The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
Excision of kidney.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Calcium channel blocker and renal mitochondrial function in warm renal ischemia. (1/125)

OBJECTIVE: Ions, particularly calcium ions, play an important role in ischemia-reperfusion cell injury. In this study, we investigated the action of verapamil on the mitochondrial function of kidneys submitted to ischemia without blood reperfusion in order to study isolated early and late ischemic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 44 rats were submitted to bilateral warm renal ischemia for 30 minutes. The kidneys were then immediately reperfused with saline or Euro-Collins (EC) solution, with and without previous administration of 0.35 mg/kg of verapamil. Mitochondrial function was assessed at the end of renal perfusion and after 24 hours of cold preservation. RESULTS: In kidneys perfused with saline, verapamil allowed a significant early preservation of state III mitochondrial respiration, a result that was no longer evident after 24 hours. In kidneys perfused with EC solution, verapamil did not change state III for either early or late evaluations. Comparison of the groups showed that the results obtained for kidneys perfused with EC were always superior to those obtained for the saline group, except for the initial analysis of kidneys treated with saline and verapamil, which showed results similar to those obtained with EC perfusion alone. CONCLUSION: Administration of verapamil before warm ischemia provides partial and short-lasting functional protection of the mitochondrial function in kidneys perfused with sodium rich saline. With Euro-Collins solution, verapamil did not show any additional beneficial effect. This fact permits us to conclude that protective action is effective only under conditions that facilitate increased sodium uptake and/or potassium loss.  (+info)

Major effects of delayed graft function and cold ischaemia time on renal allograft survival. (2/125)

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence from experimental and clinical studies that the quality of organs from cadaver donors may be influenced by events occurring around the time of brain death, and that these may affect transplant outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of donor factors on renal allograft outcome in a homogeneous cohort of 518 patients transplanted in a single centre over a 9 year period. METHODS: Endpoints of the study were delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR), 1 year graft survival and long-term survival of those grafts that reached 1 year. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors that may have influenced the graft outcome indicators. RESULTS: DGF was the major predictor of graft failure overall with cold ischaemia time (CIT) as an important independent factor. The level of histocompatibility did not influence graft survival. DGF was the major factor affecting 1 year graft survival (P<0.0005) with effects persisting beyond 1 year. DGF was significantly influenced by CIT, donor age, female kidney into male recipient and donor creatinine (P<0.05). Other donor factors and factors associated with donor management were not risk factors for DGF, rejection episodes or graft survival. The risk factors for a number of AR episodes were HLA-DR mismatch and DGF (P<0.005). When grafts surviving for 1 year were considered, only CIT, recipient age and creatinine at 1 year (P<0.05) were found to affect graft survival significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis of well-matched transplant recipients show that CIT and DGF are the most important predictors of poor short and long-term graft survival. Therefore, in order to improve the long-term survival of renal allografts efforts should focus on limiting CIT and the damage that occurs during this period and on improving our understanding of DGF.  (+info)

Glycine intravenous donor preconditioning is superior to glycine supplementation to low-potassium dextran flush preservation and improves graft function in a large animal lung transplantation model after 24 hours of cold ischemia. (3/125)

OBJECTIVES: The potential role of glycine in combination with standard lung preservation with low-potassium dextran solution in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been investigated in a preclinical porcine transplant model. METHODS: In a control group (n = 6), donor lungs were flushed with 1 liter of low-potassium dextran solution. In a second group (LPD-glyc, n = 6), low-potassium dextran solution was supplemented with 3.75 g of glycine. In a third group (IV-glyc, n = 6), donor preconditioning was performed by intravenous administration of 3.75 g glycine 1 hour before low-potassium dextran preservation. Grafts were stored in low-potassium dextran at 4 degrees C for 24 hours. Posttransplant graft function was assessed throughout a 7-hour observation period. RESULTS: In the control group, 2 recipients died of right-sided heart failure caused by severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. All animals of the glycine groups survived the entire observation period. Pulmonary vascular resistance remained significantly (P < .01) lower in both glycine groups when compared with controls. At the end of the observation period pulmonary vascular resistance in the control group was higher (P < .01) compared with the glycine groups (1310 +/- 319 dyn x sec x cm(-5) vs 879 +/- 127 dyn x sec x cm(-5) [LPD-glyc] vs 663 +/- 191 dyn x sec x cm(-5) [IV-glyc]). Changes of lung tissue water content were lower in the IV-glyc group compared with the LPD-control (P < .01) and LPD-glyc lungs (P < .05). Oxygenation (PO2/FiO2) was higher in the IV-glyc group compared with the LPD-glyc and control lungs (445 +/- 110 mm Hg vs 388 +/- 124 mm Hg [P < .01] vs 341 +/- 224 mm Hg [P < .001], respectively). DISCUSSION: Modification of low-potassium dextran solution with glycine or donor preconditioning ameliorates ischemia-reperfusion injury in lung transplantation. This intriguing approach merits further evaluation with respect to the mechanisms involved and may improve results in clinical lung preservation.  (+info)

In situ demonstration of improvement of liver mitochondria function by melatonin after cold ischemia. (4/125)

In a previous investigation, reperfusion with a melatonin-containing medium was demonstrated to enhance bile production and tissue ATP levels in rat livers, cold-preserved with University of Wisconsin (UW) or Celsior solutions, with respect to melatonin-free reperfusion; lipid peroxidation products in the perfusate were not influenced by the indole. This was ascribed to an increased efficiency of the hepatocyte mitochondria induced by melatonin. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) normally leak from the electron transfer chain in mitochondria and excessive ROS production is presumed to mediate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage. A histochemical reaction was used to demonstrate ROS on the same model. Compared to the lobular zonation of ROS in control livers, the stained area of cold-preserved livers reperfused without melatonin was restricted to a narrow portal region, in keeping with the much lower ATP content. When reperfusion was performed with melatonin, the liver morphology was improved and the ROS reaction in hepatocytes more intense, though not reaching the control liver pattern. Sinusoidal cells were poorly-stained in both cases. In conclusion, with this different approach, melatonin was confirmed to improve mitochondrial performance and to discriminate parenchymal from sinusoidal cell behavior. Our observations confirm that melatonin mitigates I/R injury and support its potential in liver transplantation.  (+info)

Cardioprotective effects of tetrahydrobiopterin in cold heart preservation after cardiac arrest. (5/125)

BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), reduces ischemia-reperfusion myocardial injury. The aim of this study was to determine if supplementation with BH4 after cardiac arrest followed by cold heart preservation would exert a cardioprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 4 degrees C cold ischemia and reperfusion. Hearts were treated with cold cardioplegic solution with or without BH4 just before ischemia and during the first 5 min of reperfusion period. Effects of BH4 on left ventricular function, myocardial contents of high-energy phosphates, and nitrite plus nitrate were measured in the perfusate, before ischemia and after reperfusion. Moreover, the effect of BH4 on the cold-heart preservation followed by normothermic (37 degrees C) ischemia was determined. RESULTS: BH4 improved the contractile and metabolic abnormalities in reperfused cold preserved hearts that were subjected to normothermic ischemia. Furthermore, BH4 significantly alleviated ischemic contracture during ischemia, and restored the diminished perfusate levels of nitrite plus nitrate after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that BH4 reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in cold heart preservation. The cardioprotective effect of BH4 implies that BH4 could be a novel and effective therapeutic option in the preservation treatment of donor heart after cardiac arrest.  (+info)

Mediators of rat ischemic hepatic preconditioning after cold preservation identified by microarray analysis. (6/125)

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with liver transplantation is an as yet unresolved problem in clinical practice. Preconditioning protects the liver against the deleterious effects of ischemia, although the mechanism underlying this preconditioning is still unclear. To profile gene expression patterns involved in hepatic ischemic preconditioning, we analyzed the changes in gene expression in rat livers by DNA microarray analysis. Approximately 116 genes were found to have altered gene expression after 8 hours of cold ischemia. Moreover, the expression of 218 genes was modified by classic preconditioning followed by the same ischemia process. Given the importance of the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IP) in minimizing the liver damage induced by sustained ischemia before reperfusion, this study analyzed the putative genes involved in the beneficial role of IP in liver grafts undergoing cold ischemia before its implantation in the recipient (IP+I). Great differences were found in the gene expression pattern of ischemic preconditioning + long cold ischemia (IP+I) group when compared with the long cold ischemia alone condition (I), which could explain the protective regulatory mechanisms that take place after preconditioning. Twenty-six genes that were downregulated in cold ischemia were found upregulated after preconditioning preceding a long cold ischemia period. These would be genes activated or maintained by preconditioning. Heat shock protein genes and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase are among the most markedly induced transcripts.  (+info)

Prolonging warm ischemia reduces the cold preservation limits of liver grafts in swine. (7/125)

BACKGROUND: The critical shortage of transplantable organs necessitates utilization of unconventional donors. But the safe time limits of cold preservation of liver grafts subjected to warm ischemia (WI) for up to 30 minutes from non-heart-beating-donors (NHBDs) has not been delineated. In this study, we investigated how the limits of cold ischemia (CI) in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution are changed in liver grafts subjected to WI from 10 to 30 minutes. METHODS: A simple porcine NHBD liver transplantation (LT) model was developed. In donors, livers were subjected to 10, 20 or 30 minutes of WI and subsequent different times of CI in UW solution. Animals were divided into three groups (WI 10 min, WI 20 min, WI 30 min, n=13 in each group) and nine subgroups (from CI 6 h to CI 28 h). One-week survival rates of recipients, hepatic function, liver energy metabolism, grafted liver microcirculation and pathological observations of the liver were compared. RESULTS: In the WI 10 min group, the one-week survival rate of the CI 20 h subgroup was significantly higher than in the other two subgroups (CI 24 h and CI 28 h) (P<0.05). Furthermore, the CI 20 h subgroup had a lower level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), less pathological damage, a higher concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and microcirculatory blood flow in the grafted livers at 1 hour after reperfusion than the other two subgroups. The same trends were also found in the other two groups (WI 20 min and WI 30 min) and their subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The cold preservation limits of the liver grafts shortened from 20 to 12 to 6 hours when WI time was prolonged from 10 to 20 to 30 minutes. Only the liver grafts within these time limits could be safely transplanted.  (+info)

Novel short-term hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (HOPE) system prevents injury in rat liver graft from non-heart beating donor. (8/125)

OBJECTIVE: To assess a machine perfusion system in rescuing liver grafts from non-heart-beating donors (NHBD). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The introduction of extracorporeal liver perfusion systems in the clinical routine depends on feasibility. Conceivably, perfusion could be performed during recipient preparation. We investigated whether a novel rat liver machine perfusion applied after in situ ischemia and cold storage can rescue NHBD liver grafts. METHODS: We induced cardiac arrest in male Brown Norway rats by phrenotomy and ligation of the subcardial aorta. We studied 2 experimental groups: 45 minutes of warm in situ ischemia + 5 hours cold storage versus 45 minutes of warm in situ ischemia + 5 hours cold storage followed by 1 hour hypothermic oxygenated extracorporeal perfusion (HOPE). In both groups, livers were reperfused in a closed sanguineous isolated liver perfusion device for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. To test the benefit of HOPE on survival, we performed orthotopic liver transplantation in both experimental groups. RESULTS: After cold storage and reperfusion, NHBD livers showed necrosis of hepatocytes, increased release of AST, and decreased bile flow. HOPE improved NHBD livers significantly with a reduction of necrosis, less AST release, and increased bile flow. ATP was severely depleted in cold-stored NHBD livers but restored in livers treated by HOPE. After orthotopic liver transplantation, grafts treated by HOPE demonstrated a significant extension on animal survival. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a beneficial effect of HOPE by preventing reperfusion injury in a clinically relevant NHBD model.  (+info)

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Reperfusion injury can cause inflammation, cell death, and impaired function in the affected tissue or organ. The severity of reperfusion injury can vary depending on the duration and severity of the initial ischemic event, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment to restore blood flow.

Reperfusion injury can be a complicating factor in various medical conditions, including:

1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the heart muscle after a heart attack, leading to inflammation and cell death.
2. Stroke: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to the brain after an ischemic stroke, leading to inflammation and damage to brain tissue.
3. Organ transplantation: Reperfusion injury can occur when a transplanted organ is subjected to ischemia during harvesting or preservation, and then reperfused with blood.
4. Peripheral arterial disease: Reperfusion injury can occur when blood flow is restored to a previously occluded peripheral artery, leading to inflammation and damage to the affected tissue.

Treatment of reperfusion injury often involves medications to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications. In some cases, experimental therapies such as stem cell transplantation or gene therapy may be used to promote tissue repair and regeneration.

Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.

There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:

1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.

Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.

The term ischemia refers to the reduction of blood flow, and it is often used interchangeably with the term stroke. However, not all strokes are caused by ischemia, as some can be caused by other factors such as bleeding in the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87% of all strokes.

There are different types of brain ischemia, including:

1. Cerebral ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain and responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thought, emotion, and voluntary movement.
2. Cerebellar ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating and regulating movement, balance, and posture.
3. Brainstem ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the brainstem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
4. Territorial ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to a specific area of the brain, often caused by a blockage in a blood vessel.
5. Global ischemia: This refers to the reduction of blood flow to the entire brain, which can be caused by a cardiac arrest or other systemic conditions.

The symptoms of brain ischemia can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
3. Sudden vision loss or double vision
4. Dizziness or loss of balance
5. Confusion or difficulty with memory
6. Seizures
7. Slurred speech or inability to speak
8. Numbness or tingling sensations in the face, arm, or leg
9. Vision changes, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
10. Difficulty with coordination and balance.

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms, as brain ischemia can cause permanent damage or death if left untreated.

DGF can occur in various types of transplantations, including kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplants. The symptoms of DGF may include decreased urine production, decreased respiratory function, and abnormal liver enzymes. Treatment for DGF typically involves supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte replacement, management of infections, and immunosuppressive medications to prevent rejection. In some cases, additional surgical interventions may be necessary.

The diagnosis of DGF is based on clinical evaluation and laboratory tests such as blood chemistry, urinalysis, and biopsy findings. The prognosis for DGF varies depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, prompt recognition and treatment of DGF can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

In summary, delayed graft function is a common complication in transplantation that can result from various factors. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for the transplanted organ or tissue.

In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.

In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.

The symptoms of the common cold can vary depending on the individual and the virus that is causing the infection. Some of the most typical symptoms include:

Fever (less than 102°F)
Runny or stuffy nose
Sore throat
Muscle aches

The common cold is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and medical history. There is no cure for the common cold, but over-the-counter medications can help alleviate some of the symptoms. Antiviral medications are not effective against the common cold because it is caused by a virus, not bacteria.

Preventive measures for the common cold include:

Washing your hands frequently
Avoiding close contact with people who have colds
Not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
Staying hydrated
Getting enough sleep
Exercising regularly
Eating a healthy diet

There are many myths and misconceptions about the common cold that can lead to confusion and inappropriate treatment. Some of these include:

Chicken soup is not an effective treatment for colds.
Antibiotics do not work against viral infections such as the common cold.
Over-the-counter medications such as decongestants and antihistamines can have side effects and are not always effective.
Drinking plenty of fluids does help to thin out mucus and keep your body hydrated, but it will not cure a cold.

The common cold is usually a self-limiting illness that resolves on its own within one week. However, people with weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions may experience more severe symptoms or complications such as bronchitis, pneumonia, or sinusitis. In these cases, medical attention may be necessary.

The committee defined "brain death" as follows:

* The absence of any clinical or electrophysiological signs of consciousness, including the lack of response to pain, light, sound, or other stimuli.
* The absence of brainstem reflexes, such as pupillary reactivity, oculocephalic reflex, and gag reflex.
* The failure of all brain waves, including alpha, beta, theta, delta, and epsilon waves, as detected by electroencephalography (EEG).
* The absence of any other clinical or laboratory signs of life, such as heartbeat, breathing, or blood circulation.

The definition of brain death is important because it provides a clear and consistent criteria for determining death in medical settings. It helps to ensure that patients who are clinically dead are not inappropriately kept on life support, and that organ donation can be performed in a timely and ethical manner.

In medical terms, death is defined as the irreversible cessation of all bodily functions that are necessary for life. This includes the loss of consciousness, the absence of breathing, heartbeat, and other vital signs. Brain death, which occurs when the brain no longer functions, is considered a definitive sign of death.

The medical professionals use various criteria to determine death, such as:

1. Cessation of breathing: When an individual stops breathing for more than 20 minutes, it is considered a sign of death.
2. Cessation of heartbeat: The loss of heartbeat for more than 20 minutes is another indicator of death.
3. Loss of consciousness: If an individual is unresponsive and does not react to any stimuli, it can be assumed that they have died.
4. Brain death: When the brain no longer functions, it is considered a definitive sign of death.
5. Decay of body temperature: After death, the body's temperature begins to decrease, which is another indicator of death.

In some cases, medical professionals may use advanced technologies such as electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to confirm brain death. These tests can help determine whether the brain has indeed ceased functioning and if there is no hope of reviving the individual.

It's important to note that while death is a natural part of life, it can be a difficult and emotional experience for those who are left behind. It's essential to provide support and care to the family members and loved ones of the deceased during this challenging time.

MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.

The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.

The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.

The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.

Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.

In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.

Example sentence: "The patient experienced a transient ischemic attack, which was caused by a temporary blockage in one of the blood vessels in their brain."

Synonyms: TIA, mini-stroke.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are several causes of liver failure, including:

1. Alcohol-related liver disease: Prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption can damage liver cells, leading to inflammation, scarring, and eventually liver failure.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to liver failure.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring.
4. Drug-induced liver injury: Certain medications can cause liver damage and failure, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain inherited conditions, such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, can cause liver damage and failure.
6. Acute liver failure: This is a sudden and severe loss of liver function, often caused by medication overdose or other toxins.
7. Chronic liver failure: A gradual decline in liver function over time, often caused by cirrhosis or NAFLD.

Symptoms of liver failure can include:

1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
2. Fatigue
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain
6. Confusion and altered mental state
7. Easy bruising and bleeding

Diagnosis of liver failure is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests to check for liver enzymes and bilirubin levels. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound and CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the liver.

Treatment of liver failure depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Other treatments may include medications to manage symptoms, such as nausea and pain, and supportive care to maintain nutrition and hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat complications.

Prevention of liver failure is important, and this can be achieved by:

1. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
2. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
3. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure
4. Avoiding exposure to toxins, such as certain medications and environmental chemicals
5. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
6. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of hepatitis B and C.

Symptoms of Spinal Cord Ischemia may include weakness, paralysis, loss of sensation, and loss of reflexes in the affected area. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and laboratory tests.

Treatment for Spinal Cord Ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to repair arterial damage, or supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further damage. In severe cases, Spinal Cord Ischemia can lead to permanent neurological damage or death.

Spinal Cord Ischemia is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage or death.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

There are many different types of liver diseases, including:

1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.

Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.

Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the middle cerebral artery. This artery supplies blood to the temporal lobe of the brain, which controls many important functions such as memory, language, and spatial reasoning. When this artery becomes blocked or ruptured, it can cause a lack of blood supply to the affected areas resulting in tissue death (infarction).

The symptoms of an MCA infarction can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. Some common symptoms include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. Patients may also experience sudden severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and fever.

The diagnosis of MCA infarction is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests. Imaging studies can help to identify the location and severity of the blockage, while laboratory tests may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.

Treatment for MCA infarction depends on the underlying cause of the blockage or rupture. In some cases, medications such as thrombolytics may be given to dissolve blood clots and restore blood flow to the affected areas. Surgery may also be required to remove any blockages or repair damaged blood vessels. Other interventions such as endovascular procedures or brain bypass surgery may also be used to restore blood flow.

In summary, middle cerebral artery infarction is a type of stroke that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue. It can cause a range of symptoms including weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty with speech and language, memory loss, confusion, vision problems, and difficulty with coordination and balance. The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options include medications, surgery, endovascular procedures, or brain bypass surgery.

For liver transplants, the cold ischemia time can be up to 24 hours, although typically surgeons aim for a much shorter period ... This time during transport is called the "cold ischemia time". Heart and lungs should have less than 6 hours between organ ... For kidney transplants, as the cold ischemia time increases, the risk of delayed function of the kidney increases. Sometimes, ... While the organ is being transported, it is either stored in an icy cold solution to help preserve it or it is connected to a ...
Studies on cold-ischemia reperfusion indicate an ischemic tolerance of more than 24 hours. The recipient has to look at ...
Until this time, kidneys came via the ETF and often had extended cold ischaemia times. Haberal had, in the interim, and before ...
"Each additional hour of cold ischemia time significantly increases the risk of graft failure and mortality following renal ... Concerns regarding the negative impact that Cold Ischemic Time (CIT) may have on graft survival, due to the shipment of the ...
Jia, J.; Pollock, M.; Jia, J. (May 1998). "Cold injury to nerves is not due to ischaemia alone". Brain. 121 (5): 989-1001. doi: ... diving in cold water, and logging and construction work in cold environments. Non-freezing cold injury is a form of cold injury ... Local cold injury can be divided into freezing and non-freezing cold injury. Freezing cold injury (FCI) is generally known as ... Cold injury may be divided into local and systemic cold injury. Systemic cold injury is generally known as hypothermia. ...
Furthermore, irreversible intestinal damage is seen after approximately only 5 hours of cold ischemia in the form of mucosal ... mesenteric ischemia, motility disorder, omphalocele/gastroschisis, tumors, and volvulus. Regardless of the underlying condition ... and serum pH and lactate levels measured for evidence of intestinal ischemia. The patient's immune system is strongly modulated ... extensive venous thrombosis or arterial ischemia of the mesentery, and motility syndromes. Donated intestines, like all organs ...
... static cold storage, which can cause cold ischemia. When put on ice, organs begin to deteriorate about three to four hours ...
... and the storage solution itself is designed to counteract the unwanted effects of cold ischemia. Although this "static" cold ... The risk of ischemic cholangiopathy increases with longer durations of cold ischemia time, which is the time that the organ ... The donor's blood in the liver will be replaced by an ice-cold organ storage solution, such as UW (Viaspan) or HTK, until the ...
More specifically, urinary endothelin-1 levels are used as an acute marker in cold ischemic reperfusion and injury. NGAL - ... Kidney ischemia is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Blood vessels shrink and undergo apoptosis which results ... Moreover, renal ischemia can cause the delay of graft function after renal transplant and can cause rejection of the transplant ... Acute kidney ischemia may result from taking ACEIs due to the alteration of intrarenal hemodynamics. Acute pulmonary edema is ...
... ischemia-, and cold-induced), multiple sclerosis, auto-immune encephalomyelitis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. ... and cold-air induced asthma (see Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction); and childhood sleep apnea due to adenotonsillar ...
... improve perfusion protocol and find formulations to minimize cold ischemia (a concern for organ transplantation). Dr. Pichugin ...
... cold ischemia MeSH E05.760.833.660 - organ preservation MeSH E05.760.833.890 - semen preservation MeSH E05.799.638.231 - body ...
... though fewer than 16 hours of cold ischemia or 6 hours of warm ischemia leads to the best outcomes. If replantation is not ...
... at the back table in cold ischemia condition for the donor organ and after native organ removal in the recipient. This is ... finalized to make as brief as possible the donor organ dangerous warm ischemia phase that can be contained in the couple of ...
... cold ischemia MeSH E04.936.450 - organ transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.050 - bone transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.050.100 - ... warm ischemia MeSH E04.950.165 - castration MeSH E04.950.165.679 - orchiectomy MeSH E04.950.165.685 - ovariectomy MeSH E04.950. ...
... there is a current debate as to whether surgeons should deliver cold ischaemia which means submitting the organ, in this case ... the testis, into a cold/freezing environment. Whether or not it is submerged and frozen, the next step is to cut the tunica ...
Areas of infarct or ischemic tissue will remain "cold". Pre- and post-stress thallium may indicate areas that will benefit from ... This produces coronary steal from areas of ischemia where arteries are already maximally dilated. ...
... who experience cold-water drowning do not develop hypothermia quickly enough to decrease cerebral metabolism before ischemia ... The actual cause of death in cold or very cold water is usually lethal bodily reactions to increased heat loss and to freezing ... This is because cold water can have other lethal effects on the body. Hence, hypothermia is not usually a reason for drowning ... Upon submersion into cold water, remaining calm and preventing loss of body heat is paramount. While awaiting rescue, swimming ...
"s of ischemia Pain Pallor (increased) Pulse (decreased) Perishing cold Paraesthesia Paralysis Most commonly, intermittent (or ... It is classically associated with early-stage peripheral artery disease, and can progress to critical limb ischemia unless ...
... as in acrobatics and military flying Localized extreme cold, such as by frostbite or improper cold compression therapy ... Ischemia of the small bowel is called mesenteric ischemia. Brain ischemia is insufficient blood flow to the brain, and can be ... Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to any tissue, muscle group, or organ of the body, causing a shortage of ... Inadequate blood supply to a limb may results in acute limb ischemia or chronic limb threatening ischemia. Reduced blood flow ...
"Ischemia-modified albumin reduction after coronary bypass surgery is associated with the cardioprotective efficacy of cold- ...
Perishingly cold Pulselessness Paralysis These symptoms are called "the six P's'"; they are commonly mis-attributed to ... nephric ischaemia) Mesenteric ischaemia Cerebral ischaemia Cardiac ischaemia In order to treat acute limb ischaemia there are a ... Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) occurs when there is a sudden lack of blood flow to a limb. Acute limb ischaemia is caused by ... The New Latin term ischaemia as written, is a British version of the word ischemia, and stems from the Greek terms ischein 'to ...
Location of a transplant center with respect to a donor hospital is given priority due to the effects of Cold Ischemic Time ( ... due to ischemia. Perfusion devices, often called kidney pumps, can extend graft survival to 36-48 hours post recovery for ... Developments in kidney preservation have yielded a device that pumps cold preservation solution through the kidneys vessels to ... ischemia). Each organ tolerates different ischemic times. Hearts and lungs need to be transplanted within 4-6 hours from ...
When weather is cold, ankle is cold, blue and often tender. In hot weather, ankle becomes hot, edematous, swollen and painful. ... Abnormal arterial supply causes low-grade ischemia of ankle region. The ankle skin becomes sensitive to temperature changes. ...
Acute localized ischemia of these structures also may be an important cause. Especially in children, vestibular neuritis may be ... Some people will report having an upper respiratory infection (common cold) or flu prior to the onset of the symptoms of ... 30% of affected people had a common cold prior to developing the disease. Either bacterial or viral labyrinthitis can cause a ... preceded by symptoms of a common cold. However, the causative mechanism remains uncertain. This can also be brought on by ...
Skin biopsies of the site show necrosis caused by ischemia. Radiographic imaging may help to delineate the extent of the wound ... or cold compresses applied to the wound. The diagnosis is mainly clinical. ... Microscopic examination of affected tissue shows ischemic necrosis, and so various hypotheses exist to explain this ischemia, ...
... among which are ischemia, reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonization. Ischemia is an important factor in the formation and ... Blood vessels constrict in tissue that becomes cold and dilate in warm tissue, altering blood flow to the area. Thus keeping ... Like ischemia, bacterial colonization and infection damage tissue by causing a greater number of neutrophils to enter the wound ... Ischemia results from the dysfunction and, combined with reperfusion injury, causes the tissue damage that leads to the wounds ...
A cold sore outside the mouth (not a canker sore inside the mouth) can be preceded by tingling due to activity of the causative ... Reactive hyperaemia, which occurs when blood flow is restored after a period of ischemia, may be accompanied by paresthesia, e. ... g. when patients with Raynaud's disease rewarm after a cold episode. Cases of paresthesia have also been reported at varying ...
Therefore, cold fluids and foods are encouraged, which facilitate clot formation and prevent its disintegration. Avoiding ... It reduces the blood supply, leading to tissue ischemia, reduced tissue perfusion and eventually higher incidence of painful ...
The cold fluid (usually at 4 °C) ensures that the heart cools down to a temperature of around 15-20 °C, thus slowing down the ... This process protects the myocardium, or heart muscle, from damage during the period of ischemia. To achieve this, the patient ... 1993 "Cold Crystalloid Cardioplegia" Archived 2012-01-07 at the Wayback Machine Hans J. Geissler* and Uwe Mehlhorn, Department ... It is employed as another means to further lower myocardial metabolism during periods of ischemia. The Van 't Hoff equation ...
Events reported have included coronary artery vasospasm, transient myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, ventricular ... paresthesias and warm/cold sensations) reported by 4% in the placebo group and 5-6% in the sumatriptan groups, pain and other ...
Because it increases physical stamina and provides improved tolerance to cold weather,[medical citation needed] it appears on ... In Wistar rats with gravitational cerebral ischemia, Phenylpiracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations ... of the neuroprotective activity of phenotropil and piracetam in laboratory animals with experimental cerebral ischemia]". ...
... and ischemia-tolerance. These studies hold key applications for medical science, particularly for preservation technologies ... the molecular mechanisms that allow animals to adapt to and endure severe environmental stresses such as deep cold, oxygen ... that aim to extend the survival time of excised organs in cold or frozen storage. Additional applications include insights into ...
... but without diffuse forefoot ischemia. The development of blue or violaceous toes can also occur with trauma, cold-induced ... Blue toe syndrome is a situation that may reflect atherothrombotic microembolism, causing transient focal ischaemia, ...
Liepzig: Ischemia Verlagsgesellschaft. Puustinen A, Wikström M. (1991). "The heme groups of cytochrome o from Escherichia coli ... Thom, C. S. (2013). "Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in ...
The most common categories are "thermal" (e.g. heat or cold), "mechanical" (e.g. crushing, tearing, shearing, etc.) and " ... Visceral structures (e.g., the heart, liver and intestines) are highly sensitive to stretch, ischemia and inflammation, but ... extreme cold, or serious injuries are felt as exceptionally painful, whereas minor damage is felt as mere discomfort. Rollin ... heat or cold), mechanical (pressure, touch, vibration), ischemic, or chemical stimuli applied to the subject to evoke a ...
miRNAs plays a role in posttranslational gene silencing by targeting genes in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, such as ... Lund E, Dahlberg JE (2006). "Substrate selectivity of exportin 5 and Dicer in the biogenesis of microRNAs". Cold Spring Harbor ... Ouyang YB, Stary CM, Yang GY, Giffard R (January 2013). "microRNAs: innovative targets for cerebral ischemia and stroke". ...
Cold temperatures may also be a risk factor. The diagnosis should usually be made based on the presenting symptoms, but ... However, imaging should not delay surgical intervention as complications develop with prolonged ischemia. Immediate surgery is ... There is controversy whether cold weather months are associated with an increased risk. Testicular torsion occurs when there is ...
For example, visual distortions may be a result of transient, localized ischaemia in areas of the visual pathway during ... Cold Stimulus Headache, and HaNDL: Narrative Review". The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 55 (9): 1233-1248. doi:10.1111/head. ...
Although endogenous regeneration methods are showing some promising evidence in treating brain ischemia, the current body of ... Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 73: 403-10. doi:10.1101/sqb.2008.73.018. PMID 19022746. (Developmental biology). ...
"How cold water could save patients from almost certain death". NBC News. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018. Thomson, ... where an emergency department patient is cooled into suspended animation for an hour to prevent incipient death from ischemia, ... Professor Tisherman in November 2019 told how he removed the patient's blood and replaced with ice-cold saline solution. The ...
It is exacerbated by having a full stomach and by cold temperatures. Pain may be accompanied by breathlessness, sweating, and ... Chest pain lasting only a few seconds is normally not angina (such as precordial catch syndrome). Myocardial ischemia comes ... Other recognized precipitants of stable angina include cold weather, heavy meals, and emotional stress. Unstable angina (UA) ( ... Studies, including the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), suggest that microvascular angina is part of the ...
Wang, Zi-Ru; Ni, Guo-Xin (16 June 2021). "Is it time to put traditional cold therapy in rehabilitation of soft-tissue injuries ... Usage of a tight, non-elastic bandage will result in reduction of adequate blood flow, potentially causing ischemia. The fit ... Pober, JS; Sessa, WC (23 October 2014). "Inflammation and the blood microvascular system". Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in ... and Elevation Cold compression therapy "R.I.C.E - Best for Acute Injuries". Retrieved 15 August 2007. "Sports Medicine Advisor ...
Ischemia in the heart due to prolonged coronary vasospasm can lead to angina, myocardial infarction and even death. Vasospasm ... and triggered by cold can lead to Hand-arm vibration syndrome in which feeling and manual dexterity are lost. In angiography, ... This can lead to tissue ischemia and tissue death (necrosis). Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid ... Along with physical resistance, vasospasm is a main cause of ischemia. Like physical resistance, vasospasms can occur due to ...
207-225). Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Tavazoie, Masoud; Van Der Veken, Lieven; Silva-Vargas, ... Proliferation of these cells is more limited, although cerebral ischemia can induce proliferation at this stage. Postmitotic ... 159-174). Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Seri, Bettina; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Collado- ... 445-461). Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Das, Sulagna; Basu, Anirban (2008). "Inflammation: A new ...
If the ischemia is intense or prolonged, limb weakness progresses to collapse. The weakness of the legs causes most people to ... but also with carbonated and ice-cold beverages, and even belching." Fainting can occur in "cough syncope" following severe ...
As a result, ischemia to the tissues served by the artery can occur. Symptoms due to ischemia can follow. Some of the factors ... Exercise, cold weather, physical activity or exertion, mental stress, hyperventilation are additional precipitating factors. ... August 2020). "Ischaemia with no obstructive coronary arteries". Netherlands Heart Journal. 28 (Suppl 1): 66-72. doi:10.1007/ ... Shorter episodes of occlusion can lead to what is referred to as silent myocardial ischemia due to its asymptomatic nature. ...
Ischemia: A decreased or restriction of circulating blood flow to a region of the brain which deprives neurons of the necessary ... The limbs later became cold and the right side of the body transiently progressed between semi-paralysis and tetanus. Her heart ... Hemorrhaging can occur in instances of embolic ischemia, in which the previously obstructed region spontaneously restores blood ...
In addition, mints can desensitize a region through the activation of TRPM8 receptors (the 'cold'/menthol receptor). The key ... KOR agonism is neuroprotective against hypoxia/ischemia. The selective KOR agonist U-50488 protected rats against supramaximal ...
... intolerance to cold, constipation, weight gain, hair loss and slowed thinking, as well as a slowed heart rate and low blood ... Ischemia may occur as a result of vasospasm, thrombosis, or vascular compression sometimes as a result of an increase in the ... and are therefore most likely to be affected by ischemia), all of the patients experienced growth hormone deficiency. Hormonal ...
Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 73: 403-10. doi:10.1101/sqb.2008.73.018. PMID 19022746. Androutsellis-Theotokis A, ... "Region-specific proliferative response of neural progenitors to exogenous stimulation by growth factors following ischemia". ...
Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) occurs when blood flow to an extremity is abruptly cut off. It occurs most commonly in those with a ... Cryoablation Cryoablation is a treatment option that destroys cancer cells by applying extremely cold temperatures at the ... Unlike chronic ischemia, which the body can partially adapt to, ALI is an emergency that can result in an amputation or even ... Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe variant of PAD (Rutherford 4 and above) characterized by rest pain or tissue loss. ...
... cold feeling, warmth, pain, or burning) Dysgeusia (unpleasant taste in mouth) Feeling hot Dizziness Rash Erythema (reddening of ... and presence of focal cerebral ischemia. Gadobutrol should be administered intravenously by medical professionals only. Sterile ...
... cold) Provocative factors: is there anything that makes it worse? (rest, activity, etc.) SOCRATES: Site Onset Character ... Ischemia Atrial enlargement Lone or idiopathic Fever, anemia, high-output states Infarct Bad valves (mitral stenosis) ... Drugs/depression Elderly Multi-infarct/medication Environmental Nutritional Toxins Ischemia Alcohol "Ataxic GAAit" Guanine ...
New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-888-1. D. Bowen, Ivor (1993). "Cell Biology International 17". ... "Overexpression of BCL-2 in transgenic mice protects neurons from naturally occurring cell death and experimental ischemia". ... New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-887-4. Kierszenbaum, Abraham (2012). Histology and Cell Biology ...
A healthy tooth will feel the cold but the pain will be mild and disappear once the stimulus is removed. The accuracy of these ... This may lead to ischemia (lack of oxygen) and necrosis (tissue death). Pulpitis is termed reversible when the inflamed pulp is ... Pulpitis is reversible when the pain is mild to moderate and lasts for a short time after a stimulus (for instance cold); or ... Hot drinks can make the tooth feel worse because they expand the gases and likewise, cold can make it feel better, thus some ...
By 1982, the most deleterious of these had become arteriosclerosis of the aorta and cardiac ischemia and arhythmia, all of ... Brown, Archie (2022). The Human Factor: Gorbachev, Reagan, Thatcher, and the End of the Cold War. Oxford University Press. ISBN ... Dobrynin, Anatoly (1995). In Confidence: Moscow's Ambassador to America's Six Cold War Presidents. Univ Of Washington Press. ... Cold War International History Project, File: SAPMO-BArch, DY 30, No. 13941, TsK-Abteilung Internationale Beziehungen der ...
Mean cold ischemia time, min. 472. 484. 0.47. Kidney transplant. 2 (5.1). 39 (5.8). 1. ...
The cold ischemia time (CIT) was 18 hours and 10 minutes. The patient was induced with antithymocyte globulin and maintained on ... caused by prolonged warm ischemia, might increase antigenic presentation giving rise to acute rejection and TMA [14]. In a ...
During conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, cold exposure or ischemia reperfusion injury, succinate is released outside of ... Succinate has been shown to accumulate and play a detrimental role in regulating ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury177 by driving ... Purine nucleotide breakdown during ischemia gives rise to fumarate which in turn will drive the reverse enzymatic reaction of ... therapeutic opportunities in stabilizing Hif-1α when treating anemia associated with chronic kidney disease or hypoxia-ischemia ...
Recommended ischemia times for reliable success with replantation are 12 hours of warm and 24 hours of cold ischemia for digits ... and 94 hours of cold ischemia. [39] Minimizing ischemia times is more critical when performing replantation of major body parts ... 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41] In 1986, May et al reported a successful digit replantation after 39 hours of cold ischemia, the ... Hand replantation after 54 hours of cold ischemia: a case report. J Hand Surg [Am]. 1992 Mar. 17(2):217-20. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
Nonanastomotic strictures can be caused by HAS, HAT, prolonged cold ischemia time, rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, ... Such dehiscence can result from technical problems or from ischemia at the anastomosis. As previously noted, ischemia resulting ... Effect of ischemia-reperfusion on the incidence of acute cellular rejection and timing of histologic hepatitis C virus ... 26] HAS can be caused by clamp injury, intimal injury due to perfusion catheters, anastomotic ischemia due to a disrupted vasa ...
Technical difficulty and longer cold ischemia (,24 h) are independent risk factors as well, but surgical difficulty is highly ... and long cold ischemia can be actively avoided.36,37 Importantly, although CKD cannot be investigated as a potential risk ... However, excessive formation of NETs has been described in CKD patients, hemodialysis, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and ... Release of extracellular DNA influences renal ischemia reperfusion injury by platelet activation and formation of neutrophil ...
One plausible explanation for this discrepancy may be the poor quality of DNA caused by prolonged cold ischemia time. In all, ...
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 5:a0087142013. View Article : Google Scholar : PubMed/NCBI ... To induce ischemia of the median and left lobes of the liver, a micro clip was used to clamp the left branches of the portal ... Zhao J, Ming Y, Wan Q, Ye S, Xie S, Zhu Y, Wang Y, Zhong Z, Li L, Ye Q, Ye Q, et al: Gypenoside attenuates hepatic ischemia/ ... Qi G, Zhang L, Xie WL, Chen XY and Li JS: Protective effect of gypenosides on DNA and RNA of rat neurons in cerebral ischemia- ...
Objective-To evaluate the effect of the duration of cold Ischemia on the renin-angiotensin system during renal transplantation ... relative to 2-hour simple cold or warm ischemia was also evaluated. ... Activation of vasoactive genes does not appear to be Influenced by type of Ischemia over 2 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1220- ... Procedures-10 cats underwent renal autotransplantation after 30 minutes (n = 5) or 3 hours (5) of simple, ex vivo cold storage ...
Cold and warm ischemia were utilized in 151 and 250 patients, and the median ischemia time was 27 and 21 min, respectively. The ... Cold and warm ischemia were utilized in 151 and 250 patients, and the median ischemia time was 27 and 21 min, respectively. The ... Cold and warm ischemia were utilized in 151 and 250 patients, and the median ischemia time was 27 and 21 min, respectively. The ... Cold and warm ischemia were utilized in 151 and 250 patients, and the median ischemia time was 27 and 21 min, respectively. The ...
Shiotani et al., "Involvement of Rho-kinase in cold ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplant in rats", Transplatation ... Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury-related molecules in individuals with SCD Expression IR injury-related molecules status in SCD ... Involvement of Rho-kinase in cold ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats. Transplantation, 78, 375-382 ... Nath et al., "Transgenic sickle mice are markedly sensitive to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury", Am. J. Pathol., 166:963-972 ...
Dive into the research topics of Digital imaging of extended criteria donor livers to facilitate placement and utilization.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
CONCLUSION: Despite longer cold ischemia times, patient and graft survival outcomes remain excellent and comparable to those ... Reassessing Geographic, Logistical, and Cold Ischemia Cutoffs in Liver Transplantation. Ohara, Stephanie; Lizaola-Mayo, Blanca ... like cold ischemia time, also had an impact on EAD (r=0.135, P=0.010), especially in patients with model for end-stage liver ... and have longer cold ischemia times (median hours 7.8 vs 5.5, P = .001). Early allograft dysfunction was common (54.1% vs 52.5 ...
In this regard, cold shock proteins could become a valuable tool without said downsides. The present work provides clinical ... Moreover, we studied the protective effect of hypothermia and RBM3 in a mice model of cerebral ischemia. ... Although hypothermia is a promising therapeutic strategy against cerebral ischemia, its associated adverse effects hamper its ...
Cold Chain. A temperature-controlled supply chain. (ISBER, 2018) Cold Ischemia. The time a tissue or organ is chilled during ... Warm Ischemia. The amount of time that an organ remains at body temperature after its blood supply has been stopped or reduced ...
Cold ischemia time > 12h. *. Donor age > 60 years. *. Terminal serum creatinine level of >1.5 mg/dl ...
Cold Ischemia Time. Cold Ischemia Times. Cold Ischemic Time. Ischemia, Cold. Time, Cold Ischemia. ... Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN ... Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN ... Cold Ischemia - Preferred Concept UI. M0474607. Scope note. The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion ...
Deciphering the respective role of renal warm and cold ischemia is of pivotal interest in the transplant... ... Role of warm ischemia on innate and adaptive responses in a preclinical renal auto-transplanted porcine model Deceased after ... Mostly, organ damage is caused during brain death (BD), cold ischem... Authors: Philipp Stiegler, Michael Sereinigg, Andreas ... Increased peripheral and local soluble FGL2 in the recovery of renal ischemia reperfusion injury in a porcine kidney auto- ...
Biobankingbiorepositorybiospecimenscancer researchCHTNcold ischemiacustom procurementfrozen tissueISBERNCINY Timesthyroid ... Effects of Cold Ischemia on Research Using Human Tissues. *The CHTN Southern Division (Bill Grizzle (Dennis Otali, Kathy Sexton ...
Regarding transplant characteristics, the median of cold ischemia time was different between the four classes (p = 0.0093); it ... Each Additional Hour of Cold Ischemia Time Significantly Increases the Risk of Graft Failure and Mortality Following Renal ... The models were adjusted for cold ischemia time, ECD, preemptive transplant and hemodialysis session completion, which were ... Multivariate polynomial logistic regression showed that donor hypertension and cold ischemia time were the only independent ...
Hydrogen-rich university of Wisconsin solution attenuates renal cold ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplantation, 94(1):14-21. ... Hydrogen-rich saline protects myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Exp Biol Med, 234(10):1212-1219. ... Inhalation of high concentrations of hydrogen ameliorates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury through A2A receptor mediated PI3K- ... Hydrogen inhalation improves mouse neurological outcomes after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion independent of anti-necroptosis. ...
Amelioration of rat cardiac cold ischemia/reperfusion injury with inhaled hydrogen or carbon monoxide, or both. J. Hear. Lung ... Melatonin protects steatotic and nonsteatotic liver grafts against cold ischemia and reperfusion injury. J. Pineal Res. 2011;50 ... Hydrogen as additive of HTK solution fortifies myocardial preservation in grafts with prolonged cold ischemia. Int. J. Cardiol ... Wu D., Wang J., Li H., Xue M., Ji A., Li Y. Role of hydrogen sulfide in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. ...
Mean warm and cold ischemia time was 1.82 0.44 (1-3) and 40.25 6.12 (31-57) minutes, respectively. The most observed ...
Each additional hour of cold ischemia time significantly increases the risk of graft failure and mortality following renal ... Each additional hour of cold ischemia time significantly increases the risk of graft failure and mortality following renal ...
60 IU/h which increases the risk of oxytocin cold chain: serious hypotension and myocardial ischemia. Persistent bleeding with ...
Always have cold hands and feet? What about headaches, insomnia and sensitivities? You might have Flammer Syndrome. ... Silent Myocardial Ischemia. *Headaches or migraines (often with visual aura). *Tinnitus, sudden hearing loss, and even ... Flammer Syndrome: Cold Hands, Feet and Low Blood Pressure. Ive always had cold hands and feet. Like really cold hands, make ... Flammer Syndrome: Cold Hands and Feet Syndrome. Dr. Flammer noted when shaking hands with a patient, cold hands were often a ...
Grafts were preserved in cold storage (64%) or machine perfusion (36%) with a mean cold ischemia time (CIT) of 740 minutes. At ... In the subgroup of grafts preserved in cold storage, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis showed beneficial ... KEYWORDS : clinical research/practice, clinical trial, delayed graft function (DGF), ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), kidney ... studies demonstrated its safety as an additive to organ preservation solutions and its beneficial effect on ischemia/ ...
Effects of cold ischemia on the preserved and transplanted rat kidney. Se gårdagens mest populära sökningar här. ...
  • Global cerebral ischemia, as seen with cardiac arrest, causes delayed loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas the nearby dentate gyrus (DG) area is relatively resistant. (
  • Although hypothermia is a promising therapeutic strategy against cerebral ischemia, its associated adverse effects hamper its clinical application. (
  • Moreover, we studied the protective effect of hypothermia and RBM3 in a mice model of cerebral ischemia. (
  • 1. Role of Kupffer cells in cold ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat liver. (
  • 4. Effect of calcium antagonists on rat liver during extended cold preservation-reperfusion. (
  • 6. Warm flush at 37 degrees C following cold storage attenuates reperfusion injury in preserved rat livers. (
  • 7. Hyaluronic acid uptake in the assessment of sinusoidal endothelial cell damage after cold storage and normothermic reperfusion of rat livers. (
  • 8. Impact of adhesion molecules of the selectin family on liver microcirculation at reperfusion following cold ischemia. (
  • 9. Cold ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver. (
  • 10. Role of glutathione in hepatic bile formation during reperfusion after cold ischemia of the rat liver. (
  • 11. Metabolism of hyaluronic acid by liver endothelial cells: effect of ischemia-reperfusion in the isolated perfused rat liver. (
  • 14. No attenuation of ischemic and reperfusion injury in Kupffer cell-depleted, cold-preserved rat livers. (
  • 18. Cold-preservation-induced sensitivity of rat hepatocyte function to rewarming injury and its prevention by short-term reperfusion. (
  • However, the effect of GP on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced hepatic injury has, to the best of our knowledge, not previously been investigated. (
  • Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a predominant cause of hepatic injury, which is of clinical significance following liver surgery, hemorrhagic shock and liver transplantation ( 1 ). (
  • In rats subjected to transient forebrain ischemia, CA1 astrocytes lose glutamate transport activity and immunoreactivity for GFAP, S100β, and glutamate transporter GLT-1 within a few hours of reperfusion, but without astrocyte cell death. (
  • The HbS repetitively enter into sickling and unsickling cycles incrementally increasing the damage to the erythrocyte membrane (Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury) resulting in irreversibly sickle-shaped erythrocytes (Barabino, et al 2010). (
  • Kupffer cell-dependent ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury after liver transplantation is still of high clinical relevance, as it is strongly associated with primary dysfunction and primary nonfunction of the graft. (
  • Dexmedetomidine (DEX) attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) in adult liver transplantation (LT), but its effects on postoperative liver graft function in pediatric LT remain unclear. (
  • 1004. Treatment of partial amputation with vascular compromise / Warm ischemia time? (
  • The cold ischemia time (CIT) was 18 hours and 10 minutes. (
  • Cold ischemia time is an important risk factor for post-liver transplant prolonged length of stay. (
  • And this would decrease our cold ischemia time. (
  • Background and objectives Increased donor age is one of the most important risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF), and previous studies suggest that the harmful effect of cold ischemia time is increased in kidneys from older donors. (
  • Our aim was to study the association of increased donor age and cold ischemia time with the risk of delayed graft function in a large cohort kidney transplants from the current era. (
  • Results Cold ischemia time and donor age were independently associated with the risk of DGF, but the risk of DGF was not statistically significantly lower in donor age categories between 50 and 64 years, compared with donors ?65 years. (
  • The harmful association of cold ischemia time was not higher in kidneys from older donors in any age category, not even among donation after circulatory death donors. (
  • When donor risk was assessed with kidney donor profile index, although a statistically significant interaction with cold ischemia time was found, no practically meaningful increase in cold-ischemia susceptibility of kidneys with a high kidney donor profile index was found. (
  • Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures. (
  • Pearson correlation was used to evaluate relationships between functional recovery and nephron mass preservation or ischemia time. (
  • Cold and warm ischemia were utilized in 151 and 250 patients, and the median ischemia time was 27 and 21 min, respectively. (
  • We demonstrate, for the first time, differential responses of astrocytes from different hippocampal subregions to ischemia: generation of reactive oxygen species, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and uptake of glutamate. (
  • Hypothermic machine perfusion can safely prolong cold ischemia time in deceased donor kidney transplantation. (
  • The warm ischaemia time for the graft after removal was 4 min and the cold ischaemia time was 16 h. (
  • 3. Delivery of the bioactive gas hydrogen sulfide during cold preservation of rat liver: effects on hepatic function in an ex vivo model. (
  • This study compared HTK or UW for cold static storage of kidney allografts. (
  • Design, setting, and participants: A total of 401 patients managed with PN with necessary studies were analyzed for function and nephron mass preserved specifically within the kidney exposed to ischemia. (
  • Since the advent of organ transplantation, the cornerstone of organ preservation has been cold ischemic storage (placing organs on ice). (
  • TransMedics has developed the world's only portable medical device capable of overcoming the limitations of cold storage for organ transplantation. (
  • However, each additional 10 min of warm ischemia was associated with only a 2.5% decline in recovery from ischemia. (
  • Longer duration of warm ischemia was associated with poorer recovery, although the incremental changes were modest. (
  • 17. Kupffer cell-independent acute hepatocellular oxidative stress and decreased bile formation in post-cold-ischemic rat liver. (
  • In all, 149 renal transplants were performed with cold ischemic times (CI) greater than 16 hr (UW 87, HTK 62) and a subset analysis was performed with CI over 24 hr (HTK 31, UW 38). (
  • Currently, these DCD donors are not considered for heart transplantation due to the limitations of cold storage preservation technique. (
  • Background: Nephron mass preservation is a key determinant of functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy (PN), while ischemia plays a secondary role. (
  • Objective: To evaluate the relative impact of parenchymal preservation and ischemia on functional recovery after PN using a more robust cohort allowing for more refined perspectives about ischemia. (
  • Given the limitations of cold storage, it is estimated that globally 60-65% of donor hearts cannot ultimately be used for transplantation. (
  • Moreover, the cold storage technique does not enable any resuscitative or assessment while the organ is being transported from donor to recipient. (
  • Forebrain ischemia, drug treatment, and assessment. (
  • Are diffusion imaging and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) the "magic" tools that can improve the selection of the proper neonates for treatment from all newborns with clinical or laboratory evidence of ischemia? (
  • The impact of ischemia on functional recovery after clamped partial nephrectomy cannot be accurately evaluated unless nephron mass loss is accounted for. (
  • We can begin by thinking of stress as an effect, a reaction by the mind to situations that seem to be taking place "out there" in the big, cold world. (
  • We provide evidence that early loss of glutamate transport contributes to neuronal loss because induction of higher GLT-1 levels in astrocytes before ischemia reduces neuronal death in slice and in vivo . (
  • Recovery from ischemia was defined as the percent function preserved normalized by the percent nephron mass preserved. (
  • This study provides evidence for the novel hypothesis that selective hippocampal astrocytic impairment is responsible for the selective loss of CA1 hippocampal neurons after global or forebrain ischemia. (
  • 1. New or presumably new ECG evidence of myocardial ischemia in a standard 12-lead ECG obtained during any attack of pain within 24 hours before enrollment or new enzyme evidence of non-Q-wave MI (see below). (
  • 2. New or presumably new ECG evidence of myocardial ischemia obtained during the presenting illness, but more than 24 hours before enrollment in T3. (
  • This is called acute limb ischemia and is a serious medical emergency. (
  • Call 9-1-1 or seek medical help right away if you suddenly lose feeling in your foot and cannot move it and if it is blue or paler and colder than the other foot. (
  • Delays in expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney placement increases cold ischemia times (CIT) potentially leading to discard. (
  • Kidneys from older donors have been thought to be even more susceptible to the negative impact of long cold ischemic time. (
  • 7. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in cold ischemia: renal artery perfusion. (
  • Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures. (
  • Advantages of living donation for the recipient include shorter waiting times and shorter cold ischemic times for explanted organs, largely because transplantation can be scheduled to optimize the patient's condition. (
  • A few livers come from deceased, non-heart-beating donors (called donation-after-cardiac-death [DCD] donors), but in such cases, bile duct complications develop in up to one third of recipients because the liver had been damaged by ischemia before donation. (
  • 2008 . Effects of cold weather on mortality: results from 15 European cities within the PHEWE project. (