Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Female parents, human or animal.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)
Former members of the armed services.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (1/46662)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (2/46662)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. (3/46662)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

Cohort study of art glass workers in Tuscany, Italy: mortality from non-malignant diseases. (4/46662)

This investigation studies cause-specific mortality of art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Tuscany, Italy. A cohort of 3,390 workers employed for at least 1 year was enumerated from company payrolls. Follow-up was between the start of employment in each factory and 31 December 1993. The cause-specific expected mortality was computed relative to Tuscany rates and specified for gender, 5-year age groups and calendar year. Separate analyses were carried out for the jobs of makers and formers and for batch mixers. Among males (3, 180 individuals) observed mortality for non-cancer causes was higher than expected for hypertensive disease [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 178, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) = 96-301], pneumoconiosis (SMR = 200, 90% CI = 94-376) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 169, 90% CI = 95-279). Increases for the above causes were shown also among makers and formers: hypertensive disease (SMR = 182, 90% CI = 85-341), pneumoconiosis (SMR = 250, 90% CI = 109-493) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 224, 90% CI = 121-380). For batch mixers an increase was present for cerebrovascular disease. The observed mortality for cancer causes was above the expected for cancers of the larynx, lung, stomach and brain. This study points to the existence for Tuscan glass workers of health effects in addition to cancer; previously observed carcinogenic effects were also confirmed.  (+info)

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (5/46662)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (6/46662)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (7/46662)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. (8/46662)

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Adherence to treatment with protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV-infected patients. T2 - A retrospective study. AU - Lazzarini, L.. AU - Lanzafame, M.. AU - Polo, A.. AU - Vento, S.. AU - Concia, E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Objectives: A retrospective study was carried out to assess the relationship between medication adherence to protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV infected patients. Methods: 173 patients, undergoing a triple antiretroviral treatment including a protease inhibitor, were recruited. Adherence was assessed through an antiretroviral medicine register. Results: Non-adherence was found in 26.5% of patients on indinavir, in 29% of patients on ritonavir and in 25.7% of patients on saquinavir. No immunological and clinical failure was recorded during the study. At the end of the study, the average plasmatic viremia was lower in adherent than in non-adherent patients (11,587 vs 21,258 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes from pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection in recipients of solid-organ transplants. T2 - A multicentre cohort study. AU - Kumar, Deepali. AU - Michaels, Marian G.. AU - Morris, Michele I.. AU - Green, Michael. AU - Avery, Robin K.. AU - Liu, Catherine. AU - Danziger-Isakov, Lara. AU - Stosor, Valentina. AU - Estabrook, Michele. AU - Gantt, Soren. AU - Marr, Kieren A.. AU - Martin, Stanley. AU - Silveira, Fernanda P.. AU - Razonable, Raymund R.. AU - Allen, Upton D.. AU - Levi, Marilyn E.. AU - Lyon, G. Marshall. AU - Bell, Lorraine E.. AU - Huprikar, Shirish. AU - Patel, Gopi. AU - Gregg, Kevin S.. AU - Pursell, Kenneth. AU - Helmersen, Doug. AU - Julian, Kathleen G.. AU - Shiley, Kevin. AU - Bono, Bartholomew. AU - Dharnidharka, Vikas R.. AU - Alavi, Gelareh. AU - Kalpoe, Jayant S.. AU - Shoham, Shmuel. AU - Reid, Gail E.. AU - Humar, Atul. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Background: There are few data on the epidemiology and outcomes of influenza infection in ...
Jehan, I., Harris, H., Salat, S., Zeb, A., Mobeen, N., Pasha, O., ... Goldenberg, R. L. (2009). Neonatal mortality, risk factors and causes: A prospective population-based cohort study in urban Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(2), 130-138. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.08.050963 ...
In 1986 a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer was started in the Netherlands among 62,573 women ages 55-69 years. Baseline information on diet and other risk factors was collected with a questionnaire. Cancer incidence was measured by record linkage with cancer registries and a pathology register. A case-cohort approach was used, in which the accumulated person time in the cohort was estimated by follow-up of a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1812). After 3.3 years of follow-up, 471 incident breast cancer cases were available for analysis. Questionnaire data for these cases and the 1716 female subcohort members without a history of cancer other than skin cancer were analyzed. In a multivariate analysis, controlling for traditional risk factors, the relative rates for breast cancer in increasing quintiles of energy-adjusted total fat intake were 1.00, 1.00, 1.34, 1.22, 1.08 (P-trend, 0.32). For saturated fat there was some evidence for a weak positive association when quintiles were used ...
Clinical trial for Mother to Child Transmission of HIV , Prospective Observational Cohort Study on Mother to Child Transmission HIV1/HIV2 and Prevention
The huge value of cohort studies is, in part, due to their versatility. You can study lots of different risk factors and outcomes in the same group of people, and the range of risk factors is wide - lifestyle, environment and genes. You can also tell the order in which things occur, so you can differentiate between the causes of disease and the effects of disease.. At the MRC, we recently completed a review of all of the large, population cohort studies we fund. One of the most heartening findings was the huge support from the general public. Amazingly, 1 in 30 of the UK general public are currently participating in a cohort study.. These people have given huge amounts of their time to support research, and cohort studies are very expensive to set up and run. Therefore, we should make sure that cohort studies are accessible to a large number of researchers so that we can squeeze as much useful information as possible out of them.. Some cohort studies have been exemplary. ALSPAC (also known as ...
article{e1d486dc-0d2e-4f48-b547-d6542d967ba0, abstract = {,p,Prospective observational studies have shown previously that study participants have lower morbidity and mortality than non-participants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether participants in a prospective cohort study on melanoma have a different incidence and mortality of melanoma compared with non-participants and the background population. Information was collected from Swedish National Registers on participants (n = 30,501) and non-participants (n = 10,499) in the Melanoma In Southern Sweden (MISS) study and the background population (n = 243,032). Hazard ratios were calculated for overall incidence of cancer and melanoma, and all-cause and melanoma-specific mortality, using Cox regression. Participants had a lower overall incidence of cancer and all-cause mortality than non-participants and the background population. There was no difference in incidence of melanoma or melanoma-specific characteristics between ...
The Lifelines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. The Lifelines cohort distinguishes a childrens cohort (aged 0-18), an adult cohort (aged 18-65) and the elderly…
Survival rates in kidney cancer have improved little over time, and diabetes may be an independent risk factor for poor survival in kidney cancer. We sought to determine whether medications with putative anti-neoplastic properties (statins, metformin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) are associated with survival in diabetics with kidney cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing linked healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients were aged 66 or older with newly diagnosed diabetes and a subsequent diagnosis of incident kidney cancer. Receipt of metformin, statins or NSAIDs was defined using prescription claims. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, with medication use modeled with time-varying and cumulative exposure analyses to account for intermittent use. During the 14-year study period, we studied 613 patients. Current statin use ...
A SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605, was recently found to be associated with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) by Herbert and colleagues. The association between increased BMI and homozygosity for the minor allele was first observed in data from a genome-wide association scan of 86,604 SNPs in 923 related individuals from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. The association was reproduced in four additional cohorts, but was not seen in a fifth cohort. To further assess the general reproducibility of this association, we genotyped rs7566605 in nine large cohorts from eight populations across multiple ethnicities (total n = 16,969). We tested this variant for association with BMI in each sample under a recessive model using family-based, population-based, and case-control designs. We observed a significant (p , 0.05) association in five cohorts but saw no association in three other cohorts. There was variability in the strength of association evidence across ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older. T2 - a nationwide, population-based cohort study. AU - Legarth, Rebecca. AU - Ahlström, Magnus G. AU - Kronborg, Gitte. AU - Larsen, Carsten S. AU - Pedersen, Court. AU - Pedersen, Gitte. AU - Mohey, Rajesh. AU - Gerstoft, Jan. AU - Obel, Niels. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older, when compared to an individually-matched cohort from the background population.METHODS: Population-based cohort-study including HIV-infected individuals ≥ 50 years, who were alive one year after HIV-diagnosis (n=2,440) and a comparison cohort individually-matched by age and gender extracted from the background population (n=14,588). Cumulative ...
A postal survey of the 1970 British cohort study was conducted in 1995-6 among individuals aged 25 or 26 years, asking if respondents had a diagnosis of Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis. The cohort study is a longitudinal study of those living in England, Scotland, and Wales born 5 to 11 April 1970.4 The target population was estimated as 16 000, and we sent questionnaires to the 13 099 cohort members whom we traced. In all, 9803 completed questionnaires were returned; 309 addresses were identified as no longer current; and 12 people refused to participate. Excluding invalid and untraced addresses, the response rate was 77%. The social statistics research unit at City University, London, provided most (7430) of the addresses. To minimise bias, we traced the remaining 2373 cohort members through a letter forwarding service provided by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. The cohort remained largely representative, with some loss from the most disadvantaged groups: the proportion in ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of the n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined CV outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status and RBC n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 CHD events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for the n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher
Preservation of the Semantic Verbal Fluency Advantage in a Large Population-Based Sample: Normative Data from the TILDA Study - Volume 22 Issue 5 - Roisin M. Vaughan, Robert F. Coen, RoseAnne Kenny, Brian A. Lawlor
Ponsonby AL, Pezic A, Cochrane J, Cameron FJ, Pascoe M, Kemp A, Dwyer T. Infant anthropometry, early life infection, and subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prospective birth cohort study. PEDIATRIC DIABETES 12 (4) : 313 - 321(2011) PubMed ...
Background Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4Is) are drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence that DPP4Is may result in suppression of the immune system and may increase the risk of infections such as pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of DPP4Is and the risk of pneumonia in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the worlds largest primary care database, the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We selected all users of non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs), including DPP4Is, between 2007 and 2012. To each NIAD user, we matched randomly selected non-users. The NIAD users first prescription defined the index date, which was then assigned to the matched non-users. Patients were followed from their first prescription until end of data collection or the first event of pneumonia, whichever came first. Cox regression analysis estimated the
Morna Cornell and colleagues investigate differences in mortality for HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.
BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinsons disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. METHOD: We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort ...
A total of 668 adults participated at baseline, 77% followed up at 1 month and 63% at 12 months, of whom 383 (57%) were included in the main analysis. Multiple imputation analysis included all 668 participants. Increasing levels of depression scores and increasing levels of pain at 1 month and an increasing number of nights in hospital were associated with significantly reduced odds of recovery at 12 months, adjusting for age, sex, centre, employment and deprivation. The findings were similar in the multiple imputation analysis, except that pain had borderline statistical significance ...
article{8645532, author = {Seibold, Petra and Webb, Adam and Aguado-Barrera, Miguel E. and Azria, David and Bourgier, Celine and Brengues, Muriel and Briers, Erik and Bultijnck, Renée and Calvo-Crespo, Patricia and Carballo, Ana and Choudhury, Ananya and Cicchetti, Alessandro and Claßen, Johannes and Delmastro, Elena and Dunning, Alison M. and Elliott, Rebecca M. and Fachal, Laura and Farcy-Jacquet, Marie-Pierre and Gabriele, Pietro and Garibaldi, Elisabetta and Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio and Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara and Higginson, Daniel S. and Johnson, Kerstie and Lobato-Busto, Ramón and Mollà, Meritxell and Müller, Anusha and Payne, Debbie and Peleteiro, Paula and Post, Giselle and Rancati, Tiziana and Rattay, Tim and Reyes, Victoria and Rosenstein, Barry S. and De Ruysscher, Dirk and De Santis, Maria Carmen and Schäfer, Jörg and Schnabel, Thomas and Sperk, Elena and Symonds, R. Paul and Stobart, Hilary and Taboada-Valladares, Begoña and Talbot, Christopher J. and Valdagni, Riccardo ...
Participation rates in large cohort studies have decreased during the last 2 decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. On the basis of independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for 3 exposure-risk associations: (a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, (b) smoking during pregnancy and birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, and (c) prepregnancy body mass index and antepartum stillbirth. The effect of nonparticipation was described by a relative odds ratio (ROR), calculated as the OR(participants)/OR(source population). Two methods for calculation of confidence intervals for the relative odds ratio also were assessed. The effect of nonparticipation on the selected ORs was small. The relative ORs ...
This study hypothesized that HISD prekindergarten participation consistently correlated with better educational outcomes for students. Taking into account students age differences through kindergarten enrollment, propensity score matching controlled for students background characteristics. Three cohorts of students in this study were eligible or attended HISD prekindergarten during the 2001-2002 (Cohort I), 2002-2003 (Cohort II), and 2003-2004 (Cohort III) academic years. The study found that kindergarten students in Cohorts I, II, and III outperformed students who did not attend HISD prekindergarten on nationally-normed Stanford and Aprenda reading and mathematics tests, indicating a statistically significant positive effect of HISD prekindergarten in the short-term. HISD prekindergarten had extended effects for Cohort II students, given that they consistently outperformed non-HISD prekindergarten students at targeted grades third, fifth, and seventh. Long-term effects related to
A large prospective cohort study published in Stroke by researchers from several universities in Japan has found that people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day had a 20% lower stroke risk compared to those who seldom drank it. The study investigated the dietary habits of 81978 participants who were involved in an ongoing cohort study of Japanese adults aged 40 to 69 which focused on lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Using a food frequency questionnaire the participants recorded their consumption of various foods and drinks including green tea and coffee. During the follow up period of 13 years there were 3425 strokes and 910 incidents of coronary heart disease. The scientists found that those who drank two to three cups of green tea a day were 14% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never drank it, people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day were 20% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never ...
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
This design meets the need to confirm a casual relation between exposure and outcome. The investigators choose a group who have been exposed to some sort of treatment or risk, and a control group which is identical in every way other than that exposure. Retrospective cohort studies are NOT the same as case-control studies. List of the Advantages of a Cross-Sectional Study 1. I. In addition, a major advantage of the case-cohort design is the ability to study several disease outcomes using the same subcohort. Participants were 50 045 people in north-eastern Iran aged 40-75 years at baseline. Competency Exam Study Guide HLTH 501 Biostatistics Study designs Know the difference between observational and experimental design Know differences between study designs Know the advantages and disadvantages between study designs Quantifying Extent of disease Be able to compute prevalence and incidence Know the difference between incidence and prevalence Compute odds […] Doll R. Cohort studies: history of ...
It is concluded that the FFQ is able to rank subjects according to intake of food groups and nutrients. Despite a better performance of validation study participants, this conclusion also applies to the cohort at large.
The study population was comprised of 17,059 patients. The VC rate was higher in the overall contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 2.91% vs. 1.98%; odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.89; p = 0.001). In the contemporary cohort, radial access was associated with fewer VCs compared with femoral access (adjusted rates: 1.44% vs. 4.19%; OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23-0.48; p < 0.001). There was a higher likelihood of VCs in association with FA in the contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 4.19% vs. 1.98%; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.67-2.81; p < 0.001). This finding was consistent for both diagnostic and therapeutic catheterizations separately. ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
The Original Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study consisted of 5,209 respondents of a random sample of 2/3 of the adult population of Framingham, Massachusetts, 30 to 62 years of age by household, in 1948. Exam 32 for the Original Cohort ended in April of 2014.. ...
APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. Prone to bias due to loss to follow-up. Once investigators assemble the study cohorts, they are free to study more than one outcome, provided that the study subjects are free of each outcome of interest when the study begins. The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here and compared with other designs, including the classic case-control and cohort studies and the case-cohort study. By definition, such cases are not free of a specified disease, as in the case of a conventional cohort study (but are free of the outcome of interest). 3. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Looks like youve clipped this slide to already. 2. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A cohort will ...
Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label case series is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. Mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence.. This article tries to clarify the concept of case series and proposes a way to distinguish them from cohort studies. In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. A cohort study may include a comparison group, although this is not a necessary feature. A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. ...
In this large, multicentre cohort study, we show that adults hospitalised for seasonal or pandemic influenza have high morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional risk factors such as old age and comorbidity, we found that NAI treatment, secondary infections, systemic corticosteroid and statin use may affect clinical outcomes. These findings have important implications for patient care.. Our results are consistent with other cohort studies and recent meta-analyses which showed that early NAI treatment is associated with improved survival in H1N1pdm09 influenza patients [7, 16]. In this analysis, we included both seasonal and pandemic virus subtypes, and carefully controlled for important confounders including patient characteristics, disease severity, propensity to receive NAI treatment and possible immortal time bias, with the aim of providing a more accurate estimate on the effectiveness of antiviral intervention on outcomes. Effects on survival, as well as illness duration, were ...
This 2002 report presents the results of the mortality cohorts implemented through the EMCDDA multi-site study. The report contains: the descriptions of the cohorts, the standardised mortality rates (general and cause-specific, when possible), the standardised mortality ratios (SMR), a survival analysis of cohorts participants by age and site, and a univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to mortality.. ...
How representative participants in this study were in relation to the original cohort was tested using χ2 tests. Separate analyses were carried out by sex as BMD, skeletal size, and rates of bone loss are known to differ between men and women. Lifecourse effects on adult health have previously been shown to differ by sex for this and other cohorts.11,22,23 Furthermore, the inclusion of variables such as age at menarche, and number of pregnancies prevents the use of a combined lifecourse model. Eleven twins were excluded from all analyses because of the differences in fetal development for multiple births and the fact that data contributed by co-twins are not independent.. Chronic infection in childhood, hormone replacement therapy and physical activity were defined as binary variables. Social class, position in family, alcohol consumption, number of acute illnesses in childhood, quartiles of ranked adult dietary intake of vitamins C and D, protein and calcium, and number of pregnancies were ...
Mansell, Toby, Ponsonby, Anne-Louise, Collier, Fiona, Burgner, David, Pezic, Angela, Vuillermin, Peter, Ryan, Joanne, Saffery, Richard, Carlin, John, Allen, Katie, Tang, Mimi, Ranganathan, Sarath, Burgner, David, Dwyer, Terry and Sly, Peter 2020, Methylation of the LEP gene promoter in blood at 12 months and BMI at 4 years of age-a population-based cohort study, International journal of obesity, vol. 44, pp. 842-847, doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-0553-3. ...
PubMed journal article: Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.. METHODS: The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.. RESULTS: Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
In most earlier studies and some recent studies the risk associated with a baseline measure of intake is similar to a measure of average lifetime intake Ferrari et al. Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Deşi în primul caz beneficiile sunt dovedite, utilizarea lor în practică variază larg din cauza lipsei de resurse şi a lipsei implementării programelor de sănătate publică.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery from mental ill health in an occupational setting. T2 - A cohort study in Japan. AU - Mino, Yoshio. AU - Shigemi, Jun. AU - Tsuda, Toshihide. AU - Yasuda, Nobufumi. AU - Babazono, Akira. AU - Bebbington, Paul. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify the degree of recovery from mental ill health in occupational settings and the nature of perceived job stress associated with recovery. Methods: A 1-year cohort study was carried out in 287 of 763 workers who scored 8 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and the proportion recovering during the year was compared according to the presence of individual perceived job stress items. To control confounding factors, multiple logistic analysis was used. Results: Recovery from mental ill health was observed in 48.7% after the first 6 months and in 66.1% after 1 year. During the first 6-month period, no identified job stress item was associated with recovery. During the ...
Cohort study:. A cohort study is a longitudinal study that identifies a group of subjects sharing some attributes (a cohort) then takes measurements on the subjects at various points in time and records data for the group. A cohort study is often used to compare two groups over time, e.g. those who had treatment A for a condition, and those who had treatment B.. Browse Other Glossary Entries. ...
Background Despite declining US adolescent smoking prevalence from 40% among 12th graders in 1995 to around 10% in 2018, adolescent smoking is still a significant problem. Using the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium, which includes 7 international cohorts recruited in childhood and followed into adulthood, the present study was designed to confirm the important relation between adolescent smoking and daily adult smoking and present new data on adult smoking into the forties and comparison of smoking in the United States, Finland, and Australia. Methods and Results Childhood smoking experience during ages 6 to 19 in the 1970s and 1980s was classifiable in 6687 i3C participants who also provided smoking status in their twenties and forties through 2011-2018. Prevalence of daily smoking in their twenties was directly related to degree of smoking during adolescence and inversely related to the age at which that smoking experience occurred (P trend, <0.001). Similar patterns
This month’s Editor’s Choice selection is “Seizures in preterm neonates: A multicenter observational cohort study” by...
Methods The Million Women Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged UK women. This analysis is based on 372 542 women who reported their birthweight, current body size, and other information in a follow-up survey administered approximately 3 years after recruitment (mean age 58 years at follow-up). Logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk for being obese in adulthood (body mass index,30 kg/m2) by birthweight, both unadjusted and adjusted for reported adult height, parental heights, and a range of social and lifestyle factors, including socio-economic status, parental smoking at birth, being breast fed, reproductive history and health behaviours. ...
Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer?. Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers.. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality ...
Background. Comparative cohort studies are often conducted to identify novel therapeutic strategies or prognostic factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We aimed to evaluate the power of such studies to provide clinically and statistically significant conclusions with regard to mortality differences.. Methods. We searched in PubMed and Scopus for comparative cohort studies that evaluated mortality in patients with VAP. We calculated the central estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality differences between compared patient groups. We also calculated the statistical power of the included studies to detect a difference in mortality that corresponds to a risk ratio of 0.80.. Results. We identified 39 (20 prospective) comparative cohort studies on VAP as eligible for inclusion in this analysis. The median absolute risk difference in mortality between compared groups was 10% (interquartile range [IQR], 5%-18%), and the median width of the 95% CI of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood health problems following planned caesarean delivery at term. T2 - a population-based retrospective cohort study of Scottish data. AU - Black, Mairead Eileen. AU - Mclernon, D.. AU - Norman, J.. AU - Bhattacharya, Siladitya. PY - 2015/4. Y1 - 2015/4. M3 - Abstract. VL - 122. SP - 4. EP - 4. JO - BJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. JF - BJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. SN - 1470-0328. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. AU - Goldbohm, R.A.. AU - van den Brandt, P.A.. AU - Brants, H.A.M.. AU - van t Veer, P.. AU - Al, M.D.M.. AU - Sturmans, F.. AU - Hermus, R.J.J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer.Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, Brants HA, vant Veer P, Al M, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ.TNO Toxicology and Nutrition Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to assess the validity of a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), used in a cohort study on diet and cancer (120,852 men and women, aged 55-69). DESIGN & SUBJECTS: The study was carried out in a subgroup of the cohort (59 men and 50 women) 2 years after the baseline FFQ was completed. A dietary record, kept over three 3-day periods, 4-5 months apart, served as reference method. To evaluate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteoporosis increases subsequent risk of gallstone. T2 - A nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. AU - Klahan, Sukhontip. AU - Kuo, Chun Nan. AU - Chien, Shu-Chen. AU - Lin, Yea Wen. AU - Lin, Chun Yi. AU - Lin, Chia Hsien. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. AU - Lin, Ching I.. AU - Hung, Kuo Sheng. AU - Chang, Wei Pin. PY - 2014/11/18. Y1 - 2014/11/18. N2 - Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is expressed in various tissues. It participates in the bone remodeling process and stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. It is also a core protein of cholesterol gallstones. We hypothesized osteoporotic patients might have higher risk in developing gallstones and conducted a population-based study to examine the risk of developing gallstone in osteoporotic patients in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 1,638 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort ...
Netherlands Cohort Study Magazines, Netherlands Cohort Study eBooks, Netherlands Cohort Study Publications, Netherlands Cohort Study Publishers Description: Read interactive Netherlands Cohort Study publications at FlipHTML5, download Netherlands Cohort Study PDF documents for free. Upload and publish your own book in minutes.
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are widely prescribed in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2 inhibitor prescription is associated with COVID-19, when compared with an active comparator. We performed a propensity-score-matched cohort study with active …
As Canadas population ages, the location of end of life care (whether at home, extended care facility or hospital) may change depending on the location of death. We carried out a study to identify determinants of the place of death. Data on deaths in British Columbia between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vital Statistics Agency. Place of death was categorized into home, extended care facility, hospital or other. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of age, sex, marital status, residence, place of birth and cause of death on place of death using adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of the 153,111 deaths in the study, 16.5% occurred at home, 29.0% in extended care, 51.0% in hospital and 3.5% occurred elsewhere. Male deaths were less likely to occur in extended care as compared with female deaths (odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.71-0.75). Age (odds ratio 3.31, 95% CI 3.19-3.45 for those for ≥90 vs 70-79 years), marital status (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1
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ABSTRACTObjectiveTo externally validate four commonly used rules in computed tomography (CT) for minor head injury.DesignProspective, multicentre cohort study.SettingThree university and six non-university hospitals in the Netherlands.ParticipantsConsecutive adult patients aged 16 years and over who
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of maternal lead levels on birth outcomes in the ALSPAC study. T2 - a prospective birth cohort study. AU - Taylor, Caroline M. AU - Golding, Jean. AU - Emond, Alan M. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - Objective To study the associations of prenatal blood lead levels (B-Pb) with pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of mother-child pairs in the UK.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Avon area of Bristol, UK.Population Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).Methods Whole blood samples were collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Linearregression models for continuous outcomes and logistic regression models for categorical outcomes were adjusted for covariates including maternal height, smoking, parity, sex of the baby and gestational age.Main ...
Background: Recent studies suggest that lactation has long-term effects on risk for cardiovascular disease in women, but the effects on cardiovascular mortality are less well known. Method: In a Norwegian population-based prospective cohort study, we studied the association of lifetime duration of lactation with cardiovascular mortality in 21,889 women aged 30 to 85 years who attended the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2) in 1995-1997. The cohort was followed for mortality through 2010 by a linkage with the Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death from all causes and cardiovascular disease were calculated using Cox regression. Results: During follow-up, 1,246 women died from cardiovascular disease. Parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated had a higher cardiovascular mortality than the reference group of women who had lactated 24 months or more (HR 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 5.99). There was some evidence of a U-shaped association, ...
There is growing evidence that early growth influences bone mass in later life but most studies are limited to birth weight and/or early infant growth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. In a British birth cohort study with prospective measures of lifetime height and weight, we investigated the growth trajectory in relation to bone in males (M) and females (F) at 60 to 64 years old. Outcomes were DXA measures of hip and spine areal bone density (aBMD) (n = 1658) and pQCT measures of distal and diaphyseal radius cross-sectional area (CSA), strength, and volumetric bone density (vBMD) (n = 1350 of the 1658). Regression models examined percentage change in bone parameters with standardized measures of birth weight, height, and weight. A series of conditional growth models were fitted for height and weight gain (using intervals: birth-2, 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, 15-20, 20-36, and 36-64 years) and height gain (using intervals: 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, and 15-36 years). Birth weight was positively related
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6
Potential Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed. Forms can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M11-2633. Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Not available. Statistical code: Available from Dr. Jepsen (e-mail, mailto:[email protected]). Data set: The Danish National Board of Health (www.sst.dk) extracts data from Denmarks publicly available health care registries on request. The instructions given to the Board of Health to identify the nationwide cohort are available from Dr. Jepsen. Data for the Aarhus cohort are not available. Requests for Single Reprints: Peter Jepsen, MD, PhD, Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark; e-mail, mailto:[email protected] Current Author Addresses: Drs. Jepsen, Ott, and Vilstrup: Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark. Dr. Andersen: University of Copenhagen, O. Farimagsgade 5, PB 2099, Copenhagen K 1014, Denmark.. Dr. ...
Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of dairy consumption and breast cancer risk. A random effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 18 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 24,187 cases and 1,063,471 participants. The summary relative risk of breast cancer for the highest intake of total dairy food compared with the lowest was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.95), with evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.01, I 2 = 54.5%). For milk consumption, the summary relative risk was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.02), and substantial
Background To assess relationships between age at first birth and cardiovascular risk factors in a large longitudinal study of men and women. By assessing associations for both genders, we were able to investigate biological versus social and behavioural explanations from early life through to adulthood. Methods Multiply-imputed data on more than 7600 men and women of a British birth cohort study (National Child Development Study, 1958 British birth cohort) were used. Cardiovascular risk factors at age 44/45 years included body mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), cholesterol (total, low and highdensity lipoprotein), triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin, C reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. Age at first birth was categorised as ,20 years, 20-24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years or ,34 years. Results Being younger than 20 years of age at time of first birth was associated with an adverse cardiovascular profile by mid-life. Conversely, older ...
Hayashi K, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Dong H, Montaner JS, Kerr T Predictors of liver-related death among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada: a 15-year prospective cohort study Journal of the International AIDS Society PubMed. ...
Mitochondrial function of immune cells in septic shock: A prospective observational cohort study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the prevalence of comorbidity rates in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in UK primary care. We calculated the prevalence of SMI by UK country, English region and deprivation quintile, antipsychotic and antidepressant medication prescription rates for people with SMI, and prevalence rates of common comorbidities in people with SMI compared with people without SMI. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2012. SETTING: 627 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK primary care database. PARTICIPANTS: Each identified case (346 551) was matched for age, sex and general practice with 5 randomly selected control cases (1 732 755) with no diagnosis of SMI in each yearly time point. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates were calculated for 16 conditions. RESULTS: SMI rates were highest in Scotland and in more deprived areas. Rates increased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over time, with the largest increase in ...
Multiply imputed data from three nationally representative British birth cohorts were used-the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; 1946 birth cohort, n=3012), the National Child Development Study (NCDS; 1958 birth cohort, n=9614) and the British Cohort Study (BCS; 1970 birth cohort, n=8140). A typology of work-family life course types was developed using multi-channel sequence analysis, linking annual information on work, partnerships and parenthood from 16 to 42 years. Work-family life courses were related to BMI trajectories using multi-level growth models. Analyses adjusted for indicators of prior health, birthweight, child BMI, educational attainment and socioeconomic position across the life course, and were stratified by gender and cohort ...
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the farming environment and a decreased risk of atopic sensitization, mainly related to contact with farm animals in the childhood. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association of a farming environment, especially farm animal contact, during infancy, with atopic sensitization and allergic diseases at the age of 31. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study, 5509 subjects born in northern Finland in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31. Prenatal exposure to the farming environment was documented before or at birth. At age 31, information on health status and childhood exposure to pets was collected by a questionnaire and skin prick tests were performed. RESULTS: Being born to a family having farm animals decreased the risk of atopic sensitization [odds ratio (OR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.80], atopic eczema ever (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.91), doctor-diagnosed asthma ever (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00), allergic rhinitis at
In Chinese patients with diabetes, having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels that are too high or too low may be associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death, according to a research letter published Jan. 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, MSc, CStat, of the University of Hong Kong, and colleagues examined 117,389 adult Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes without any history of cardiovascular disease. After a median follow-up of 54.5 to 58.5 months, a J-shaped curvilinear relationship was observed between HbA1c levels and cardiovascular disease incidence, all-cause mortality and other outcomes. An HbA1c range of ≥7.0 percent to ,7.5 percent had the lowest risk of new cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease-related mortality. By comparison, an HbA1c ,6.5 percent or ≥8.0 percent was associated with a ...
In 1998, it was decided to build a single cohort, named the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study (MoCHiV) and in 2003, MoCHiV was integrated in the
b,Objective,/b,,p,,/p, Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. ,b,Methods,/b,,p,,/p, We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. ,b,Results,/b,,p,,/p, Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2%) participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55), coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84) and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. AU - Zheng, Wei. AU - Doyle, Timothy J.. AU - Kushi, Lawrence H.. AU - Sellers, Thomas A.. AU - Hong, Ching Ping. AU - Folsom, Aaron R.. PY - 1996/7/15. Y1 - 1996/7/15. N2 - Tea has consistently been shown to inhibit the occurrence of tumors in experimental animals. The evidence for such a beneficial effect in humans, however, is limited. The authors examined the association between non-herbal tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 35,369 postmenopausal iowa women. In this cohort, information on the frequency of tea drinking and other dietary and lifestyle factors was collected by mailed survey in 1986. After 8 years of follow-up, 2,936 incident non-skin cancer cases were ascertained in this cohort through the State Health Registry of Iowa. Proportional hazards regressions were used to derive adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. MgS[O.sub.4] prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia
TY - JOUR. T1 - History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis. T2 - Prospective cohort study. AU - Farland, Leslie V.. AU - Eliassen, A. Heather. AU - Tamimi, Rulla M.. AU - Spiegelman, Donna. AU - Michels, Karin B.. AU - Missmer, Stacey A.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard ...
BreastScreen Aotearoa (BSA) is the national breast screening programmen in New Zealand which aims to reduce cancer mortality through early diagnosis. The current research project is a population study which aims to evaluate the effects of national mammography screening on mortality from breast cancer in New Zealand. Specifically the research will measure whether there was a lower relative risk of breast cancer mortality in ever-screened versus unscreened women, with a dose-response effect in relation to recency and frequency of screening. The research includes two complementary studies: a retrospective population cohort study and a nested population-based case-control study of all women aged 50-69 years during the period 1999-2008. The population cohort study compares breast cancer mortality (the outcome) among groups with different screening histories (never, ever, or regularly screened) as the exposure variable. The case-control study compares the screening histories of all women who died of ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the presentation of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) and identify factors contributing toward misdiagnosis. METHODS: This was an observational study of cases with a final diagnosis of rAAA assessed at nine Emergency Departments and managed at one of two regional vascular centres in the UK. RESULTS: Eighty-five consecutive cases were included. Seventeen [20.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.5-28.5%] patients reported important symptoms up to 3 weeks before index presentation. In the Emergency Department, most patients complained of abdominal and/or back pain, seven (8.2%, 95% CI 2.4-14.0%) additionally reported atypical pain and ten (11.8%, 95% CI 4.9-18.7%) denied pain altogether. Hypotension (36.5%, 95% CI 26.3-46.7%), tachycardia (18.8%, 95% CI 10.5-27.1%) and syncope (36.5%, 95% CI 26.3-46.7%) were documented in a minority of cases. Distracting symptoms were present in 33 (38.8%, 95% CI 28.4-49.2%) patients. The median time to
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
At the NIEHS, researchers from the Epidemiology Branch are using biologic samples collected from pregnant Norwegian women to investigate how early-life exposure to environmental contaminants may affect adult health. The samples were collected from women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, or MoBa, an ongoing long-term prospective cohort study of pregnant Norwegian women and their children. NIEHS epidemiologists are analyzing these samples to measure the level of exposure to environmental contaminants in relation to a range of health endpoints, such as obesity and asthma, among the pregnant women and their children.
Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factors and outcomes, and stores specimens (blood, dialysate, hair and fingernails) at baseline and in long-term follow-up. Such specimens will permit measurements of biochemical markers, proteomic and genetic parameters (proteins and DNA) not measured in routine care. To avoid selection bias, all consenting incident hemodialysis patients at participating centers are enrolled, the large sample size (target of 1500 patients), large number of exposures, and high event rates will permit the exploration of multiple ...
Aim To determine the performance of subjectively defined intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs in identifying drinkers at risk for adverse health outcomes. Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Working-aged Finnish general population. Participants A total of 21 204 alcohol-drinking men and women aged 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54 years at baseline who participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Measurements Binge drinking was measured by subjectively defined intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. Hazardous drinking was defined according to Finnish guidelines as weekly total intake of ,287 g of ethanol for men, and for women , 191 g of ethanol (≥24 and ≥16 standard drinks, respectively). Study participants were followed-up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Proportional hazard models and areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC) were used to ...
PubMed journal article: Prenatal thallium exposure and poor growth in early childhood: A prospective birth cohort study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from brain cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between Jan. 1, 1978 and Dec. 31, 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to December 31, 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from brain cancer associated with parity and age at first birth. There were 316 brain cancer deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of brain cancer was 0.90 cases per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted HR was 1.35 (95% CI= 0.91-2.01) for women who gave birth between 21 and 25, 1.61 (95% CI=1.05-2.45) for women who gave birth after 25 years of age, respectively, when compared with women who gave birth less than 20 years. A trend of
Molsberry SA, Lecci F, Kingsley L, Junker B, Reynolds S, Goodkin K, Levine AJ, Martin E, Miller EN, Munro CA, Ragin A, Sacktor N, Becker JT. Mixed membership trajectory models of cognitive impairment in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. AIDS. 2015 Mar 27; 29(6):713-21 ...
The impact of deferring critically ill children in referral hospitals away from their designated pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) on patients and the healthcare system is unknown. This population-based retrospective cohort studys goal was to identify the factors associated with deferrals of critically ill children away from their designated PCCU, evaluate patient outcomes as they related to deferrals away from a PCCU and study the impact of the 2010 referral policy implementation.
Results: The odds of RTW reduced as depression scores one month post-injury increased (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.79, 0.95) and as length of hospital stay increased (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.86, 0.96). Those experiencing threatening life events following injury (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10, 0.72) and with higher scores on the crisis social support scale (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.88, 0.99) had a lower odds of RTW. Multiple imputation analysis found similar results except crisis social support did not remain significant ...
Our nationwide cohort study of 23 487 prospectively followed CC patients revealed that although patients with RCC were, overall, older, more often of female gender, had modestly higher ASA scores and more advanced UICC stages than patients with LCC, the picture was indeed more complex when assessing the underlying CC subsites. Mortality from RCC was only relatively higher than mortality from LCC during the first 2 years after CC diagnosis, probably due to the observation that the majority of recurrences in colorectal cancer occurs within the first 2 years after primary treatment.12 In analyses of CC subsites, the highest relative mortality was from cancer of the splenic flexure (ie, belonging to the LCC category), while the lowest relative mortality was from sigmoid cancer (also belonging to the LCC category). The differences in mortality from CC of different colon subsites was only to a minor extent explained by the ASA scores, number of harvested lymph nodes, number of lymph nodes with ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults. T2 - The cardiovascular health study. AU - Fried, Linda P.. AU - Kronmal, Richard A.. AU - Newman, Anne B.. AU - Bild, Diane E.. AU - Mittelmark, Maurice B.. AU - Polak, Joseph F.. AU - Robbins, John A. AU - Gardin, Julius M.. PY - 1998/2/25. Y1 - 1998/2/25. N2 - Context.-Multiple factors contribute to mortality in older adults, but the extent to which subclinical disease and other factors contribute independently to mortality risk is not known. Objective.-To determine the disease, functional, and personal characteristics that jointly predict mortality in community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older. Design.-Prospective population-based cohort study with 5 years of follow-up and a validation cohort of African Americans with 4.25-year follow-up. Setting.-Four US communities. Participants.-A total of 5201 and 685 men and women aged 65 years or older in the original and African American cohorts, respectively. Main Outcome ...
... are generally not studied with the use of a cohort study, but are rather studied with the use of a case-control study. Cohort ... A nested case-control study is a case control nested inside of a cohort study. The procedure begins like a normal cohort study ... The largest cohort study in Africa is the Birth to Twenty Study, which began in 1990 and tracks a cohort of over 3,000 children ... A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that samples a cohort (a group of people who share a defining ...
COSMOS is a cohort study of mobile phone use and health. The study will[needs update] investigate the possible health effects ... The Committee is convinced that the best way to address these uncertainties is to carry out a large cohort study of mobile ... Anyone aged 18 or over, who is a UK resident and uses a mobile phone can take part in the study. To take part visit the study ... During a study pre-test in 2009 and the study main launch in 2010, prospective participants were randomly selected by their ...
The Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is a longitudinal survey conducted by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies (CLS) at the ... ISBN 978-1-846-14826-2. ESDS Longitudinal website Millennium Cohort Study data sets Centre for Longitudinal Studies website ( ... The MCS is the fourth longitudinal birth cohort study conducted in the UK. Its aim is to create a multi-purpose data-set that ... Cohort studies, Demographics of the United Kingdom, UCL Institute of Education). ...
A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who ... Prospective cohort studies are typically ranked higher in the hierarchy of evidence than retrospective cohort studies and can ... Rotterdam Study, Netherlands. Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study, Bolivia The UK biobank , UK Retrospective cohort study Blinded ... "Definition of prospective cohort study - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". LaMorte, Wayne. "Prospective and Retrospective Cohort ...
A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, is a longitudinal cohort study used in medical and ... Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies. The retrospective cohort ... Retrospective cohort studies exhibit the benefits of cohort studies and have distinct advantages relative to prospective ones: ... it has essentially all the benefits of a cohort study. Retrospective studies have disadvantages vis-a-vis prospective studies: ...
The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) is a continuing, multi-disciplinary longitudinal survey monitoring the development of ... One key publication which also includes data of other British Cohort Studies is Elsa Ferri, John Bynner and Michael Wadsworth ( ... Members of the 1970 birth cohort study created a Facebook page for themselves. The primary method of data collection consists ... 337-339) "1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)". Facebook group page. Facebook. 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016. BCS70 dataset ...
BCS70 and MCS National Child Development Study British Cohort Study 1970 Millennium Cohort Study National Survey of Health and ... established in 1958 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), established in 2000 The studies involve ... Birth cohort studies in Britain include four long-term medical and social studies, carried out over the lives of a group of ... Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, established 1991 Lothian Birth Cohort Studies, established 1921 Dunedin ...
The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is an ongoing cohort study involving over 6,000 men, including both those infected ... AIDS Study Marks 25th Year, National Public Radio Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, May 2006 (All articles with unsourced ... The Los Angeles component of the MACS is called the Los Angeles Mens Study or LAMS. LAMS affiliated with UCLA and is supervised ... statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2021, HIV/AIDS, Clinical trials related to HIV, Cohort studies). ...
The Lothian birth-cohort studies are two ongoing cohort studies which primarily involve research into how childhood ... The Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC) studies of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936) are follow-up studies of, respectively, the ... Furthermore, a 2015 meta-analysis of GWA studies in 31 cohorts, including the two Lothian Birth Cohorts, found that the APOE ... Cohort studies, Epidemiological study projects, Genetics in the United Kingdom, Human development, Lothian, Science and ...
Official Millennium Cohort Family Study website Millennium Cohort Family Study Publications Millennium Cohort Family Study ... The Millennium Cohort Family Study, a sub-study of the Millennium Cohort Study (United States), is a United States Department ... A cohort study follows a distinct group of people over an extended period of time. In epidemiological research, only a cohort ... The purpose of the Millennium Cohort Family Study is to gain a more complete understanding of the military experience and its ...
Official Millennium Cohort Study website Millennium Cohort Study Publications Millennium Cohort Endorsements Naval Health ... The Millennium Cohort Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study headquartered at the Naval Health Research Center in San ... Pilot studies were conducted in 2000; by mid-2001, the Millennium Cohort Study's first enrollment period was launched, ... Over 200,000 military personnel are members of the cohort. The Millennium Cohort Study began with a random sample of US ...
A study on a cohort is a cohort study. Two important types of cohort studies are: Prospective Cohort Study: In this type of ... Age grade Bureau of Labor Statistics Case mix Cohort study Generational cohort National Longitudinal Surveys Prospective cohort ... study "Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohort Studies". sphweb.bumc.bu.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-27. "Cohort Studies". sphweb.bumc ... Another disadvantage of cohort studies is that it can be extremely costly to carry out, since the study will go on for a long ...
The PAQUID (or Paquid) cohort is a group of 3,777 individuals aged 65 years or older who were studied from 1988 until 2004. ... Cohort study Alzheimer's disease dementia Rondeau, V.; Jacqmin-Gadda, H.; Commenges, D.; Helmer, C.; Dartigues, J.-F. (13 ... A French population-based cohort study". Neurology. 53 (9): 1953-1958. doi:10.1212/WNL.53.9.1953. PMID 10599764. S2CID 23832391 ... The studies were conducted by the Université Victor-Segalen, Bordeaux 2 (UB2) in Bordeaux, France. The source of the term is " ...
A cohort study". Arthritis Care & Research. 65 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1002/acr.21692. PMC 3401342. PMID 22505346. v t e (CS1 maint ... The ACR says the pain subscale "has been variable across studies but generally meets the minimum standard." Reliability for the ... An example of an arthritis study using the WOMAC found a significant exposure-response relationship between body weight loss ( ... When used in clinical studies, the WOMAC pain and function subscales perform comparably or better than other tests in being ...
As co-director, Pringle raised key funds and brought institutional support to the cohort study, which involved a team of ... Bynner, John; Goldstein, Harvey; Alberman, Eva (1998). "Neville Butler and the British Birth Cohort studies". Paediatric and ... Ball, Philip (February 2016). "Celebrating cohort studies". The Lancet. 387 (10021): 836-837. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00514-6 ... The NCB's most important project under her leadership was the National Child Development Study, a longitudinal study of 17,000 ...
A 2019 cohort study reported that despite a 13% recurrent rate in patients who underwent a cortical-sparing adrenalectomy for ... June 2019). "Prognosis of Malignant Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (MAPP-Prono Study): A European Network for the Study of ... A retrospective cohort study". Clinical Endocrinology. 85 (1): 62-9. doi:10.1111/cen.13066. PMC 4899243. PMID 26998836. Sheaves ... The majority of studied patients report their pain began and ended abruptly without warning and described the pain as a severe ...
A retrospective cohort study]". Epidemiol Prev (in Italian). 36 (5 Suppl 4): 34-43. PMID 23139187. "Valle del Sacco: a poisoned ... Human studies show that exposure to beta-HCH is linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. β-HCH was present in elevated ... Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides, including beta-HCH, are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the ... A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. α-Hexachlorocyclohexane ...
A historical cohort study". BMJ Open. 6 (11): e011768. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011768. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 5168545. PMID ... Hunger and malnutrition not only effect the children but also older individuals; a study in Matlab which is located 55 km south ... Trials were held in Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh to study a household's food insecurity ranking. Certain ... Kabeer, Naila (January 1991). "Gender dimensions of rural poverty: Analysis from Bangladesh". Journal of Peasant Studies. 18 (2 ...
Health Study II cohort were enrolled in their own follow-up study called the Growing Up Today Study, or GUTS, which has ... British Doctors Study Framingham Heart Study "Nurses' Health Studies". The Nurses' Health Study. 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2017-07- ... Health Study was the first cohort study of such magnitude to follow a population over time. The study has continued into 2018, ... The Nurses' Health Study original cohort was established in 1976 by Frank E. Speizer. Initially, the study investigated ...
2008). "Is smoking a risk factor for low back pain in adolescents? A prospective cohort study". Spine. 33 (5): 527-32. doi: ... It has been reported to be negative in several studies. It has been reported to have no effect in other studies. Many studies ... "Degeneration of Sacroiliac Joint After Instrumented Lumbar or Lumbosacral Fusion: a Prospective Cohort Study over Five-year ... but variations in approach and study results make this literature difficult to reconcile. In a massive study of 3482 patients ...
A retrospective cohort study". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 160 (11): 1565-1569. PMC 1230360. PMID 10373997. Chaudhry ... However, a study of women attending a hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, following rape, has highlighted the fact that in many ... For instance, one study found that documented physical injury, particularly of the moderate to severe type, was associated with ... Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (document WHO/FCH/GWH/01.08). Case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care ...
A dynamic cohort study". Family Practice. 25 (4): 233-6. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn030. PMID 18562333. Leach AJ, Morris PS (October ... Some studies have linked otitis media to learning problems, attention disorders, and problems with social adaptation. ... Homeopathic treatments have not been proven to be effective for acute otitis media in a study with children. An osteopathic ... Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators) (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and ...
... an observational cohort study". Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 4 (1): 35-40. doi:10.1016/j.jcf.2004.09.001. PMID 15752679. Tan KH ... A small study published in 2015 found a small benefit. The focus of much CF gene therapy research is aimed at trying to place a ... No in vivo study has yet confirmed this. In both cases, the low level of cystic fibrosis outside of Europe, in places where ... A recent study from Ireland identified a link between the female hormone estrogen and worse outcomes in CF. The distribution of ...
A retrospective cohort study". The BMJ. 343: d7799. doi:10.1136/bmj.d7799. PMC 3243755. PMID 22187325. Chick, Stevie (October ... The study noted that young adult musicians have a higher death rate than the general young adult population, surmising that " ... A study by university academics published in the British Medical Journal in December 2011 concluded that there was no increase ... The selection criteria for the musicians included in the study, based on having scored a UK No. 1 album between 1956 and 2007, ...
... the Center went on to participate in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, the longest running HIV study, resulting in ... "MACS History". Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Johns Hopkins University. October 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2016. "Howard Brown ... The grant funds were supposed to be used for HIV and AIDS studies, but the NIH found that Howard Brown was using the funds to ... a high rate of hepatitis B among the center's patients inspired Howard Brown to participate in important research studies and ...
A dynamic cohort study". Family Practice. 25 (4): 233-6. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn030. PMID 18562333. Hamish T (1990). Occlusion. ... Most malocclusion studies to date have focused on Class III malocclusions. Genetic studies for Class II and Class I ... Brucker M (1943). "Studies on the Incidence and Cause of Dental Defects in Children: IV. Malocclusion" (PDF). J Dent Res. 22 (4 ... An epidemiological study of 11- to 14-year-old children". European Journal of Orthodontics. 31 (5): 477-84. doi:10.1093/ejo/ ...
A prospective cohort study". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 151 (4): 371-8. doi:10.1001/archpedi. ... a Danish nationwide cohort study". The Lancet. Child & Adolescent Health. 3 (2): 99-108. doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30351-1. PMC ... A National Cohort Study in Denmark". JAMA Pediatrics. 173 (12): 1164-1170. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3343. PMC 6784760. ... FEBSTAT Study, Team. (February 2014). "Hippocampal sclerosis after febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study". Annals of ...
A prospective cohort study". European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. 28 (2): 83-8. PMID 17479666. Leboeuf R, Langlois MF, ... A combined analysis of seven International Breast Cancer Study Group trials". Annals of Oncology. 18 (4): 701-8. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Silent Hypoxia in Coronavirus Disease-2019: Is It More Dangerous?-a Retrospective Cohort Study." Lung India, 2021, https://doi. ... "Study explains why Covid-19 can cause silent hypoxia". The Tribune. 30 November 2020. Srivastava A (23 May 2020). "Blood clots ...
The Rakai Community Cohort study acts as only one of the functions of the program, and a number of nested studies have drawn ... Fred Nalugoda, within the Rakai Commiunity Cohort Study, was part of a foundational study investigating the effects of male ... The cohort study is made up of about 12,00 individuals. The program also provides participants with treatment and counseling ... "Rakai Community Cohort Study - RCCS". www.rhsp.org. Retrieved 2020-06-28. schroeder, christopher; Health, JH Bloomberg School ...
This did not put an end to her studies, however. War ended in 1918 and she took on the care of her parents. She also took time ... In Dresden von Abendroth was involved in the education of many cohorts of nurses who later would remember her with great ... She concluded her studies, passing the necessary exams, in 1906. she then worked as a home tutor. In 1910 she completed a ... Erna von Abendroth now left Dresden and embarked on the first of several lengthy lecture and study tours abroad. Her travels ...
Thornberry and Christenson (1984) analysed data from a longitudinal cohort study of delinquency in Philadelphia and found (at ... Notes "Blue-Collar Crime: Definition, Statistics & Examples - Video & Lesson Transcript , Study.com". Study.com. Retrieved 2016 ... A study found that both social standing in the classes and the employment status of offenders found them more likely to be ... According to this study the factors that lead to crime should be collected into different clusters: personality of the ...
In its simplest form it can be run as a single age cohort, plant monoculture, light competition model. At the other extreme the ... Boldor, Marius Ioan (2007). A Field and Simulation Study of the Initiation Phase in Douglas-Fir Plantations (PDF) (M.S. thesis ... model can be used to simulate succession and disturbance responses in a complex multi species, multi age cohort ecosystem-level ...
For IB, 27% of the 2019 cohort scored 40 or more IB points. The college plays sports such as football, cricket, rugby, rackets ... In the Sixth Form, courses are offered at A-Level in art, business studies, classical civilisation, design and technology, ... "Malvern College UK Guide - Reviews, Rankings, And Fees". Britannia StudyLink Malaysia: UK Study Expert. 25 June 2020. Retrieved ... drama and theatre studies, economics, English literature, geography, Greek, history, history of art, key skills, Latin, ...
October 2010). "Risk of skin cancer after neonatal phototherapy: retrospective cohort study". Archives of Disease in Childhood ... Recent studies from several countries show that the biliblanket setup can safely and effectively be used in the families home ...
The two are described elsewhere as fellow members of Catullus' cohort of friends: comites Catulli. According to Catullus 16, ... Oxford Readings in Classical Studies), ed. J. Gaisser. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 490-559. ISBN 0199280355 Latin ...
Both were expected to study continuously for years without interruption. Without the necessary financial support, studying for ... Among Huang Chao's cohort were other failed candidates such as Li Zhen, who targeted government officials, killed them and ... The process of studying for the examination tended to be time-consuming and costly, requiring time to spare and tutors. Most of ... After completing their studies, candidates also had to pay for travel and lodging expenses, not to mention thank-you gifts for ...
Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University of Belfast, 1992), ISBN 0-85389-446-9(HB) Northern Ireland at Wikipedia's sister ... By the late 19th century, a large and disciplined cohort of Irish Nationalist MPs at Westminster committed the Liberal Party to ... Contemporary Irish Studies. Manchester University Press, 1983. pp.29-32 Maney, Gregory. "The Paradox of Reform: The Civil ... "NI migrant population triples in decade, says study" Archived 20 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 26 June 2014. " ...
Later studies by Slee and Goldblatt (1996), Shanske et al. (2002), Bellini et al. (2002) and others observed other patients ... They subsequently analysed a cohort of 1,000 individuals with microcephaly and found that one of them, a girl, had mutations in ... It was named after him in a 2008 study describing another patient. In 2015, mutations in CENPF were first identified as ... brain magnetic resonance imaging study". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 110 (2): 176-8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10392. PMID ...
UTS is ranked in the top 100 for Accounting and Finance, Architecture, Civil Engineering, Communication & Media Studies, ... elected by the student cohort in annual elections), two staff members (elected by the staff of the university), the CEO of ... the NSW Institute of Technology amalgamated with the NSW Institute of Business Studies. In 1976 NSWIT established the first law ...
Prenatal health, educational attainment, and intergenerational inequality: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study. ... The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study". Demography. 49 (2): 525-552. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0092-1. ISSN 0070-3370. PMID ... At the EUI, he is director of graduate studies for the Department of Political and Social Sciences since 2020, and co-director ... Population Studies 62(3):273-88. Härkönen, J., H. Kaymakcalan, P. Mäki & A. Taanila. 2012. ...
Every year, ITE takes in 25% of an annual school cohort, or an intake of about 13,000 students, with an annual enrollment of ... Technical Diploma and Work-Study Diploma. Apart from providing vocational education to secondary school graduates, ITE offers ...
On average, the Ford School's master's of public policy cohorts consist of 110 students, the master's of public affairs cohorts ... Asian Studies: China and Public Policy (MPP/MA) Asian Studies: Southeast Asia and Public Policy (MPP/MA) Russian, East European ... Students also study and travel during the academic year. The Ford School has three courses that give students experience with ... and Eurasian Studies and Public Policy (MPP/MA) In 2016, the Ford School partnered with the INCAE Business School in Costa Rica ...
In June 2020, she was included as one of the cohort of fellows for the year 2020 by the American Council of Learned Societies ... After completing her higher studies at the Yale University, she became a lecturer at the University of Illinois before moving ... Radhika also received the Edward Cameron Dimock Prize from the American Institute of Indian Studies for her work in Animal ... She also wrote and published books related to animal studies and wrote an award winning book titled Animal Intimacies: ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of 15 million pregnancies". PLOS Medicine. 16 (7): e1002838. doi: ... Two studies found that "when the infant is clothed only in a diaper and placed in between the mother or father's breasts, chest ... Looking at recent studies, a 2019 review found that the level of oxytocin was found to increase not only in mothers who had ... They are being studied as possible treatments of a number of conditions. Some animal mothers are known to eat their afterbirth ...
One study that covers the first 6 months of the project and a second study about the first 12 months of the project. No further ... However, payments to young cohorts only may be met with resistance from the older ones. Yet another alternative to UBI is a ... A study of the payments' effects on the children of the community found significant declines in poverty, behavioral problems, ... As of 2018, the entrepreneurial fund, Y Combinator (run largely by Sam Altman) was planning to run a basic income study in ...
Validation of the Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia in a Prospective Cohort of Patients From the FINITE Study." ... Research to compare antibiotic treatments currently recommended in consensus guidelines identified 44 studies comparing ...
The study enrolled 19 participants with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer who were radioactive iodine-refractory (RAI, if an ... multi-cohort trial that evaluated 41 participants with RET fusion-positive tumors (other than non-small cell lung cancer and ... Clinical trial number NCT03157128 for "Phase 1/2 Study of LOXO-292 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors, RET Fusion-Positive ... The study enrolled 143 participants with advanced or metastatic RET-mutant MTC who had been previously treated with ...
"Ontario Uranium Miners Cohort Study Report" (PDF). Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario - via University of ... The study is to be updated in 2023. Uranium mining in the Elliot Lake area Royal Commission on the Health and Safety of Workers ... 1978 and 1980, studies found that the natural weathering of the granite and gabbro rocks left at Greyhawk Mine had caused ... According to a 2012 study published in Nature, there is a "positive exposure-response between silica and lung cancer". Uranium ...
One 1990 study estimated the annual prevalence of full-time equivalent prostitutes in the United States to be 23 per 100,000 ... "Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women". American Journal of Epidemiology. 159 (8): 778-785. doi:10.1093/aje/ ... 2017). Cather Studies. Vol. 11: Willa Cather at the Modernist Crux. University of Nebraska Press. p. 175. ISBN 9780803296992. " ... A continuation of the Colorado Springs study found a death rate among active prostitutes of 459 per 100,000 person-years, which ...
Studies published a month later, in August indicated hospitalizations of small cohorts of early patients were 8% and 13%. In ... An analysis of studies by a journalist indicates that "about 10-to-15% of cases have been hospitalized, mostly for pain and ... However, in a study published in August 2022, infectious monkeypox virus was able to be isolated from semen samples, and the ... A study in 1988 found that the smallpox vaccine was around 85% protective in preventing infection in close contacts and in ...
Results from a cohort study of approximately 2,000 older adults aged 65 years and older from the New Haven Established ... a cohort study". Lancet. 356 (9235): 1051-6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02727-6. PMID 11009139. S2CID 19776584. Hoffman IF, Jere ... Studies from around the world link heart disease to poverty. Low neighborhood income and education were associated with higher ... Studies show that there is an association between low socioeconomic status and exposure to higher concentrations of air ...
The controversy abated for a time beginning in 1998 after a study group formed by the Government of the Student Body could not ... as its president led to her ejection from the Woman's Peace Party as well as hard feelings between her and its small cohort of ... "Change the Name! A Critical Case Study Analysis of The September 29th Movement". Iowa State Conference on Race and Ethnicity, ... The George W. Catt Endowment continues to award scholarships to several students in different fields of study each year. ...
A study conducted by ProCon - a nonpartisan nonprofit organization - estimated the percentage of men who had paid for sex at ... April 2004). "Mortality in a long-term open cohort of prostitute women". Am. J. Epidemiol. 159 (8): 778-85. doi:10.1093/aje/ ... Some studies indicate that the percentage of men engaging in commercial sex in the United States has declined significantly in ... Some studies of prostitution in urban settings in developing countries, such as Kenya, have stated that prostitution acts as a ...
Pearl R (1928). The Rate of Living, Being an Account of Some Experimental Studies on the Biology of Life Duration. New York: ... few were alive at older ages and their contribution to the next generation was therefore small relative to the large cohorts of ... Study of these organisms has revealed the presence of at least two conserved aging pathways. Gene expression is imperfectly ... Alfred A. Knopf.[page needed] Brunet-Rossinni AK, Austad SN (2004). "Ageing studies on bats: a review". Biogerontology. 5 (4): ...
Her study stunned the medical community and made her a hero to many gay men and lesbians, but homosexuality remained in the DSM ... A cohort of poets, later named the Beat poets, wrote about the evils of the social organization at the time, glorifying anarchy ... A large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden ... The Stonewall riots are often considered to be the origin or impetus of the gay liberation movement, and many studies of LGBT ...
In 1893, Henry Fairfield Osborn remarked that new studies of edentate teeth indicated that they were not as distinct as Thomas ... Gaudin, T.J.; Wible, J.R.; Hopson, J.A.; Turnbull, W.D. (1996). "Reexamination of the morphological evidence for the cohort ... ranked as a cohort (a taxonomic rank between infraclass and superorder). Two years later, José Bonaparte named Gondwanatherium ...
Democratic Presidential nominee McGovern said that he expected Thiệu and his "cohorts" to flee into exile and for a communist ... Starry, Donn (1978). Mounted Combat In Vietnam Vietnam Studies. Department of the Army. ISBN 978-1780392462. This article ...
At the University of Edinburgh, he established a surgical research laboratory from which was to emerge a cohort of young ... He attended Edinburgh Academy 1896 to 1899 and then studied Medicine at Edinburgh University graduating MB ChB in 1904, and ...
During his studies, Simmons began making and releasing mixtapes under the moniker, DJ Drama. One of his first series (called ... Drama and his AMG cohorts were hosting radio shows on Atlanta's Hot 107.9 and on Eminem's Shade 45 channel on Sirius Satellite ... After high school, he moved to Atlanta to attend Clark Atlanta University (CAU) where he studied mass communication. While ...
The PREVAIL cohort study is a multi-year CDC study that looks at how a mothers immune system may help protect her children ... PREVAIL Cohort Study Investigators. Principal Investigators. Dr. Ardythe L. Morrow, PhD - Site Principal Investigator, ... Building on the Success of the PREVAIL Cohort. Cincinnati Childrens PREVAIL Cohort team led by Mary Allen Staat, MD, MPH, and ... PREVAIL is a three-year study involving women and their infants. Participation in the study is voluntary. Participants will ...
Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value ... The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. ...
... cause-and-effect were not shown in their study. ... A Cohort of 43,000 Strong The researchers analyzed healthcare ... "Therefore, further studies, specifically primary-prevention studies, are urgently needed in which the long-term effects of ... Still, this study shows that "despite the use of statins for more than a quarter of a century, there are aspects about its long ... "Our study did not examine whether the benefits outweigh the risk (it was not designed for that)," he noted. Moreover, there is ...
... McIsaac DI, Bryson GL, ... Results - A total of 333,344 patients were studied, of whom 2826 died within 30 days of surgery (overall crude mortality rate ... Objectives - The aim of this study was to investigate the generalizability of the association between elective weekend surgery ... Conclusions - Similar to previous studies in distinct health care systems, patients in Ontario undergoing elective surgery on ...
Early assessment of cancer outcomes in New York City firefighters after the 9/11 attacks: An observational cohort study. Lancet ... Although the study is conducted in occupationally exposed responders, the results will be relevant to other individuals exposed ... We reported a modest excess of cancer cases in the WTC-exposed cohort compared with the US population. We remain cautious in ... The main objective of this three-year research project is to analyze the cohorts of FDNY firefighters and EMS workers, both WTC ...
... PLoS One. 2015 Jun 10;10(6):e0129443. doi: 10.1371/journal ... Design: Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on ...
... prospective Danish cohort study. This team of researchers can conceptualize design and publish similar cohort studies in the ... Re: Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study. [The author of this rapid response was corrected on ... Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study BMJ 2016; 354 :i4262 doi:10.1136/bmj.i4262 ... Re: Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study. Heavy binge drinking and alcohol consumption prior ...
... ... 2022)‎. Prospective cohort study of referred Malawian children and their survival by hypoxaemia and hypoglycaemia status. ...
Frequency of low-value care in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study ... Frequency of low-value care in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study ... Frequency of low-value care in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study ...
1982)‎. Methods for cohort studies of chronic airflow limitation. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. https ...
A retrospective cohort study on European Reference Network for Rare Vascular Diseases 5 outcome measures for Hereditary ... Hvelplund, T., Lange, B., Bird, S. D., Korsholm, M., & Kjeldsen, A. D. (2022). A retrospective cohort study on European ... Methods: The study was a non-interventional retrospective study. Data was collected manually from patient records and from the ...
Study design: A 3-year prospective cohort study among 1334 workers was conducted. ... High quantitative job demands and low coworker support as risk factors for neck pain: results of a prospective cohort study ... Previous studies on risk factors for neck pain often had a cross-sectional design, and did not take both physical and ...
Fatigue as a risk factor for being injured in an occupational accident: results from the Maastricht Cohort Study ... Fatigue as a risk factor for being injured in an occupational accident: results from the Maastricht Cohort Study ...
Survival patterns after oophorectomy in premenopausal women: a population-based cohort study. *. Prof Walter A Rocca, MD Walter ... Mortality after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a prospective cohort study. ... Survival patterns after oophorectomy in premenopausal women: a population-based cohort study ... and 2390 referent women were eligible for the study. Women were followed up until death or the end of the study (staggered over ...
Table 1 Medical and demographic characteristics of responders and non-responders in a cohort study of cancer rehabilitation. ... A population-based cohort study was performed on incident cancer patients diagnosed from 1 October 2007 to 30 September 2008. ... Participation in cancer rehabilitation and unmet needs: a population-based cohort study. *Lise Vilstrup Holm. 1, ... Study population. The study population was defined by the following means:. All residents of Denmark are assigned a unique ten- ...
Proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based cohort study. *A H Poulsen. 1, ... In this prospective, population-based cohort study risk estimates for gastric cancer among users of either PPI or H2RA were ... We conducted this population-based cohort study within North Jutland County, Denmark (∼500 000 inhabitants) in 1990-2003. The ... Few epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between PPI use and gastric cancer. Two studies based on UK ...
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is associated with congenital rickets: a retrospective autopsy cohort study ... Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is associated with congenital rickets: a retrospective autopsy cohort study ...
ENERGY is a Food Science research study at the University of Otago, which aims to explore sensory, metabolic, and neural ... About the study. ENERGY (Energy, Neurosensory, and Eating Responses durinG pregnancY) is a longitudinal cohort study that is ... We are recruiting 230 women to take part in a longitudinal cohort study: 165 women who are planning to conceive in the next ... Our study will take place at the University of Otago Sensory Lab where our team of researchers and students will conduct tests ...
In this prospective study of patients with sepsis/septic shock, patients were categorized into 4 groups based on antibiotic ... 395 patients were studied; mean APACHE II score was ,svg xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/ ... Study Design and Setting. In this prospective, cohort study we reviewed consecutive adult (,14 years) patients admitted to the ... A Prospective Cohort Study. Nawal Salahuddin. ,1Lama Amer. ,2Mini Joseph. ,3Alya El Hazmi. ,4Hassan Hawa. ,4and Khalid Maghrabi ...
USU is conducting a study to better understand the symptoms and course of COVID-19 disease and identify risk factors in the ... USU cohort study investigates COVID-19 impacts on DOD personnel Navy Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Charles Cambern holds up a ... Findings from the study "will support further understanding of the impact of SARS-COV-2 infection on active-duty readiness, ... The study is also evaluating how long the immune response to the COVID-19 vaccines lasts, breakthrough infections - which ...
0474 A NATIONAL COHORT STUDY OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN PREGNANCY AND ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES , Introduction Obstructive ... 0474 A NATIONAL COHORT STUDY OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN PREGNANCY AND ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES. *April 2017 ... Methods: This was a prospective, cohort study in Korean pregnant women. Berlin questionnaire was employed for symptom-based OSA ... Study Design In this prospective observational study, two screening scales were administered. Screen positive subjects were ...
We conducted a population-based, age-stratified, retrospective cohort study to investigate the incidence rate and risk of ... In our study, the older age of onset in PD patients resulted in a higher incidence rate of dementia. In the young age of PD ... We conducted a population-based, age-stratified, retrospective cohort study to investigate the incidence rate and risk of ... C-PY conceived the study concept design, acquisition of data, study analysis, and interpretation. M-HC conceived the study ...
... were studied. The population included about 2,300 workers employed for at least 6 months between 1940 and 1964. Vital status ... California Cohort.. ... were studied. The population included about 2,300 workers ... Mortality Study of Pesticide Manufacturers/Formulators: Documentation of the Montrose Chemical Corporation, Torrance, ... NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-76-0173; Mortality-rates; Epidemiology; Workplace-studies; Cancer; Pesticides-and-agricultural- ...
A Retrospective Cohort Study. L.D White, B. Riley, K. Davis, C. Thang, A. Mitchell, C. Abi-fares, W. Basson, C. Anstey ... Safety of Continuous Erector Spinae Catheters in Chest Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study ... Safety of Continuous Erector Spinae Catheters in Chest Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study ... Safety of Continuous Erector Spinae Catheters in Chest Trauma: A Retrospective Cohort Study ...
... to 55-years old using the first 7 phases of the Whitehall II study. Tables, figures, and references ...
... By Gary Scattergood ... Optimal diet required prior to supplementation to improve cognition, study finds * Study: Vitamin D during pregnancy mitigates ... Although several studies have assessed vitamin D status in children with ASD, and one study has compared neonatal vitamin D ... was determined in a large population-based cohort of mothers and their children,"​ the study states.. ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and efficacy of zilovertamab vedotin ... A Phase 1 Dose-Escalation and Cohort-Expansion Study of VLS-101 in Subjects with Hematological Malignancies. ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and efficacy of zilovertamab vedotin ... Learn about clinical trials at MD Anderson and search our database for open studies. ...
Clinical example 1: cohort study. A cohort study evaluated the relation between changes in marital status of mothers and ... we did a survey of published cohort studies (n = 75) and RCTs (n = 288).13 About one-third of cohort studies used logistic ... is often used to adjust for covariables in cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that study a dichotomous ... Misuse of odds ratios in cohort studies and RCTs. An odds ratio is calculated as the ratio of the odds of the outcome in the ...
Methods Three databases, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, were searched through May 2012 to identify eligible cohort studies ... Conclusions This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies suggests that obesity significantly decreases the risk of hip ... Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving a total 3,126,313 participants were finally included into this meta- ... the association between obesity and risk of hip fracture in adults by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies ...
  • DALLAS, TX - A large, 8-year retrospective study with a median 6.4-year follow-up associated long-term statin use with an increased risk of kidney disease [ 1 ] . (medscape.com)
  • Research Design - A retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort analysis of linked population-based health administrative data was carried out. (ices.on.ca)
  • Methods: The study was a non-interventional retrospective study. (mendeley.com)
  • We conducted a population-based, age-stratified, retrospective cohort study to investigate the incidence rate and risk of dementia of patients with newly diagnosed PD, and linked to the clinicopathological PD subtypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Shiina A, Sato A, Iyo M, Fujii C. Outcomes of administrative involuntary hospitalization: A national retrospective cohort study in Japan. (wjgnet.com)
  • In this retrospective cohort study, we compared outcomes of patients infected with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2 with those with wild-type strains from early 2020. (ssrn.com)
  • In this study, we tested this hypothesis using a retrospective cohort study based on electronic health records (EHRs) data. (lifeboat.com)
  • Medium-term outcomes 2 years after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy: a retrospective cohort study in Japan. (urotoday.com)
  • Methods - This retrospective cohort study using health care data from Ontario, Canada, included persons age 50 years or older diagnosed with diabetes from 2007 to 2011 and followed until 2014. (ices.on.ca)
  • Behavioral disinhibition and antiepileptic treatment in childhood epilepsy: A retrospective cohort study. (uu.nl)
  • 2022). 'Effectiveness of Bakri balloon for management of postpartum haemorrhage: A two-year retrospective cohort study', European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine , 9(2), pp. 2579-2584. (ejmcm.com)
  • Cohort studies may be retrospective or prospective, and both assume that the researcher will follow a population over time to seek a possible association between exposure (s) and outcome(s). (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods: A retrospective cohort study was done. (who.int)
  • In the retrospective cohort study, intake of cassava (RR = 208, 95% CI: 19.94-2169.32) was associated with the illness. (who.int)
  • Multicenter Retrospective Study of Vascular Infections and Endocarditis Caused by Campylobacter spp. (cdc.gov)
  • We included 57 patients from a nationwide 5-year retrospective study on Campylobacter spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Nurse staffing, nursing assistants and hospital mortality: retrospective longitudinal cohort study. (ahrq.gov)
  • The institutional Office of Research Affairs (ORA) and ORA Research Ethics Committee approved the study methods (RAC number 2131108). (hindawi.com)
  • 6 - 9 Some of these methods have been compared in simulation studies. (cmaj.ca)
  • Methods 3462 subjects of a Swiss population based cohort with no previous history of CVD reported their nap frequency and daily nap duration over a week, and were followed over 5.3 years. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over 3.5 years, including all consecutive adult patients with CASS admitted to a mixed ICU, in a 600-bed university-affiliated hospital. (scirp.org)
  • Methods Data were drawn from the Cooperative Huntington Observational Research Trial, a prospective, multi-centre observational study. (bmj.com)
  • This paper outlines the study methods and describes the population that has been recruited, in order to demonstrate that the necessary heterogeneity in risk factors has been attained. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: A prospective cohort study was done on a stratified random sample of 2,393 adults aged 50 and older enrolled in a Minnesota health plan, predicting changes in resource use between two periods (September 1994 to August 1995 and September 1996 to August 1997) based on billed health care charges. (healthpartners.com)
  • The study group included women for whom the balloon was inserted vaginally and after caesarean delivery when medical methods fail to control PPH and PPH following Placenta previa. (ejmcm.com)
  • Methods: A prospective, multiracial cohort of 3298 stroke-free subjects with 6.5 years of mean follow-up time for vascular outcomes (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death) was used. (nyu.edu)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For prospective cohorts in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S., 24,662 children at increased genetic risk for development of islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes have been followed. (ibm.com)
  • METHODS: This was a cohort study using data recorded in Danish registries from patients newly exposed to darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine, or trospium in 2004-2012. (rti.org)
  • Methods used to assess morbidity varied between studies. (bmj.com)
  • Methods CVD mortality and total CVD (fatal plus non-fatal CVD requiring hospitalisation) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates among 24 014 men and women aged 39-79 years without baseline CVD or diabetes mellitus in the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: As part of a larger cohort study of 1096 patients with early-stage breast cancer and same-aged women without breast cancer, data from 723 working-age (aged 40-64 years) women (347 patients and 376 controls) were analyzed to evaluate 4 employment trajectories (sustained unemployment, diminished employment, emerging employment, and sustained employment). (cdc.gov)
  • Describe the risk associated with specific underlying conditions from the two cohort studies and studies using other methods. (cdc.gov)
  • We are missing more extensive, real-world data of the effectiveness of statins on total morbidity and all-cause mortality, and we need further studies specifically focusing on long-term outcomes in primary prevention. (medscape.com)
  • Findings from the study "will support further understanding of the impact of SARS-COV-2 infection on active-duty readiness, acute and chronic clinical outcomes, the effectiveness of new treatments and vaccines, and address questions related to the emergence of new variants and their clinical impact," said Dr. Brian Agan, deputy science director of IDCRP and principal investigator of the study. (health.mil)
  • Particularly, health care workers who have received a COVID-19 vaccination will be an important population for studies to examine vaccine effectiveness and outcomes. (health.mil)
  • Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes such as preterm birth and growth restriction in some studies. (researchgate.net)
  • We studied linked maternal records and newborn records with a delivery hospitalization from 2010-2014 to assess newborn outcomes of maternal OSA based on diagnosis and procedure codes. (researchgate.net)
  • 1. Who should apply for Open Competition: Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Pregnancy Cohort Study Sites. (nih.gov)
  • Outcomes were compared with a cohort of 846 patients admitted January-April 2020. (ssrn.com)
  • The Navajo Birth Cohort Study (NBCS) is assessing the relationship among exposures to uranium waste, birth outcomes, and child development on Navajo Nation where more than 500 abandoned uranium mines (AUMs) and 1100 associated waste features remain. (unm.edu)
  • The primary goal of this study is to better understand the relationship between uranium and environmental metal exposures with birth outcomes and children's development on Navajo Nation. (unm.edu)
  • While the NBCS continues to focus on the impacts of early life exposure to toxic metals in the environment, such as uranium and arsenic, participation in the ECHO program allows NBCS to study a broader set of health outcomes that include obesity, upper and lower airway function, birth outcomes, neurodevelopment and overall health. (unm.edu)
  • This study was performed to investigate medium-term outcomes and reoperation rates after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSC). (urotoday.com)
  • However, there is still insufficient evidence to assess medium-term outcomes after LSC in Japan.What the results of this study revealed? (urotoday.com)
  • Time required to obtain meaningful results - Longitudinal studies of chronic disease outcomes span decades to allow for a robust number of endpoints to occur. (cdc.gov)
  • Making choices about which features are important in a new cohort study depends on the answers to many questions about what the intended analytical outcomes are, and how long the study will run. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Using information collected about cohort members up to age 26, researchers were able to look at how children from similar backgrounds fared across a range of outcomes, comparing those with working mothers and those whose mothers had not worked. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). (medscape.com)
  • These types of studies have as advantages the possibility of measuring several exposure factors and outcomes, both primary and secondary, for both relatively frequent outcomes and rare exposure factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Background and Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD), race-ethnicity, and vascular outcomes. (nyu.edu)
  • The cognitive impairment due to dementia exposes elderly subjects to a greater risk of becoming infected and to suffer worse outcomes as demonstrated by several studies that have identified dementia as an important risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality [ 7-11 ]. (iospress.com)
  • Validating injury burden estimates using population birth cohorts and longitudinal cohort studies of injury outcomes: the VIBES-Junior study protocol. (hiprc.org)
  • Many studies have found associations between inappropriate sleep duration and health outcomes such as total mortality, type 2 diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and general health [ 4 - 6 ]. (jpmph.org)
  • Objectives - The aim of this study was to investigate the generalizability of the association between elective weekend surgery and increased 30-day postoperative mortality. (ices.on.ca)
  • Results - A total of 333,344 patients were studied, of whom 2826 died within 30 days of surgery (overall crude mortality rate 8.5 deaths per 1000). (ices.on.ca)
  • Conclusions - Similar to previous studies in distinct health care systems, patients in Ontario undergoing elective surgery on the weekend experienced an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality. (ices.on.ca)
  • Mortality Study of Pesticide Manufacturers/Formulators: Documentation of the Montrose Chemical Corporation, Torrance, California Cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • Mortality patterns among pesticide manufacturers and formulators at the Montrose Chemical Corporation (SIC-2879) in Torrance, California, were studied. (cdc.gov)
  • A Greek cohort study found that habitual nappers have lower coronary mortality, 4 and a Greek case control study found that nappers have a lower risk of coronary heart disease. (bmj.com)
  • 5 In contrast, a case control study in Costa Rica, 6 and three cohort studies in the USA, 7 Japan 8 and Germany, 9 all reported increased risk either for cardiac events 6 9 or CVD mortality. (bmj.com)
  • 5 naps weekly) and cardiovascular mortality was found in the German cohort study. (bmj.com)
  • 13 In contrast, in the Greek cohort study, a lower risk for coronary mortality was found for subjects taking naps of any duration. (bmj.com)
  • This study intends to characterize epidemiology of com- munity-acquired SS (CASS) with special emphasis in the prevalence of multidrug resistant organisms and independent prognostic factors associated with ICU mortality. (scirp.org)
  • Prospective epidemiological studies of walking and CVD and all-cause mortality. (bmj.com)
  • We therefore systematically reviewed evidence from prospective epidemiological studies of walking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Prevalence and mortality of cancer among HIV/AIDS patients: a large-scale cohort study in Turkey. (who.int)
  • A historical cohort study is being conducted of cancer mortality in chrysotile asbestos miners and millers in the town of Asbest, Russian Federation. (who.int)
  • The study will combine work history and follow-up data to estimate and compare cancer mortality rates for groups of workers with different levels of exposure and for different time periods since first exposure. (who.int)
  • To assess the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 related death in a cohort of patients with dementia residing in the Lazio region and to investigate predicting factors for both infection and mortality. (iospress.com)
  • This study was designed to determine the relationship of sleep duration with mortality as a parameter for long-term health in a large prospective cohort study in Korea. (jpmph.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the association between sleep duration and measures of all-cause and disease-specific mortality through a community-based cohort study in Korea, where non-communicable diseases, including cancer and CVD, have been the leading causes of death for the last 20 years. (jpmph.org)
  • We investigated the association of DME ana lung cancer mortality in a historical cohort study of 5,862 German potash miners who were followed from 1970 to 2001. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Neumeyer-Gromen A, Razum O, Kersten N, Seidler A, Zeeb H. Diesel motor emissions and lung cancer mortality-Results of the second follow-up of a cohort study in potash miners. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We investigated the ratio of total CVD to CVD mortality in a large population-based cohort. (bmj.com)
  • The main study outcome was the ratio of 10-year total CVD to 10-year CVD mortality stratified by age and sex. (bmj.com)
  • Epidemiology, Immunology, and Clinical Characteristics of Emerging Infectious Diseases with Pandemic Potential - or EPICC - study hopes to inform the Military Health System on ways to improve the patient care and treatment, infection, and disease prevention of those with COVID-19. (health.mil)
  • The epidemiology of dementia associated with PD (PD-D) has been well-studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • We adhered to the guidelines for reporting meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE). (bmj.com)
  • In health sciences, the epidemiological method can be divided into descriptive and analytical epidemiology and the latter being divided into observational (cross-sectional study, case-control study and cohort study) and experimental studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences' Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program is leading a multi-year study to identify risk factors for COVID-19 in the military population, understand the symptoms and disease course, and investigate clinical outcomes. (health.mil)
  • I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. (medrxiv.org)
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we leveraged the electronic health record data of two large cohorts, INSIGHT and OneFlorida+, from the national Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. (nature.com)
  • Large-scale clinical observational cohort studies can provide useful insights into PASC that may help develop effective mechanistic hypotheses and inform targeted treatments. (nature.com)
  • Demographic data, clinical characteristics, indications of Bakri balloon, amount of normal saline used, duration of Bakri balloon inside uterus, complications and effectiveness of Bakri balloon were studied. (ejmcm.com)
  • Aim: This prospective cohort study was to evaluate the independent and mutual effects of socioeconomic, oral health behaviors and individual clinical factors, including enamel hypomineralization, as possible risk factors for increase in caries experience in second primary molar (SPM) over a period of 2-years. (bvsalud.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To combine prospective cohort studies, by including HLA harmonization, and estimate risk of islet autoimmunity and progression to clinical diabetes. (ibm.com)
  • This study was a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised clinical trial comparing the safety and lipid lowering effects of pitavastatin (4 mg daily) and pravastatin (40 mg daily) in 252 people with HIV and dyslipidaemia. (thelancet.com)
  • Effect of pitavastatin treatment on ApoB-48 and Lp-PLA2 in patients with metabolic syndrome: substudy of PROspective comparative clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of PITavastatin in patients with metabolic syndrome. (thelancet.com)
  • Our team currently leads multiple clinical trials and implementation research studies to better understand the unique host, pathogen, environmental, and health system determinants of child health. (washington.edu)
  • We conduct an array of evidence-generating activities to inform international prevention and treatment policy of specific enteric infections including literature reviews challenging current management guidelines for Shigella infections, household Cryptosporidium transmission studies, and clinical trials testing the feasibility of integrated approaches to eliminating soil-transmitted helminths. (washington.edu)
  • Our team has a suite of studies, including clinical trials and implementation research studies, that address opportunities to interrupt the transmission of several NTDs through the delivery of community-based interventions that are acceptable, feasible, and delivered with high coverage. (washington.edu)
  • Many of our studies include both a focus on the clinical effectiveness of new or existing therapeutics , as well as opportunities to improve the delivery of the evidence-based interventions. (washington.edu)
  • Methodological variations between studies highlight the need for a consensus on terminology and definitions for future conduct of clinical studies in AAV. (bmj.com)
  • This study has practical limitations because management was based on a combination of four decision rules and D-dimer testing rather than only one rule and D-dimer testing, which is the more realistic clinical approach. (the-hospitalist.org)
  • Although bipolar disorder is diagnosed based on the patient's history and clinical course, laboratory studies may be necessary to rule out other potential causes of the patient's signs and symptoms as well as to have baseline results before administering certain medications. (medscape.com)
  • The (COVID-19) can evolve and continue to cause pro- remaining participants (14.3%) were mostly health- longed symptoms, characterizing the post-COVID-19 care workers from the study facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study will take place at the University of Otago Sensory Lab where our team of researchers and students will conduct tests with participants on their sensory perception of different tastes, smells, touches, and sights. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Likewise, those 18 years or older who have been tested for COVID-19, whether they tested positive or negative, can participate in the online portion of the study, which includes self-collected blood specimens for selected participants. (health.mil)
  • Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving a total 3,126,313 participants were finally included into this meta-analysis. (plos.org)
  • Existing ECHO UH3 Pediatric Cohort awardees or subrecipients proposing to recruit new pregnant participants, their resulting offspring, and, if available, the conceiving partner, who did not recruit pregnant participants during the first phase of the ECHO Cohort consortium (2016-2023), should apply to the open-competition RFA-OD-22-017 . (nih.gov)
  • Existing ECHO UH3 Pediatric Cohort awardees or subrecipients proposing only to follow currently enrolled ECHO Cohort participants should apply to the limited-competition RFA-OD-22-019 . (nih.gov)
  • The second major category is for a budget proportional to the number of study participants in the proposed plan. (nih.gov)
  • Contact - Existing cohorts are heterogeneous with respect to permission for data sharing and the need for researchers to re-contact/consent participants. (cdc.gov)
  • Study KTE-C19-102 (NCT02601313) enrolled participants with r/r MCL who have been treated with up to 5 prior regimens including a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The participants were contacted by mail and asked to complete the study questionnaire at an online site or via a mailed questionnaire. (bmj.com)
  • 18 prospective studies were included in the overall analysis, which incorporated 459 833 participants free from CVD at baseline with 19 249 cases at follow-up. (bmj.com)
  • PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 886,996 completed pregnancies linked to liveborn infants of women enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2007. (harvard.edu)
  • The ACT MS Cohort Study currently has over 70 participants, and we are excited to be moving into the next phase of the study, with the commencement of annual reviews. (edu.au)
  • As this is a longitudinal study, we are always looking to increase our participants (both people living with and without MS). (edu.au)
  • The study population included 13 164 participants aged over 20 years from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study. (jpmph.org)
  • Eligible subjects were enrolled from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) study, a community-based prospective cohort, and from participants recruited from urban and rural areas in Korea (Haman, Chungju, Uljin, and Youngil). (jpmph.org)
  • Study participants were on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), more than 80% were white men, and those with glucose intolerance, established diabetes, or coronary artery disease were not eligible to participate. (thelancet.com)
  • Exposure in this study is defined as any event where participants have contact with SARS-CoV-2 antigens from natural exposure or vaccination . (bvsalud.org)
  • Previous single dose and 10 day dosing studies had been uneventful, but when another dose schedule was tried, an acute and rapidly progressive neurological syndrome developed in three of the four participants, starting on the fifth day of drug administration. (bmj.com)
  • 2022)‎. Prospective cohort study of referred Malawian children and their survival by hypoxaemia and hypoglycaemia status. (who.int)
  • The Navajo Birth Cohort Study (NBCS), now part of the ECHO program, is called NBCS/ECHO+ and will represent more than half of all Native American children enrolled in the national study. (unm.edu)
  • A collaboration with the Sydney Adventist Hospital (also known as the SAN) to extend this study to a larger region commenced in 2021. (edu.au)
  • ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION The Scientific Ethics Committee of the South Metropolitan Health Care Service approved the study protocol (Memorandum No 191/2021). (bvsalud.org)
  • Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans PubMed de 1980 à 2021 en utilisant diverses combinaisons de termes MeSH comme tabac, diabète, hypertension, dyslipidémie, trouble dépressif majeur, trouble bipolaire, schizophrénie. (who.int)
  • The findings of this study, though cautionary, suggest that short-term [randomized controlled trial] may not fully describe long-term adverse effects of statins," Acharya and colleagues conclude. (medscape.com)
  • Findings: There were 838 VOC infections in Singapore in the study period. (ssrn.com)
  • The findings of this study showed excellent medium-term rates of subjective failure (4.2%) and anatomical failure (8.4%) after LSC. (urotoday.com)
  • However, these findings need to be replicated in other large studies, and the long term effects of in utero exposure to statins needs to be assessed, before use of statins in pregnancy can be considered safe. (harvard.edu)
  • We will show the categorizing of the evidence, share with you the findings of those two large cohort studies, and review actions healthcare providers can take. (cdc.gov)
  • Comparison of cardiovascular events among treatments for overactive bladder: a Danish nationwide cohort study. (rti.org)
  • Few epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between PPI use and gastric cancer. (nature.com)
  • Estimates of risk at low doses of radiation can be improved by studying individuals exposed at an early age, where there are no underlying medical conditions and where biological material is available for molecular epidemiological studies. (europa.eu)
  • Cancer risk from occupational exposure to wood dust : a pooled analysis of epidemiological studies / P. A. Demers and P. Boffetta. (who.int)
  • We prospectively evaluated the associations of 20 urinary metal concentrations and their mixtures with incident diabetes in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multisite, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. (cdc.gov)
  • The UK has a long and rich history of longitudinal studies, including cohort studies and longitudinal panels, and we summarise the main studies and their key features. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Few longitudinal studies have examined occupational injury as a predictor of employment termination, particularly during the earliest stages of employment when the risk of occupational injury may be greatest. (cdc.gov)
  • However, patients who are taking statins should not stop taking them based on this study, senior author Dr Ishak A Mansi (University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas) stressed in an interview with heart wire from Medscape. (medscape.com)
  • All patients were continuously enrolled in the healthcare plan during the study, and there were no missing data. (medscape.com)
  • In this matched cohort, patients had a mean age of 56, and 45% were women. (medscape.com)
  • We aimed to in- quences among patients who survived COVID-19 and clude all patients who attended the clinic during the received follow-up care at a post-COVID-19 outpa- study period and agreed to participate. (cdc.gov)
  • During the study period, 297 patients had a fol- domains evaluated by the WHO Quality of Life ques- low-up medical consultation scheduled at the out- tionnaire (psychological, social relationships, and en- patient clinic. (cdc.gov)
  • We included 175 patients in this study vironmental). (cdc.gov)
  • A population-based cohort study was performed on incident cancer patients diagnosed from 1 October 2007 to 30 September 2008. (springer.com)
  • In our study, the older age of onset in PD patients resulted in a higher incidence rate of dementia. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the CamPaIGN cohort in the UK, 57% of patients developed cognitive deficits within 3.5 years, and the estimated dementia incidence was about 38.7 per 1,000 person-years of observation ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In a prospective study in a Sydney cohort, 48% of PD patients developed dementia within 15 years after diagnosis, and the cumulative incidence was 83% at 20 years after the diagnosis ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Two hundred and twenty four patients received a total of 244 continuous erector spinae catheters during the study period. (medrxiv.org)
  • 10 , 11 In this study, we compared the incidence of post-COVID cognitive deficits between patients exposed to phenytoin and matched cohorts of patients exposed to other anti-epileptic drugs at the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis. (lifeboat.com)
  • The study population will consist of consecutive patients newly diagnosed with BMs recruited over a two-year period. (esmo.org)
  • Between January 1998 and December 2016, people living with HIVand AIDS patients were enrolled in this study by the ACTHIV-IST Study Group, which consists of 5 centres to follow-up HIV-positive patients in Istanbul. (who.int)
  • We created a development cohort from INSIGHT and a validation cohort from OneFlorida+ including 20,881 and 13,724 patients, respectively, who were SARS-CoV-2 infected, and we investigated their newly incident diagnoses 30-180 days after a documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. (nature.com)
  • We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] We used these criteria to perform an observational cohort study to assess CAPA incidence in patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICUs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. (medscape.com)
  • In this prospective cohort study , two groups in Birmingham and London recruited patients from 34 fetal medicine units in England and Scotland . (bvsalud.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune response in patients with cardiovascular risk factors: the COmmunity Cohort Study protocol. (bvsalud.org)
  • The COmmunity Cohort Study aims to determine, after natural exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines deployed in Chile to prevent COVID-19 in the context of the current pandemic , the strength and duration of detectable neutralising antibodies in adult ambulatory primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors . (bvsalud.org)
  • To determine contributions of previously incarcerated persons to tuberculosis (TB) transmission in the community, we performed a healthcare facility-based cohort study of TB patients in Thailand during 2017-2020. (cdc.gov)
  • All patients aged 0-18 years referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) between January and December 2006 were eligible for the study. (ispub.com)
  • Patients were assessed by a consultant gastroenterologist, and if endoscopy was deemed necessary, were invited to participate in the study. (ispub.com)
  • The objectives of the current study were to evaluate employment trajectories in a cohort of patients with early-stage breast cancer and age-matched controls from the time of diagnosis to the 2-year follow-up, and identify factors associated with diminished and emerging employment participation. (cdc.gov)
  • PETTS was a prospective observational study of patients with MDR TB in 9 countries, studying risk factors for, and the consequences of acquired drug resistance in the treatment of MDR TB. (cdc.gov)
  • Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, monocentrique et descriptive, durant 12 mois, incluant les patients âgés d'au moins 18 ans admis en réanimation polyvalente pour un sepsis ou choc septique. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of the study was to describe the course of patients with sepsis and/or septic shock in the polyvalent ICU of the University Teaching Hospital of Brazzaville. (bvsalud.org)
  • This was a cross-sectional, monocentric and descriptive study, lasting 12 months, including patients aged at least 18 years admitted to ICU for sepsis or septic shock. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study was designed to synthesize the scientific literature as to evidence about the knowledge and safety of PHC health professionals in the management of patients with early-stage CKD. (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers matched 6342 statin users in the overall cohort with 6342 nonusers, according to baseline demographics, comorbidities, presence of renal disease, healthcare utilization, and medication use. (medscape.com)
  • In the overall cohort, statin use was associated with a significantly increased risk of different types of kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • Results: In multivariate analysis, Cockcroft-Gault formula between 15 and 59 mL/min was associated with a significant 43% increased stroke risk in the overall cohort. (nyu.edu)
  • Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value in developing health education and outreach to increase prenatal care utilization. (cdc.gov)
  • Perhaps an area for further analysis if that data was recorded, or if not an area for future study. (bmj.com)
  • Data were collected from 10,308 London-based civil servants aged 35- to 55-years old using the first 7 phases of the Whitehall II study. (ojp.gov)
  • Data from a prospective occupational cohort study, the 10-Town Study, on 15 290 Finnish public sector local government employees nested in 2432 work units, were used. (bmj.com)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Data for Cohort 3 will be analyzed separately. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The DRIVE Study has a robust study design aimed at minimizing bias in the collection of outcome data. (bmj.com)
  • Analyses of baseline data showed substantial heterogeneity of risk factors in the study population. (bmj.com)
  • In the ACT MS Cohort Study, we are recruiting people with MS as well as people who do not have MS. We aim to have a similar distribution of age and sex across the two groups and collect new data each year to see changes over time. (edu.au)
  • We report data from a cohort study in two German cities, Dresden and Munich. (bmj.com)
  • 9 Only two of these studies provide data on adolescents. (bmj.com)
  • 12 However, longitudinal data on adolescents are again limited and only one study showed a significant association between maternal smoking and the incidence of asthma in their children. (bmj.com)
  • We investigated the feasibility of recruiting healthy adults to collect at-home self-reported socio-demographic data and biological samples, saliva (oral) and stool (gut) at three time points (TPs): baseline/start of the study (TP-A), during an RTI (TP-B) and end of study (TP-C). (medrxiv.org)
  • The WT ISSF3 grant number is: 204813/Z/16/Z. The funder of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. (medrxiv.org)
  • The corresponding author had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. (medrxiv.org)
  • The strengths of the study include its focus on the cancer risks of exposure to chrysotile asbestos alone, its large cohort that includes a large number of women, the long follow-up period, and the availability of detailed data about airborne dust concentrations. (who.int)
  • Data used in the study were provided under licence by CPRD (www.cprd.com) and cannot be shared by the authors. (openrepository.com)
  • I work with data from the Genetic Links to Anxiety and Depression (GLAD) Study to explore anxiety and depression and their subtypes, clarify their genetic relationship and explore the biological component of these disorders by integrating biological and genomic data. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Through data and samples collected in these studies, we are building a platform to identify mechanisms and, eventually, to test additional interventions for reducing the short and long-term consequences of infectious diseases in children. (washington.edu)
  • Data from published papers, large multi-centre laboratory validation and demonstration studies coordinated by FIND, and unpublished data investigator-driven, single-centre studies were recently reviewed by WHO with the aim to develop policy guidance on Xpert MTB/RIF use. (who.int)
  • Data were derived from the second Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth study, a 4-year longitudinal study of 1246 sixth-grade students who underwent up to 11 in-person interviews from 2002 to 2006. (ajpmonline.org)
  • It prominently features a longitudinal study of a national cohort of a million or more people to customize interventions based on a person's genetics and other factors. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, a recent NIH workshop explored issues and challenges for creating a national cohort of at least one million Americans to advance our understanding of heath and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The proposed solution to create a national cohort is to build upon a platform of existing cohorts. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A study of variables that predicted heterosexual and homosexual marriage in a national cohort of Danish men and women found no evidence that older brothers increase the probability that a man will legally marry another man, and the sex ratio of older brothers to older sisters was significantly higher than the expected value. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Academics at The University of Queensland's Brain Institute and the Erasmus Medical Centre in The Netherlands analysed 4229 blood samples from pregnant women and their children who were taking part in the long-term "Generation R" study in Rotterdam. (nutraingredients.com)
  • A prospective cohort study was conducted to compare breastfeeding rates in the first year of life of late preterm and term infants, and to investigate the associated factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The main objective of this three-year research project is to analyze the cohorts of FDNY firefighters and EMS workers, both WTC-exposed and non-WTC exposed in order to compare cancer incidence by WTC-exposure status during the early post-9/11 years. (cdc.gov)
  • In parallel studies we have established that both long non-coding and micro RNAs are regulated by radiation exposure, and that they influence a number of regulatory pathways, including metabolism, epigenetic markers, telomeric integrity and cell division. (europa.eu)
  • However, this study design has a major limitation in its inability to establish a temporal sequence between exposure and disease. (bmj.com)
  • The principal objectives of the study are to further characterize the exposure-response relationship between chrysotile and cancers already established to be caused by asbestos, and to add to the available evidence about risks of other cancers (see About Asbestos ). (who.int)
  • These are studies that may point to statistical associations between exposure and outcome that need other models to prove the casualty of these associations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Previous exposure-dependent factors related to protection against malaria in a Brazilian Amazon migrant population : an open cohort study / Elisabeth Carmen Duarte. (who.int)
  • Further studies are needed to determine if modifying these factors (e.g., through programs to reduce the exposure of youth to tobacco products in the home) might reduce perceived accessibility. (ajpmonline.org)
  • We evaluated the performance of two general population JEM (CONSTANCES and O*NET) to detect known exposure-disease relationships in an American prospective cohort study. (cdc.gov)
  • The association between smoking and asthma or wheeze has been extensively studied in cross sectional studies, but evidence from large prospective cohort studies on the incidence of asthma during adolescence is scarce. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence from birth cohort studies on risk factors for the incidence of asthma is currently emerging from several countries, but most cohorts are still relatively young. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence from cohort studies on risk factors for asthma incidence during adolescence is scarce. (bmj.com)
  • Most studies have examined these conditions individually without providing evidence on co-occurring conditions. (nature.com)
  • Diagnosing CAPA is complex because cases frequently lack typical radiologic features and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium (EORTC/MSGERC) host factors [ 10 ] and because mycologic evidence is difficult to obtain. (medscape.com)
  • however, evidence from human studies is limited. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Iran: Evidence study of lung cancer among European asphalt carcinoma among postmenopausal women in the for Lack of Association between HBV Genotype workers. (who.int)
  • Previous studies on risk factors for neck pain often had a cross-sectional design, and did not take both physical and psychosocial factors into account. (nih.gov)
  • "Autism-related traits, which can be assessed in a continuous fashion, share risk factors with ASD, and thus can serve as informative phenotypes in population-based cohort studies," ​ they added. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Other countries have already launched large national cohorts and biobanks to examine genetic and environmental factors in relation to human diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • The recruited study population showed a wide variation in the risk factors under examination. (bmj.com)
  • There are several additional factors to consider in an accelerated cohort design. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Risk factors for seabather's eruption: a prospective cohort study. (cdc.gov)
  • Cross-cultural studies suggest that, in general, children and young people are drawn to military employment for similar reasons: war, economic motivation, education, family and friends, politics, and identity and psychosocial factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scope of this bibliographical study was to describe community-geared experiences in many countries in the campaign against cardiovascular diseases through health promotion and primary prevention of risk factors, as well as to identify in Brazil the vigilance actions of the risk factors of non-transmissible chronic diseases, stressing the strategic challenges facing the Family Health Program in tackling cardiovascular diseases. (scielosp.org)
  • Occupational risk factors for endometriosis in a cohort of flight attendants. (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives: This study aimed to compare odds of endometriosis in a cohort of flight attendants against a comparison group of teachers and investigate occupational risk factors for endometriosis among flight attendants. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary aim of this study was to characterise the safety profile of erector spinae plane block catheters by determining the incidence of early complications. (medrxiv.org)
  • The secondary aims of this study was to characterise the incidence of late adverse events, as well as, the erector spinae plane block catheter failure rate. (medrxiv.org)
  • "Just as taking folate in pregnancy has reduced the incidence of spina bifida, the result of this study suggests that prenatal vitamin D supplements may reduce the incidence of autism," ​ he said. (nutraingredients.com)
  • While some studies observed an increased incidence of asthma among smokers, 1- 6 some found no effect or weak associations, 7, 8 and one group reported an inverse relation. (bmj.com)
  • CORRECTION: A previous version of this FAQ stated that applicants should justify submission of multiple applications and highlight the benefits for the ECHO Cohort consortium. (nih.gov)
  • One model of a US cohort consortium has been successfully implemented for years at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). (cdc.gov)
  • 1293 women with unilateral oophorectomy, 1097 with bilateral oophorectomy, and 2390 referent women were eligible for the study. (thelancet.com)
  • Three databases, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, were searched through May 2012 to identify eligible cohort studies. (plos.org)
  • We reported a modest excess of cancer cases in the WTC-exposed cohort compared with the US population. (cdc.gov)
  • From an existing cohort of all women who underwent unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy while residing in Olmsted County, MN, USA, in 1950-87, we analysed those who had received an oophorectomy for a non-cancer indication before the onset of menopause. (thelancet.com)
  • Differences in the estimations of rehabilitation needs most likely reflect that most studies include different cancer types, obtain information at different points in time following diagnosis, and finally, define rehabilitation in various ways. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate associations between cancer survivors' sex, age, and diagnosis in relation to their (1) need for rehabilitation, (2) participation in rehabilitation activities, and (3) unmet needs for rehabilitation in a 14-month period following date of diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • Given the widespread use of PPI and the unresolved questions about their carcinogenic potential, we examined the association between PPI use and the risk of gastric cancer in a large population-based cohort of Danish PPI users. (nature.com)
  • We excluded all individuals with a history of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) before study entry (1990 or age 40) by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, which provides accurate and virtually complete nationwide ascertainment of cancers ( Storm et al, 1997 ). (nature.com)
  • Using national registration numbers, our exposed and unexposed cohorts (ie, women who had and had not undergone hysterectomy) were linked to other nationwide Swedish registers, including the census of 1990, medical birth register, cancer register, emigration register, and cause of death register. (health.am)
  • BACKGROUND: Although cancer survivors are more likely to be unemployed than individuals without a cancer history, employment participation after treatment of early-stage breast cancer has not been widely studied to date. (cdc.gov)
  • E7 from human papil omavirus type 16 cooperate to cancer: the European prospective investigation into doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp321 PMID:20047954 target the PDZ protein Na/H exchange regulatory cancer and nutrition study. (who.int)
  • 99:209 -215.doi:10.1007/s11060 - 010 - 0129 -5 cell carcinoma-a population-based study in with and without cervical cancer in Tbilisi, Georgia. (who.int)
  • Although the study is conducted in occupationally exposed responders, the results will be relevant to other individuals exposed to the WTC attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • In this article, we illustrate, by means of two empirical examples, that use of odds ratios in cohort studies and RCTs can lead to misinterpretation of results. (cmaj.ca)
  • Many observational studies assessed the association between obesity and risk of hip fracture in adults, but reported controversial results. (plos.org)
  • Results from many previous studies relating hysterectomy to adverse effects of the lower urinary tract have been inconsistent. (health.am)
  • The results from available cohort studies on the role of active smoking are conflicting. (bmj.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Cohort studies. (who.int)
  • RESULTS In the infant-toddler cohort, 1,413 (8.5%) developed at least one autoantibody confirmed at two or more consecutive visits (seroconversion), 865 (5%) developed multiple autoantibodies, and 655 (4%) progressed to diabetes. (ibm.com)
  • In The Lancet HIV , Judith Aberg and colleagues present results of the INTREPID study. (thelancet.com)
  • Results from analytical studies showed that the Xpert MTB/RIF assay has analytic sensitivity of five genome copies of purified DNA, and 131 cfu/ml of M. tuberculosis spiked into sputum. (who.int)
  • This study evaluates the connection between child abuse and suicidal behavior in the Hong Kong community where incidents of child abuse have been on the rise over the past decade. (suicideinfo.ca)
  • A 3-year prospective cohort study among 1334 workers was conducted. (nih.gov)
  • The cohort has been enumerated, and its size is more than 35 000 workers. (who.int)
  • Every member of the cohort was matched by age to a referent woman in the same population who had not undergone oophorectomy. (thelancet.com)
  • We conducted this population-based cohort study within North Jutland County, Denmark ( ∼ 500 000 inhabitants) in 1990-2003. (nature.com)
  • Using the Danish Civil Registration System that has provided information on vital status and residence for the entire population since 1968, we identified all individuals aged 40-84 years during the study period and resident in North Jutland County on 1 January 1989. (nature.com)
  • "The association between gestational vitamin D deficiency and a continuous measure of autism-related traits at 6 years…was determined in a large population-based cohort of mothers and their children," ​ the study states. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The primary aim of this nationwide, population-based, cohort study was to assess short-term and long-term risk for stress-urinary-incontinence surgery after hysterectomy for benign indications. (health.am)
  • For every patient undergoing hysterectomy, we randomly selected three controls from the register of the total population, who did not have hysterectomy and who were individually matched by year of birth and county of residence at year of hysterectomy (unexposed cohort). (health.am)
  • The CRS facilitates sampling of general population comparison cohorts, controls in case-control studies, family studies and targeted population surveys. (cdc.gov)
  • Demographics - Existing US cohorts do not completely represent the American population or projected demographic changes. (cdc.gov)
  • The study population (n = 2936) was first studied in 1995/6 at age 9-11 years as part of phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC II) and followed up in 2002/3. (bmj.com)
  • This population-based study used information from administrative databases and the SARS-CoV-2 infection surveillance system. (iospress.com)
  • The risk of acute coronary syndrome after retinal artery occlusion: a population-based cohort study. (medscape.com)
  • The Research Ethics Committee waived patient consent based on the study design. (hindawi.com)
  • Radiologically confirmed BMs from solid cancers diagnosed during the study period, regardless of planned treatment for BM. (esmo.org)
  • Her recent research has focused on the links between eating behaviour and various health conditions, including a recent study on the sensory links with postpartum depression in young mothers. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The study adds that future research should focus on the effect of early life vitamin D deficiency in relation to neurodevelopmental disorders. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. (mdpi.com)
  • The NIH (National Institutes of Health) ECHO ( E nvironmental influences on C hild H ealth O utcomes) program brings separate research groups, or cohorts, from across the country together in order to better understand how early life exposures and experiences can affect child health and development. (unm.edu)
  • The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) has been an important resource for research into the potential impacts on children when mothers return to work. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We will set up a COmmunity Cohort Study website at www.communitystudy.cl to disseminate the study purpose, research team and milestones. (bvsalud.org)
  • Still, this study shows that "despite the use of statins for more than a quarter of a century, there are aspects about its long-term effects in noncardiac diseases that we do not know very well," according to Mansi. (medscape.com)
  • Examples of genetic studies using this unique resource include studies of genes and lifestyle in aging using the Danish Twin Register which includes 110,000 pairs of twins. (cdc.gov)
  • PREVAIL stands for Pediatric Respiratory and Enteric Virus Acquisition and Immunogenesis Longitudinal cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). (medrxiv.org)
  • This study is reported following the STROBE statement checklist for observational studies [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This study is funded by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in the framework of the Federal Target Program "National System of Chemical and Biological Safety of the Russian Federation" of 2009-2014 and of 2015-2020. (who.int)
  • In 2020, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), 5 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), 6 and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 7 expanded recommendations for HCV infection screening to include all adults age 18 years or older (and for all pregnant women during each pregnancy) because of cost effectiveness, limited success of risk-based screening, and availability of curative treatment. (health.mil)
  • Prenatal exome sequencing analysis in fetal structural anomalies detected by ultrasonography (PAGE): a cohort study. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the overall detection of diagnostic genetic variants in a prospectively ascertained cohort with a broad range of fetal structural anomalies is lower than that suggested by previous smaller-scale studies of fewer phenotypes . (bvsalud.org)
  • One comes from the lack of epidemiological cohort(s) that combine comprehensive health information, reliable dosimetry and the availability of biological materials for analysis. (europa.eu)
  • We have launched a prospective cohort study in the South-East health-care region of Norway (appr. (esmo.org)
  • This study examines the prospective relationship of changes in physical activity status on short-term changes in health care charges for older adults. (healthpartners.com)
  • Urinary metals and incident diabetes in midlife women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). (cdc.gov)
  • Viral disease experts at CDC are partnering with doctors at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center for the PREVAIL cohort study. (cdc.gov)
  • WRNMMC is one of 10 DOD sites undertaking the EPICC study to better understand COVID-19 disease. (health.mil)
  • Objective There is controversy regarding the effect of napping on cardiovascular disease (CVD), with most studies failing to consider napping frequency. (bmj.com)
  • The CHDI Foundation, a non-for-profit organisation dedicated to finding treatments for people with Huntington disease, funded the COHORT study. (bmj.com)
  • Epidemiological evaluations of HIV disease progression : the tricontinental seroconverter study / Paul Veugelers. (who.int)
  • We will characterise the cohort, determine the seroprevalence rate of neutralising antibodies at baseline and determine the rates of antibody decline using a longitudinal mixed-effects model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Established the Serbian Tinea Capitis Cohort of 25 000 individuals receiving low dose radiation exposures. (europa.eu)
  • Many epidemiologic were published to investigate the association between obesity and risk of hip fracture, but the magnitudes of the association varied among those studies [15] - [29] . (plos.org)
  • Future studies should further investigate the underlying mechanisms. (cdc.gov)
  • The protocol was recently updated to also enroll COVID-19 vaccine recipients and will initiate recruitment upon approval, said Navy Capt. (Dr.) Timothy Burgess, program director of IDCRP, who oversees the study. (health.mil)
  • Protocol for the study of interpersonal physical abuse of children. (who.int)