Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.DenmarkRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.United StatesOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.SwedenSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Great BritainPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.JapanCause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Cohort Effect: Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)FinlandConfounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.NorwayBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.ScotlandDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.SwitzerlandHealth Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.BrazilOutcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).TaiwanDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.GermanyPoisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.EnglandChild Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.EuropeCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.MinnesotaAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.ItalyWeight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.CaliforniaHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Observation: The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Propensity Score: Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.IowaColorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).LondonQuebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (1/46662)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (2/46662)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. (3/46662)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

Cohort study of art glass workers in Tuscany, Italy: mortality from non-malignant diseases. (4/46662)

This investigation studies cause-specific mortality of art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Tuscany, Italy. A cohort of 3,390 workers employed for at least 1 year was enumerated from company payrolls. Follow-up was between the start of employment in each factory and 31 December 1993. The cause-specific expected mortality was computed relative to Tuscany rates and specified for gender, 5-year age groups and calendar year. Separate analyses were carried out for the jobs of makers and formers and for batch mixers. Among males (3, 180 individuals) observed mortality for non-cancer causes was higher than expected for hypertensive disease [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 178, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) = 96-301], pneumoconiosis (SMR = 200, 90% CI = 94-376) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 169, 90% CI = 95-279). Increases for the above causes were shown also among makers and formers: hypertensive disease (SMR = 182, 90% CI = 85-341), pneumoconiosis (SMR = 250, 90% CI = 109-493) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 224, 90% CI = 121-380). For batch mixers an increase was present for cerebrovascular disease. The observed mortality for cancer causes was above the expected for cancers of the larynx, lung, stomach and brain. This study points to the existence for Tuscan glass workers of health effects in addition to cancer; previously observed carcinogenic effects were also confirmed.  (+info)

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (5/46662)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (6/46662)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (7/46662)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. (8/46662)

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Adherence to treatment with protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV-infected patients. T2 - A retrospective study. AU - Lazzarini, L.. AU - Lanzafame, M.. AU - Polo, A.. AU - Vento, S.. AU - Concia, E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Objectives: A retrospective study was carried out to assess the relationship between medication adherence to protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV infected patients. Methods: 173 patients, undergoing a triple antiretroviral treatment including a protease inhibitor, were recruited. Adherence was assessed through an antiretroviral medicine register. Results: Non-adherence was found in 26.5% of patients on indinavir, in 29% of patients on ritonavir and in 25.7% of patients on saquinavir. No immunological and clinical failure was recorded during the study. At the end of the study, the average plasmatic viremia was lower in adherent than in non-adherent patients (11,587 vs 21,258 ...
Jehan, I., Harris, H., Salat, S., Zeb, A., Mobeen, N., Pasha, O., ... Goldenberg, R. L. (2009). Neonatal mortality, risk factors and causes: A prospective population-based cohort study in urban Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(2), 130-138. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.08.050963 ...
article{e1d486dc-0d2e-4f48-b547-d6542d967ba0, abstract = {,p,Prospective observational studies have shown previously that study participants have lower morbidity and mortality than non-participants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether participants in a prospective cohort study on melanoma have a different incidence and mortality of melanoma compared with non-participants and the background population. Information was collected from Swedish National Registers on participants (n = 30,501) and non-participants (n = 10,499) in the Melanoma In Southern Sweden (MISS) study and the background population (n = 243,032). Hazard ratios were calculated for overall incidence of cancer and melanoma, and all-cause and melanoma-specific mortality, using Cox regression. Participants had a lower overall incidence of cancer and all-cause mortality than non-participants and the background population. There was no difference in incidence of melanoma or melanoma-specific characteristics between ...
Survival rates in kidney cancer have improved little over time, and diabetes may be an independent risk factor for poor survival in kidney cancer. We sought to determine whether medications with putative anti-neoplastic properties (statins, metformin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) are associated with survival in diabetics with kidney cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing linked healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients were aged 66 or older with newly diagnosed diabetes and a subsequent diagnosis of incident kidney cancer. Receipt of metformin, statins or NSAIDs was defined using prescription claims. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, with medication use modeled with time-varying and cumulative exposure analyses to account for intermittent use. During the 14-year study period, we studied 613 patients. Current statin use ...
A SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605, was recently found to be associated with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) by Herbert and colleagues. The association between increased BMI and homozygosity for the minor allele was first observed in data from a genome-wide association scan of 86,604 SNPs in 923 related individuals from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. The association was reproduced in four additional cohorts, but was not seen in a fifth cohort. To further assess the general reproducibility of this association, we genotyped rs7566605 in nine large cohorts from eight populations across multiple ethnicities (total n = 16,969). We tested this variant for association with BMI in each sample under a recessive model using family-based, population-based, and case-control designs. We observed a significant (p , 0.05) association in five cohorts but saw no association in three other cohorts. There was variability in the strength of association evidence across ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older. T2 - a nationwide, population-based cohort study. AU - Legarth, Rebecca. AU - Ahlström, Magnus G. AU - Kronborg, Gitte. AU - Larsen, Carsten S. AU - Pedersen, Court. AU - Pedersen, Gitte. AU - Mohey, Rajesh. AU - Gerstoft, Jan. AU - Obel, Niels. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older, when compared to an individually-matched cohort from the background population.METHODS: Population-based cohort-study including HIV-infected individuals ≥ 50 years, who were alive one year after HIV-diagnosis (n=2,440) and a comparison cohort individually-matched by age and gender extracted from the background population (n=14,588). Cumulative ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of the n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined CV outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status and RBC n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 CHD events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for the n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher
Background Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4Is) are drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence that DPP4Is may result in suppression of the immune system and may increase the risk of infections such as pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of DPP4Is and the risk of pneumonia in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the worlds largest primary care database, the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We selected all users of non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs), including DPP4Is, between 2007 and 2012. To each NIAD user, we matched randomly selected non-users. The NIAD users first prescription defined the index date, which was then assigned to the matched non-users. Patients were followed from their first prescription until end of data collection or the first event of pneumonia, whichever came first. Cox regression analysis estimated the
BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinsons disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. METHOD: We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort ...
article{8645532, author = {Seibold, Petra and Webb, Adam and Aguado-Barrera, Miguel E. and Azria, David and Bourgier, Celine and Brengues, Muriel and Briers, Erik and Bultijnck, Renée and Calvo-Crespo, Patricia and Carballo, Ana and Choudhury, Ananya and Cicchetti, Alessandro and Claßen, Johannes and Delmastro, Elena and Dunning, Alison M. and Elliott, Rebecca M. and Fachal, Laura and Farcy-Jacquet, Marie-Pierre and Gabriele, Pietro and Garibaldi, Elisabetta and Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio and Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara and Higginson, Daniel S. and Johnson, Kerstie and Lobato-Busto, Ramón and Mollà, Meritxell and Müller, Anusha and Payne, Debbie and Peleteiro, Paula and Post, Giselle and Rancati, Tiziana and Rattay, Tim and Reyes, Victoria and Rosenstein, Barry S. and De Ruysscher, Dirk and De Santis, Maria Carmen and Schäfer, Jörg and Schnabel, Thomas and Sperk, Elena and Symonds, R. Paul and Stobart, Hilary and Taboada-Valladares, Begoña and Talbot, Christopher J. and Valdagni, Riccardo ...
Participation rates in large cohort studies have decreased during the last 2 decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. On the basis of independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for 3 exposure-risk associations: (a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, (b) smoking during pregnancy and birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, and (c) prepregnancy body mass index and antepartum stillbirth. The effect of nonparticipation was described by a relative odds ratio (ROR), calculated as the OR(participants)/OR(source population). Two methods for calculation of confidence intervals for the relative odds ratio also were assessed. The effect of nonparticipation on the selected ORs was small. The relative ORs ...
This study hypothesized that HISD prekindergarten participation consistently correlated with better educational outcomes for students. Taking into account students age differences through kindergarten enrollment, propensity score matching controlled for students background characteristics. Three cohorts of students in this study were eligible or attended HISD prekindergarten during the 2001-2002 (Cohort I), 2002-2003 (Cohort II), and 2003-2004 (Cohort III) academic years. The study found that kindergarten students in Cohorts I, II, and III outperformed students who did not attend HISD prekindergarten on nationally-normed Stanford and Aprenda reading and mathematics tests, indicating a statistically significant positive effect of HISD prekindergarten in the short-term. HISD prekindergarten had extended effects for Cohort II students, given that they consistently outperformed non-HISD prekindergarten students at targeted grades third, fifth, and seventh. Long-term effects related to
A large prospective cohort study published in Stroke by researchers from several universities in Japan has found that people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day had a 20% lower stroke risk compared to those who seldom drank it. The study investigated the dietary habits of 81978 participants who were involved in an ongoing cohort study of Japanese adults aged 40 to 69 which focused on lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Using a food frequency questionnaire the participants recorded their consumption of various foods and drinks including green tea and coffee. During the follow up period of 13 years there were 3425 strokes and 910 incidents of coronary heart disease. The scientists found that those who drank two to three cups of green tea a day were 14% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never drank it, people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day were 20% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never ...
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
The study population was comprised of 17,059 patients. The VC rate was higher in the overall contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 2.91% vs. 1.98%; odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.89; p = 0.001). In the contemporary cohort, radial access was associated with fewer VCs compared with femoral access (adjusted rates: 1.44% vs. 4.19%; OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23-0.48; p < 0.001). There was a higher likelihood of VCs in association with FA in the contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 4.19% vs. 1.98%; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.67-2.81; p < 0.001). This finding was consistent for both diagnostic and therapeutic catheterizations separately. ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
The Original Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study consisted of 5,209 respondents of a random sample of 2/3 of the adult population of Framingham, Massachusetts, 30 to 62 years of age by household, in 1948. Exam 32 for the Original Cohort ended in April of 2014.. ...
Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label "case series" is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. Mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence.. This article tries to clarify the concept of case series and proposes a way to distinguish them from cohort studies. In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. A cohort study may include a comparison group, although this is not a necessary feature. A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. ...
This 2002 report presents the results of the mortality cohorts implemented through the EMCDDA multi-site study. The report contains: the descriptions of the cohorts, the standardised mortality rates (general and cause-specific, when possible), the standardised mortality ratios (SMR), a survival analysis of cohorts participants by age and site, and a univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to mortality.. ...
How representative participants in this study were in relation to the original cohort was tested using χ2 tests. Separate analyses were carried out by sex as BMD, skeletal size, and rates of bone loss are known to differ between men and women. Lifecourse effects on adult health have previously been shown to differ by sex for this and other cohorts.11,22,23 Furthermore, the inclusion of variables such as age at menarche, and number of pregnancies prevents the use of a combined lifecourse model. Eleven twins were excluded from all analyses because of the differences in fetal development for multiple births and the fact that data contributed by co-twins are not independent.. Chronic infection in childhood, hormone replacement therapy and physical activity were defined as binary variables. Social class, position in family, alcohol consumption, number of acute illnesses in childhood, quartiles of ranked adult dietary intake of vitamins C and D, protein and calcium, and number of pregnancies were ...
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.. METHODS: The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.. RESULTS: Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery from mental ill health in an occupational setting. T2 - A cohort study in Japan. AU - Mino, Yoshio. AU - Shigemi, Jun. AU - Tsuda, Toshihide. AU - Yasuda, Nobufumi. AU - Babazono, Akira. AU - Bebbington, Paul. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify the degree of recovery from mental ill health in occupational settings and the nature of perceived job stress associated with recovery. Methods: A 1-year cohort study was carried out in 287 of 763 workers who scored 8 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and the proportion recovering during the year was compared according to the presence of individual perceived job stress items. To control confounding factors, multiple logistic analysis was used. Results: Recovery from mental ill health was observed in 48.7% after the first 6 months and in 66.1% after 1 year. During the first 6-month period, no identified job stress item was associated with recovery. During the ...
Methods The Million Women Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged UK women. This analysis is based on 372 542 women who reported their birthweight, current body size, and other information in a follow-up survey administered approximately 3 years after recruitment (mean age 58 years at follow-up). Logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk for being obese in adulthood (body mass index,30 kg/m2) by birthweight, both unadjusted and adjusted for reported adult height, parental heights, and a range of social and lifestyle factors, including socio-economic status, parental smoking at birth, being breast fed, reproductive history and health behaviours. ...
Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Baron, J. A., Kanis, J. A., Orav, E. J., Staehelin, H. B., Kiel, D. P., Burckhardt, P., Henschkowski, J., Spiegelman, D., Li, R., Wong, J. B., Feskanich, D. and Willett, W. C. (2011), Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res, 26: 833-839. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.279 ...
A maximum of 56 healthy adult (male and female) subjects will participate in this study, in two stages. In Stage 1, the Single-Ascending Dose (SAD) phase of the study will have up to six cohorts with 4 subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial six cohorts. In Stage 2, the Multiple-Ascending Dose (MAD) portion of the study will have up to three cohorts with four subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial three cohorts ...
Parkinsons Disease and Risk of Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A maximum of 56 healthy adult (male and female) subjects will participate in this study, in two stages. In Stage 1, the Single-Ascending Dose (SAD) phase of the study will have up to six cohorts with 4 subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial six cohorts. In Stage 2, the Multiple-Ascending Dose (MAD) portion of the study will have up to three cohorts with four subjects (3 receiving TKM-100201 and 1 receiving saline placebo) in each cohort. Additional cohorts may be enrolled if a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is not established after the initial three cohorts ...
Person-years at risk were calculated from the date of the first CD4 count within 3 months after 3 years of viral suppression to the earlier of time of death, loss to follow-up, or end of observation. We estimated mortality rates and Kaplan-Meier plots according to CD4 count at the end of the 3-year virally suppressed period (≤200, 201-350, 351-500, or >500 cells/μL) and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death according to these CD4 count groups. All analyses were adjusted for the covariates listed above (AIDS events in this analysis were up to the end of the virally suppressed period) and stratified by cohort. We used Cox regression to compare individuals with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/μL and >200 cells/μL at the end of the suppressed period within strata defined by age at start of virally suppressed period, route of infection, AIDS status, and CD4 at start of suppressed period. In sensitivity analyses, we used a cutoff value of 50 copies/mL to define viral suppression ...
APPROACH is a large inception cohort study which captures all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada. We used data on 11,804 patients from this study to examine the two year survival experience of diabetics vs. non-diabetics, while controlling for covariates such as left ventricular ejection fraction, coronary anatomy, sociodemographic variables, and comorbidities. Here, we present a comparison of two methods for calculating covariate-adjusted survival curves. The most commonly-used method for generating such curves is the "average covariate method", in which the average values of covariates of interest are entered into a proportional hazards regression equation to generate adjusted survival estimates. We used data from the APPROACH study to compare the survival curves generated by the "average covariate method" with those generated by a newer method - the "corrected group prognosis method" - in which a survival curve for each level of covariates is calculated, after ...
El Paso, TX. Cohort Studies, is a study design where one or more people (called cohorts) are followed and subsequent status evaluations with respect to a disease or outcome are conducted to determine which participants exposure characteristics (risk factors) are associated.
MHRP has been conducting HIV cohort studies in Africa and Thailand since the 1990s. These studies lay the groundwork for future research and help inform researchers about disease incidence, viral diversity and host genetics and treatment outcomes. The studies also gauge interest and willingness of communities to participate in future clinical trials.
REPORTS AVAILABLE JPND call 2014: Working Groups to Inform Cohort Studies in Neurodegenerative Disease Research Increasing the impact of longitudinal
Table 4 shows a comparison of DPB1 allele frequencies for the two groups of DAISY samples. High type 1 diabetes risk individuals (DR3/4-DQB1*0302; DR4≠DRB1*0403) were selected from both the General Population Cohort (GPC) and the Sibling-Offspring Cohort (SOC) (see research design and methods). This study design differs from the others in that the comparison is not between patients and control subjects but between HLA-matched individuals with or without a type 1 diabetic relative. The observed higher type 1 diabetes risk for high-risk SOC subjects than for high-risk GPC subjects leads to the testable hypothesis that the SOC subjects are enriched in non-DR-DQ susceptibility alleles.. The data show that DPB1*0301 is significantly overrepresented in the SOC (P = 0.04) compared with the GPC, whereas DPB1*0402 is underrepresented in the SOC (P = 0.002) compared with the GPC, consistent with previous observations for these alleles. DPB1*0202 was rare and did not differ significantly between the two ...
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This large national cohort study followed-up pregnant women admitted to hospital and found to have laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1) 2009 infection during the autumn-winter wave of the 2009 pandemic. The main objective was determining any adverse pregnancy outcomes attributable to the infection.. ...
This large national cohort study followed-up pregnant women admitted to hospital and found to have laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1) 2009 infection during the autumn-winter wave of the 2009 pandemic. The main objective was determining any adverse pregnancy outcomes attributable to the infection.. ...
To me, the power of the LGBT network-which Ive been a part of since my early days at BCG-is that it connected me to a wide variety of people from different cohorts across the world, it taught me the value of diversity, and it showed me the impact leaders with a vision can have.
Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative health and weight cohort trials facility, the South Yorkshire Cohort, is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and
In a population based, prospective cohort study, 214 Japanese men and 152 white men aged 40-49 years at baseline (2002-2006) with coronary calcium score (CCS)=0 were re-examined for CAC in 2007-2010. Among these, 175 Japanese men and 113 white men participated in the follow-up exam. Incident cases were defined as participants with CCS≥10 at follow-up. A relative risk regression analysis was used to model the incidence rate ratio between the Japanese and white men. The incidence rate ratio was first adjusted for potential confounders at baseline and then further adjusted for serum LCn3PUFAs at baseline ...
Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Publications, Research Topics, Species about COHORT STUDY OF GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BREAST CANCER
These conclusions are broadly regular with printed reports on the same cohort, whi1022958-60-6ch showed antibody ranges to the complete duration ectodomain of
Tabah A, Koulenti D, Laupland K, Misset B, Valles J, Bruzzi de Carvalho F, Paiva JA, Cakar N, Ma X, Eggimann P, Antonelli M, Bonten MJ, Csomos A, Krueger WA, Mikstacki A, Lipman J, Depuydt P, Vesin A, Garrouste-Orgeas M, Zahar JR, Blot S, Carlet J, Brun-Buisson C, Martin C, Rello J, Dimopoulos G, Timsit JF (2012) Characteristics and determinants of outcome of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in intensive care units: the EUROBACT International Cohort Study. Intensive Care Med 38:1930- ...
Noncrossing partitions are an interesting combinatorial object which play an important role in various topic of mathematics, such as in free probability. In this talk, we focus on their importance for the classification of thick subcategories in certain triangulated categories: Ingalls and Thomas have shown that the lattice of non-crossing partitions of a regular polygon with n+2 vertices is in one-to-one correspondence with the lattice of thick subcategories in the bounded derived category of representations of a Dynkin quiver of type A with n vertices. In joint work with Stevenson we provide an infinite version of this result by showing that the lattice of non-crossing partitions of the infinity-gon with a point at infinity is isomorphic to the lattice of thick subcategories in the bounded derived category of graded modules over the dual numbers.. ...
An epidemiologic study that observes subjects in differently exposed groups and compares the incidence of symptoms. Although ordinarily prospective in nature, such a study is sometimes carried out retrospectively, using historical data. See prospective study. Prospective study - аn inquiry in which groups of individuals are selected in terms of whether they are or are not exposed to certain factors, and then followed over time to determine differences in the rate at which disease develops in relation to exposure to the factor. Also called cohort study. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Notice to Update and Clarify Budgetary Limits for PAR-12-222, Cohort Studies of HIV/AIDS and Substance Use (U01) NOT-DA-13-006. NIDA
Hospitalisation for pneumonia increases both short-term and long-term cardiovascular risk, according to this matched-cohort study (JAMA 2015;313:264.doi:10.1001/jama.2014.18229). Researchers performed secondary data analysis from the Cardiovascular Health Study (mean patient age 73 years) and from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (mean patient age 56 years) identifying 1271 patients hospitalised with pneumonia. Each patient was matched with two controls and all patients were followed up for 10 years and observed for occurrences of cardiovascular disease. The highest risk for cardiovascular disease was seen in the first year and the risk was still increased in subsequent years, even after adjusting for multiple confounders. Patients in the older cohort were found to have a fourfold increased risk in the first 30 days, compared with controls. The risk remained raised over the 10 years with a 1.86-fold increased risk at 10 years being reported. In the younger cohort, the risk was ...
Biological samples are collected routinely by many cohort studies. This workshop addresses some of the key issues in working with human tissue.
The Reserve against Disability in Early MS (RADIEMS) cohort study is an NIH-funded prospective study of risk and protective factors related to disease and
The Group has made major contributions through the analysis of large collaborative national and international cohorts to describing the impact of multi-drug anti-HIV therapy and understanding its underlying mechanisms of action. Recently it has played a leading part in evaluating the effects of HIV related therapies that have led to changes in treatment guidelines world-wide. Find out more.... ...
Published January 14, 2018 WINDOW ROCK - The Navajo Birth Cohort Study, which was about to wrap up this year, was awarded a $4.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, which will not only extend the study another five years but considerably broaden its scope. The program will now fall under a national study called […]. The post Birth Cohort Study to Continue, Expand with New Grant appeared first on Native News Online.. Follow this story. ...
Sometimes, when youre buried in data, statistics, graphs and reports, analytics work can feel a tad dry. Personally, I tolerate creating reports (generally by automating them) but find analysis (identifying why the data is the way it is) rather compelling. In this first of several posts on cohort analysis Im going to explore why dividing your visitors…
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The technique involves identifying genetic variants that mimic the action of a drug on its intended target and then checking in large patient cohorts whether these variants are associated with risk of other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease.
... Subcategories There are 2 subcategories in this category, which are shown below. More may be shown on subsequent pages. A Antimicrobial
In hospitalized pregnant women with severe or critical COVID-19 infection, admission typically occurred about 7 days after symptom onset, and the duration of hospitalization was 6 days (6 severe versus 12 critical). Critically ill women had a high rate of ARDS, and there was one case of cardiac arre …
There was a decline in the mean age of enrollees by month of enrollment from 46.5 years to 42.2 years in the first five months of 2014,…Marketplace enrollees had very different starting levels of medication use depending on when they enrolled (Exhibit 2). In their first month of enrollment, January enrollees filled 0.86 prescriptions per member per month. Successive cohorts (by month of enrollment) had a lower mean number of fills in their first month of enrollment (0.72 for February enrollees, 0.69 for March, 0.61 for April, and only 0.46 for May). Each group experienced a substantial increase in medication use over the study period, although the groups enrolling in later months had consistently lower medication use than the early enrollees even by September 2014 ...
A user writes: Hi, I am an Eventus user through WRDS. I want to add a new factor to the Fama-French calendar time regression, and...
The purpose of this study is to test the safety of venetoclax and to find the highest dose of venetoclax that can be given safely when it is combined with one
The BUPA cohort study was set up to look at risk factors for cancer and mortality, with an emphasis on the risks of smoking. 22,000 men aged 35-64 years who attended the British United Provident Asso
B. ﹗例﹗一開始選定一群沒有病的人3分成暴露組與非暴露組3暴露組吸菸3非暴露組不吸菸330年後再進行追蹤比較兩組的疾病發生率 ...
English: Images taken in the United States in this month of year 2013 (not the date of the upload). With CatScan, this allows one to browse any USA-related category by year or month. Images should be placed directly in this category, not in subcategories. Note: Images from 2013 should be also added into the appropriate province, territory or city subcategory of Category:2013 in the United States ...
This is a category page. It lists all of the pages in category "Method" as well as all subcategories of category "Method" if any exist. ...
... See also Subcategories Additional recommended knowledge How to ensure accurate weighing results every day? var _paq = _paq || [];
When you select the Appearance and Behavior category in the left-hand pane, its main subcategories are listed in the right-hand part of the dialog.. ...
When you select the Appearance and Behavior category in the left-hand pane, its main subcategories are listed in the right-hand part of the dialog.. ...
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics. . ...
Joester, J., Vogler, C., Chang, K., Hilmer, S. (2010). Hypnosedative use and predictors of successful withdrawal in new patients attending a falls clinic: a retrospective, cohort study. Drugs and Aging, 27(11), 915-924. [More Information] ...
Background. Comparative cohort studies are often conducted to identify novel therapeutic strategies or prognostic factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We aimed to evaluate the power of such studies to provide clinically and statistically significant conclusions with regard to mortality differences.. Methods. We searched in PubMed and Scopus for comparative cohort studies that evaluated mortality in patients with VAP. We calculated the central estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality differences between compared patient groups. We also calculated the statistical power of the included studies to detect a difference in mortality that corresponds to a risk ratio of 0.80.. Results. We identified 39 (20 prospective) comparative cohort studies on VAP as eligible for inclusion in this analysis. The median absolute risk difference in mortality between compared groups was 10% (interquartile range [IQR], 5%-18%), and the median width of the 95% CI of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteoporosis increases subsequent risk of gallstone. T2 - A nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. AU - Klahan, Sukhontip. AU - Kuo, Chun Nan. AU - Chien, Shu-Chen. AU - Lin, Yea Wen. AU - Lin, Chun Yi. AU - Lin, Chia Hsien. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. AU - Lin, Ching I.. AU - Hung, Kuo Sheng. AU - Chang, Wei Pin. PY - 2014/11/18. Y1 - 2014/11/18. N2 - Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is expressed in various tissues. It participates in the bone remodeling process and stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. It is also a core protein of cholesterol gallstones. We hypothesized osteoporotic patients might have higher risk in developing gallstones and conducted a population-based study to examine the risk of developing gallstone in osteoporotic patients in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 1,638 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort ...
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Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on CMAJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
ABSTRACTObjectiveTo externally validate four commonly used rules in computed tomography (CT) for minor head injury.DesignProspective, multicentre cohort study.SettingThree university and six non-university hospitals in the Netherlands.ParticipantsConsecutive adult patients aged 16 years and over who
There is growing evidence that early growth influences bone mass in later life but most studies are limited to birth weight and/or early infant growth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. In a British birth cohort study with prospective measures of lifetime height and weight, we investigated the growth trajectory in relation to bone in males (M) and females (F) at 60 to 64 years old. Outcomes were DXA measures of hip and spine areal bone density (aBMD) (n = 1658) and pQCT measures of distal and diaphyseal radius cross-sectional area (CSA), strength, and volumetric bone density (vBMD) (n = 1350 of the 1658). Regression models examined percentage change in bone parameters with standardized measures of birth weight, height, and weight. A series of conditional growth models were fitted for height and weight gain (using intervals: birth-2, 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, 15-20, 20-36, and 36-64 years) and height gain (using intervals: 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, and 15-36 years). Birth weight was positively related
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
Potential Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed. Forms can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M11-2633. Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Not available. Statistical code: Available from Dr. Jepsen (e-mail, mailto:[email protected]). Data set: The Danish National Board of Health (www.sst.dk) extracts data from Denmarks publicly available health care registries on request. The instructions given to the Board of Health to identify the nationwide cohort are available from Dr. Jepsen. Data for the Aarhus cohort are not available. Requests for Single Reprints: Peter Jepsen, MD, PhD, Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark; e-mail, mailto:[email protected] Current Author Addresses: Drs. Jepsen, Ott, and Vilstrup: Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark. Dr. Andersen: University of Copenhagen, O. Farimagsgade 5, PB 2099, Copenhagen K 1014, Denmark.. Dr. ...
Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of dairy consumption and breast cancer risk. A random effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 18 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 24,187 cases and 1,063,471 participants. The summary relative risk of breast cancer for the highest intake of total dairy food compared with the lowest was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.95), with evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.01, I 2 = 54.5%). For milk consumption, the summary relative risk was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.02), and substantial
Background To assess relationships between age at first birth and cardiovascular risk factors in a large longitudinal study of men and women. By assessing associations for both genders, we were able to investigate biological versus social and behavioural explanations from early life through to adulthood. Methods Multiply-imputed data on more than 7600 men and women of a British birth cohort study (National Child Development Study, 1958 British birth cohort) were used. Cardiovascular risk factors at age 44/45 years included body mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), cholesterol (total, low and highdensity lipoprotein), triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin, C reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. Age at first birth was categorised as ,20 years, 20-24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years or ,34 years. Results Being younger than 20 years of age at time of first birth was associated with an adverse cardiovascular profile by mid-life. Conversely, older ...
Mitochondrial function of immune cells in septic shock: A prospective observational cohort study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Multiply imputed data from three nationally representative British birth cohorts were used-the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; 1946 birth cohort, n=3012), the National Child Development Study (NCDS; 1958 birth cohort, n=9614) and the British Cohort Study (BCS; 1970 birth cohort, n=8140). A typology of work-family life course types was developed using multi-channel sequence analysis, linking annual information on work, partnerships and parenthood from 16 to 42 years. Work-family life courses were related to BMI trajectories using multi-level growth models. Analyses adjusted for indicators of prior health, birthweight, child BMI, educational attainment and socioeconomic position across the life course, and were stratified by gender and cohort ...
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the farming environment and a decreased risk of atopic sensitization, mainly related to contact with farm animals in the childhood. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association of a farming environment, especially farm animal contact, during infancy, with atopic sensitization and allergic diseases at the age of 31. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study, 5509 subjects born in northern Finland in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31. Prenatal exposure to the farming environment was documented before or at birth. At age 31, information on health status and childhood exposure to pets was collected by a questionnaire and skin prick tests were performed. RESULTS: Being born to a family having farm animals decreased the risk of atopic sensitization [odds ratio (OR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.80], atopic eczema ever (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.91), doctor-diagnosed asthma ever (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00), allergic rhinitis at
In Chinese patients with diabetes, having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels that are too high or too low may be associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death, according to a research letter published Jan. 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, MSc, CStat, of the University of Hong Kong, and colleagues examined 117,389 adult Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes without any history of cardiovascular disease. After a median follow-up of 54.5 to 58.5 months, a J-shaped curvilinear relationship was observed between HbA1c levels and cardiovascular disease incidence, all-cause mortality and other outcomes. An HbA1c range of ≥7.0 percent to ,7.5 percent had the lowest risk of new cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease-related mortality. By comparison, an HbA1c ,6.5 percent or ≥8.0 percent was associated with a ...
In 1998, it was decided to build a single cohort, named the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study (MoCHiV) and in 2003, MoCHiV was integrated in the
b,Objective,/b,,p,,/p, Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. ,b,Methods,/b,,p,,/p, We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. ,b,Results,/b,,p,,/p, Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2%) participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55), coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84) and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. MgS[O.sub.4] prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mood disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. T2 - Results from an international inception cohort study. AU - Hanly, John G.. AU - Su, Li. AU - Urowitz, Murray B.. AU - Romero-Diaz, Juanita. AU - Gordon, Caroline. AU - Bae, Sang Cheol. AU - Bernatsky, Sasha. AU - Clarke, Ann E.. AU - Wallace, Daniel J.. AU - Merrill, Joan T.. AU - Isenberg, David A.. AU - Rahman, Anisur. AU - Ginzler, Ellen M.. AU - Petri, Michelle. AU - Bruce, Ian N.. AU - Dooley, M. A.. AU - Fortin, Paul. AU - Gladman, Dafna D.. AU - Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge. AU - Steinsson, Kristjan. AU - Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind. AU - Khamashta, Munther A.. AU - Aranow, Cynthia. AU - Alarcón, Graciela S.. AU - Fessler, Barri J.. AU - Manzi, Susan. AU - Nived, Ola. AU - Sturfelt, Gunnar K.. AU - Zoma, Asad A.. AU - Van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.. AU - Ramos-Casals, Manuel. AU - Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo. AU - Lim, S. Sam. AU - Kalunian, Kenneth C.. AU - Inanc, Murat. AU - Kamen, Diane L.. AU - Peschken, Christine A.. AU - ...
Aim To determine the performance of subjectively defined intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs in identifying drinkers at risk for adverse health outcomes. Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Working-aged Finnish general population. Participants A total of 21 204 alcohol-drinking men and women aged 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54 years at baseline who participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Measurements Binge drinking was measured by subjectively defined intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. Hazardous drinking was defined according to Finnish guidelines as weekly total intake of ,287 g of ethanol for men, and for women , 191 g of ethanol (≥24 and ≥16 standard drinks, respectively). Study participants were followed-up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Proportional hazard models and areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC) were used to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased risk of fracture and postfracture adverse events in patients with diabetes. T2 - Two nationwide population-based retrospective cohort studies. AU - Liao, Chien-Chang. AU - Lin, Chao-Shun. AU - Shih, Chun Chuan. AU - Yeh, Chun Chieh. AU - Chang, Yi Cheng. AU - Lee, Yuan-Wen. AU - Chen, Ta-Liang. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - OBJECTIVE: The relationship between diabetes and fracture is not completely understood. This study evaluated fracture risk and postfracture mortality in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified 32,471 adults newly diagnosed with diabetes in 2000-2003 using Taiwans National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort of 64,942 adults without diabetes was randomly selected from the same dataset, with frequency matched by age and sex. Fracture events in 2000-2008 were ascertained from medical claims. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of fracture associated with diabetes were calculated. A nested cohort study of ...
Stroke is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. No study has evaluated the association between diuretic use and risk of vertebral fracture in stroke patients, although a considerable proportion of stroke patients are prescribed diuretics for hypertension. Our study aimed to investigate whether treatment with thiazides or loop diuretics affects the risk of vertebral fracture after stroke. A population-based propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a new diagnosis of stroke between 2000 and 2011 were included. After propensity score matching, 9468 patients were included in the analysis of the effect of thiazides, of who 4734 received thiazides within 2 years after stroke. To analyze the loop diuretic effect, 4728 patients were included, of who 2364 received loop diuretics. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of vertebral fractures among
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalences in Taiwan and worldwide. However, the association of untreated chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. This cohort study used claims data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 1996-2010, in which all diseases were classified by ICD-9-CM codes. We identified 17796 adults who had chronic HBV infection and did not take nucleos(t)ide analogues from 1998 to 2010 and also randomly selected 71184 matched controls without HBV in the same dataset. Cumulative incidences and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident CKD were evaluated through the end of 2010 after adjusting for competing mortality. The risk of CKD was significantly higher in the HBV cohort (13-year cumulative incidence, 6.2 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 5.4-7.1 %) than in the non-HBV cohort (2.7 %; 95 % CI, 2.5-3.0 %) (p | 0.001), and the aHR was 2.58 (95 % CI, 1.95-3.42; p |
The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. , We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of overall and estrogen receptor (ER)-defined (ER+ or ER-) breast cancer within a population-based prospective cohort of 55,987 postmenopausal women. During an average of 12.2 years of follow-up, 2,112 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained (1,626 ER+ and 290 ER-). After adjusting for confounders, including consumption of whole grains and vegetables (which account for 40% of the dietary exposure, but also contain putative anticarcinogenic phytochemicals), dietary cadmium intake was positively associated with overall breast cancer tumors, comparing the highest tertile with the lowest [rate ratio (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence ...
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime risk of undergoing primary total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement in the UK. METHOD: A Population-based cohort study of 25,845 patients who had undergone a THR and 23,260 patients who had undergone a TKR between 1991 and 2006, using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. RESULTS: The estimated mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of THR at age 50 for the year 2005 was 11.6% (95% CI: 11.1, 12.1) for women and 7.1% (95% CI: 6.7, 7.5) for men. For TKR the risks were 10.8% (95% CI: 10.3, 11.3) for women and 8.1% (95% CI: 7.6, 8.5) for men. Between 1991 and 2006, the lifetime risk of THR at age 50 rose from 4.0% (95% CI: 3.5, 4.4) to 11.1% (95% CI: 10.6, 11.6) for women and for men from 2.2% (95% CI: 1.8, 2.5) to 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2, 7.0). Over the same period, for TKR the risk for women increased from 2.9% (95% CI: 2.6, 3.3) to 10.6% (95% CI: 10.1, 11.1) and for men from 1.8% (95% CI: 1.5, 2.2) to 7.7% (95% CI: 7.3, 8.2). CONCLUSION: The lifetime risk of
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest genetic influences on sleepiness and circadian rhythms. The Sleep Heart Health Study collected questionnaire data on sleep habits and sleepiness from 2848 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants. More than 700 participants were genotyped using the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip, providing a unique opportunity to assess genetic linkage and association of these traits. METHODS: Sleepiness (defined as the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score), usual bedtime and usual sleep duration were assessed by self-completion questionnaire. Standardized residual measures adjusted for age, sex and BMI were analyzed. Multipoint variance components linkage analysis was performed. Association of SNPs to sleep phenotypes was analyzed with both population-based and family-based association tests, with analysis limited to 70,987 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency ≥10%, call rate ≥80%, and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p ≥ 0.001). ...
U.S., March 20 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03081429) titled A Prospective Cohort Study of Perioperative Covert Stroke and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction on March 10. Brief Summary: With the development of population aging, the incidence of covert stroke and cognitive dysfunction gradually increased. Currently, there is still lack of prospective cohort study with large sample size on the relationship between perioperative covert stroke and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The investigators will perform a prospective cohort study. The aim of the study is to determine whether there is an association between perioperative covert stroke and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Study Start Date: Study Type: Observational Condition: Anesthesia Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Covert Stroke Intervention: Not Provided Recruitment Status: Not yet recruiting Sponsor: Beijing Tiantan Hospital ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and prostate cancer risk. T2 - A case-cohort study. AU - Lim, Jung eun. AU - Nam, Chungmo. AU - Yang, Jiyeon. AU - Rha, KoonHo. AU - Lim, Kyung Min. AU - Jee, Sun Ha. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - It is still unclear whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure increases the prostate cancer incidence risk. This prospective cohort study evaluated the associations between serum POPs concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Within a case-cohort study, we identified 110 people diagnosed with prostate cancer and randomly selected 256 sub-cohort participants without prostate cancer. Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for determining the associations between POPs and risk of prostate cancer were estimated using the weighted Cox regression model. Compared to the lowest tertile, ...
A cohort study that received widespread media attention[32][33] is the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS-II).[34] PHS-II was a ... It noted that one Swedish cohort study has indicated such an effect, but with all studies taken together, the association was ... making multivitamins appear as more beneficial in prospective cohort studies).[27][28] Randomized controlled studies have been ... One major meta-analysis published in 2011, including previous cohort and case-control studies, concluded that multivitamin use ...
"Role of DES Cohort Studies". US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. ... McDonald, J C; Harris, J; Armstrong, B (2004). "Mortality in a cohort of vermiculite miners exposed to fibrous amphibole in ... Pobel, D.; Viel, J.-F. (1997). "Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: ... "Volume 1: Summary of the Final Technical Report" (PDF). Case-control Study of Childhood Cancers in Dover Township (Ocean County ...
Systematic review of prospective cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 318 (7196): 1460-67. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7196. ... Based on comparative studies, Marmot argues that we can make our society more participatory and inclusive to increase overall ... "Intersalt: An international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium ... He leads the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and is engaged in several international research efforts on the ...
"Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? A retrospective cohort study" (Press release). The BMJ. December 2011. ... Scientific studies. A study published in the British Medical Journal in December 2011 concluded that there was no increase in ... A retrospective cohort study". The BMJ ;343. doi:10.1136/bmj.d7799.. ... Statistical studies have failed to find any unusual pattern of musician deaths at this age, comparing it to equally small ...
1970 British Cohort Study. A. *A-not-B error. *Acceleration (human development) ... The scientific study of psychological human development is sometimes known as Developmental psychology. ...
A systematic review of cohort and randomized studies found that TAE improves survival, but found no evidence of additional ... A systematic review of cohort and randomized studies". Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology. 30 (1): 6-25. doi:10.1007/ ... Fujiyama S, Shibata J, Maeda S, Tanaka M, Noumaru S, Sato K, Tomita K (November 2003). "Phase I clinical study of a novel ... Richter G, Rassweiler J, Kauffmann GW, Wenz W, Crawford DB (1984). "Experimental study of the effectiveness of capillary ...
A cohort record linkage study". European Journal of Pain. 14 (4): 380-6. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.07.006. PMID 19726210.. ... "International Association for the Study of Pain. 96 (3): 319-324. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(01)00463-8.. ... Magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown abnormal anatomical[20] and functional connectivity, even during rest[21][22] ... The International Association for the study of pain defines chronic pain as pain with no biological value, that persists past ...
International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study, Investigators (2013). "HACEK infective endocarditis: ... characteristics and outcomes from a large, multi-national cohort". PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e63181. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063181. ...
"Cohort Profile: LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank". International Journal of Epidemiology. 44 (4): 1172- ... "cohort study and biobank" (in Dutch). Retrieved 2018-05-18.. *^ "FinnGen, a global research project focusing on genome data of ... The Lifelines cohort study was started in 2006 and collects data and samples on 167,000 children, adults and elderly from the ... The study is following about 500,000 volunteers in the UK, enrolled at ages from 40 to 69. Initial enrollment took place over ...
Review of a retrospective cohort study". Environmental Health. 11 (1): 85. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-85.. ... Elwood, J (2012). "Microwaves in the cold war: the Moscow embassy study and its interpretation. ... he and his colleagues began a study investigating the health effects of exposure to microwaves among people in the American ...
A population-based cohort study. „Cancer". 71 (3), s. 745-750, Feb 1993. PMID: 8431855. ... Vegetables, fruit and risk of gastric cancer in Japan: a 10-year follow-up of the JPHC Study Cohort I. „Int J Cancer". 102 (1 ... Randomized phase II study (GATE study) of docetaxel plus oxaliplatin with or without fluorouracil or capecitabine in metastatic ... A study of HER2 gene amplification and protein expression in gastric cancer. „J Clin Pathol". 63 (9), s. 839-842, Sep 2010. DOI ...
McDonald, Ea; Gartland, D; Small, R; Brown, Sj (2015-04-01). "Dyspareunia and childbirth: a prospective cohort study". BJOG: An ... In one study frenulum breve was found in 50% of patients who presented with dyspareunia.[15] During vigorous or deep or tight ...
An expanded and updated international cohort study". American Journal of Epidemiology. 145 (12): 1061-75. doi:10.1093/ ... although the impacts are highly variable and often require field studies to predict accurately. Laboratory studies have at ... While some studies have shown that atrazine may be a teratogen, causing demasculinization in male frogs,[42] the U.S. ... Farming practices and resistance: a case study[edit]. Herbicide resistance became a critical problem in Australian agriculture ...
"Launch of the Edinburgh Birth Cohort Study , Upcoming Events". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 24 November 2015.. [ ... On 16 November 2015, Brown launched the Theirworld Birth Cohort project, a £1.5million study aimed at improving the health of ... "Premature babies care study launched by Sarah Brown - BBC News". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. ... "Sarah Brown launches £1.5 million premature babies care study". www.thecourier.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 November ...
... a Prospective Cohort Study of Bites by Formally Identified Redback Spiders". Medical Journal of Australia (Prospective cohort ... a Prospective Cohort Study of Bites by Formally Identified Redback Spiders". Medical Journal of Australia (Comment, letter). ... Studies support the safety of antivenom, with around a 5% chance of an acute reaction, 1-2% of anaphylaxis and 10% chance of a ... Published studies specifically looking at effects in children have been retrospective only and too limited to draw conclusive ...
Ryder, Norman (1965). "The cohort as a concept in the study of social change". American Sociological Review. 30 (6): 843-861. ... The word generate comes from the Latin generāre, meaning "to beget".[3] The word generation as a cohort in social science ... Generation Z, also known as the iGeneration, Post-Millennials, Homeland Generation,[33] or Plurals[33] is the cohort of people ... "The MetLife Study of Gen X: The MTV Generation Moves into Mid-Life" (PDF). MetLife. April 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2017.. ...
... retrospective cohort study". BMJ. 320 (7227): 86-90. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7227.86. PMC 27253. PMID 10625261.. ... A prospective follow-up study". International Journal of Nursing Studies. 48 (4): 409-418. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.07.017. ... At least one study has recommended that routine episiotomy be abandoned for this reason.[8] ... Some midwives compare routine episiotomy to female genital mutilation.[14] One study found that women who underwent episiotomy ...
... a retrospective cohort study and review of the literature". Autoimmunity Reviews. 10 (8): 490-4. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.02. ... meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 65 (7): 1913-21. doi:10.1002/art.37969. PMID ... "Prospective study to evaluate the association between systemic sclerosis and occupational exposure and review of the literature ... signalling in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts has been observed in multiple studies of scleroderma-affected individuals. ...
A cohort study". Arthritis Care & Research. 65 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1002/acr.21692. PMID 22505346. Kellgren-Lawrence grading ... The ACR says the pain subscale "has been variable across studies but generally meets the minimum standard." Reliability for the ... An example of an arthritis study using the WOMAC found a significant dose-response relationship between 10% body weight loss ( ... When used in clinical studies, the WOMAC pain and function subscales perform comparably or better than other tests in being ...
Petrikovsky B.M, Pingle P, Savyon L. Does viewing of surgical specimen improve patient satisfaction? A cohort study. Int J. ... Study Claims Ringing Mobile Phones Startle Fetuses (2015). by Saqib Mansoor. TechFrag. https://techfrag.com/2015/05/09/study- ...
... a population based cohort study". BMJ. 329 (7474): 1070. doi:10.1136/bmj.38243.672396.55. PMC 526116 . PMID 15501901. Malaspina ... "Cohort" data on the other hand, follows the same people over a period of decades. Both period and cohort measures are widely ... Studies of actual couples trying to conceive have come up with higher results: one 2004 study of 770 European women found that ... a general population prospective cohort study in Denmark". Fertility and Sterility. 99 (7): 1958-64. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert. ...
Tønnessen, R.; Borge, K. S.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2012). "Canine perinatal mortality: A cohort study of 224 breeds". ... One study suggests a high predisposition in the breed. No severe cases were found in adult dogs, and most moderate to severely ... Borge, K. S.; Tønnessen, R.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2011). "Litter size at birth in purebred dogs-A retrospective study of ... The average across all breeds in the study was 4.3% stillbirth and 3.7% early neonatal mortality. Excluding stillborn and early ...
Tønnessen, R.; Borge, K. S.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2012). "Canine perinatal mortality: A cohort study of 224 breeds". ... Borge, K. S.; Tønnessen, R.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2011). "Litter size at birth in purebred dogs-A retrospective study of ...
... a prospective cohort study". Int Breastfeed J. 1 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-1-24. PMC 1702531 . PMID 17134489.. ... In a 2011 Cochrane review which included 38 randomized controlled studies involving 9658 women, wherein all but five studies ... One study concluded that women whose epidural infusions contained fentanyl were less likely to fully breastfeed their infant in ... Women are able to bear down and push with contractions.[19] Epidural clonidine has been extensively studied for management of ...
"Vitamin D Intake and the Risk for Pancreatic Cancer in Two Cohort Studies". Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 15 (9 ... We do not include primary studies to debunk secondary studies, nor do we include primary studies because of their viewpoints ... the retrospective study may be far less reliable than primary studies that provide evidence that the prior studies were flawed ... A meta-study published in the International Journal of Cancer in May 2010 analyzed 35 independent studies of vitamin D and ...
A retrospective cohort study]". Epidemiol Prev. 36: 34-43. PMID 23139187. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) [1], ... Human studies show that exposure to beta-HCH is linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Beta-HCH was present in elevated ... Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides, including beta-HCH, are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the ... A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. α-Hexachlorocyclohexane ...
... an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious Diseases. 11: 314. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-314. PMC 3226630. PMID 22078162.. ... A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with hydrogen peroxide.[27] ... However, in a study adding both bacteria to the nasal cavity of a mouse within 2 weeks, only H. influenzae survives; further ... and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. ... "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing ...
2008). "Is smoking a risk factor for low back pain in adolescents? A prospective cohort study". Spine. 33 (5): 527-32. doi: ... It has been reported to be negative in several studies. It has been reported to have no effect in other studies. Many studies ... "Degeneration of Sacroiliac Joint After Instrumented Lumbar or Lumbosacral Fusion: a Prospective Cohort Study over Five-year ... but variations in approach and study results make this literature difficult to reconcile. In a massive study of 3482 patients ...
Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature. Angela M. Cheung and Stephen W. Hwang ... Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature ... Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature ... Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature ...
The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a ... The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a ... Childhood cognition in the 1970 British Cohort Study Data Note. *Overweight and obesity in mid-life: Evidence from the 1970 ... Are you a 1970 cohort member? Tell us about your research CLS tracks published work using cohort data in order to help other ...
These studies are sometimes called case-control studies nested in a cohort or case-cohort studies. The collection of data on ... Cohort study. This study identifies a group of people and follows them over a period of time to see how their exposures affect ... A nested case-control study is a special type of case-control study in which cases of a disease are drawn for the same cohort ... Case-control study. A case-control study is an epidemiological study that is often used to identify risk factors for a medical ...
DES Mothers Study - The DES Mothers Study began in 1980. The participant group (cohort) included approximately 3,000 women ... For this reason, new people cannot be added to the study.. Following is a list and brief description of the DES Cohort Studies. ... NCI recruited for this study primarily from previously studied groups and their family members. These cohort groups were ... Dieckmann Cohort - Participants in the group, assembled in 1974 to study DES-related health risks, included approximately 800 ...
Cohort studies. BMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1002 (Published 25 February 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340: ...
1 Data from a prospective cohort study known as the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study was used.2 In this study, 51 529 ... Cohort studies. BMJ 2010; 340 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1002 (Published 25 February 2010) Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340: ... health professionals were recruited in 1986 and self reported that they were free of prostate cancer at the start of the study ...
In a cohort study, a defined population with known information on exposure is followed up. Information on diseases or causes of ... Any study in which there are measures of some characteristic of one or more cohorts at two or more points in time is cohort ... Schwab M. (2015) Cohort Study. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ... Cohort Study Health Problem Cancer Research Cancer Risk Life History These keywords were added by machine and not by the ...
High-Impact Prevention case study for Hepatitis C screening and treatment ... Birth Cohort Screening (1945-1965) and Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Prevention Case Study 4 ... Birth-Cohort HCV screening and treatment programs save lives and money.. Birth-cohort screening identifies more persons with ... The cost-effectiveness of birth-cohort screening for hepatitis C antibody in U.S. primary care settings. Ann Intern Med 2012; ...
Analysis of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) Wave 2: Incidence and Transitions (Executive Summary) Fact Sheets: ... The study of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) is funded by. the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Massachusetts ... There are a number of reports relevant to the MAGIC study. We recommend:. Correlates of Problem Gambling: A Bibliography, July ... Analysis of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) Wave 2: Incidence and Transitions (Executive Summary) ...
The case-cohort design is an efficient alternative to the full cohort design. When compared with the case-control study nested ... the ratio of the subcohort to cases in the entire cohort, the entire size of the case-cohort study, N, is simply formulated as ... N full denotes the sample size needed for the cohort study and N 1full (N 0full) is the size of the exposed (unexposed) ... 3.Cai J, Zeng D. Sample size/power calculation for case-cohort studies. Biometrics. 2004;60:1015-1024.. * Cited Here... , ...
METHODS STUDIES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDRENS STUDY: MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS Relationship Reason: METHODS STUDIES FOR THE ... METHODS STUDIES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDRENS STUDY: SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICE (SPMD) Relationship Reason: METHODS STUDIES ... BIRTH COHORT, HUMAN EXPOSURE, MONITORING METHODS, SCREENING, TIME-INTEGRATED, Related Records: USE OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS TO ... Uptake rate studies are continuing with another set of 26 chemicals in FY 05. Screening methods have been developed for ...
Furthermore, the cohort study has the potential to actively promote healthy behaviours. For example, study team members readily ... The cohort study allowed us to demonstrate that A(H1N1)pdm09 was well established in the greater population of Lima at the time ... Peru population-based cohort study. In 2009, the United States Naval Medical Research Unit 6 in Lima, Peru, with support from ... The cohort studies discussed in the article were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Armed Forces ...
What is the MAGIC Study?. The Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort or MAGIC Study is a multi-year study being carried out by a ... The study of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) is funded by. the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Massachusetts ... Massachusetts Gaming Commission awards gambling cohort study to Volberg and UMass Amherst ... The study includes people who have never gambled as well as people who gamble regularly. The MAGIC Research Team will use ...
Many major findings about the health effects of lifestyle factors come from cohort studies. Find out how this medical research ... These long-term studies are sometimes called longitudinal studies.. Fast facts on cohort studies *Cohort studies typically ... Nurses Health Study. One famous example of a cohort study is the Nurses Health Study, a large, long-running analysis of ... This study recruited its second generation cohort for the Nurses Health Study II in 1989, and its third-generation cohort of ...
The latest UK birth cohort study was named Life Study at a central London meeting earlier today. The launch of the studys ... "This is an important and exciting moment for the study," said Professor Carol Dezateux, Director of Life Study. "We are ... which is exactly what Life Study aims to do. This critical study will help researchers to understand the complex interaction ... We needed to find a memorable name for the study that could grow alongside its participants and have meaning for them whatever ...
... to be studied, one distinguishes between current and historical cohort studies. In a current cohort study, the data concerning ... Cohort study. The starting point of a cohort study is the recording of healthy subjects with and without exposure to the ... Current and historical cohort studies. Depending on the time when the cohort study is initiated relative to occurrence of the ... In recent years, historical cohort studies have been referred to as retrospective cohort studies by some authors, because data ...
A cohort study follows a group of people over time to understand the relationship between some attribute shared by the group of ... people at the beginning of the study and the eventual outcome. ... Cohort study in action. Returning to our example, a cohort ... In a cohort study, the study participants are followed over time-from weeks to years, depending on the time frame. The goal is ... If cohort studies are second-best, then why use them? They may be the only way to explore certain questions. For example, it ...
METHODS: A total of 6796 children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort were interviewed ... Bullying and Parasomnias: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Dieter Wolke, Suzet Tanya Lereya ... Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care.. Video Abstracts -- ...
Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value ... The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. ...
Known as the "The Navajo Birth Cohort Study" (NBCS), the goal of the study is to better understand the relationship between ... "A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium Exposure in the Navajo Nation" is the first prospective ... epidemiologic study of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a uranium-exposed population. ...
To establish an HIV Cohort Study at the study site.. *To assess the rate of virological failure among patients on first line ... Kumasi Cohort Study (KCS). This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ... The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Kumasi Cohort Study. Official Title ICMJE Efficacy of First and Second Line ART in HIV Patients Treated at the Komfo Anokye ...
... cohort and period differences in cognitive abilities as well as on other variables included in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. ... An example is provided of how corrections for cohort and period effects can be applied to adjust longitudinal estimates to ... definitions are provided for the computation of cohort and period effects and cumulative findings through the seventh study ... Studies of Cohort and Period Differences. Studies of Cohort and Period Differences. Chapter:. (p.133) chapter six Studies of ...
Study Description. Citation Christensen, Kaare, and Duke University. Danish 1905 Cohort Study, 1998. ICPSR03960-v3. Ann Arbor, ... Danish 1905 Cohort Study, 1998 (ICPSR 3960) Principal Investigator(s): Christensen, Kaare, University of Southern Denmark. ... A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: The cohorts for heart and aging ... Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study. Journal ...
... and applied communications studies and black studies.. "I am extremely thankful that this degree program gave me the ... "This program puts you in control of what you study," said Kortney Webb, of New Baden. "My focus areas are biology and exercise ... SIUE also offers a masters in integrative studies to prepare students for the fast pace of change in society and gain ... May commencement ceremony will celebrate the first cohort of graduates to earn a bachelors in integrative studies. The ...
Varenicline Pregnancy Cohort Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... Varenicline Pregnancy Cohort Study. Official Title Varenicline Pregnancy Cohort Study Protocol Chantix (Registered)/Champix-( ... A prospective population-based cohort study to examine whether varenicline use during pregnancy is associated with an increased ... Study Population The study population will consist of all live born and stillborn infants in Denmark and Sweden.. ...
  • Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. (epa.gov)
  • however, for the majority of individuals within the study population exposures vary dramatically over time (62 subjects sampled six times during a one-year period - air, food, water, dust, and urine). (epa.gov)
  • Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value in developing health education and outreach to increase prenatal care utilization. (cdc.gov)
  • They are especially appropriate to study rare exposures or exposures for which randomization is not possible for practical or ethical reasons. (nih.gov)
  • Some cohort studies track groups of children from their birth, and record a wide range of information (exposures) about them. (wikipedia.org)
  • A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. (annals.org)
  • Select a cohort (defined population) BEFORE any of its members become exposed or before the exposures are identified. (slideserve.com)
  • UK academics from social, environmental, clinical, and biomedical sciences together with UK policymakers attending today's scientific conference have an opportunity to engage with Life Study and its design and to comment on the topics and measures that have been proposed for inclusion in the pilot phase of the study, due to commence in 2013. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (aappublications.org)
  • The finding says nothing about cause and effect but is consistent with other studies suggesting that HDL plays a role in immunity, say researchers, who propose that it might help explain infection risks observed in some clinical trials of HDL-modifying therapies. (medscape.com)
  • The final module is dedicated to randomised controlled trials, which is often considered the optimal study design, especially in clinical research. (coursera.org)
  • It is one type of clinical study design and should be compared with a cross-sectional study. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. Elias, O. Ijeoma, N. Jonathan Edikpo, D. Oputiri and O. Geoffrey, "Tenofovir Renal Toxicity: Evaluation of Cohorts and Clinical Studies-Part 2," Pharmacology & Pharmacy , Vol. 5 No. 1, 2014, pp. 97-111. (scirp.org)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to address critical scientific questions on the clinical course of HIV infection and treatment in a large cohort of HIV-positive young women of reproductive age. (nih.gov)
  • The studies also gauge interest and willingness of communities to participate in future clinical trials. (hivresearch.org)
  • This thesis describes the clinical, radiological and genetic associations of psoriatic arthritis in a single centre cohort in South Africa. (uva.nl)
  • In chapter 4, we discuss the clinical, biochemical and radiographic feature in our cohort. (uva.nl)
  • Recommendations in ADA's Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes guideline are supported by findings from scientific publications (primarily clinical trials and case studies). (rpi.edu)
  • No clinical study has simultaneously investigated the effectiveness of these gums when compared with a group receiving no chewing gum. (umich.edu)
  • For the new cancer therapies, observational cohort studies (OCSs) can help evaluate their effects in broader populations and provide valuable information for future clinical trials. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Further, when RCTs are completed and produce positive (or negative) results, their findings may be limited in real-world applicability - cancer patients may not always mirror the characteristics of the patient group treated on study because of specific enrollment criteria, study-related procedures, ethical dilemmas, and differences inherent in those patients who chose to participate in the clinical trial. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Nurses' Health Study is one example of a large cohort study, and it has produced many important links between lifestyle choices and health by following hundreds of thousands of women across North America. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are still significant uncertainties that can only be resolved by monitoring the health of a large cohort of phone users over a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can find out more about the 1970 British Cohort Study by viewing an interview with its Principal Investigator, Alice Sullivan below. (ioe.ac.uk)
  • The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) has significantly contributed to the understanding of HIV, AIDS, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). (nih.gov)
  • Prenatal mercury exposure in a multicenter cohort study in Spain. (nih.gov)
  • Using a hospital-based influenza surveillance system, we performed a multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients visiting emergency rooms with influenza-like illness (ILI) during the influenza epidemic period in 2013 to 2014. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • For a more detailed account of design, conduct and analyses of epidemiological studies, the reader is referred to textbooks and methodological articles given in the list of references. (gfmer.ch)
  • Nevertheless, despite the large study size and the sensitivity analyses provided, the presence of additional confounders or reverse causation cannot be fully excluded. (medscape.com)
  • The final number of cohort members, whose completed variable information was available in multivariate logistic analyses, was 2721 males and 2968 females. (nih.gov)
  • Other studies have examined the influence of social support on depression scores in peripartum mothers by multiple linear regression analyses. (nature.com)
  • The measure of disease in cohort studies is the incidence rate, which is the proportion of subjects who develop the disease under study within a specified time period. (gfmer.ch)
  • The study groups follow a group of people who do not have the disease for a period of time and see who develops the disease (new incidence). (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a study would recruit a group of smokers and a group of non-smokers (the unexposed group) and follow them for a set period of time and note differences in the incidence of lung cancer between the groups at the end of this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, no study has evaluated the incidence and severity of PEP after re-treatment and after initial RCT of teeth with vital or necrotic pulp [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, severity, and types of PEP presenting after root canal treatment in teeth with vital or necrotic pulp and after retreatment. (hindawi.com)
  • The main objective of this three-year research project is to analyze the cohorts of FDNY firefighters and EMS workers, both WTC-exposed and non-WTC exposed in order to compare cancer incidence by WTC-exposure status during the early post-9/11 years. (cdc.gov)
  • The exposure of interest is determined for each member of the cohort and the group is followed to document incidence in the exposed and non-exposed members. (slideserve.com)
  • Experiments in animals, international correlation comparisons, and case-control studies support an association between dietary fat intake and the incidence of breast cancer. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Career Tracker cohorts (or SNSF-CTC) will start in October 2018 with a ten-year timeline. (snf.ch)
  • Case crossover studies look at the effects of factors that are thought to increase the risk of a particular outcome in the short term. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Most of the information on treatment outcome and recurrence rates of CCA has come from the study of patients in the Registry. (cdc.gov)
  • The experimental approach allows control of the effect of extraneous factors that may have an effect on the outcome under study, but are not under investigation. (gfmer.ch)
  • The goal is to understand the relationship between some attribute related to the cohort at the beginning of the study and the eventual outcome. (iwh.on.ca)
  • In a cohort study, the population under investigation consists of individuals who are at risk of developing a specific disease or health outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of an epidemiological question that can be answered using a cohort study is whether exposure to X (say, smoking) associates with outcome Y (say, lung cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • We report a prospective study of the outcome of clinically diagnosed infections in patients presenting to UK general practitioners. (prohealth.com)
  • Case-control studies are relatively simple and economical to carry out, but the one weakness is that only one outcome may be studied at a time. (endvawnow.org)
  • Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. (annals.org)
  • The main outcome measures were the state portion of the State--Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. (ices.on.ca)
  • Start with a group of subjects who lack a positive history of the outcome of interest yet are at risk for it (cohort). (slideserve.com)
  • The cohort allows for the investigation of various research issues and previous results were published in many publications. (bfs.de)
  • The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study showed that rhythm-control treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) offered no survival advantage over a rate-control strategy. (springer.com)
  • The comparison group may be the general population from which the cohort is drawn, or it may be another cohort of persons thought to have had little or no exposure to the substance under investigation, but otherwise similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crucially, the cohort is identified before the appearance of the disease under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further follow-up of the cohort will permit investigation of diseases more common in the elderly. (prohealth.com)
  • The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • A cohort study of people presenting to a tertiary toxicology centre after self-poisoning over 26 years (1987-2012). (mja.com.au)
  • Cohort and case-control methodologies are the main tools for analytical epidemiological research. (gfmer.ch)
  • The idea that chronic fatigue has an infectious origin has become popular, but the main evidence for such an association has come from retrospective case-control studies, which are subject to ascertainment bias. (prohealth.com)
  • On sensitivity analysis, stratification by gender differences, follow-up duration, and region where study was conducted did not alter the main conclusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • A confidence interval (CI) expresses the precision of an estimate and is often presented alongside the results of a study (usually the 95% confidence interval). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Results based on the initial study indicated that DES was not effective in preventing miscarriages (Dieckmann, 1953). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, stratification of the study population (i.e., the majority of the environmental/biological samples collected from the "highly exposed population" of children) often is required, given the expense of multiroute, multimedia monitoring (numerous non-detect results are counterproductive in determining sources). (epa.gov)
  • Results from the study will be used by policy makers and regulators to create policies that maximize the possible benefits and minimize the possible harms of expanded gambling in the Commonwealth. (umass.edu)
  • Results: Low SEP was associated with younger age at childbearing in all cohorts, but the magnitudes of these associations were stronger in ALSPAC. (scribd.com)
  • If one is aware of this, cohort studies can form a potent study design in nephrology producing, in general, highly generalizable results. (nih.gov)
  • Nevertheless, the results that are obtained from long-term cohort studies are of substantially superior quality to those obtained from retrospective/cross-sectional studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the study is conducted in occupationally exposed responders, the results will be relevant to other individuals exposed to the WTC attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • Initial study results will be published in 5 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pars cohort study of non-communicable diseases in Iran: protocol and preliminary results ," International Journal of Public Health , Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 62(3), pages 397-406, April. (repec.org)
  • RESULTS: Information about 4980 cases from studies including 337,819 women was available. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Although case-control studies have reported conflicting results for dairy foods and lactose, several cohort studies have shown positive associations between skim milk, lactose, and ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results and discussion on the study. (ebscohost.com)
  • Topics include the results of University of Southampton and the King's College National Nursing Research Unit European-wide study, an a U.S. study published in. (ebscohost.com)
  • The aim of this study was analyze the long-term results from treating this pathological condition. (scielo.br)
  • RESULTS The cohorts included 525,733 patients with diabetes treated with NIADs and 33,292 with incretin drugs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Results in both cohorts were similar. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The cohorts were originally designed to characterize the breath volatile profiles of Malawian children with and without uncomplicated falciparum malaria. (rsc.org)
  • This study is designed to characterize and define serum and cerebrospinal fluid valued for inflammatory cytokines and early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). (memorialhermann.org)
  • In studies from a total of 7 cities, the risk of death among homeless women was greater than that among women in the general population by a factor of 4.6 to 31.2 in the younger age group and 1.0 to 2.0 in the older age group. (cmaj.ca)
  • 15 A study of people using homeless shelters in New York found age-adjusted death rates 2 to 3 times higher than those in the city's general population. (cmaj.ca)
  • A before and after study measures particular characteristics of a population or group of individuals at the end of an event or intervention and compares them with those characteristics before the event or intervention. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In a cohort study, a defined population with known information on exposure is followed up. (springer.com)
  • N full denotes the sample size needed for the cohort study and N 1full ( N 0full ) is the size of the exposed (unexposed) population in the full cohort, that is, N full = (1 + K ) N 1full where K = N 0full /N 1full . (lww.com)
  • i.e. the cohort population. (iwh.on.ca)
  • A prospective population-based cohort study to examine whether varenicline use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations in infants above that associated with smoking during pregnancy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study population will consist of all live born and stillborn infants in Denmark and Sweden. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • COPENHAGEN, DENMARK - High and low levels of HDL cholesterol predicted increased risk of infectious disease, especially gastroenteritis and bacterial pneumonia , in a large population-based cohort study [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • Of 97,166 persons followed in the longitudinal Copenhagen General Population Study , 9% experienced an infectious-disease hospitalization over a median of 6 years, according to the report published December 8, 2017 in the European Heart Journal , with lead author Dr Christian M Madsen (Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark). (medscape.com)
  • When a confirmation analysis was conducted on another population-based cohort, 9387 patients from the Copenhagen City Heart Study , the lower HDL-C concentration was associated with an HR of 2.00 (1.16-3.43) for any infectious-disease hospitalization, and the higher concentration was associated with an HR of 1.13 (0.80-1.60), both compared with the midrange HDL-C concentration. (medscape.com)
  • A meta-analysis of population-based studies in Canada reached much the same conclusion. (medscape.com)
  • A total of 1883 mother and child pairs from a population-based cohort were included between 2004 and 2008. (nih.gov)
  • The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000-2001. (umich.edu)
  • The initial objective of the Hoorn Study was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and associated risk factors in a study population of approximately 2,500 people. (emgo.nl)
  • We reported a modest excess of cancer cases in the WTC-exposed cohort compared with the US population. (cdc.gov)
  • Changes and variation in the disease or health status of a study population as the study group moves through time. (slideserve.com)
  • Select a cohort on the basis of some factor (e.g., where they live) and take histories (e.g., blood tests) on the entire population to separate into exposed and non-exposed groups. (slideserve.com)
  • The study population consisted of 553,217 women among whom 2,132 epithelial ovarian cases were identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Millennium Cohort Study is the largest longitudinal study in military history and is part of the Military Population Health Directorate at the Naval Health Research Center. (dvidshub.net)
  • However, there are numbers of epidemiologic study have analyzed high risk factor of PE which provides significant medical evidence of prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment for PE, there is only little study focus on susceptibility gene and pathogenic genetic variation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our study shows no evidence that common infective episodes in primary care are related to the onset of chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. (prohealth.com)
  • The Wismut cohort is the largest cohort of miners occupationally exposed to radon. (bfs.de)
  • The Wismut cohort is one of the largest cohort studies of miners occupationally exposed to radon. (bfs.de)
  • A new study identifies specific locations where medication and harm reduction services for people with opioid use disorder should be available in order to have the greatest impact on reducing opioid overdose deaths. (medicalxpress.com)
  • MUSIC] As you know, epidemiologic studies can be split into two types, descriptive and analytic. (coursera.org)
  • The MACS has been one of the most rigorous and productive epidemiologic HIV/AIDS studies in history," says Dr. Fauci. (nih.gov)
  • The conclusions that can be drawn from findings of these types of studies are, however, much weaker compared to those of cohort and case-control studies. (gfmer.ch)
  • This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control studies always reflect true associations which can be universally generalized. (gfmer.ch)
  • Although information of such extraneous factors is collected and quantitatively adjusted for when they are known to be present, findings from observational epidemiological studies are generally less conclusive than those from experimental studies because of the less strict control of extraneous factors. (gfmer.ch)
  • The most notable findings in the longitudinal study concern gender differences. (bma.org.uk)
  • We undertook to validate this criteria in our cohort, and the findings are discussed in chapter 5. (uva.nl)
  • Study findings were recently published in the November issue of Spine. (dvidshub.net)
  • For research purposes, a cohort is any group of individuals who are linked in some way or who have experienced the same significant life event within a given period. (springer.com)
  • The Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort or MAGIC Study is a multi-year study being carried out by a research team from the University of Massachusetts Amherst School of Public Health & Health Sciences (SPHHS). (umass.edu)
  • Using participant responses, the MAGIC Research Team will be able to study gambling problems as they emerge. (umass.edu)
  • What is a cohort study in medical research? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Professor Paul Boyle, Chief Executive of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) which funds Life Study, in partnership with the Medical Research Council (MRC), said: "There can be no more important goal than to improve the lives, health and wellbeing of children, which is exactly what Life Study aims to do. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Symposium seeks to provide an opportunity to reflect on challenges and opportunities of longitudinal research in low income settings, identifying lessons and best practices for future studies. (unicef-irc.org)
  • The MACS led key studies that linked sexual behavior to HIV transmission, determined the median period of time between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, showed that an imbalance of T-cell types precedes AIDS, and made a multitude of other pivotal discoveries that advanced HIV/AIDS research. (nih.gov)
  • NIAID conducts and supports research - at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide - to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. (nih.gov)
  • SAN DIEGO - Recent research from the Millennium Cohort Study found that military personnel who deployed with combat experiences were more likely to report back pain after deployment than service members who deployed without combat experience. (dvidshub.net)
  • The study was approved by the China National Science Foundation and the Qinghai High Altitude Medical Research Institute Committee on Human Research. (bmj.com)
  • Southern Illinois University Edwardsville's May commencement ceremony will celebrate the first cohort of graduates to earn a bachelor's in integrative studies. (siue.edu)
  • MQ-MINDS is a longitudinal cohort study that aims to shape our understanding of the health and wellbeing of Macquarie University graduates as they transition into adulthood. (edu.au)
  • The MQ-MINDS cohort study aims to pilot the establishment of a prospective cohort of Macquarie University graduates that would be a long-term resource to shape our understanding of how various factors affect health and wellbeing of young people as they emerge into adulthood. (edu.au)
  • This academic study focuses on the career trajectories of the medical graduates over the 10-year period of the cohort study, and looks at the drivers behind different career trajectories, and the relationship between career intentions and actual careers. (bma.org.uk)
  • GWAS studies have indeed identified several genes that have effect only in PsA and not psoriasis or have substantially larger effects in PsA. (uva.nl)
  • Clearly more genetic and functional studies are needed to unravel the genetic associations further and elucidate the functional relevance of genes residing in the GWAS-associated regions. (uva.nl)
  • The cohort comprises 59,000 male employees who were working in uranium ore mining in the former German Democratic Republic between 1946 and 1990. (bfs.de)
  • Formal and rigorous post-approval study is necessary, therefore, to better characterize these agents and regimens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This type of study compares a group of patients who have that condition with a group of patients that do not have it, and looks back in time to see how the characteristics of the two groups differ. (www.nhs.uk)
  • NCI recruited for this study primarily from previously studied groups and their family members. (cdc.gov)
  • These cohort groups were followed over a long period of time. (cdc.gov)
  • These types of studies look at groups of people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cohort studies look at large groups of people to try to find out what might cause a disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The focus groups were also asked to comment on different straplines and visual representations of the study. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 1 Surveys of parents, 2 pediatricians, 3-5 and other child health professionals 5 reveal that beliefs in teething symptoms are common and stable over time, and are similar across all groups studied. (aappublications.org)
  • There are two basic ways to generate cohort groups. (slideserve.com)
  • We develop a Cohort Ontology, modeling patient groups and interventions mentioned in cited publications, ultimately aiming at assisting physicians and computers to suggest recommendations for complex patients using cohort alignment. (rpi.edu)
  • This cohort was identified by review of medical records of women who gave birth at Mayo Clinic hospitals (Leary, 1984). (cdc.gov)
  • Information about NCI's role in studying HIV and HIV-related cancers is available at http://www.cancer.gov. (nih.gov)
  • The primary aim of the MACC study was to evaluate local tobacco control programs in Minnesota, and the secondary aim was to better define the patterns of tobacco use in young adults and to evaluate the effects of tobacco control programs on these patterns. (umich.edu)
  • You will also develop the skills to identify strengths and limitations of the various study designs. (coursera.org)
  • PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify all related prospective cohort studies. (nih.gov)
  • The COSMOS study aims to carry out long term health monitoring of a large group of people to identify if there are any health issues linked to long term mobile phone use. (wikipedia.org)