Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.
An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The methyl imidoester of suberic acid used to produce cross links in proteins. Each end of the imidoester will react with an amino group in the protein molecule to form an amidine.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The basic unit of these structures is a coiled-coil dimer. The dimers arrange themselves in a head-to-tail manner, allowing for ...
Two protomers then dimerize through their hinge domains and assemble a V-shaped dimer. The length of the coiled-coil arms is ~ ... Walker A ATP-binding motif coiled-coil region I hinge region coiled-coil region II Walker B ATP-binding motif; signature motif ... SMC dimers form a V-shaped molecule with two long coiled-coil arms. To make such a unique structure, an SMC protomer is self- ... Niki H, Jaffé A, Imamura R, Ogura T, Hiraga S (1991). "The new gene mukB codes for a 177 kd protein with coiled-coil domains ...
The rod domains of two neurofilament proteins dimerize to form an alpha-helical coiled coil. Two dimers associate in a ...
Dimers self-associate though the coiled-coil rods to form myosin filaments. The tail domain ends at the C-terminus with a 34- ... Similar to heavy chain phosphorylation, in vitro binding of S100A to the carboxy-terminal end of the NM IIA coiled-coil region ... Two heavy chains dimerize through the tail domain forming a long alpha-helical coiled-coil rod composed of typical heptad ... the 20 KDa light chain unfolds the molecule to produce a globular head region followed by an extended alpha-helical coiled-coil ...
The core contains mostly proteins with coiled-coil motifs, that allow to form dimers, either with themselves or with others ... Spc42 faces the cytoplasm and binds to coiled-coil Cnm67p (chaotic nuclear migration). Cnm67p forms dimers and functions as a ... Another coiled-coil protein, Spc72p, is also found in the outer plaque. Spc72p associates with Nud1p and to components of the γ ... The main central plaque component is coiled-coil protein Spc42p (for spindle pole body component) also found to be a part of ...
In first and second groups, the C-terminal domain is known to interact with transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3), ... Much like a hand-off, TOG1 releases the dimer, which then binds to TOG2. TOG2 then integrates the tubulin dimer into the ... The third group consists of lower eukaryotic organisms, mainly yeast, that contain only two TOG domains and a coiled-coil ... In the third protein group, the coiled-coil domain is essential for dimerization in simple eukaryotes. This is because simple ...
... a central coiled-coil domain. Then finally a C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) which is usually present in proteins of the ... VAPA can form homo-dimers and also hetero dimers with VAPB by interactions through their (TMD). Because of its ubiquitous ...
... domain and an α-helical C-terminal domain which is presumed to form a coiled-coil dimer. Paracingulin is a paralog of cingulin ... It is also predicted that this protein form a dimer through its coiled-coil rod domain. Both head and rod-tail domains ... Cingulin-like protein 1, also known as paracingulin or junction-associated-coiled-coil protein (JACOP), is a protein which is ... The mouse homolog of CGNL1 has been designated JACOP (junction-associated coiled-coil protein). JACOP is recruited to the ...
The head and the hinge domains are connected to each other via long anti-parallel coiled coils. The dimer is present in a V- ... The N-terminal domain of RAD21 contains two α-helices which forms a three helix bundle with the coiled coil of SMC3. The ... White GE, Erickson HP (2009). "The coiled coils of cohesin are conserved in animals, but not in yeast". PLOS ONE. 4 (3): e4674 ... The coils of SMC1 and SMC3 are conserved with an amino acid divergence of less than 0.5%. The term "cohesinopathy" has been ...
Structurally, αPIX assembles as a trimer through its carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil domain, and further interacts with dimers of ... or the highly-related ARHGEF7/βPIX via a trimeric coiled-coil interaction. GIT1 or GIT2 dimers via GIT-binding domain. p21- ...
... or the highly-related ARHGEF6/αPIX via a trimeric coiled-coil interaction. GIT1 or GIT2 dimers via GIT-binding domain. p21- ... In contrast, β2 carboxyl terminal variants lack this coiled-coil region and are predicted to be unable to trimerize. The major ... Structurally, βPIX assembles as a trimer through a carboxyl-terminal coiled-coil domain that is present in the major carboxyl ... β1 forms contain the coiled-coil trimerization domain and the PDZ-target motif for binding to PDZ proteins (see below), while ...
The building block of intermediate filaments are elongated coiled-coil dimer consisting of four consecutive alpha-helical ... ACAP1 (ArfGAP With Coiled-Coil, Ankyrin Repeat And PH Domains 1): GTPase-activating proteins for ADP ribosylation factor 6 ... Its 1A subunit, most similar to IFFO1 protein, forms a single, amphipatic alpha-helix that's compatible with a coiled-coil ... It is speculated that this chain is involved in specific dimer-dimer interactions during intermediate filament assembly. A " ...
β-tropomyosin is striated muscle-specific coiled coil dimer that functions to stabilize actin filaments and regulate muscle ... Tropomysin is a flexible protein homodimer or heterodimer composed of two alpha-helical chains, which adopt a bent coiled coil ... Tropomyosin dimers are composed of varying combinations of tropomyosin isoforms; human striated muscles express protein from ... Gimona M, Watakabe A, Helfman DM (Oct 1995). "Specificity of dimer formation in tropomyosins: influence of alternatively ...
The encoded protein contains a coiled-coil domain and may form homo- or hetero-dimer with TPD52 family members. The protein is ... Sathasivam P, Bailey AM, Crossley M, Byrne JA (2001). "The role of the coiled-coil motif in interactions mediated by TPD52". ...
At low pH, the inhibitor forms a dimer via antiparallel coiled coil interactions between the C-terminal regions of two monomers ... At high pH, the inhibitor forms tetramers and higher oligomers by coiled coil interactions involving the N terminus and ... The inhibitor has two oligomeric states, dimer (the active state) and tetramer. ...
... IV has a single IQ motif and a tail that lacks any coiled-coil forming sequence. It has homology similar to the tail ... Myosin V is an unconventional myosin motor, which is processive as a dimer and has a step size of 36 nm. It translocates (walks ... Each of these heavy chains contains the N-terminal head domain, while the C-terminal tails take on a coiled-coil morphology, ... Lu Q, Ye F, Wei Z, Wen Z, Zhang M (October 2012). "Antiparallel coiled-coil-mediated dimerization of myosin X". Proceedings of ...
Because dimeric coiled-coils are themselves relatively stable, four-helix bundles can be dimers of coiled-coil pairs, as in the ... Four-helix bundles typically consist of four helices packed in a coiled-coil arrangement with a sterically close-packed ... Although sequence is not conserved among four-helix bundles, sequence patterns tend to mirror those of coiled-coil structures ...
At the N-terminus is a motor domain that is followed by the neck coil (NC). A series of coiled coils (CCs) and a forkhead ... dimer debate, the proposition that KIF1A functioned as a monomeric motor was challenged with a mechanism similar to that found ... April 2004). "An intramolecular interaction between the FHA domain and a coiled coil negatively regulates the kinesin motor ... These coiled coils function to mediate and at times interfere with motor dimerization. In regard to the organization of the ...
The rod domain consists of 308 amino acids with parallel alpha helical coiled coil dimers and three linkers to disrupt it. The ... deletion mutation within the 1A coiled-coil rod segment leading to a severe filament assembly defect". Human Mutation. 40 (6): ... and aromatic residues is important in filament assembly and dimer-dimer interactions. The tail domain is responsible for the ...
... a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The mammalian enzyme contains one heme per dimer, with a proximal ... The crystal structure of the coiled-coil region of the sGC beta subunit has been determined (pdb code 3HLS). The 250-residue ... The PAS domain of sGC is followed by an extended coiled-coil region, which contains a segment called a Signaling helix, which ...
A coiled-coil region leads to a C-terminal domain that forms the main dimer interface for this crystal state (often termed the ...
... may assist in intermediate filament assembly by utilizing electrostatic interactions to stabilize coiled-coil dimers. The head ... This central coil is capped by non-helical head (N-terminal) and tail (C-terminal) domains. The α-helical rod domain contains ... Per 61 is created by introducing a 32 amino acid insertion within coil 2b of the α-helical rod domain of peripherin. Per 56 is ... This specific structure enables two intermediate filament polypeptides to coil together and create a "hydrophobic seal". The ...
Newman JR, Keating AE (2003). "Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays". Science. 300 ( ... 2003). "C/EBP family transcription factors are degraded by the proteasome but stabilized by forming dimer". Oncogene. 22 (9): ... "A family of C/EBP-related proteins capable of forming covalently linked leucine zipper dimers in vitro". Genes Dev. 5 (9): 1553 ...
... helical domains of the two subunits form a coiled coil with one another that typically extends away from the core of the dimer ... explaining the close association of the dimer. In the Gβγ dimer, the Gγ subunit wraps around the outside of Gβ, interacting ... In the heterotrimer form, the Gβγ dimer increases the affinity of Gα for GDP, which causes the G protein to be in an inactive ... Gβγ does not go through any conformational changes when it dissociates from Gα and it acts as a signaling molecule as a dimer. ...
These proteins consist of rod-shaped coiled-coil hetero- or homo-dimers that lie along the α-helical groove of most actin ... Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical, coiled coil protein found in actin-based cytoskeletons. All organisms contain ... The tropomyosin dimer has very low affinity for an actin filament and forms no van der waals contacts with actin. It is only ... Interaction occurs along the length of the actin filament, with dimers aligning in a head-to-tail fashion. Tropomyosins are ...
Two monomers are likely co-translationally expressed in a way that facilitates their formation of a coiled-coil dimer, which is ... a periodic distribution of acidic and basic amino acids that seems to play an important role in stabilizing coiled-coil dimers ...
This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament ... "Molecular interactions in paracrystals of a fragment corresponding to the alpha-helical coiled-coil rod portion of glial ... To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate ...
These coiled coil dimers, approximately 45 nm long, are bonded together with disulfide bonds, utilizing the many cysteine amino ... This differentiation is especially important in alpha-keratins because in the synthesis of its sub-unit dimer, the coiled coil ... The secondary structure of α-keratin is very similar to that of a traditional protein α-helix and forms a coiled coil. Due to ... Two of these polypeptide chains twist together to form a left-handed helical structure known as a coiled coil. ...
... the kinase domain alone is insufficient for dimerisation in vivo and that the coiled-coil domains are required for stable dimer ... Dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase composed of a kinase domain and a coiled-coil domain ...
... rho associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1).[59][60]. *Formation of membrane protrusions: Some cell types, under ... The mechanism of this release is enigmatic, but appears to stem from a multitude of Bax/Bak homo- and hetero-dimers of Bax/Bak ...
Maucuer A, Camonis JH, Sobel A (April 1995). "Stathmin interaction with a putative kinase and coiled-coil-forming protein ... One mole of stathmin binds to two moles of tubulin dimers through the stathmin-like domain (SLD). When stathmin sequesters ... a 78 amino acid coiled-coil region, and a short C-terminal domain. The function of Stathmin is to regulate the cytoskeleton of ...
... forming a dimer structure called a coiled coil. Two of these dimer structures then join side by side, in an antiparallel ... Matera AG (August 1998). "Of coiled bodies, gems, and salmon". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 70 (2): 181-92. doi:10.1002/( ... A nucleus typically contains between 1 and 10 compact structures called Cajal bodies or coiled bodies (CB), whose diameter ... the lamin monomer contains an alpha-helical domain used by two monomers to coil around each other, ...
One projection, the coiled-coil stalk, binds to and "walks" along the surface of the microtubule via a repeated cycle of ... Cytoplasmic dynein, which has a molecular mass of about 1.5 megadaltons (MDa), is a dimer of dimers, containing approximately ... a coiled coil "stalk" that binds to the microtubule, and an extended tail (or "stem") that attaches to a neighboring ...
listen);[1] DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic ... Both chains are coiled around the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 angstroms (Å) (3.4 nanometres). The pair of chains ... For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine dimers, which are cross-links between pyrimidine bases.[75] On the ... being capable of coiling into tight loops and other shapes.[9] In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to ...
... the peptidases that cause peptidoglycan relaxation and the coiled-coil-rich proteins (Ccrp) that are responsible for the ... SulA is a dimer that binds FtsZ (a tubulin-like GTPase) in a 1:1 ratio and acts specifically on its polymerization which ...
... and also because coiled-coil (or leucine zipper) dimers of helices can readily position a pair of interaction surfaces to ... Coiled coilsEdit. Coiled-coil α helices are highly stable forms in which two or more helices wrap around each other in a " ... of myosin or kinesin often adopt coiled-coil structures, as do several dimerizing proteins. A pair of coiled-coils - a four- ... Coiled coils contain a highly characteristic sequence motif known as a heptad repeat, in which the motif repeats itself every ...
Each of these heavy chains contains the N-terminal head domain, while the C-terminal tails take on a coiled-coil morphology, ... Myosin V is an unconventional myosin motor, which is processive as a dimer and has a step size of 36 nm.[20] It translocates ( ... Myosin IV has a single IQ motif and a tail that lacks any coiled-coil forming sequence. It has homology similar to the tail ... In muscle cells, the long coiled-coil tails of the individual myosin molecules join together, forming the thick filaments of ...
"A Brownian Dynamics model of kinesin in three dimensions incorporating the force-extension profile of the coiled-coil cargo ... formiraju proteinski dimer (molekulski par) koji veže dva lahka lanca (KLC). ...
This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 ... AP-1 functions are heavily dependent on the specific Fos and Jun subunits contributing to AP-1 dimers. The outcome of AP-1 ... O'Shea EK, Rutkowski R, Kim PS (January 1989). "Evidence that the leucine zipper is a coiled coil". Science. 243 (4890): 538-42 ... Hydrophobic residues additional to leucine also form the characteristic 3-4 repeat of α helices involved in "coiled-coil" ...
The probably best investigated system consists of coiled-coil forming peptides of complementary charge (one is typically ... occurs when the probe is incorporated into membrane lipids at concentrations of 1-10 mole percent because Rhodamine dimers ... Litowski, J. R.; Hodges, R. S. (2002-10-04). "Designing Heterodimeric Two-stranded α-Helical Coiled-coils: EFFECTS OF ... it was discovered that not only the coiled-coil formation between the two peptides is necessary for membrane fusion to occur, ...
The MFN2 comprises a large cytosolic GTPase domain at the N-terminal, followed by a coiled-coil heptad-repeat (HR1) domain, a ... by the formation of antiparallel dimers between their HR2 domains. A pivotal in vivo study revealed that MFN2 is essential for ...
"CCDC6 coiled-coil domain containing 6 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". "CAPRIN1 cell cycle associated protein 1 [Homo ... The ligand for PDGFRβ (PDGF) accomplishes this in the course of assembling a PDGFRβ dimer. Two of the five PDGF isoforms ... "CCDC88C coiled-coil domain containing 88C [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". "BIN2 bridging integrator 2 [Homo sapiens ( ...
Characterization of a coiled-coil copine-binding motif". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (12): 10048-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M212632200. PMID ... It is composed of two antiparallel dimers of alpha- and beta- subunits. This gene is one member of a family of beta-spectrin ... The encoded protein contains an N-terminal actin-binding domain, and 17 spectrin repeats that are involved in dimer formation. ...
Further interactions are mediated via hydrogen bonds to water within a cavity inside the coiled coil and flanked by hydrophobic ... The stability of the dimer is aided by several interactions at the interface between the DHps of each monomer. These include ... "Gas-phase intermolecular phosphate transfer within a phosphohistidine phosphopeptide dimer". Int J Mass Spectrom. 367: 28-34. ...
Newman JR, Keating AE (Jun 2003). "Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays". Science. ... MafK has a bZIP structure that consists of a basic region for DNA binding and a leucine zipper structure for dimer formation. ... Newman JR, Keating AE (Jun 2003). "Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays". Science. ...
... a folded-back coiled coil (CC1), the intercoiled domain (ICD) and a second coiled coil domain (CC2). The p150Glued arm can dock ... The C-termini of the p150Glued/DCTN1 dimer are embedded in the shoulder, whereas the N-terminal 1227 amino acids form the ... A cryo-EM structure of dynein, dynactin and BICD2 showed that the BICD2 coiled coil runs along the dynactin filament. The tail ...
"Hierarchical Assembly of Nucleic Acid/Coiled-Coil Peptide Nanostructures". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 142 (3): ... By combining ferrocene dimer with β-cyclodextrin dimer, a redox-control supramolecular polymers system has been proposed as a ...
... in the leucine zipper coiled coil dimer. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measured the thermal stability of eight proteins ... Inter-helical interactions in the leucine zipper coiled coil dimer: pH and salt dependence of coupling energy between charged ... article{Krylov1998InterhelicalII, title={Inter-helical interactions in the leucine zipper coiled coil dimer: pH and salt ... in the leucine zipper coiled coil dimer. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measured the thermal stability of eight proteins ...
The tripartite motif coiled-coil is an elongated antiparallel hairpin dimer. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2494-2499 (2014). ...
Dimers and trimers are the most common types.) Many coiled coil-type proteins are involved in important biological functions, ... Another aspect of coiled coil assembly that is relatively well understood, at least in the case of dimeric coiled coils, is ... Coiled-coil domains of keratins Spiricoil predict Coiled Coil and Oligormeric state from a protein sequences at archive.today ( ... These models have been confirmed by structural analyses of coiled-coil domains of keratins. Coiled coils usually contain a ...
SMC dimers form a V-shaped molecule with two long coiled-coil arms.[14][15] To make such a unique structure, an SMC protomer is ... The length of the coiled-coil arms is ~50 nm long. Such long "antiparallel" coiled-coils are very rare, and found only among ... "The new gene mukB codes for a 177 kd protein with coiled-coil domains involved in chromosome partitioning of E. coli". EMBO J. ... antiparallel coiled coils, folded at a flexible hinge". J. Cell Biol. 142 (6): 1595-1604. doi:10.1083/jcb.142.6.1595. PMC ...
Tsr-cyt has been crystallized and its crystal structure corresponds to a helical coiled-coil dimer [13]. A comparison of the ... pHtrII-cyt is predicted to be a helical coiled-coil based on homology to the serine receptor (Figure 1(a)), high coiled-coil ... We have previously shown that pHtrII-cyt assumes a shape consistent with the Tsr-cyt helical coiled-coil dimer structure, but ... b) Top, prediction of coiled-coil structure for pHtrII-cyt by the COILS software (Section 2.5) and below, prediction of ...
Dimers self-associate though the coiled-coil rods to form myosin filaments. The tail domain ends at the C-terminus with a 34- ... Two heavy chains dimerize through the tail domain forming a long alpha-helical coiled-coil rod composed of typical heptad ... in vitro binding of S100A to the carboxy-terminal end of the NM IIA coiled-coil region prevents filament formation and S100A4 ... the 20 KDa light chain unfolds the molecule to produce a globular head region followed by an extended alpha-helical coiled-coil ...
The structures revealed several unexpected and dimer-specific coiled-coil-heptad interactions. Based on these findings, we have ... Our data provide a concept for transcription factor design to selectively activate dimer-specific pathways and binding ...
... the fusion tag ligand and the fusion tag comprise polypeptides that form a coiled-coil dimer. Coiled-coil dimers are known in ... The coiled-coil dimers may be homodimers or heterodimers. In one embodiment, the fusion tag ligand is bound to the fusion tag ... wherein the fusion tag ligand and the fusion tag are a coiled-coil. ...
Two monomers form a parallel coiledcoil dimer; two dimers associate to form an antiparallel tetramer, which is the basic ...
1993 Dimer formation by an N-terminal coiled coil in the APC protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 11109-11113. ... 2000 Crystal structure of the amino-terminal coiled-coil domain of the APC tumor suppressor. J. Mol. Biol. 301: 147-156. ... If APC exists as dimers or oligomers in the destruction complex, it may promote the assembly of large multiprotein complexes ( ... We have depicted Axin and APC here as dimers, but the formation of higher-order assemblages has not been ruled out. (B) Step 1 ...
Contains at least 2 actin-binding sites per coiled-coil dimer.By similarity ... help/coiled target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Coiled coili. 1711 - 2010. Sequence analysisAdd BLAST. 300. ... Coiled coil. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ,p>This subsection of the Family and ... Coiled coil. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups ...
The basic unit of these structures is a coiled-coil dimer. The dimers arrange themselves in a head-to-tail manner, allowing for ...
A short coiled-coil dimerization element imposes 2-fold symmetry. A segment of extended polypeptide chain links the metal- ... The protein binds as a dimer to a symmetrical 17-base-pair sequence. A small, Zn(2+)-containing domain recognizes a conserved ...
Contains at least 2 actin-binding sites per coiled-coil dimer.. Domain:. * Contains at least 2 actin-binding sites per coiled- ... This gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil region. The protein ... This gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil region. The protein ...
Dimer = two-mer.). H-NS dimer, from Arold et al. (2010). Ladburys group (he is the senior author on the paper) have determined ... Superhelical coil of chained H-NS monomers, from Arold et al. (2010). Chaining these together like a daisy chain forms a long ... Each dimer, two-mer of H-NS proteins, form not side by side facing the same way (parallel symmetrical dimers), but end-to-end ... You can see how the H-NS dimers alternative heads and tails, and how the DNA-bidning domains are on the outside in regular ...
Coiled-coil sequences in proteins consist of heptad repeats containing two characteristic hydrophobic positions. The role of ... These studies demonstrate that conserved, buried residues in the GCN4 leucine zipper direct dimer formation. In contrast to ... The x-ray crystal structure of the tetramer revealed a parallel, four-stranded coiled coil. In the tetramer conformation, the ... A switch between two-, three-, and four-stranded coiled coils in GCN4 leucine zipper mutants ...
We report the NMR structure of the zetazeta(TM) dimer, a left-handed coiled coil with substantial polar contacts. Mutagenesis ... The structure of the zetazeta transmembrane dimer reveals features essential for its assembly with the T cell receptor.. Call, ... This structural unit, representing only the second transmembrane dimer interface solved to date, serves as a paradigm for the ... and zetazeta dimers. While structures of extracellular components of the TCR-CD3 complex are known, the transmembrane (TM) ...
Consistent with other observations, the Shroom binding domain is a parallel coiled-coil dimer. Using biochemical approaches, we ... To address the mechanism by which Shroom and Rock interact, we have solved the structure of the coiled-coil region of Rock that ... Their orientation suggests that there may be two independent Shrm binding sites on opposing faces of the coiled-coil region of ... 2013 , Pubmed ID: 24349032 Rho-associated coiled coil containing protein kinase (Rho-kinase or Rock) is a well-defined ...
Islak ve kuru Lab Teknikleri birleştiren Büyük Spiral-coil İçeren Proteinler kristalleşmesini Kılavuzu ... Consistent with other observations, the Shroom binding domain is a parallel coiled-coil dimer. Using biochemical approaches, we ... To address the mechanism by which Shroom and Rock interact, we have solved the structure of the coiled-coil region of Rock that ... Their orientation suggests that there may be two independent Shrm binding sites on opposing faces of the coiled-coil region of ...
... dimer-of-dimers architecture. Through interrogation of the CtIP structure, we identify a point mutation that abolishes ... Tetramerization results from interlocking interactions between the N-terminal extensions of CtIPs coiled-coil region, which ... and coiled-coil regions; the probability of coiled-coil formation is indicated by - (,50%), c (50-90%) or C (,90%). ... Dimerization of CtIP, a BRCA1- and CtBP-interacting protein, is mediated by an N-terminal coiled-coil motif. J. Biol. Chem. 279 ...
Interactions between dimers are mediated by the coiled coil region. The dimers interact mostly via the N-terminal ... help/coiled target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Coiled coili. 87 - 227. Sequence analysis1 Publication. Manual assertion inferred by ... Coiled coil. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length. ,p>This subsection of the Family and ... Coiled coil, Signal. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups ...
These subfilaments are ∼4 nm in diameter, i.e., about twice the width of the coiled-coil tail of the myosin (∼2 nm). Thus, it ... In the 10S monomer, the coiled-coil tail is folded into three approximately equal segments and the two heads associate with ... 9B, M), but no unfolded monomers and only an occasional folded parallel dimer (Fig. 9B, PD). The heads of monomers, dimers, and ... M, D, PD, and T stand for folded monomer, folded antiparallel dimer, folded parallel dimer, and folded antiparallel tetramer, ...
Using this, we have built a dimer model where each monomer forms half of an elongated antiparallel coiled coil with domain- ... As expected, the monomer shows a globular domain with a protruding helical coiled coil. The dimer shows an elongated dumbbell ... Full-length ezrin forms stable monomers and dimers. We used small-angle X-ray scattering to determine the solution structures ... The model suggests that ERM dimers may bind to actin in a parallel fashion. ...
1993) Dimer formation by an N-terminal coiled coil in the APC protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90:11109-11113, pmid:8248216 ... APC was reported to form dimers through its NH2-terminal α-helical coiled-coil region (Joslyn et al. 1993; Su et al. 1993a). ... 1; for review see Polakis 1997). The NH2-terminal region contains an α-helix domain that forms a parallel coiled-coil dimer ( ... that CLIP-170 is incorporated into MT ends by copolymerizing with free tubulin dimers and released from the older part of MTs. ...
b) Coil-coil homodimerization or heterodimerization. (c) Two IF dimers assemble in an antiparallel fashion to form soluble ... grey boxes including coils 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B) and a C‐terminal tail domain (green box). Site‐specific phosphorylation of head ...
The M protein is an alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer extending from the surface of the bacteria as a fibril [10]. Its structure ...
In those cases examined, histidine kinases have been found to be dimers with autophosphorylation occurring in trans between ... How might a coiled coil mediate signal transduction? An obvious answer is that the coiled coil (or a coiled coil-like, extended ... We find that, after use of learncoil, 76% of kinases are predicted (likelihood ≥0.5) as coiled coils, or coiled coil-like ... to the initial coiled coil values suggests some ways in which the new motif differs from typical two-stranded coiled coils. The ...
Dimer contacts in the presence of arabinose are mediated by an antiparallel coiled-coil. In the 2.8 angstrom structure of the ...
Joslyn, G., Richardson, D. S., White, R. and Alber, T. (1993). Dimer formation by an N-terminal coiled coil in the APC protein ... Day, C. L. and Alber, T. (2000). Crystal structure of the amino-terminal coiled-coil domain of the APC tumor suppressor. J. Mol ... The N-terminus of APC contains long stretches of coiled-coil domains as well as a set of seven armadillo repeats and it can ... Recent studies confirmed that the first 58 amino acids of APC, which are involved in coiled-coil-mediated dimerisation of the ...
Joslyn, G., Richardson, D. S., White, R. and Alber, T. ( 1993). Dimer formation by an N-terminal coiled coil in the APC protein ...
  • Although disfavored, a few right-handed coiled coils have also been observed in nature and in designed proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] [15] To make such a unique structure, an SMC protomer is self-folded through anti-parallel coiled-coil interactions, forming a rod-shaped molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the 2.5-Å structure of sm-Tmβ98, containing Gly-Ala-Ser at the N terminus to mimic acetylation, reveals a parallel coiled coil. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Functional as a dimer, the structure of HAMP shows a parallel coiled-coil motif comprising four helices. (nih.gov)
  • The LIG_EABR_CEP55_1 motif binds to the Cep55 EABR domains, which form a non-canonical dimeric parallel coiled-coil. (eu.org)
  • This autoinhibited state can be relieved via proteolytic cleavage, binding of lipids to a Pleckstrin Homology domain near the C-terminus, or binding of GTP-bound RhoA to the central coiled-coil region of Rock. (jove.com)
  • All SMC proteins share a typical structure and consist of N- and C-terminal domains carrying the ATPase motif, the hinge domain and two central coiled-coil domains. (uni-marburg.de)
  • In the central coiled-coil regions, non-canonical interactions between the two coils cause them to be pushed apart and the structure to become asymmetric, which results in the formation of the motif-binding site. (eu.org)
  • Inter-helical interactions in the leucine zipper coiled coil dimer: pH and salt dependence of coupling energy between charged amino acids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The structures revealed several unexpected and dimer-specific coiled-coil-heptad interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • Tetramerization results from interlocking interactions between the N-terminal extensions of CtIP's coiled-coil region, which lead to a 'dimer-of-dimers' architecture. (nature.com)
  • Several tertiary interactions are observed within tRNA involving the hydroxyl groups of the sugar riboses (which is particularily interesting considering that these -OH groups are missing in the DNA sugar molecules), and these hydroxyl groups are essential for stabilizing the coiling action of tRNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • The 1.8-Å structure of sm-Tmα98 (98-aa) unexpectedly reveals an antiparallel coiled coil, with the two chains staggered by only 4 amino acids and displaying hydrophobic core interactions similar to those of the parallel dimer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We confirmed these interactions in solution and showed that the coiled-coil dimer is stable while head-to-head dimerisation occurs with a rather low affinity. (esrf.fr)
  • Four different mechanical properties of hydrogels using de novo designed coiled coil interactions involved. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between Sso7c4 dimers and a double-stranded DNA. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Contact map analysis shows the two Sso7c4 dimers have important intermolecular interactions through hydrophobic residues pulling two Sso7c4 dimers closer. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • E) in the leucine zipper coiled coil dimer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The role of these buried hydrophobic residues in determining the structures of coiled coils was investigated by studying mutants of the GCN4 leucine zipper. (sciencemag.org)
  • These studies demonstrate that conserved, buried residues in the GCN4 leucine zipper direct dimer formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • 3. The binding agent of claim 1, wherein the a':a binding pair and the b:b' binding pair are selected from the group consisting of leucine zipper domain dimers and hybridizing nucleic acid sequences. (patents.com)
  • ΙKKγ is highly conserved between species, and structural predictions indicate a high α-helical content, with extended coiled-coil regions, a leucine zipper, and a C-terminal zinc finger. (asm.org)
  • IKKγ contains two coiled-coil domains and a leucine zipper which allow it to form dimers and trimers that interact directly with IKKβ. (fishersci.com)
  • Folding a sequence with this repeating pattern into an alpha-helical secondary structure causes the hydrophobic residues to be presented as a 'stripe' that coils gently around the helix in left-handed fashion, forming an amphipathic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two heavy chains dimerize through the tail domain forming a long alpha-helical coiled-coil rod composed of typical heptad repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • The path to myosin filament formation, which is shared by NM II and smooth muscle myosin, starts with a folded inactive conformation of the NM II monomer which, upon phosphorylation of the 20 KDa light chain unfolds the molecule to produce a globular head region followed by an extended alpha-helical coiled-coil tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • We provide evidence that pHtrII-cyt is highly dynamic with strong helical propensity, which allows it to change from monomeric to dimeric helical coiled-coil states without undergoing dramatic shape changes. (hindawi.com)
  • Tsr-cyt has been crystallized and its crystal structure corresponds to a helical coiled-coil dimer [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • a) Schematic representation of the structural organisation of an IF molecule, consisting of an N ‐terminal head domain (Red box), the central α‐helical rod domain (grey boxes including coils 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B) and a C ‐terminal tail domain (green box). (els.net)
  • Some myosins (myosins 6, 7 and 10) contain an SAH (single α-helical) domain, which was originally thought to be a coiled coil. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • This entry represents the all-alpha helical domain, which consists of four long helices arranged in a bundle with a left-handed twist (coiled-coil), which in turn forms a right-handed superhelix. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The M protein is an alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer extending from the surface of the bacteria as a fibril [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As expected, the monomer shows a globular domain with a protruding helical coiled coil. (proteopedia.org)
  • It was published in the journal ACS Nano ( 'Observing Changes in the Structure and Oligomerization State of a Helical Protein Dimer Using Solid-State Nanopores' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2-7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The α-helices may be parallel or anti-parallel, and usually adopt a left-handed super-coil (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized algorithms have been developed for the detection of specific well defined patterns such as transmembrane helices and coiled coils in proteins, or microRNA structures in RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • The interface of this dimer is formed by a ring-shaped element consisting of five short helices. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Fig 4) These direct tandem α-helices fold back on each other into an antiparallel, coiled-coil hairpin. (igem.org)
  • The dimer version is 'zipped' together," Niedzwiecki said, "It is a 'coiled coil' of interleaved helices that is roughly cylindrical. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, myosins are mostly monomeric, whereas kinesins are mostly dimeric, owing to the presence of a coiled coil. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The main state of ScpB in solution was found to be a dimer, while ScpA exists in both monomeric and dimeric forms. (uni-marburg.de)
  • 2016 ). Crystal structures of Hv1 dimeric channels revealed that the primary contacts between the two monomers are in the C-terminal domain (CTD), which forms a coiled-coil structure. (tcdb.org)
  • The learning algorithm uses a combination of established sequence patterns in known coiled coil proteins and histidine kinase sequence data to learn to recognize efficiently this coiled coil-like motif in the histidine kinases. (pnas.org)
  • C ) Location of many high likelihood coiled coils in the cytoplasmic linker domain before the H block motif. (pnas.org)
  • Two coiled coils are predicted, occurring before the H block motif and shortly after the final transmembrane segment. (pnas.org)
  • It is intriguing that many of the predicted coiled coils would precede directly the histidine autophosphorylation sites, terminating at the conserved proline within the 16-residue H block consensus motif (Fig. 1 C ). Coils in this position are predicted in only ≈30% of the sequences examined by newcoils ( 17 ) or paircoil ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • An additional study discovered that the specific section of the En-HD called the helix-turn-helix motif (HTH) behaves as an independent folding domain. (wikibooks.org)
  • When examining the full protein, the HTH motif represents a folding intermediate in the En-HD folding pathway [2, Travagilini-Allocatelli et al. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2015). A coiled-coil motif in non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of bluetongue virus forms an oligomer. (tcdb.org)
  • TRIM5α is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins which contain RING, B-box, and coiled-coil domains ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • One Cep55 dimer binds a single copy of the motif ( 3E1R ). (eu.org)
  • Dimers and trimers are the most common types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TRIM5α coiled-coil and B30.2(SPRY) domains make important contributions to the formation and/or stability of the trimers. (asm.org)
  • Structural predictions suggest that the coiled coils of TRIM proteins exhibit a propensity to form both dimers and trimers ( 6 , 7 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • domains oligomerize as dimers, trimers and/or heterotrimers. (cellsignal.com)
  • These two residues exploit backbone strain to specifically direct dimer formation while preventing higher-order oligomerization. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We propose that tetramerization is accomplished by a prerequisite dimerization through a C-terminal coiled-coil minimal oligomerization domain (MOD). (asm.org)
  • The coiled coil of TRIM7 is essential for oligomerization ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Such long "antiparallel" coiled-coils are very rare, and found only among SMC proteins (and its relatives such as Rad50). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this, we have built a dimer model where each monomer forms half of an elongated antiparallel coiled coil with domain-swapped FERM:C-terminal domain complexes at each end. (proteopedia.org)
  • Dimer contacts in the presence of arabinose are mediated by an antiparallel coiled-coil. (sciencemag.org)
  • SMC proteins form an intermolecular dimer via interaction of hinge domains. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The M proteins form fibrillar coiled-coil dimers on the streptococcal surface and have been studied extensively, due to their important ability to inhibit phagocytosis ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Full-length ezrin forms stable monomers and dimers. (proteopedia.org)
  • Deletion of the MOD leads to loss of tetramerization and of phosphorylation of IKKβ and IKKγ, although the kinase can still interact with the resultant IKKγ monomers and dimers. (asm.org)
  • A short coiled-coil dimerization element imposes 2-fold symmetry. (nih.gov)
  • This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. (ebscohost.com)
  • The data suggest that SMC interacts with DNA via dimerization of its head domains leading to the formation of a ring-like structure with DNA trapped in between the coiled-coil (domains) arms of SMC. (uni-marburg.de)
  • This is followed by dimerization of the dimers with their N-terminal sequences. (asm.org)
  • Coiled coils usually contain a repeated pattern, hxxhcxc, of hydrophobic (h) and charged (c) amino-acid residues, referred to as a heptad repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The packing in a coiled-coil interface is exceptionally tight, with almost complete van der Waals contact between the side-chains of the a and d residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three Cys-residues located at 79,114,123 specifically binds Pb(II) ions by forming disulfide bonds within the engineered dimer. (igem.org)
  • The N-terminus of NS3 (Residues 1 - 117) forms SDS-resistant dimers and high-order oligomers (hexamer and/or octamer). (tcdb.org)
  • The crystal structure of the N terminus of Stat4 reveals a dimer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • however, this internal helix was found to mediate an intramolecular coiled-coil interaction with a helix at the C terminus of LcrV ( 5 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We find that under these conditions, the kinesin dimer can attach to the microtubule with either one or two motor domains, and we present sub-nanometer resolution reconstructions of both states. (elifesciences.org)
  • Kinesin-1 forms a homodimer via the formation of a coiled coil by the stalk domains in the middle of the polypeptide chains. (elifesciences.org)
  • Such inter-head coordination is critical for effective motility, in part because premature ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the leading head would be futile or could generate tension between the two heads and cause the kinesin dimer to fall off the microtubule. (elifesciences.org)
  • One possible cause of this observation is the over-saturating concentrations of kinesin dimers used (relative to microtubules). (elifesciences.org)
  • To overcome these shortcomings, we developed a new method, FINDKIN, which is capable of locating bound kinesin motors on microtubules and has allowed us to determine the first structure of a kinesin dimer whose two motor domains bind at sequential sites along a single protofilament. (elifesciences.org)
  • Unexpectedly, we also identified a second population of kinesin dimers in the same sample that attaches to the microtubule with only one motor domain. (elifesciences.org)
  • Coiled-coil sequences in proteins consist of heptad repeats containing two characteristic hydrophobic positions. (sciencemag.org)
  • The basic unit of these structures is a coiled-coil dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • None of the structures contains coiled-coil stabilizing elements, favoring the formation of head-to-tail overlap complexes in four of five crystallographically independent parallel dimers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These structures show that SAS-6 consists of a globular N-terminal head domain and a rod like coiled-coil domain that follows in sequence. (esrf.fr)
  • HR1 forms a parallel, trimeric coiled coil onto which HR2 region coils, forming the trimer-of-hairpins (or six-helix bundle) structure, thereby facilitating membrane fusion through bringing the membranes close to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent works involve the study of the helix-coil transition, helix-helix interaction, and ß-sheet formation. (upenn.edu)
  • ANG-2 is composed of an alpha-helix-rich "coiled coil" N-terminal domain and fibrinogen-like C-terminal domain. (peprotech.com)
  • We report the NMR structure of the zetazeta(TM) dimer, a left-handed coiled coil with substantial polar contacts. (rcsb.org)
  • The differences between SAH domains and coiled coils are described and the potential roles of SAH domains in molecular motors are discussed. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Thus, the loop acts as a loaded molecular spring that releases tension in the monomer by adopting its alternative conformation in the dimer. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These results suggest that specific utilization of the dimer interface and modulation of the homodimer-heterodimer transition by Beclin 1-interacting partners may underlie the molecular mechanism that controls the formation of various Beclin1-VPS34 subcomplexes to exert their effect on an array of VPS34-related activities, including autophagy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms underlying monomer stabilization and monomer‐to‐dimer transition are not well understood. (embopress.org)
  • The protein binds as a dimer to a symmetrical 17-base-pair sequence. (nih.gov)
  • To address the mechanism by which Shroom and Rock interact, we have solved the structure of the coiled-coil region of Rock that binds to Shroom proteins. (jove.com)
  • We find that the cytoplasmic linker domains of many histidine kinases appear to contain coiled coils, when evaluated with algorithms developed to identify these motifs within primary sequences. (pnas.org)
  • In the tetramer conformation, the local packing geometry of the two hydrophobic positions in the heptad repeat is reversed relative to that in the dimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dimers self-associate though the coiled-coil rods to form myosin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • SMC dimers form a V-shaped molecule with two long coiled-coil arms. (wikipedia.org)
  • c) Two IF dimers assemble in an antiparallel fashion to form soluble tetramers. (els.net)
  • For example, in mammals, where the pathway has been studied more extensively, it is known that unphosphorylated cytoplasmic STAT form dimers prior to their tyrosine phosphorylation. (biologists.org)
  • Terminal domains come together to form one head domain, while coiled coil domains form a single coiled coil. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Using different approaches, such as size exclusion chromatography, gel shift assay and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, I found that SMC, ScpA and ScpB indeed form a ternary complex, which most likely consists of one SMC dimer, two ScpAs and two ScpB dimers. (uni-marburg.de)
  • ScpA and ScpB were also able to form two types of complexes in absence of SMC: one formed by one ScpA and a dimer of ScpB, and a larger complex most likely consisting of two ScpAs and two ScpB dimers. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Vimentin typically exists as a coiled-coil dimer that interacts with another dimers to form a tetrameric complex that forms cytoskeletal protein sheets. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The dimer and monomer form of the protein block a different number of ions, so we see a different drop in current when they go through the pore," Niedzwiecki said. (nanowerk.com)
  • Both domains were found to form homodimers: The N-terminal domain formed a slightly curved head-to-head dimer while the coiled-coil domain formed a canonical elongated coiled-coil dimer. (esrf.fr)
  • Only a small amount of a higher-order form, probably a dimer, was evident in the absence of cross-linker. (asm.org)
  • ANG-2 exists predominantly in the form of a disulfide-linked dimer. (peprotech.com)
  • Based on sequence and secondary structure prediction analyses identified the coiled-coil domains of keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These models have been confirmed by structural analyses of coiled-coil domains of keratins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two protomers then dimerize through their hinge domains and assemble a V-shaped dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have applied such a method, an iterative learning algorithm, to analyze possible coiled coil domains in histidine kinase receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. (ebscohost.com)
  • The interaction between LcrG and LcrV is thought to occur through hydrophobic coiled-coil domains ( 12 , 13 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The monomer-dimer equilibrium is controlled by two conserved prolines in the hinge loop that connects the exchanging domains. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • In this case, the RING, B-box, and coiled-coil domains were shown to contribute to trimerization. (asm.org)
  • TRIM5 isoforms include TRIM5γ, which consists of the RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains, and TRIM5α, which contains an additional C-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Imperfect interface of Beclin1 coiled-coil domain regulates homodimer and heterodimer formation with Atg14L and UVRAG. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This structural unit, representing only the second transmembrane dimer interface solved to date, serves as a paradigm for the assembly of all modules involved in TCR signaling. (rcsb.org)
  • these new results suggest that the intramolecular coiled coil in LcrV is required for LcrG interaction and activation of the T3SS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we report an intramolecular interaction in KIF1A between the forkhead‐associated (FHA) domain and a coiled‐coil domain (CC2) immediately following the FHA domain. (embopress.org)
  • In his note (which was published first due to its shorter length), Crick proposed the Coiled Coil and as well as mathematical methods for determining their structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The x-ray crystal structure of the tetramer revealed a parallel, four-stranded coiled coil. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast to proposals that the pattern of hydrophobic and polar amino acids in a protein sequence is sufficient to determine three-dimensional structure, the shapes of buried side chains in coiled coils are essential determinants of the global fold. (sciencemag.org)
  • Crystal structure of a tyrosine phosphorylated STAT-1 dimer bound to DNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: The CC structure of sGCβ1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. (ebscohost.com)
  • The dimer shows an elongated dumbbell structure that is twice as long as the monomer. (proteopedia.org)
  • Here we report the crystal structure of the coiled coil domain that forms an antiparallel dimer and is rendered metastable by a series of 'imperfect' a-d' pairings at its coiled coil interface. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We're interested in learning about the structure of a given protein, such as whether it exists as a monomer, or combined with another copy into a dimer, or an aggregate of multiple copies known as an oligomer. (nanowerk.com)
  • An important structural element, called neck linker, connects the motor domain to the coiled coil. (elifesciences.org)
  • The coiled coil domain of Beclin 1 serves as an interaction platform for assembly of distinct Atg14L- and UVRAG-containing complexes to modulate VPS34 activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The NS3 proteins have at least three coiled-coil motifs (CCMs). (tcdb.org)
  • MITF forms a dimer with a long coiled-coil protein "zipper", and the kink in this zipper limits MITF's ability to bind to other transcription factors. (healthcanal.com)
  • The formation of overlap complexes thus appears to be an intrinsic property of the Tm coiled coil, with the specific nature of hydrophobic contacts determining the extent of the overlap. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • C ) IC-associated densities were identified through focused 2D analysis of the region surrounding the putative LC7 dimer density (white dotted circle). (nih.gov)
  • This putative dimer was sensitive to β-ME (data not shown). (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil region. (genecards.org)
  • The dimers arrange themselves in a head-to-tail manner, allowing for the formation of a protofilament. (wikipedia.org)
  • A and B ) Negative stain class average of the purified dynein dimer. (nih.gov)
  • Densities proposed to correspond to the LC8 and Tctex dimers project away from the LC7 dimer at a range of orientations relative to the dynein tail, and do not appear to make any contact with the HC. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers used single-molecule experiments to examine coil to globule transition of proteins and have demonstrated that the denatured state showed steady expansion as the concentration of denaturant was increased. (wikibooks.org)
  • M protein appears on electron microscopy as multiple hairlike projections on the cell surface and consists of coiled dimers ( 30 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • The focus of our research is to study how proteins fold from random or quasi-random coils to their biologically functional conformations. (upenn.edu)
  • Here we show that it is possible to control the nonorthogonal peptides, designed to fold into four different coiled coil heterodimers with dissociation constants spanning from mu M to pM, were conjugated to star-shaped 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). (diva-portal.org)
  • The different PEG-coiled coil conjugates self-assemble as a result of peptide heterodimerization. (diva-portal.org)
  • Different combinations of PEG peptide conjugates assemble into PEG peptide networks and hydrogels with distinctly different thermal stabilities, supramolecular, and rheological properties, reflecting the peptide dimer affinities. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tropomyosins are dimers of coiled-coil proteins that polymerize end-to-end along the major groove in most actin filaments. (cancerindex.org)
  • Many coiled coil-type proteins are involved in important biological functions, such as the regulation of gene expression - e.g., transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data provide a concept for transcription factor design to selectively activate dimer-specific pathways and binding repertoires. (rcsb.org)
  • The active dimers induce gene transcription in the nucleus by binding to a specific DNA-response element (TTCN2-4GAA) within target genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that their folding pathways are connected by the denatured state, which introduces a kinetic barrier between monomer and dimer under native conditions. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Plasma D-dimer levels elevate during acute stages of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are associated with poor functional outcomes. (thejns.org)
  • However, the mechanism in which D-dimer elevation on admission affects functional outcomes remains unknown. (thejns.org)
  • The aim of this study is to clarify whether D-dimer levels on admission are correlated with systemic complications after aneurysmal SAH, and to investigate their additive predictive value on conventional risk factors for poor functional outcomes. (thejns.org)
  • The differences in shape between the dimer and monomer versions of the protein translate to changes in charge, which can be read by electronics surrounding the nanopore. (nanowerk.com)