Coix: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is used in folk medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Brucea: A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Checklist: Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Erythema Multiforme: A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.PhilippinesComplementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Arnica: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The dried flower heads of Arnica montana are used externally as a counterirritant and tincture for sprains and bruises, either as crude extract or in homeopathic dilution (HOMEOPATHY). Arnica contains volatile oils (OILS, VOLATILE), arnicin, arnisterol, FLAVONOIDS; TANNINS; and resin. The common name of Wolf's Bane is similar to the common name for ACONITUM.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Manuscripts, MedicalOrthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.United StatesClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Bromus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Phosphorus Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.

Molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin, from Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf). (1/16)

A lambdaZAP II cDNA library was constructed from mRNA in immature seeds of the grass Job's tears. A cDNA clone for a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin, was isolated from the library. The cDNA clone spanned 757 base pairs and encoded 135 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to that of cystatins from the gramineous plants rice, sorghum, and corn. The central Gln-Val-Val-Ala-Gly sequence thought to be one of the binding sites of cystatins was found. A remarkable characteristic of the peptide sequence of Job's-tears cystatin was the putative signal peptide that has been found in sorghum and corn but not in rice. The cystatin cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged recombinant protein. The purified recombinant protein inhibited papain.  (+info)

Effect of young barley leaf extract and adlay on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers. (2/16)

Forty hyperlipidemic patients, smokers and non-smokers, were studied. Subjects received 15 g young barley leaf extract (BL) or 60 g adlay daily for four weeks. Overnight fasting blood samples were drawn immediately prior to and after four weeks of supplementation. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipid profiles and their susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were reduced following treatment with either BL or adlay; furthermore, the lag phase of LDL oxidation increased after either supplementation. However, it seemed that BL had stronger antioxidative effect on the prevention of LDL oxidation than adlay. Our results also indicated that the antioxidative effect was less pronounced in smokers than in non-smokers. Therefore, supplementation with BL or adlay can decrease plasma lipids and inhibit LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers and/or non-smokers.  (+info)

Coix seed extract, a commonly used treatment for cancer in China, inhibits NFkappaB and protein kinase C signaling. (3/16)

A pharmaceutical grade extract of Coix lachryma-jobi seeds is currently the most commonly used treatment for cancer in China. Although clinical data support the use of this preparation of a Traditional Chinese Medicine for cancer treatment, biological basis for the activity of this preparation has not been previously established. To address this issue, we first evaluated the anti-neoplastic activity of a Coix extract emulsion in xenografts of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and found that the extract significantly inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 xenografts in athymic nude mice. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we determined that Coix seed extract also significantly affects gene expression in these cells, including downregulation of genes (such as COX-2 and matrixmetalloproteinases) that are considered to be important in neoplasia. The specific gene expression changes noted after Coix seed extract treatment are characteristic of inhibition of NFkappaB-dependent transcription, leading us to evaluate how the treatment affects that pathway. An NFkappaB-dependent reporter assay demonstrated dose-dependant inhibition of NFkappaB signaling by treatment of cultures with the extract, and immunofluorescent microscopy found that these effects are associated with reduced translocation of the Rel-A/p65 subunit of NFkappaB to the nucleus. Coix extract also inhibits activity of protein kinase C, a major mediator of signal transduction and activator of NFkappaB. Thus, this Traditional Chinese Medicine-based cancer treatment affects cellular pathways of recognized importance in neoplasia.  (+info)

Evaluation of osteoporosis prevention by adlay using a tissue culture model. (4/16)

Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf ) is a grass crop, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and also as a nourishing food. Recently, some studies have indicated that adlay possesses some pharmacological effects including anti-allergic, anti-mutagenic, hypolipemic, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the effect of adlay on osteoporosis is still unknown. In this study, we investigated and evaluated the effect of adlay seed on the osteoporosis prevention. The methods of in vitro cultures of neonatal rat calvaria tissues or adult rat femoral metaphyseal tissues of bones isolated from normal or ovariectomized female rats were used for further investigation. Treatment with water extract of adlay seed could reverse the decreased alkaline phosphatase activities and calcium levels and increased tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase activities induced by parathyroid hormone in cultured metaphyseal tissues. In ovariectomized rats, the alkaline phosphatase activities and calcium levels were significantly decreased and tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase activities were increased in femoral metaphyseal tissues as compared with sham-control. Treatment with water extract of adlay seed could counteract these effects in ovariectomized rats. Taken together, these findings imply that adlay is capable of reversing the osteoporotic status in rats, and may be a helpful healthy food for osteoporosis prevention.  (+info)

Formulation, preparation and evaluation of an intravenous emulsion containing Brucea javanica oil and Coix Seed oil for anti-tumor application. (5/16)

The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate the intravenous emulsion (BCOE) containing Brucea javanica oil (BJO) and Coix seed oil (CSO), which is used in anti-tumor treatment. The formulation and preparation of BCOE were systematically investigated. High-pressure homogenization, particle size distribution, zeta-potential and HPLC were carried out. The pharmacokinetics of the main component, oleic acid, and anti-tumor activity studies about the tumor growth inhibitory ratios (TGIR) and the mortality experiments were also employed to evaluate BCOE in vivo compared with BJO emulsion (BJOE) and CSO emulsion (CSOE) using S180 sarcoma-bearing mice. The final BCOE formulation was 10% (w/v) oils with BJO and CSO 3 : 1, 0.6% (w/v) Lipid E 80, 0.3% (w/v) Pluronic F-68 (F-68), 0.1% (w/v) sodium oleate and 2.5% (w/v) glycerin in water. The preparation conditions involved 70 degrees C for preparing the crude emulsion, 6 cycles for high-pressure homogenization at 500 bar, pH value was adjusted to 8.5 after high-pressure homogenization and 115 degrees C for 30 min in a rotating water bath for sterilization. The pharmacokinetics parameters showed the combination of BJO and CSO may not influence the elimination of BCOE and have no significant difference between BCOE and BJOE or CSOE. The data of TGIR and mortality indicated that BCOE could increase the anti-tumor activity of CSOE and reduced the toxicity of BJOE. The mortality study (BCOE 0, BJOE 63.3%, CSOE 13.3%) showed that BCOE greatly reduced the toxicity of BJOE and CSOE. Therefore, the development and application of BCOE will make an important contribution to anti-tumor therapy.  (+info)

Effects of adlay hull extracts on uterine contraction and Ca2+ mobilization in the rat. (6/16)


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands isolated from adlay seed (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAPF.). (7/16)

Through screening for natural ligands against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) using the PPARgamma luciferase reporter assay, 6 hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were isolated from adlay seed (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAPF.) extracts with acetone and 70% ethanol. The structures of these compounds were determined via spectral analysis as 13-hydroxy-(9E,11E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-E,E-HODE) (1), 9-hydroxy-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoic acid (9-E,E-HODE) (2), 9-hydroxy-(10E)-octadecenoic acid (3), 10-hydroxy-(8E)-octadecenoic acid (4), 8-hydroxy-(9E)-octadecenoic acid (5), 11-hydroxy-(9Z)-octadecenoic acid (6). 9-E,E-HODE (2) exhibited the most potent PPARgamma agonist activity of the isolated hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids. 9-E,E-HODE (2) and 13-E,E-HODE (1) are the respective geometrical isomers of 9-hydroxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoic acid, both of which are likely to be natural PPARgamma agonists produced in various mammalian cells, suggesting that 9-E,E-HODE may also act as PPARgamma agonist.  (+info)

Experimental study on the effect of Kang-Lai-Te induced apoptosis of human hepatoma carcinoma cell HepG2. (8/16)

BACKGROUND: Kang-Lai-Te (KLT) is extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Semen Coicis, which has been used in China as an effective clinical drug for over a thousand years. It contains numerous ingredients with anti-tumor effects. In our previous studies on transplanted hepatomas in rats, KLT could stop the cells in the G2+M stage of cell cycle and then reduce the number of cells entering the stage G0 and G1, but the mechanism of the anti-proliferative effect was unknown. In this experiment, we examined whether KLT inhibits HepG2 cell growth, if so, tried to explore its mechanism. METHODS: KLT at different concentrations was used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro, respectively. The proliferation inhibitory rate was evaluated by MTT assay, induction of cell apoptosis rate and the protein levels of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) were determined by flow cytometry (FCM), and the expression of Fas and FasL mRNA was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: KLT produced an obvious time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on HepG2 cells, and marked apoptosis was detected by FCM. The protein of Fas increased by 11.01%, 18.71%, 28.71% and 37.15%; the protein of FasL increased by 1.49%, 1.91%, 3.27% and 3.38% in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed that treating HepG2 cells with KLT caused the upregulation of Fas and FasL mRNA. CONCLUSION: KLT inhibits HepG2 growth by inducing apoptosis, which may be mediated through activation of the Fas/FasL pathway.  (+info)

  • Job's Tears ( Coix lacryma-jobi ), also referred to as adlay millet, is from southeast Asia where it grows as a perennial, but it can be grown as a summer annual in temperate regions. (
  • Disclosed is a combination for skin external use, which contains as an active ingredient an herbal extract complex consisting of Chinese herbal extracts of Granate bark, seed of Prunus armeniaca, Coix lacuma-jobi, Saururus chinensis and Perilla frutescens var. (
  • The major trypsin inhibitor from seeds of Coix was purified by heat treatment, fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. (
  • A protein inhibitor of locust gut ζ-amylase was purified from seeds of Coix using ammonium sulphate precipitation, affinity chromatography on Red Sepharose and reversed-phase HPLC. (
  • Preliminary molecular studies were also carried out, including the isolation and in vitro translation of mRNA fractions from developing seeds of Coix. (
  • In order to obtain information on lysine metabolism in this plant species, two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these amino acids (aspartate kinase AK, EC and homoserine dehydrogenase HSDH, EC and two enzymes involved in lysine degradation (lysine 2-oxoglutarate reductase LOR, EC and saccharopine dehydrogenase SDH, EC were isolated and partially characterized in coix seeds. (
  • The −238 promoter fragment interacted with Coix endosperm nuclear proteins to form 5 DNA-protein complexes, C1-C5, as detected by EMSA. (
  • Complex C2 was not affected by the addition of the O2 antibody, suggesting the existence of a novel nuclear factor, CBF1, that binds to the promoter and makes protein-protein associations with other proteins present in Coix endosperm nuclei. (
  • Previous investigations have revealed that the main compositions of Coix seed are proteins, polysaccharides, oils and starches. (
  • Tasteless for removing dampness, sweet for tonifying spleen, slight coldness for eliminating heat, and neutral, not oily and not drastic, coix seed as a herb for eliminating heat and dampness is indicated for edema, diarrhea, damp arthralgia and pulmonary abscess. (
  • Coix seed has the functions of fortifying the spleen and inhibiting the dampness. (
  • The objectives of this study are to explore which is the most effective compositions in fortifying the spleen and examine how Coix seed works in regulating the water transport on the spleen deficiency and wet dampness (SDWD) rat model. (
  • However, it remains unclear which Coix seed compositions is responsible for these functions. (
  • The coix cultivar, "No 5 Yiliao", was selected as the plant material, through nutrient solution cultivating in greenhouse, the effect of different S3307 concentrations(1, 3, 5, 7, 9 mg·L~(-1)) on coix seedlings traits and physiological indicators were explored under low-temperature stress. (
  • In this study, we developed a octanoyl galactose ester-modified microemulsion system self-assembled by coix seed components (Gal(oct)-C-MEs), which improved the tumor accumulation through asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis and promoted the antitumor efficacy through multicomponent-mediated synergistic effect. (
  • The aim of the study is to explore exogenous S3307 on alleviating low-temperature stress of coix seedlings. (
  • 5 mg·L~(-1) S3307 could enhance the low temperature tolerance of coix seedlings by regulating the growth and physiological indexes, and thus alleviate the damage caused by low-temperature to the coix seedlings. (
  • In the cellular uptake studies, the internalized Gal(oct)-C-ME was 2.28-fold higher relative to that of coix seed component-based microemulsions (C-MEs). (