermic ischemia. Furthermore, BH4 significantly alleviated ischemic contracture during ischemia, and restored the diminished perfusate levels of nitrite plus nitrate after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that BH4 reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in cold heart preservation. The cardioprotective effect of BH4 implies that BH4 could be a novel and effective therapeutic option in the preservation treatment of donor heart after cardiac arrest. (+info)
Mediators of rat ischemic hepatic preconditioning after cold preservation identified by microarray analysis. (6/125)Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with liver transplantation is an as yet unresolved problem in clinical practice. Preconditioning protects the liver against the deleterious effects of ischemia, although the mechanism underlying this preconditioning is still unclear. To profile gene expression patterns involved in hepatic ischemic preconditioning, we analyzed the changes in gene expression in rat livers by DNA microarray analysis. Approximately 116 genes were found to have altered gene expression after 8 hours of cold ischemia. Moreover, the expression of 218 genes was modified by classic preconditioning followed by the same ischemia process. Given the importance of the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IP) in minimizing the liver damage induced by sustained ischemia before reperfusion, this study analyzed the putative genes involved in the beneficial role of IP in liver grafts undergoing cold ischemia before its implantation in the recipient (IP+I). Great differences were found in the gene expression pattern of ischemic preconditioning + long cold ischemia (IP+I) group when compared with the long cold ischemia alone condition (I), which could explain the protective regulatory mechanisms that take place after preconditioning. Twenty-six genes that were downregulated in cold ischemia were found upregulated after preconditioning preceding a long cold ischemia period. These would be genes activated or maintained by preconditioning. Heat shock protein genes and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase are among the most markedly induced transcripts. (+info)
Prolonging warm ischemia reduces the cold preservation limits of liver grafts in swine. (7/125)BACKGROUND: The critical shortage of transplantable organs necessitates utilization of unconventional donors. But the safe time limits of cold preservation of liver grafts subjected to warm ischemia (WI) for up to 30 minutes from non-heart-beating-donors (NHBDs) has not been delineated. In this study, we investigated how the limits of cold ischemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution are changed in liver grafts subjected to WI from 10 to 30 minutes. METHODS: A simple porcine NHBD liver transplantation (LT) model was developed. In donors, livers were subjected to 10, 20 or 30 minutes of WI and subsequent different times of CI in UW solution. Animals were divided into three groups (WI 10 min, WI 20 min, WI 30 min, n=13 in each group) and nine subgroups (from CI 6 h to CI 28 h). One-week survival rates of recipients, hepatic function, liver energy metabolism, grafted liver microcirculation and pathological observations of the liver were compared. RESULTS: In the WI 10 min group, the one-week survival rate of the CI 20 h subgroup was significantly higher than in the other two subgroups (CI 24 h and CI 28 h) (P<0.05). Furthermore, the CI 20 h subgroup had a lower level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), less pathological damage, a higher concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and microcirculatory blood flow in the grafted livers at 1 hour after reperfusion than the other two subgroups. The same trends were also found in the other two groups (WI 20 min and WI 30 min) and their subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The cold preservation limits of the liver grafts shortened from 20 to 12 to 6 hours when WI time was prolonged from 10 to 20 to 30 minutes. Only the liver grafts within these time limits could be safely transplanted. (+info)
Novel short-term hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) system prevents injury in rat liver graft from non-heart beating donor. (8/125)OBJECTIVE: To assess a machine perfusion system in rescuing liver grafts from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The introduction of extracorporeal liver perfusion systems in the clinical routine depends on feasibility. Conceivably, perfusion could be performed during recipient preparation. We investigated whether a novel rat liver machine perfusion applied after in situ ischemia and cold storage can rescue NHBD liver grafts. METHODS: We induced cardiac arrest in male Brown Norway rats by phrenotomy and ligation of the subcardial aorta. We studied 2 experimental groups: 45 minutes of warm in situ ischemia + 5 hours cold storage versus 45 minutes of warm in situ ischemia + 5 hours cold storage followed by 1 hour hypothermic oxygenated extracorporeal perfusion (HOPE). In both groups, livers were reperfused in a closed sanguineous isolated liver perfusion device for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. To test the benefit of HOPE on survival, we performed orthotopic liver transplantation in both experimental groups. RESULTS: After cold storage and reperfusion, NHBD livers showed necrosis of hepatocytes, increased release of AST, and decreased bile flow. HOPE improved NHBD livers significantly with a reduction of necrosis, less AST release, and increased bile flow. ATP was severely depleted in cold-stored NHBD livers but restored in livers treated by HOPE. After orthotopic liver transplantation, grafts treated by HOPE demonstrated a significant extension on animal survival. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a beneficial effect of HOPE by preventing reperfusion injury in a clinically relevant NHBD model. (+info)
There are several types of ischemia, including:
1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.
Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.
Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.
Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.
Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.
Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.
There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:
1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.
Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.
The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.
There are different types of brain ischemia, including:
1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.
The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.
DGF can occur in various types of transplantations, including kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplants. The symptoms of DGF may include decreased urine production, decreased respiratory function, and abnormal liver enzymes. Treatment for DGF typically involves supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte replacement, management of infections, and immunosuppressive medications to prevent rejection. In some cases, additional surgical interventions may be necessary.
The diagnosis of DGF is based on clinical evaluation and laboratory tests such as blood chemistry, urinalysis, and biopsy findings. The prognosis for DGF varies depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, prompt recognition and treatment of DGF can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
In summary, delayed graft function is a common complication in transplantation that can result from various factors. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for the transplanted organ or tissue.
In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:
1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.
In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.
The symptoms of the common cold can vary depending on the individual and the virus that is causing the infection. Some of the most typical symptoms include:
Fever (less than 102°F)
Runny or stuffy nose
The common cold is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and medical history. There is no cure for the common cold, but over-the-counter medications can help alleviate some of the symptoms. Antiviral medications are not effective against the common cold because it is caused by a virus, not bacteria.
Preventive measures for the common cold include:
Washing your hands frequently
Avoiding close contact with people who have colds
Not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
Getting enough sleep
Eating a healthy diet
There are many myths and misconceptions about the common cold that can lead to confusion and inappropriate treatment. Some of these include:
Chicken soup is not an effective treatment for colds.
Antibiotics do not work against viral infections such as the common cold.
Over-the-counter medications such as decongestants and antihistamines can have side effects and are not always effective.
Drinking plenty of fluids does help to thin out mucus and keep your body hydrated, but it will not cure a cold.
The common cold is usually a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own within one week. However, people with weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions may experience more severe symptoms or complications such as bronchitis, pneumonia, or sinusitis. In these cases, medical attention may be necessary.
The committee defined "brain death" as follows:
* The absence of any clinical or electrophysiological signs of consciousness, including the lack of response to pain, light, sound, or other stimuli.
* The absence of brainstem reflexes, such as pupillary reactivity, oculocephalic reflex, and gag reflex.
* The failure of all brain waves, including alpha, beta, theta, delta, and epsilon waves, as detected by electroencephalography (EEG).
* The absence of any other clinical or laboratory signs of life, such as heartbeat, breathing, or blood circulation.
The definition of brain death is important because it provides a clear and consistent criteria for determining death in medical settings. It helps to ensure that patients who are clinically dead are not inappropriately kept on life support, and that organ donation can be performed in a timely and ethical manner.
In medical terms, death is defined as the irreversible cessation of all bodily functions that are necessary for life. This includes the loss of consciousness, the absence of breathing, heartbeat, and other vital signs. Brain death, which occurs when the brain no longer functions, is considered a definitive sign of death.
The medical professionals use various criteria to determine death, such as:
1. Cessation of breathing: When an individual stops breathing for more than 20 minutes, it is considered a sign of death.
2. Cessation of heartbeat: The loss of heartbeat for more than 20 minutes is another indicator of death.
3. Loss of consciousness: If an individual is unresponsive and does not react to any stimuli, it can be assumed that they have died.
4. Brain death: When the brain no longer functions, it is considered a definitive sign of death.
5. Decay of body temperature: After death, the body's temperature begins to decrease, which is another indicator of death.
In some cases, medical professionals may use advanced technologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to confirm brain death. These tests can help determine whether the brain has indeed ceased functioning and if there is no hope of reviving the individual.
It's important to note that while death is a natural part of life, it can be a difficult and emotional experience for those who are left behind. It's essential to provide support and care to the family members and loved ones of the deceased during this challenging time.
MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.
The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.
The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.
The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.
Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.
In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.
Example sentence: "The patient experienced a transient ischemic attack, which was caused by a temporary blockage in one of the blood vessels in their brain."
Synonyms: TIA, mini-stroke.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
There are several causes of liver failure, including:
1. Alcohol-related liver disease: Prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption can damage liver cells, leading to inflammation, scarring, and eventually liver failure.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to liver failure.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring.
4. Drug-induced liver injury: Certain medications can cause liver damage and failure, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain inherited conditions, such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, can cause liver damage and failure.
6. Acute liver failure: This is a sudden and severe loss of liver function, often caused by medication overdose or other toxins.
7. Chronic liver failure: A gradual decline in liver function over time, often caused by cirrhosis or NAFLD.
Symptoms of liver failure can include:
1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain
6. Confusion and altered mental state
7. Easy bruising and bleeding
Diagnosis of liver failure is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests to check for liver enzymes and bilirubin levels. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound and CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the liver.
Treatment of liver failure depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Other treatments may include medications to manage symptoms, such as nausea and pain, and supportive care to maintain nutrition and hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat complications.
Prevention of liver failure is important, and this can be achieved by:
1. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
2. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
3. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure
4. Avoiding exposure to toxins, such as certain medications and environmental chemicals
5. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
6. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of hepatitis B and C.
Symptoms of Spinal Cord Ischemia may include weakness, paralysis, loss of sensation, and loss of reflexes in the affected area. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and laboratory tests.
Treatment for Spinal Cord Ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to repair arterial damage, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further damage. In severe cases, Spinal Cord Ischemia can lead to permanent neurological damage or death.
Spinal Cord Ischemia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the middle cerebral artery. This artery supplies blood to the temporal lobe of the brain, which controls many important functions such as memory, language, and spatial reasoning. When this artery becomes blocked or ruptured, it can cause a lack of blood supply to the affected areas resulting in tissue death (infarction).
The symptoms of an MCA infarction can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. Some common symptoms include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Patients may also experience sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
The diagnosis of MCA infarction is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and severity of the blockage, while laboratory tests may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment for MCA infarction depends on the underlying cause of the blockage or rupture. In some cases, medications such as thrombolytics may be given to dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow to the affected areas. Surgery may also be required to remove any blockages or repair damaged blood vessels. Other interventions such as endovascular procedures or brain bypass surgery may also be used to restore blood flow.
In summary, middle cerebral artery infarction is a type of stroke that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. It can cause a range of symptoms including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options include medications, surgery, endovascular procedures, or brain bypass surgery.
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- Global cerebral ischemia, as seen with cardiac arrest, causes delayed loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas the nearby dentate gyrus (DG) area is relatively resistant. (jneurosci.org)
- Although hypothermia is a promising therapeutic strategy against cerebral ischemia, its associated adverse effects hamper its clinical application. (gob.es)
- Moreover, we studied the protective effect of hypothermia and RBM3 in a mice model of cerebral ischemia. (gob.es)
- 1. Role of Kupffer cells in cold ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat liver. (nih.gov)
- 4. Effect of calcium antagonists on rat liver during extended cold preservation-reperfusion. (nih.gov)
- 6. Warm flush at 37 degrees C following cold storage attenuates reperfusion injury in preserved rat livers. (nih.gov)
- 7. Hyaluronic acid uptake in the assessment of sinusoidal endothelial cell damage after cold storage and normothermic reperfusion of rat livers. (nih.gov)
- 8. Impact of adhesion molecules of the selectin family on liver microcirculation at reperfusion following cold ischemia. (nih.gov)
- 9. Cold ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver. (nih.gov)
- 10. Role of glutathione in hepatic bile formation during reperfusion after cold ischemia of the rat liver. (nih.gov)
- 11. Metabolism of hyaluronic acid by liver endothelial cells: effect of ischemia-reperfusion in the isolated perfused rat liver. (nih.gov)
- 14. No attenuation of ischemic and reperfusion injury in Kupffer cell-depleted, cold-preserved rat livers. (nih.gov)
- 18. Cold-preservation-induced sensitivity of rat hepatocyte function to rewarming injury and its prevention by short-term reperfusion. (nih.gov)
- However, the effect of GP on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced hepatic injury has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been investigated. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a predominant cause of hepatic injury, which is of clinical significance following liver surgery, hemorrhagic shock and liver transplantation ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- In rats subjected to transient forebrain ischemia, CA1 astrocytes lose glutamate transport activity and immunoreactivity for GFAP, S100β, and glutamate transporter GLT-1 within a few hours of reperfusion, but without astrocyte cell death. (jneurosci.org)
- The HbS repetitively enter into sickling and unsickling cycles incrementally increasing the damage to the erythrocyte membrane (Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury) resulting in irreversibly sickle-shaped erythrocytes (Barabino, et al 2010). (justia.com)
- Kupffer cell-dependent ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury after liver transplantation is still of high clinical relevance, as it is strongly associated with primary dysfunction and primary nonfunction of the graft. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dexmedetomidine (DEX) attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) in adult liver transplantation (LT), but its effects on postoperative liver graft function in pediatric LT remain unclear. (annalsoftransplantation.com)
- 1004. Treatment of partial amputation with vascular compromise / Warm ischemia time? (emupdates.com)
- The cold ischemia time (CIT) was 18 hours and 10 minutes. (hindawi.com)
- Cold ischemia time is an important risk factor for post-liver transplant prolonged length of stay. (nature.com)
- And this would decrease our cold ischemia time. (fedscoop.com)
- Background and objectives Increased donor age is one of the most important risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF), and previous studies suggest that the harmful effect of cold ischemia time is increased in kidneys from older donors. (helsinki.fi)
- Our aim was to study the association of increased donor age and cold ischemia time with the risk of delayed graft function in a large cohort kidney transplants from the current era. (helsinki.fi)
- Results Cold ischemia time and donor age were independently associated with the risk of DGF, but the risk of DGF was not statistically significantly lower in donor age categories between 50 and 64 years, compared with donors ?65 years. (helsinki.fi)
- The harmful association of cold ischemia time was not higher in kidneys from older donors in any age category, not even among donation after circulatory death donors. (helsinki.fi)
- When donor risk was assessed with kidney donor profile index, although a statistically significant interaction with cold ischemia time was found, no practically meaningful increase in cold-ischemia susceptibility of kidneys with a high kidney donor profile index was found. (helsinki.fi)
- Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures. (nih.gov)
- Pearson correlation was used to evaluate relationships between functional recovery and nephron mass preservation or ischemia time. (umn.edu)
- Cold and warm ischemia were utilized in 151 and 250 patients, and the median ischemia time was 27 and 21 min, respectively. (umn.edu)
- We demonstrate, for the first time, differential responses of astrocytes from different hippocampal subregions to ischemia: generation of reactive oxygen species, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and uptake of glutamate. (jneurosci.org)
- Hypothermic machine perfusion can safely prolong cold ischemia time in deceased donor kidney transplantation. (bvsalud.org)
- The warm ischaemia time for the graft after removal was 4 min and the cold ischaemia time was 16 h. (scepticemia.com)
- 3. Delivery of the bioactive gas hydrogen sulfide during cold preservation of rat liver: effects on hepatic function in an ex vivo model. (nih.gov)
- Since the advent of organ transplantation, the cornerstone of organ preservation has been cold ischemic storage (placing organs on ice). (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- TransMedics has developed the world's only portable medical device capable of overcoming the limitations of cold storage for organ transplantation. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- 17. Kupffer cell-independent acute hepatocellular oxidative stress and decreased bile formation in post-cold-ischemic rat liver. (nih.gov)
- In all, 149 renal transplants were performed with cold ischemic times (CI) greater than 16 hr (UW 87, HTK 62) and a subset analysis was performed with CI over 24 hr (HTK 31, UW 38). (nih.gov)
- Currently, these DCD donors are not considered for heart transplantation due to the limitations of cold storage preservation technique. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Background: Nephron mass preservation is a key determinant of functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy (PN), while ischemia plays a secondary role. (umn.edu)
- Objective: To evaluate the relative impact of parenchymal preservation and ischemia on functional recovery after PN using a more robust cohort allowing for more refined perspectives about ischemia. (umn.edu)
- Given the limitations of cold storage, it is estimated that globally 60-65% of donor hearts cannot ultimately be used for transplantation. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Are diffusion imaging and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) the "magic" tools that can improve the selection of the proper neonates for treatment from all newborns with clinical or laboratory evidence of ischemia? (ajnr.org)
- The impact of ischemia on functional recovery after clamped partial nephrectomy cannot be accurately evaluated unless nephron mass loss is accounted for. (umn.edu)
- We can begin by thinking of stress as an effect, a reaction by the mind to situations that seem to be taking place "out there" in the big, cold world. (organicindiausa.com)
- We provide evidence that early loss of glutamate transport contributes to neuronal loss because induction of higher GLT-1 levels in astrocytes before ischemia reduces neuronal death in slice and in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
- Recovery from ischemia was defined as the percent function preserved normalized by the percent nephron mass preserved. (umn.edu)
- This study provides evidence for the novel hypothesis that selective hippocampal astrocytic impairment is responsible for the selective loss of CA1 hippocampal neurons after global or forebrain ischemia. (jneurosci.org)
- 1. New or presumably new ECG evidence of myocardial ischemia in a standard 12-lead ECG obtained during any attack of pain within 24 hours before enrollment or new enzyme evidence of non-Q-wave MI (see below). (nih.gov)
- 2. New or presumably new ECG evidence of myocardial ischemia obtained during the presenting illness, but more than 24 hours before enrollment in T3. (nih.gov)
- Delays in expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney placement increases cold ischemia times (CIT) potentially leading to discard. (medscape.com)
- Kidneys from older donors have been thought to be even more susceptible to the negative impact of long cold ischemic time. (medscape.com)
- 7. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in cold ischemia: renal artery perfusion. (nih.gov)
- Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures. (bvsalud.org)
- Advantages of living donation for the recipient include shorter waiting times and shorter cold ischemic times for explanted organs, largely because transplantation can be scheduled to optimize the patient's condition. (msdmanuals.com)
- A few livers come from deceased, non-heart-beating donors (called donation-after-cardiac-death [DCD] donors), but in such cases, bile duct complications develop in up to one third of recipients because the liver had been damaged by ischemia before donation. (msdmanuals.com)
- 2008 . Effects of cold weather on mortality: results from 15 European cities within the PHEWE project. (nih.gov)