Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Female parents, human or animal.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)
Former members of the armed services.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (1/46662)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (2/46662)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Do housing tenure and car access predict health because they are simply markers of income or self esteem? A Scottish study. (3/46662)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between health (using a range of measures) and housing tenure or car access; and to test the hypothesis that observed relations between these asset based measures and health are simply because they are markers for income or self esteem. DESIGN: Analysis of data from second wave of data collection of West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, collected in 1991 by face to face interviews conducted by nurse interviewers. SETTING: The Central Clydeside Conurbation, in the West of Scotland. SUBJECTS: 785 people (354 men, 431 women) in their late 30s, and 718 people (358 men, 359 women) in their late 50s, participants in a longitudinal study. MEASURES: General Health Questionnaire scores, respiratory function, waist/hip ratio, number of longstanding illnesses, number of symptoms in the last month, and systolic blood pressure; household income adjusted for household size and composition; Rosenberg self esteem score; housing tenure and care access. RESULTS: On bivariate analysis, all the health measures were significantly associated with housing tenure, and all except waist/hip ratio with car access; all except waist/hip ratio were related to income, and all except systolic blood pressure were related to self esteem. In models controlling for age, sex, and their interaction, neither waist/hip ratio nor systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated with tenure or care access. Significant relations with all the remaining health measures persisted after further controlling for income or self esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Housing tenure and car access may not only be related to health because they are markers for income or psychological traits; they may also have some directly health promoting or damaging effects. More research is needed to establish mechanisms by which they may influence health, and to determine the policy implications of their association with health.  (+info)

Cohort study of art glass workers in Tuscany, Italy: mortality from non-malignant diseases. (4/46662)

This investigation studies cause-specific mortality of art glass workers employed in 17 industrial facilities in Tuscany, Italy. A cohort of 3,390 workers employed for at least 1 year was enumerated from company payrolls. Follow-up was between the start of employment in each factory and 31 December 1993. The cause-specific expected mortality was computed relative to Tuscany rates and specified for gender, 5-year age groups and calendar year. Separate analyses were carried out for the jobs of makers and formers and for batch mixers. Among males (3, 180 individuals) observed mortality for non-cancer causes was higher than expected for hypertensive disease [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 178, 90% confidence interval (90% CI) = 96-301], pneumoconiosis (SMR = 200, 90% CI = 94-376) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 169, 90% CI = 95-279). Increases for the above causes were shown also among makers and formers: hypertensive disease (SMR = 182, 90% CI = 85-341), pneumoconiosis (SMR = 250, 90% CI = 109-493) and diseases of the genitourinary system (SMR = 224, 90% CI = 121-380). For batch mixers an increase was present for cerebrovascular disease. The observed mortality for cancer causes was above the expected for cancers of the larynx, lung, stomach and brain. This study points to the existence for Tuscan glass workers of health effects in addition to cancer; previously observed carcinogenic effects were also confirmed.  (+info)

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (5/46662)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (6/46662)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (7/46662)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia. (8/46662)

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Adherence to treatment with protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV-infected patients. T2 - A retrospective study. AU - Lazzarini, L.. AU - Lanzafame, M.. AU - Polo, A.. AU - Vento, S.. AU - Concia, E.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Objectives: A retrospective study was carried out to assess the relationship between medication adherence to protease inhibitors and therapeutic outcome in an unselected cohort of HIV infected patients. Methods: 173 patients, undergoing a triple antiretroviral treatment including a protease inhibitor, were recruited. Adherence was assessed through an antiretroviral medicine register. Results: Non-adherence was found in 26.5% of patients on indinavir, in 29% of patients on ritonavir and in 25.7% of patients on saquinavir. No immunological and clinical failure was recorded during the study. At the end of the study, the average plasmatic viremia was lower in adherent than in non-adherent patients (11,587 vs 21,258 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcomes from pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection in recipients of solid-organ transplants. T2 - A multicentre cohort study. AU - Kumar, Deepali. AU - Michaels, Marian G.. AU - Morris, Michele I.. AU - Green, Michael. AU - Avery, Robin K.. AU - Liu, Catherine. AU - Danziger-Isakov, Lara. AU - Stosor, Valentina. AU - Estabrook, Michele. AU - Gantt, Soren. AU - Marr, Kieren A.. AU - Martin, Stanley. AU - Silveira, Fernanda P.. AU - Razonable, Raymund R.. AU - Allen, Upton D.. AU - Levi, Marilyn E.. AU - Lyon, G. Marshall. AU - Bell, Lorraine E.. AU - Huprikar, Shirish. AU - Patel, Gopi. AU - Gregg, Kevin S.. AU - Pursell, Kenneth. AU - Helmersen, Doug. AU - Julian, Kathleen G.. AU - Shiley, Kevin. AU - Bono, Bartholomew. AU - Dharnidharka, Vikas R.. AU - Alavi, Gelareh. AU - Kalpoe, Jayant S.. AU - Shoham, Shmuel. AU - Reid, Gail E.. AU - Humar, Atul. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Background: There are few data on the epidemiology and outcomes of influenza infection in ...
Jehan, I., Harris, H., Salat, S., Zeb, A., Mobeen, N., Pasha, O., ... Goldenberg, R. L. (2009). Neonatal mortality, risk factors and causes: A prospective population-based cohort study in urban Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(2), 130-138. DOI: 10.2471/BLT.08.050963 ...
In 1986 a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer was started in the Netherlands among 62,573 women ages 55-69 years. Baseline information on diet and other risk factors was collected with a questionnaire. Cancer incidence was measured by record linkage with cancer registries and a pathology register. A case-cohort approach was used, in which the accumulated person time in the cohort was estimated by follow-up of a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1812). After 3.3 years of follow-up, 471 incident breast cancer cases were available for analysis. Questionnaire data for these cases and the 1716 female subcohort members without a history of cancer other than skin cancer were analyzed. In a multivariate analysis, controlling for traditional risk factors, the relative rates for breast cancer in increasing quintiles of energy-adjusted total fat intake were 1.00, 1.00, 1.34, 1.22, 1.08 (P-trend, 0.32). For saturated fat there was some evidence for a weak positive association when quintiles were used ...
Clinical trial for Mother to Child Transmission of HIV , Prospective Observational Cohort Study on Mother to Child Transmission HIV1/HIV2 and Prevention
The huge value of cohort studies is, in part, due to their versatility. You can study lots of different risk factors and outcomes in the same group of people, and the range of risk factors is wide - lifestyle, environment and genes. You can also tell the order in which things occur, so you can differentiate between the causes of disease and the effects of disease.. At the MRC, we recently completed a review of all of the large, population cohort studies we fund. One of the most heartening findings was the huge support from the general public. Amazingly, 1 in 30 of the UK general public are currently participating in a cohort study.. These people have given huge amounts of their time to support research, and cohort studies are very expensive to set up and run. Therefore, we should make sure that cohort studies are accessible to a large number of researchers so that we can squeeze as much useful information as possible out of them.. Some cohort studies have been exemplary. ALSPAC (also known as ...
article{e1d486dc-0d2e-4f48-b547-d6542d967ba0, abstract = {,p,Prospective observational studies have shown previously that study participants have lower morbidity and mortality than non-participants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether participants in a prospective cohort study on melanoma have a different incidence and mortality of melanoma compared with non-participants and the background population. Information was collected from Swedish National Registers on participants (n = 30,501) and non-participants (n = 10,499) in the Melanoma In Southern Sweden (MISS) study and the background population (n = 243,032). Hazard ratios were calculated for overall incidence of cancer and melanoma, and all-cause and melanoma-specific mortality, using Cox regression. Participants had a lower overall incidence of cancer and all-cause mortality than non-participants and the background population. There was no difference in incidence of melanoma or melanoma-specific characteristics between ...
The Lifelines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. The Lifelines cohort distinguishes a childrens cohort (aged 0-18), an adult cohort (aged 18-65) and the elderly…
Survival rates in kidney cancer have improved little over time, and diabetes may be an independent risk factor for poor survival in kidney cancer. We sought to determine whether medications with putative anti-neoplastic properties (statins, metformin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) are associated with survival in diabetics with kidney cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing linked healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients were aged 66 or older with newly diagnosed diabetes and a subsequent diagnosis of incident kidney cancer. Receipt of metformin, statins or NSAIDs was defined using prescription claims. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, with medication use modeled with time-varying and cumulative exposure analyses to account for intermittent use. During the 14-year study period, we studied 613 patients. Current statin use ...
A SNP upstream of the INSIG2 gene, rs7566605, was recently found to be associated with obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) by Herbert and colleagues. The association between increased BMI and homozygosity for the minor allele was first observed in data from a genome-wide association scan of 86,604 SNPs in 923 related individuals from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. The association was reproduced in four additional cohorts, but was not seen in a fifth cohort. To further assess the general reproducibility of this association, we genotyped rs7566605 in nine large cohorts from eight populations across multiple ethnicities (total n = 16,969). We tested this variant for association with BMI in each sample under a recessive model using family-based, population-based, and case-control designs. We observed a significant (p , 0.05) association in five cohorts but saw no association in three other cohorts. There was variability in the strength of association evidence across ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older. T2 - a nationwide, population-based cohort study. AU - Legarth, Rebecca. AU - Ahlström, Magnus G. AU - Kronborg, Gitte. AU - Larsen, Carsten S. AU - Pedersen, Court. AU - Pedersen, Gitte. AU - Mohey, Rajesh. AU - Gerstoft, Jan. AU - Obel, Niels. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older, when compared to an individually-matched cohort from the background population.METHODS: Population-based cohort-study including HIV-infected individuals ≥ 50 years, who were alive one year after HIV-diagnosis (n=2,440) and a comparison cohort individually-matched by age and gender extracted from the background population (n=14,588). Cumulative ...
A postal survey of the 1970 British cohort study was conducted in 1995-6 among individuals aged 25 or 26 years, asking if respondents had a diagnosis of Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis. The cohort study is a longitudinal study of those living in England, Scotland, and Wales born 5 to 11 April 1970.4 The target population was estimated as 16 000, and we sent questionnaires to the 13 099 cohort members whom we traced. In all, 9803 completed questionnaires were returned; 309 addresses were identified as no longer current; and 12 people refused to participate. Excluding invalid and untraced addresses, the response rate was 77%. The social statistics research unit at City University, London, provided most (7430) of the addresses. To minimise bias, we traced the remaining 2373 cohort members through a letter forwarding service provided by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. The cohort remained largely representative, with some loss from the most disadvantaged groups: the proportion in ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Maria Lorenzi successfully defended her M.Sc. project entitled Analysis of Occupational Cohort Data Using Exposure as a Continuous Time-dependent Variable on 3 August 2005.. In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analyzed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a heavy dependence on the choice of these exposure categories, as certain choices may mask or exaggerate important features of the dose-response curve. In this project, an extension to the Cox proportional hazards model is used to treat cumulative exposure as a continuous variable and model the dose-response curve nonparametrically for a ...
Background: The prognostic value of erythrocyte levels of the n-6 fatty acids (FAs) for total mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes remains an open question. Methods: We examined CV outcomes and death in 2500 individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort without prevalent CVD (mean age 66 years, 57% women) as a function of baseline levels of different length n-6 FAs (18 carbon, 20 carbon and 22 carbon) in the erythrocyte membranes. Clinical outcomes were monitored for up to 9.5 years (median follow up, 7.26 years). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for a variety of demographic characteristics, clinical status and RBC n-6 and long chain n-3 FA content. Results: There were 245 CV events, 119 CHD events, 105 ischemic strokes, 58 CVD deaths, and 350 deaths from all causes. Few associations between either mortality or CVD outcomes were observed for the n-6 FAs, with those that were observed becoming non-significant after adjusting for n-3 FA levels. Conclusions: Higher
Preservation of the Semantic Verbal Fluency Advantage in a Large Population-Based Sample: Normative Data from the TILDA Study - Volume 22 Issue 5 - Roisin M. Vaughan, Robert F. Coen, RoseAnne Kenny, Brian A. Lawlor
Ponsonby AL, Pezic A, Cochrane J, Cameron FJ, Pascoe M, Kemp A, Dwyer T. Infant anthropometry, early life infection, and subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prospective birth cohort study. PEDIATRIC DIABETES 12 (4) : 313 - 321(2011) PubMed ...
Background Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4Is) are drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is increasing evidence that DPP4Is may result in suppression of the immune system and may increase the risk of infections such as pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of DPP4Is and the risk of pneumonia in a population-based study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the worlds largest primary care database, the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We selected all users of non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs), including DPP4Is, between 2007 and 2012. To each NIAD user, we matched randomly selected non-users. The NIAD users first prescription defined the index date, which was then assigned to the matched non-users. Patients were followed from their first prescription until end of data collection or the first event of pneumonia, whichever came first. Cox regression analysis estimated the
Morna Cornell and colleagues investigate differences in mortality for HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.
BACKGROUND: Caffeine intake has been inversely associated with Parkinsons disease (PD) risk. This relationship may be modified by polymorphisms of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GRIN2A) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), but the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. METHOD: We examined the interaction of caffeine intake with GRIN2A-rs4998386 and CYP1A2-rs762551 polymorphisms in influencing PD risk among 829 incident cases of PD and 2,754 matched controls selected among participants in the following 3 large prospective ongoing cohorts: the Nurses Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort ...
A total of 668 adults participated at baseline, 77% followed up at 1 month and 63% at 12 months, of whom 383 (57%) were included in the main analysis. Multiple imputation analysis included all 668 participants. Increasing levels of depression scores and increasing levels of pain at 1 month and an increasing number of nights in hospital were associated with significantly reduced odds of recovery at 12 months, adjusting for age, sex, centre, employment and deprivation. The findings were similar in the multiple imputation analysis, except that pain had borderline statistical significance ...
article{8645532, author = {Seibold, Petra and Webb, Adam and Aguado-Barrera, Miguel E. and Azria, David and Bourgier, Celine and Brengues, Muriel and Briers, Erik and Bultijnck, Renée and Calvo-Crespo, Patricia and Carballo, Ana and Choudhury, Ananya and Cicchetti, Alessandro and Claßen, Johannes and Delmastro, Elena and Dunning, Alison M. and Elliott, Rebecca M. and Fachal, Laura and Farcy-Jacquet, Marie-Pierre and Gabriele, Pietro and Garibaldi, Elisabetta and Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio and Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara and Higginson, Daniel S. and Johnson, Kerstie and Lobato-Busto, Ramón and Mollà, Meritxell and Müller, Anusha and Payne, Debbie and Peleteiro, Paula and Post, Giselle and Rancati, Tiziana and Rattay, Tim and Reyes, Victoria and Rosenstein, Barry S. and De Ruysscher, Dirk and De Santis, Maria Carmen and Schäfer, Jörg and Schnabel, Thomas and Sperk, Elena and Symonds, R. Paul and Stobart, Hilary and Taboada-Valladares, Begoña and Talbot, Christopher J. and Valdagni, Riccardo ...
Participation rates in large cohort studies have decreased during the last 2 decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. On the basis of independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for 3 exposure-risk associations: (a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, (b) smoking during pregnancy and birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, and (c) prepregnancy body mass index and antepartum stillbirth. The effect of nonparticipation was described by a relative odds ratio (ROR), calculated as the OR(participants)/OR(source population). Two methods for calculation of confidence intervals for the relative odds ratio also were assessed. The effect of nonparticipation on the selected ORs was small. The relative ORs ...
This study hypothesized that HISD prekindergarten participation consistently correlated with better educational outcomes for students. Taking into account students age differences through kindergarten enrollment, propensity score matching controlled for students background characteristics. Three cohorts of students in this study were eligible or attended HISD prekindergarten during the 2001-2002 (Cohort I), 2002-2003 (Cohort II), and 2003-2004 (Cohort III) academic years. The study found that kindergarten students in Cohorts I, II, and III outperformed students who did not attend HISD prekindergarten on nationally-normed Stanford and Aprenda reading and mathematics tests, indicating a statistically significant positive effect of HISD prekindergarten in the short-term. HISD prekindergarten had extended effects for Cohort II students, given that they consistently outperformed non-HISD prekindergarten students at targeted grades third, fifth, and seventh. Long-term effects related to
A large prospective cohort study published in Stroke by researchers from several universities in Japan has found that people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day had a 20% lower stroke risk compared to those who seldom drank it. The study investigated the dietary habits of 81978 participants who were involved in an ongoing cohort study of Japanese adults aged 40 to 69 which focused on lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Using a food frequency questionnaire the participants recorded their consumption of various foods and drinks including green tea and coffee. During the follow up period of 13 years there were 3425 strokes and 910 incidents of coronary heart disease. The scientists found that those who drank two to three cups of green tea a day were 14% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never drank it, people who drank four or more cups of green tea a day were 20% less likely to have any type of stroke than those who seldom or never ...
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, sex, or exposure to a . Some studies may comprise several different cohorts. The study is usually conducted for a predetermined period, long enough for some members of the cohort to develop the outcome of interest. Individuals who developed the outcome are compared with those who did not. The report of the study should include a description of the cohort and the length of follow-up, what were measured and
This design meets the need to confirm a casual relation between exposure and outcome. The investigators choose a group who have been exposed to some sort of treatment or risk, and a control group which is identical in every way other than that exposure. Retrospective cohort studies are NOT the same as case-control studies. List of the Advantages of a Cross-Sectional Study 1. I. In addition, a major advantage of the case-cohort design is the ability to study several disease outcomes using the same subcohort. Participants were 50 045 people in north-eastern Iran aged 40-75 years at baseline. Competency Exam Study Guide HLTH 501 Biostatistics Study designs Know the difference between observational and experimental design Know differences between study designs Know the advantages and disadvantages between study designs Quantifying Extent of disease Be able to compute prevalence and incidence Know the difference between incidence and prevalence Compute odds […] Doll R. Cohort studies: history of ...
It is concluded that the FFQ is able to rank subjects according to intake of food groups and nutrients. Despite a better performance of validation study participants, this conclusion also applies to the cohort at large.
The study population was comprised of 17,059 patients. The VC rate was higher in the overall contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 2.91% vs. 1.98%; odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.89; p = 0.001). In the contemporary cohort, radial access was associated with fewer VCs compared with femoral access (adjusted rates: 1.44% vs. 4.19%; OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23-0.48; p < 0.001). There was a higher likelihood of VCs in association with FA in the contemporary cohort compared with the historical cohort (adjusted rates: 4.19% vs. 1.98%; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.67-2.81; p < 0.001). This finding was consistent for both diagnostic and therapeutic catheterizations separately. ...
OBJECTIVES: Concern about the health hazards of exposure to workers in the ferroalloy industry has initiated this historical cohort study. The aim was to examine the mortality pattern among male employees in 12 Norwegian ferroalloy plants. METHODS: All men employed for at least six months who started their first employment during 1933-91 were eligible for the cohort. Deaths observed during 1962-90 were compared with expected figures calculated from national mortalities. Internal comparisons of rates were performed by Poisson regression analysis. The final cohort comprised 14,730 male employees who were observed for 288,886 person-years. RESULTS: Mortality from all causes of death was slightly increased (3390 deaths, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.11). Regression analysis of total mortality showed a significant negative trend for the rate ratios with increasing duration of employment. An increased mortality was found among employees in urban ...
The Original Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study consisted of 5,209 respondents of a random sample of 2/3 of the adult population of Framingham, Massachusetts, 30 to 62 years of age by household, in 1948. Exam 32 for the Original Cohort ended in April of 2014.. ...
APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. Prone to bias due to loss to follow-up. Once investigators assemble the study cohorts, they are free to study more than one outcome, provided that the study subjects are free of each outcome of interest when the study begins. The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here and compared with other designs, including the classic case-control and cohort studies and the case-cohort study. By definition, such cases are not free of a specified disease, as in the case of a conventional cohort study (but are free of the outcome of interest). 3. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Looks like youve clipped this slide to already. 2. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A cohort will ...
Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label case series is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. Mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence.. This article tries to clarify the concept of case series and proposes a way to distinguish them from cohort studies. In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. A cohort study may include a comparison group, although this is not a necessary feature. A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. ...
In this large, multicentre cohort study, we show that adults hospitalised for seasonal or pandemic influenza have high morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional risk factors such as old age and comorbidity, we found that NAI treatment, secondary infections, systemic corticosteroid and statin use may affect clinical outcomes. These findings have important implications for patient care.. Our results are consistent with other cohort studies and recent meta-analyses which showed that early NAI treatment is associated with improved survival in H1N1pdm09 influenza patients [7, 16]. In this analysis, we included both seasonal and pandemic virus subtypes, and carefully controlled for important confounders including patient characteristics, disease severity, propensity to receive NAI treatment and possible immortal time bias, with the aim of providing a more accurate estimate on the effectiveness of antiviral intervention on outcomes. Effects on survival, as well as illness duration, were ...
This 2002 report presents the results of the mortality cohorts implemented through the EMCDDA multi-site study. The report contains: the descriptions of the cohorts, the standardised mortality rates (general and cause-specific, when possible), the standardised mortality ratios (SMR), a survival analysis of cohorts participants by age and site, and a univariate and multivariate analysis of factors related to mortality.. ...
How representative participants in this study were in relation to the original cohort was tested using χ2 tests. Separate analyses were carried out by sex as BMD, skeletal size, and rates of bone loss are known to differ between men and women. Lifecourse effects on adult health have previously been shown to differ by sex for this and other cohorts.11,22,23 Furthermore, the inclusion of variables such as age at menarche, and number of pregnancies prevents the use of a combined lifecourse model. Eleven twins were excluded from all analyses because of the differences in fetal development for multiple births and the fact that data contributed by co-twins are not independent.. Chronic infection in childhood, hormone replacement therapy and physical activity were defined as binary variables. Social class, position in family, alcohol consumption, number of acute illnesses in childhood, quartiles of ranked adult dietary intake of vitamins C and D, protein and calcium, and number of pregnancies were ...
Mansell, Toby, Ponsonby, Anne-Louise, Collier, Fiona, Burgner, David, Pezic, Angela, Vuillermin, Peter, Ryan, Joanne, Saffery, Richard, Carlin, John, Allen, Katie, Tang, Mimi, Ranganathan, Sarath, Burgner, David, Dwyer, Terry and Sly, Peter 2020, Methylation of the LEP gene promoter in blood at 12 months and BMI at 4 years of age-a population-based cohort study, International journal of obesity, vol. 44, pp. 842-847, doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-0553-3. ...
PubMed journal article: Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.. METHODS: The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.. RESULTS: Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
In most earlier studies and some recent studies the risk associated with a baseline measure of intake is similar to a measure of average lifetime intake Ferrari et al. Studies in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Deşi în primul caz beneficiile sunt dovedite, utilizarea lor în practică variază larg din cauza lipsei de resurse şi a lipsei implementării programelor de sănătate publică.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery from mental ill health in an occupational setting. T2 - A cohort study in Japan. AU - Mino, Yoshio. AU - Shigemi, Jun. AU - Tsuda, Toshihide. AU - Yasuda, Nobufumi. AU - Babazono, Akira. AU - Bebbington, Paul. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study is to clarify the degree of recovery from mental ill health in occupational settings and the nature of perceived job stress associated with recovery. Methods: A 1-year cohort study was carried out in 287 of 763 workers who scored 8 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and the proportion recovering during the year was compared according to the presence of individual perceived job stress items. To control confounding factors, multiple logistic analysis was used. Results: Recovery from mental ill health was observed in 48.7% after the first 6 months and in 66.1% after 1 year. During the first 6-month period, no identified job stress item was associated with recovery. During the ...
Cohort study:. A cohort study is a longitudinal study that identifies a group of subjects sharing some attributes (a cohort) then takes measurements on the subjects at various points in time and records data for the group. A cohort study is often used to compare two groups over time, e.g. those who had treatment A for a condition, and those who had treatment B.. Browse Other Glossary Entries. ...
Background Despite declining US adolescent smoking prevalence from 40% among 12th graders in 1995 to around 10% in 2018, adolescent smoking is still a significant problem. Using the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium, which includes 7 international cohorts recruited in childhood and followed into adulthood, the present study was designed to confirm the important relation between adolescent smoking and daily adult smoking and present new data on adult smoking into the forties and comparison of smoking in the United States, Finland, and Australia. Methods and Results Childhood smoking experience during ages 6 to 19 in the 1970s and 1980s was classifiable in 6687 i3C participants who also provided smoking status in their twenties and forties through 2011-2018. Prevalence of daily smoking in their twenties was directly related to degree of smoking during adolescence and inversely related to the age at which that smoking experience occurred (P trend, <0.001). Similar patterns
This month’s Editor’s Choice selection is “Seizures in preterm neonates: A multicenter observational cohort study” by...
Methods The Million Women Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged UK women. This analysis is based on 372 542 women who reported their birthweight, current body size, and other information in a follow-up survey administered approximately 3 years after recruitment (mean age 58 years at follow-up). Logistic regression was used to estimate relative risk for being obese in adulthood (body mass index,30 kg/m2) by birthweight, both unadjusted and adjusted for reported adult height, parental heights, and a range of social and lifestyle factors, including socio-economic status, parental smoking at birth, being breast fed, reproductive history and health behaviours. ...
Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer?. Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers.. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality ...
Background. Comparative cohort studies are often conducted to identify novel therapeutic strategies or prognostic factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We aimed to evaluate the power of such studies to provide clinically and statistically significant conclusions with regard to mortality differences.. Methods. We searched in PubMed and Scopus for comparative cohort studies that evaluated mortality in patients with VAP. We calculated the central estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality differences between compared patient groups. We also calculated the statistical power of the included studies to detect a difference in mortality that corresponds to a risk ratio of 0.80.. Results. We identified 39 (20 prospective) comparative cohort studies on VAP as eligible for inclusion in this analysis. The median absolute risk difference in mortality between compared groups was 10% (interquartile range [IQR], 5%-18%), and the median width of the 95% CI of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood health problems following planned caesarean delivery at term. T2 - a population-based retrospective cohort study of Scottish data. AU - Black, Mairead Eileen. AU - Mclernon, D.. AU - Norman, J.. AU - Bhattacharya, Siladitya. PY - 2015/4. Y1 - 2015/4. M3 - Abstract. VL - 122. SP - 4. EP - 4. JO - BJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. JF - BJOG-An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. SN - 1470-0328. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. AU - Goldbohm, R.A.. AU - van den Brandt, P.A.. AU - Brants, H.A.M.. AU - van t Veer, P.. AU - Al, M.D.M.. AU - Sturmans, F.. AU - Hermus, R.J.J.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer.Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, Brants HA, vant Veer P, Al M, Sturmans F, Hermus RJ.TNO Toxicology and Nutrition Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to assess the validity of a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), used in a cohort study on diet and cancer (120,852 men and women, aged 55-69). DESIGN & SUBJECTS: The study was carried out in a subgroup of the cohort (59 men and 50 women) 2 years after the baseline FFQ was completed. A dietary record, kept over three 3-day periods, 4-5 months apart, served as reference method. To evaluate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Osteoporosis increases subsequent risk of gallstone. T2 - A nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. AU - Klahan, Sukhontip. AU - Kuo, Chun Nan. AU - Chien, Shu-Chen. AU - Lin, Yea Wen. AU - Lin, Chun Yi. AU - Lin, Chia Hsien. AU - Chang, Wei Chiao. AU - Lin, Ching I.. AU - Hung, Kuo Sheng. AU - Chang, Wei Pin. PY - 2014/11/18. Y1 - 2014/11/18. N2 - Background: Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is expressed in various tissues. It participates in the bone remodeling process and stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. It is also a core protein of cholesterol gallstones. We hypothesized osteoporotic patients might have higher risk in developing gallstones and conducted a population-based study to examine the risk of developing gallstone in osteoporotic patients in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 1,638 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort ...
Netherlands Cohort Study Magazines, Netherlands Cohort Study eBooks, Netherlands Cohort Study Publications, Netherlands Cohort Study Publishers Description: Read interactive Netherlands Cohort Study publications at FlipHTML5, download Netherlands Cohort Study PDF documents for free. Upload and publish your own book in minutes.
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are widely prescribed in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether SGLT2 inhibitor prescription is associated with COVID-19, when compared with an active comparator. We performed a propensity-score-matched cohort study with active …
As Canadas population ages, the location of end of life care (whether at home, extended care facility or hospital) may change depending on the location of death. We carried out a study to identify determinants of the place of death. Data on deaths in British Columbia between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vital Statistics Agency. Place of death was categorized into home, extended care facility, hospital or other. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of age, sex, marital status, residence, place of birth and cause of death on place of death using adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Of the 153,111 deaths in the study, 16.5% occurred at home, 29.0% in extended care, 51.0% in hospital and 3.5% occurred elsewhere. Male deaths were less likely to occur in extended care as compared with female deaths (odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.71-0.75). Age (odds ratio 3.31, 95% CI 3.19-3.45 for those for ≥90 vs 70-79 years), marital status (odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI 1
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Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on CMAJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
ABSTRACTObjectiveTo externally validate four commonly used rules in computed tomography (CT) for minor head injury.DesignProspective, multicentre cohort study.SettingThree university and six non-university hospitals in the Netherlands.ParticipantsConsecutive adult patients aged 16 years and over who
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of maternal lead levels on birth outcomes in the ALSPAC study. T2 - a prospective birth cohort study. AU - Taylor, Caroline M. AU - Golding, Jean. AU - Emond, Alan M. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - Objective To study the associations of prenatal blood lead levels (B-Pb) with pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of mother-child pairs in the UK.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Avon area of Bristol, UK.Population Pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).Methods Whole blood samples were collected and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285). Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Linearregression models for continuous outcomes and logistic regression models for categorical outcomes were adjusted for covariates including maternal height, smoking, parity, sex of the baby and gestational age.Main ...
Background: Recent studies suggest that lactation has long-term effects on risk for cardiovascular disease in women, but the effects on cardiovascular mortality are less well known. Method: In a Norwegian population-based prospective cohort study, we studied the association of lifetime duration of lactation with cardiovascular mortality in 21,889 women aged 30 to 85 years who attended the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2) in 1995-1997. The cohort was followed for mortality through 2010 by a linkage with the Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death from all causes and cardiovascular disease were calculated using Cox regression. Results: During follow-up, 1,246 women died from cardiovascular disease. Parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated had a higher cardiovascular mortality than the reference group of women who had lactated 24 months or more (HR 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 5.99). There was some evidence of a U-shaped association, ...
There is growing evidence that early growth influences bone mass in later life but most studies are limited to birth weight and/or early infant growth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. In a British birth cohort study with prospective measures of lifetime height and weight, we investigated the growth trajectory in relation to bone in males (M) and females (F) at 60 to 64 years old. Outcomes were DXA measures of hip and spine areal bone density (aBMD) (n = 1658) and pQCT measures of distal and diaphyseal radius cross-sectional area (CSA), strength, and volumetric bone density (vBMD) (n = 1350 of the 1658). Regression models examined percentage change in bone parameters with standardized measures of birth weight, height, and weight. A series of conditional growth models were fitted for height and weight gain (using intervals: birth-2, 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, 15-20, 20-36, and 36-64 years) and height gain (using intervals: 2-4, 4-7, 7-15, and 15-36 years). Birth weight was positively related
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size at birth and height in early adolescence. T2 - A prospective birth cohort study. AU - Araújo, Cora L P. AU - Hallal, Pedro C.. AU - Nader, Gisele A.. AU - Menezes, Ana Maria B. AU - Victora, Cesar G.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth (birthweight and birth length) and height in early adolescence in a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were carried out in 1993, including measurements of birthweight and length, and in 2004-2005, including measurements of weight and height. This analysis includes 4,452 individuals, with a mean age of 11.3 years (standard deviation - SD = 0.3), representing a follow-up rate of 87.5%. Mean height at 11 years was 145.8 cm (SD = 7.9), or 144.9 cm (SD = 7.7) in boys and 146.8 cm (SD = 7.9) in girls. Birthweight and birth length were positively associated with height in early adolescence in the crude analysis, but after adjustment ...
The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6
Potential Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed. Forms can be viewed at Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Not available. Statistical code: Available from Dr. Jepsen (e-mail, mailto:[email protected]). Data set: The Danish National Board of Health ( extracts data from Denmarks publicly available health care registries on request. The instructions given to the Board of Health to identify the nationwide cohort are available from Dr. Jepsen. Data for the Aarhus cohort are not available. Requests for Single Reprints: Peter Jepsen, MD, PhD, Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark; e-mail, mailto:[email protected] Current Author Addresses: Drs. Jepsen, Ott, and Vilstrup: Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark. Dr. Andersen: University of Copenhagen, O. Farimagsgade 5, PB 2099, Copenhagen K 1014, Denmark.. Dr. ...
Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of dairy consumption and breast cancer risk. A random effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 18 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 24,187 cases and 1,063,471 participants. The summary relative risk of breast cancer for the highest intake of total dairy food compared with the lowest was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.95), with evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.01, I 2 = 54.5%). For milk consumption, the summary relative risk was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.02), and substantial
Background To assess relationships between age at first birth and cardiovascular risk factors in a large longitudinal study of men and women. By assessing associations for both genders, we were able to investigate biological versus social and behavioural explanations from early life through to adulthood. Methods Multiply-imputed data on more than 7600 men and women of a British birth cohort study (National Child Development Study, 1958 British birth cohort) were used. Cardiovascular risk factors at age 44/45 years included body mass index, waist:hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), cholesterol (total, low and highdensity lipoprotein), triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin, C reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. Age at first birth was categorised as ,20 years, 20-24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years or ,34 years. Results Being younger than 20 years of age at time of first birth was associated with an adverse cardiovascular profile by mid-life. Conversely, older ...
Hayashi K, Milloy MJ, Wood E, Dong H, Montaner JS, Kerr T Predictors of liver-related death among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada: a 15-year prospective cohort study Journal of the International AIDS Society PubMed. ...
Mitochondrial function of immune cells in septic shock: A prospective observational cohort study. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the prevalence of comorbidity rates in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in UK primary care. We calculated the prevalence of SMI by UK country, English region and deprivation quintile, antipsychotic and antidepressant medication prescription rates for people with SMI, and prevalence rates of common comorbidities in people with SMI compared with people without SMI. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2012. SETTING: 627 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK primary care database. PARTICIPANTS: Each identified case (346 551) was matched for age, sex and general practice with 5 randomly selected control cases (1 732 755) with no diagnosis of SMI in each yearly time point. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates were calculated for 16 conditions. RESULTS: SMI rates were highest in Scotland and in more deprived areas. Rates increased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over time, with the largest increase in ...
Multiply imputed data from three nationally representative British birth cohorts were used-the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; 1946 birth cohort, n=3012), the National Child Development Study (NCDS; 1958 birth cohort, n=9614) and the British Cohort Study (BCS; 1970 birth cohort, n=8140). A typology of work-family life course types was developed using multi-channel sequence analysis, linking annual information on work, partnerships and parenthood from 16 to 42 years. Work-family life courses were related to BMI trajectories using multi-level growth models. Analyses adjusted for indicators of prior health, birthweight, child BMI, educational attainment and socioeconomic position across the life course, and were stratified by gender and cohort ...
To study the natural history of a disease, investigators at times resort to cross-sectional cohort studies, whereby participants are randomly sampled at a fixed point in time. Once their baseline information and disease history are recorded, these participants are followed until death, loss to follow-up or study termination. This design is attractive because it generally requires limited resources. The data it generates, however, suffer from various systematic biases. For example, individuals with longer lifetimes tend to be excessively sampled, and among observed cases, individuals with longer disease durations and more recent onsets are usually overrepresented. In this presentation, the analysis of data emerging from either a cross-sectional cohort study, or its related subdesign, the prevalent cohort study, is discussed. The latter arises when only diseased individuals may be recruited at sampling time. Novel methodologies for estimating important epidemiologic measures of disease risk, such ...
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the farming environment and a decreased risk of atopic sensitization, mainly related to contact with farm animals in the childhood. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association of a farming environment, especially farm animal contact, during infancy, with atopic sensitization and allergic diseases at the age of 31. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study, 5509 subjects born in northern Finland in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31. Prenatal exposure to the farming environment was documented before or at birth. At age 31, information on health status and childhood exposure to pets was collected by a questionnaire and skin prick tests were performed. RESULTS: Being born to a family having farm animals decreased the risk of atopic sensitization [odds ratio (OR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.80], atopic eczema ever (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.91), doctor-diagnosed asthma ever (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00), allergic rhinitis at
In Chinese patients with diabetes, having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels that are too high or too low may be associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease and death, according to a research letter published Jan. 25 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, MSc, CStat, of the University of Hong Kong, and colleagues examined 117,389 adult Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes without any history of cardiovascular disease. After a median follow-up of 54.5 to 58.5 months, a J-shaped curvilinear relationship was observed between HbA1c levels and cardiovascular disease incidence, all-cause mortality and other outcomes. An HbA1c range of ≥7.0 percent to ,7.5 percent had the lowest risk of new cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease-related mortality. By comparison, an HbA1c ,6.5 percent or ≥8.0 percent was associated with a ...
In 1998, it was decided to build a single cohort, named the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study (MoCHiV) and in 2003, MoCHiV was integrated in the
b,Objective,/b,,p,,/p, Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. ,b,Methods,/b,,p,,/p, We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. ,b,Results,/b,,p,,/p, Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2%) participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55), coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84) and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. AU - Zheng, Wei. AU - Doyle, Timothy J.. AU - Kushi, Lawrence H.. AU - Sellers, Thomas A.. AU - Hong, Ching Ping. AU - Folsom, Aaron R.. PY - 1996/7/15. Y1 - 1996/7/15. N2 - Tea has consistently been shown to inhibit the occurrence of tumors in experimental animals. The evidence for such a beneficial effect in humans, however, is limited. The authors examined the association between non-herbal tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 35,369 postmenopausal iowa women. In this cohort, information on the frequency of tea drinking and other dietary and lifestyle factors was collected by mailed survey in 1986. After 8 years of follow-up, 2,936 incident non-skin cancer cases were ascertained in this cohort through the State Health Registry of Iowa. Proportional hazards regressions were used to derive adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the ...
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
Cam morphology is a strong risk factor for the development of hip pain and osteoarthritis. It is increasingly thought to develop in association with intense physical activity during youth; however, the aetiology remains uncertain. The study aim was to characterise the effect of physical activity on morphological hip development during adolescence.Cross-sectional study of individuals aged 9-18 years recruited from Southampton Football Club Academy (103 male) with an age-matched control population (52 males and 55 females). Assessments included questionnaires and 3 Tesla MRI of both hips. Alpha angle, epiphyseal extension and epiphyseal tilt were measured on radial images.Alpha angle and epiphyseal extension increased most rapidly between ages 12 and 14 years. Soft-tissue hypertrophy at the femoral head-neck junction preceded osseous cam morphology and was first evident at age 10 years. The greatest increase and highest absolute values of alpha angle and epiphyseal extension were colocalised at 1 oclock.
The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. MgS[O.sub.4] prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia
TY - JOUR. T1 - History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis. T2 - Prospective cohort study. AU - Farland, Leslie V.. AU - Eliassen, A. Heather. AU - Tamimi, Rulla M.. AU - Spiegelman, Donna. AU - Michels, Karin B.. AU - Missmer, Stacey A.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants 72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard ...
BreastScreen Aotearoa (BSA) is the national breast screening programmen in New Zealand which aims to reduce cancer mortality through early diagnosis. The current research project is a population study which aims to evaluate the effects of national mammography screening on mortality from breast cancer in New Zealand. Specifically the research will measure whether there was a lower relative risk of breast cancer mortality in ever-screened versus unscreened women, with a dose-response effect in relation to recency and frequency of screening. The research includes two complementary studies: a retrospective population cohort study and a nested population-based case-control study of all women aged 50-69 years during the period 1999-2008. The population cohort study compares breast cancer mortality (the outcome) among groups with different screening histories (never, ever, or regularly screened) as the exposure variable. The case-control study compares the screening histories of all women who died of ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the presentation of patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) and identify factors contributing toward misdiagnosis. METHODS: This was an observational study of cases with a final diagnosis of rAAA assessed at nine Emergency Departments and managed at one of two regional vascular centres in the UK. RESULTS: Eighty-five consecutive cases were included. Seventeen [20.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.5-28.5%] patients reported important symptoms up to 3 weeks before index presentation. In the Emergency Department, most patients complained of abdominal and/or back pain, seven (8.2%, 95% CI 2.4-14.0%) additionally reported atypical pain and ten (11.8%, 95% CI 4.9-18.7%) denied pain altogether. Hypotension (36.5%, 95% CI 26.3-46.7%), tachycardia (18.8%, 95% CI 10.5-27.1%) and syncope (36.5%, 95% CI 26.3-46.7%) were documented in a minority of cases. Distracting symptoms were present in 33 (38.8%, 95% CI 28.4-49.2%) patients. The median time to
OBJECTIVE: To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. DESIGN: Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. PARTICIPANTS: 109,118 men and 254,870 women, mainly aged 37-70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men
At the NIEHS, researchers from the Epidemiology Branch are using biologic samples collected from pregnant Norwegian women to investigate how early-life exposure to environmental contaminants may affect adult health. The samples were collected from women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, or MoBa, an ongoing long-term prospective cohort study of pregnant Norwegian women and their children. NIEHS epidemiologists are analyzing these samples to measure the level of exposure to environmental contaminants in relation to a range of health endpoints, such as obesity and asthma, among the pregnant women and their children.
Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factors and outcomes, and stores specimens (blood, dialysate, hair and fingernails) at baseline and in long-term follow-up. Such specimens will permit measurements of biochemical markers, proteomic and genetic parameters (proteins and DNA) not measured in routine care. To avoid selection bias, all consenting incident hemodialysis patients at participating centers are enrolled, the large sample size (target of 1500 patients), large number of exposures, and high event rates will permit the exploration of multiple ...
Aim To determine the performance of subjectively defined intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs in identifying drinkers at risk for adverse health outcomes. Design Prospective population-based cohort study. Setting Working-aged Finnish general population. Participants A total of 21 204 alcohol-drinking men and women aged 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54 years at baseline who participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Measurements Binge drinking was measured by subjectively defined intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. Hazardous drinking was defined according to Finnish guidelines as weekly total intake of ,287 g of ethanol for men, and for women , 191 g of ethanol (≥24 and ≥16 standard drinks, respectively). Study participants were followed-up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Proportional hazard models and areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC) were used to ...
PubMed journal article: Prenatal thallium exposure and poor growth in early childhood: A prospective birth cohort study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between parity and age at first birth and risk of death from brain cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton childbirth between Jan. 1, 1978 and Dec. 31, 1987. We tracked each woman from the time of their first childbirth to December 31, 2009, and their vital status was ascertained by linking records with the computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of death from brain cancer associated with parity and age at first birth. There were 316 brain cancer deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. The mortality rate of brain cancer was 0.90 cases per 100,000 person-years. The adjusted HR was 1.35 (95% CI= 0.91-2.01) for women who gave birth between 21 and 25, 1.61 (95% CI=1.05-2.45) for women who gave birth after 25 years of age, respectively, when compared with women who gave birth less than 20 years. A trend of
Molsberry SA, Lecci F, Kingsley L, Junker B, Reynolds S, Goodkin K, Levine AJ, Martin E, Miller EN, Munro CA, Ragin A, Sacktor N, Becker JT. Mixed membership trajectory models of cognitive impairment in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. AIDS. 2015 Mar 27; 29(6):713-21 ...
The impact of deferring critically ill children in referral hospitals away from their designated pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) on patients and the healthcare system is unknown. This population-based retrospective cohort studys goal was to identify the factors associated with deferrals of critically ill children away from their designated PCCU, evaluate patient outcomes as they related to deferrals away from a PCCU and study the impact of the 2010 referral policy implementation.
Results: The odds of RTW reduced as depression scores one month post-injury increased (OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.79, 0.95) and as length of hospital stay increased (OR 0.91, 95%CI 0.86, 0.96). Those experiencing threatening life events following injury (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10, 0.72) and with higher scores on the crisis social support scale (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.88, 0.99) had a lower odds of RTW. Multiple imputation analysis found similar results except crisis social support did not remain significant ...
Our nationwide cohort study of 23 487 prospectively followed CC patients revealed that although patients with RCC were, overall, older, more often of female gender, had modestly higher ASA scores and more advanced UICC stages than patients with LCC, the picture was indeed more complex when assessing the underlying CC subsites. Mortality from RCC was only relatively higher than mortality from LCC during the first 2 years after CC diagnosis, probably due to the observation that the majority of recurrences in colorectal cancer occurs within the first 2 years after primary treatment.12 In analyses of CC subsites, the highest relative mortality was from cancer of the splenic flexure (ie, belonging to the LCC category), while the lowest relative mortality was from sigmoid cancer (also belonging to the LCC category). The differences in mortality from CC of different colon subsites was only to a minor extent explained by the ASA scores, number of harvested lymph nodes, number of lymph nodes with ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults. T2 - The cardiovascular health study. AU - Fried, Linda P.. AU - Kronmal, Richard A.. AU - Newman, Anne B.. AU - Bild, Diane E.. AU - Mittelmark, Maurice B.. AU - Polak, Joseph F.. AU - Robbins, John A. AU - Gardin, Julius M.. PY - 1998/2/25. Y1 - 1998/2/25. N2 - Context.-Multiple factors contribute to mortality in older adults, but the extent to which subclinical disease and other factors contribute independently to mortality risk is not known. Objective.-To determine the disease, functional, and personal characteristics that jointly predict mortality in community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older. Design.-Prospective population-based cohort study with 5 years of follow-up and a validation cohort of African Americans with 4.25-year follow-up. Setting.-Four US communities. Participants.-A total of 5201 and 685 men and women aged 65 years or older in the original and African American cohorts, respectively. Main Outcome ...
A cohort study that received widespread media attention[32][33] is the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS-II).[34] PHS-II was a ... It noted that one Swedish cohort study has indicated such an effect, but with all studies taken together, the association was ... making multivitamins appear as more beneficial in prospective cohort studies).[27][28] Randomized controlled studies have been ... One major meta-analysis published in 2011, including previous cohort and case-control studies, concluded that multivitamin use ...
"Role of DES Cohort Studies". US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. ... McDonald, J C; Harris, J; Armstrong, B (2004). "Mortality in a cohort of vermiculite miners exposed to fibrous amphibole in ... Pobel, D.; Viel, J.-F. (1997). "Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: ... "Volume 1: Summary of the Final Technical Report" (PDF). Case-control Study of Childhood Cancers in Dover Township (Ocean County ...
Systematic review of prospective cohort studies". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 318 (7196): 1460-67. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7196. ... Based on comparative studies, Marmot argues that we can make our society more participatory and inclusive to increase overall ... "Intersalt: An international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium ... He leads the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and is engaged in several international research efforts on the ...
"Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? A retrospective cohort study" (Press release). The BMJ. December 2011. ... Scientific studies. A study published in the British Medical Journal in December 2011 concluded that there was no increase in ... A retrospective cohort study". The BMJ ;343. doi:10.1136/bmj.d7799.. ... Statistical studies have failed to find any unusual pattern of musician deaths at this age, comparing it to equally small ...
1970 British Cohort Study. A. *A-not-B error. *Acceleration (human development) ... The scientific study of psychological human development is sometimes known as Developmental psychology. ...
A systematic review of cohort and randomized studies found that TAE improves survival, but found no evidence of additional ... A systematic review of cohort and randomized studies". Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology. 30 (1): 6-25. doi:10.1007/ ... Fujiyama S, Shibata J, Maeda S, Tanaka M, Noumaru S, Sato K, Tomita K (November 2003). "Phase I clinical study of a novel ... Richter G, Rassweiler J, Kauffmann GW, Wenz W, Crawford DB (1984). "Experimental study of the effectiveness of capillary ...
A cohort record linkage study". European Journal of Pain. 14 (4): 380-6. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2009.07.006. PMID 19726210.. ... "International Association for the Study of Pain. 96 (3): 319-324. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(01)00463-8.. ... Magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown abnormal anatomical[20] and functional connectivity, even during rest[21][22] ... The International Association for the study of pain defines chronic pain as pain with no biological value, that persists past ...
"Cohort Profile: LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank". International Journal of Epidemiology. 44 (4): 1172- ... "cohort study and biobank" (in Dutch). Retrieved 2018-05-18.. *^ "FinnGen, a global research project focusing on genome data of ... The Lifelines cohort study was started in 2006 and collects data and samples on 167,000 children, adults and elderly from the ... The study is following about 500,000 volunteers in the UK, enrolled at ages from 40 to 69. Initial enrollment took place over ...
Review of a retrospective cohort study". Environmental Health. 11 (1): 85. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-85.. ... Elwood, J (2012). "Microwaves in the cold war: the Moscow embassy study and its interpretation. ... he and his colleagues began a study investigating the health effects of exposure to microwaves among people in the American ...
A population-based cohort study. „Cancer". 71 (3), s. 745-750, Feb 1993. PMID: 8431855. ... Vegetables, fruit and risk of gastric cancer in Japan: a 10-year follow-up of the JPHC Study Cohort I. „Int J Cancer". 102 (1 ... Randomized phase II study (GATE study) of docetaxel plus oxaliplatin with or without fluorouracil or capecitabine in metastatic ... A study of HER2 gene amplification and protein expression in gastric cancer. „J Clin Pathol". 63 (9), s. 839-842, Sep 2010. DOI ...
McDonald, Ea; Gartland, D; Small, R; Brown, Sj (2015-04-01). "Dyspareunia and childbirth: a prospective cohort study". BJOG: An ... In one study frenulum breve was found in 50% of patients who presented with dyspareunia.[15] During vigorous or deep or tight ...
An expanded and updated international cohort study". American Journal of Epidemiology. 145 (12): 1061-75. doi:10.1093/ ... although the impacts are highly variable and often require field studies to predict accurately. Laboratory studies have at ... While some studies have shown that atrazine may be a teratogen, causing demasculinization in male frogs,[42] the U.S. ... Farming practices and resistance: a case study[edit]. Herbicide resistance became a critical problem in Australian agriculture ...
"Launch of the Edinburgh Birth Cohort Study , Upcoming Events". Retrieved 24 November 2015.. [ ... On 16 November 2015, Brown launched the Theirworld Birth Cohort project, a £1.5million study aimed at improving the health of ... "Premature babies care study launched by Sarah Brown - BBC News". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. ... "Sarah Brown launches £1.5 million premature babies care study". Archived from the original on 18 November ...
... a Prospective Cohort Study of Bites by Formally Identified Redback Spiders". Medical Journal of Australia (Prospective cohort ... a Prospective Cohort Study of Bites by Formally Identified Redback Spiders". Medical Journal of Australia (Comment, letter). ... Studies support the safety of antivenom, with around a 5% chance of an acute reaction, 1-2% of anaphylaxis and 10% chance of a ... Published studies specifically looking at effects in children have been retrospective only and too limited to draw conclusive ...
A cohort study". Arthritis Care & Research. 65 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1002/acr.21692. PMC 3401342. PMID 22505346. v t e. ... The ACR says the pain subscale "has been variable across studies but generally meets the minimum standard." Reliability for the ... An example of an arthritis study using the WOMAC found a significant exposure-response relationship between body weight loss ( ... When used in clinical studies, the WOMAC pain and function subscales perform comparably or better than other tests in being ...
A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 59 (7): 580-585. doi:10.1136/ ... A Prospective Cohort Study in Norway". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 4 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-4-11. PMC 446199. PMID ...
In a 2007 study, she used data from the National Survey of Family Growth, in which a cohort of nearly 5,000 men reported their ... "Cohort Profile: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)". International Journal of Epidemiology. 47 (2): 393-394i. doi: ... Adimora is the principal investigator of the UNC site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), which seeks to understand ... "Study by UNC professor proposes solution for lack of HIV testing for Black women". The Daily Tar Heel. Retrieved October 21, ...
... retrospective cohort study". BMJ. 320 (7227): 86-90. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7227.86. PMC 27253. PMID 10625261.. ... A prospective follow-up study". International Journal of Nursing Studies. 48 (4): 409-418. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.07.017. ... At least one study has recommended that routine episiotomy be abandoned for this reason.[8] ... Some midwives compare routine episiotomy to female genital mutilation.[14] One study found that women who underwent episiotomy ...
A 2019 cohort study reported that despite a 13% recurrent rate in patients who underwent a cortical-sparing adrenalectomy for ... June 2019). "Prognosis of Malignant Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (MAPP-Prono Study): A European Network for the Study of ... A retrospective cohort study". Clinical Endocrinology. 85 (1): 62-9. doi:10.1111/cen.13066. PMC 4899243. PMID 26998836. Sheaves ... The majority of studied patients report their pain began and ended abruptly without warning and described the pain as a severe ...
A retrospective cohort study]". Epidemiol Prev (in Italian). 36 (5 Suppl 4): 34-43. PMID 23139187. "Valle del Sacco: a poisoned ... Human studies show that exposure to beta-HCH is linked to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. β-HCH was present in elevated ... Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides, including beta-HCH, are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the ... A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. α-Hexachlorocyclohexane ...
A historical cohort study". BMJ Open. 6 (11): e011768. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011768. ISSN 2044-6055. PMID 27881521. "A ... Hunger and malnutrition not only effect the children but also older individuals; a study in Matlab which is located 55 km south ... Trials were held in Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh to study a household's food insecurity ranking. Certain ... Kabeer, Naila (January 1991). "Gender dimensions of rural poverty: Analysis from Bangladesh". Journal of Peasant Studies. 18 (2 ...
2008). "Is smoking a risk factor for low back pain in adolescents? A prospective cohort study". Spine. 33 (5): 527-32. doi: ... It has been reported to be negative in several studies. It has been reported to have no effect in other studies. Many studies ... "Degeneration of Sacroiliac Joint After Instrumented Lumbar or Lumbosacral Fusion: a Prospective Cohort Study over Five-year ... but variations in approach and study results make this literature difficult to reconcile. In a massive study of 3482 patients ...
A retrospective cohort study". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 160 (11): 1565-1569. PMC 1230360. PMID 10373997. Chaudhry ... However, a study of women attending a hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, following rape, has highlighted the fact that in many ... For instance, one study found that documented physical injury, particularly of the moderate to severe type, was associated with ... Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (document WHO/FCH/GWH/01.08). Case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care ...
A dynamic cohort study". Family Practice. 25 (4): 233-6. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn030. PMID 18562333. Leach AJ, Morris PS (October ... Some studies have linked otitis media to learning problems, attention disorders, and problems with social adaptation. ... Homeopathic treatments have not been proven to be effective for acute otitis media in a study with children. An osteopathic ... Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators) (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and ...
... an observational cohort study". Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 4 (1): 35-40. doi:10.1016/j.jcf.2004.09.001. PMID 15752679. Tan KH ... A small study published in 2015 found a small benefit. The focus of much CF gene therapy research is aimed at trying to place a ... No in vivo study has yet confirmed this. In both cases, the low level of cystic fibrosis outside of Europe, in places where ... A recent study from Ireland identified a link between the female hormone estrogen and worse outcomes in CF. The distribution of ...
... the Center went on to participate in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, the longest running HIV study, resulting in ... "MACS History". Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Johns Hopkins University. October 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2016. CS1 maint: ... The grant funds were supposed to be used for HIV and AIDS studies, but the NIH found that Howard Brown was using the funds to ... a high rate of hepatitis B among the center's patients inspired Howard Brown to participate in important research studies and ...
A dynamic cohort study". Family Practice. 25 (4): 233-6. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmn030. PMID 18562333. Hamish T (1990). Occlusion. ... Most malocclusion studies to date have focused on Class III malocclusions. Genetic studies for Class II and Class I ... An epidemiological study of 11- to 14-year-old children". European Journal of Orthodontics. 31 (5): 477-84. doi:10.1093/ejo/ ... Studies indicate that tooth extraction can have benefits to correcting malocclusion in individuals. Further research is needed ...
A prospective cohort study". European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. 28 (2): 83-8. PMID 17479666. Leboeuf R, Langlois MF, ... A combined analysis of seven International Breast Cancer Study Group trials". Annals of Oncology. 18 (4): 701-8. doi:10.1093/ ...
According to a study of an Australian cohort, between 1985 and 2015, the average life expectancy of a person with scleroderma ... a retrospective cohort study and review of the literature". Autoimmunity Reviews. 10 (8): 490-4. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.02. ... meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 65 (7): 1913-21. doi:10.1002/art.37969. PMID ... "Prospective study to evaluate the association between systemic sclerosis and occupational exposure and review of the literature ...
... a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 89 (3): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.diabres. ... a meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies". Chinese Medical Journal. 125 (23): 4301-6. PMID 23217404.. ... a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Diabetologia. 59 (12): 2527-2545. doi: ... Update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes". ...
... an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious Diseases. 11: 314. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-314. PMC 3226630. PMID 22078162.. ... A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with hydrogen peroxide.[27] ... However, in a study adding both bacteria to the nasal cavity of a mouse within 2 weeks, only H. influenzae survives; further ... and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. ... "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing ...
Jan SL, Chan SC, Fu YC, Lin SJ (2009). «Elastin gene study of infants with isolated congenital ductus arteriosus aneurysm.». ... 2010). «Identification and characterization of seven novel mutations of elastin gene in a cohort of patients affected by ...
The study found that in the first year:[113] *Hospital use increased by 30% for those with insurance, with the length of ... on the original cost of childhood coverage for these cohorts, most of which comes from lower cash transfer payments."[97] ... "Oregon Study: Medicaid 'Had No Significant Effect' On Health Outcomes vs. Being Uninsured". Forbes. Retrieved April 18, 2019.. ... A 2018 study in the Journal of Political Economy found that upon its introduction, Medicaid reduced infant and child mortality ...
While Stevens's typology is widely adopted, it is still being challenged by other theoreticians, particularly in the cases of the nominal and ordinal types (Michell, 1986).[16] Duncan (1986) objected to the use of the word measurement in relation to the nominal type, but Stevens (1975) said of his own definition of measurement that "the assignment can be any consistent rule. The only rule not allowed would be random assignment, for randomness amounts in effect to a nonrule". However, so-called nominal measurement involves arbitrary assignment, and the "permissible transformation" is any number for any other. This is one of the points made in Lord's (1953) satirical paper On the Statistical Treatment of Football Numbers.[17] The use of the mean as a measure of the central tendency for the ordinal type is still debatable among those who accept Stevens's typology. Many behavioural scientists use the mean for ordinal data, anyway. This is often justified on the basis that the ordinal type in ...
Tønnessen, R.; Borge, K. S.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2012). "Canine perinatal mortality: A cohort study of 224 breeds". ... Borge, K. S.; Tønnessen, R.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2011). "Litter size at birth in purebred dogs-A retrospective study of ...
... update of Danish cohort study". BMJ. 343: d6387. doi:10.1136/bmj.d6387. PMC 3197791. PMID 22016439.. ... Nevertheless, studies[which?] suggest that certain forms of primary brain tumors are more prevalent among certain groups of the ... Although studies have not shown any link between cell phone or mobile phone radiation and the occurrence of brain tumors,[24] ... Epidemiological studies are required to determine risk factors.[19] Aside from exposure to vinyl chloride or ionizing radiation ...
... matched cohort study". Br J Clin Pharmacol. doi:10.1111/bcp.13152. PMID 27735065.. ... Study of the specificity". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 7 (5): 335-343. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(76)90092-3. ISSN 0022-4731.. ... a study found that treatment with a relatively low dosage of 20 μg/day ethinylestradiol for 5 weeks increased circulating SHBG ... Flutamide has also been studied extensively for such uses, but has fallen out of favor due to its association with ...
The small Eurasian weed Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as model organism in the study of the molecular biology of ... assigned it to their cohort Parietales (now the class Violales). Following Bentham and Hooker, John Hutchinson in 1948 and ... Although a substantial effort was made through molecular phylogenetic studies, the relationships within the Brassicaceae have ...
... including prospective cohort studies and experience sampling studies[40] can examine relationships over time.[41][42] OHP- ... At least five studies of men have linked effort-reward imbalance with CVD.[79] Another large study links ERI to the incidence ... 2012). Differential associations of job control components with mortality: A cohort study, 1986-2005. American Journal of ... 2017). Effort-reward imbalance at work and incident coronary heart disease: A multi-cohort study of 90,164 individuals. ...
... a population-based child cohort study". American Journal of Human Biology. 26 (6): 784-95. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22599. PMID ... The preliminary studies show results inconsistent with the outcrossing paradigm based on individual environments of the studied ... a population-based study of adolescent cohort". Annals of Epidemiology. 26 (4): 283-92. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.03.001. ... Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are an exception.[48] ...
2005). "Prevalence of movement disorders in men and women aged 50-89 years (Bruneck Study cohort): a population-based study". ... 2010). "Family Study of Restless Legs Syndrome in Quebec, Canada: Clinical Characterization of 671 Familial Cases". Archives of ... Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M. (2006). "Giving Legs to Restless Legs: A Case Study of How the Media Helps Make People Sick ... Walters, AS; Hickey, K; Maltzman, J; Verrico, T; Joseph, D; Hening, W; Wilson, V; Chokroverty, S (1996). "A questionnaire study ...
Health Study, an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein ... While there are studies that show the health and medical benefits of weight loss, a study in 2005 of around 3000 Finns over an ... prospective cohort study". British Medical Journal. 344: e4026. doi:10.1136/bmj.e4026. PMC 3383863 . PMID 22735105.. CS1 maint ... Similar conclusion is drawn by other studies,[6][28] and although other studies suggest that intentional weight loss has a ...
Cohort Study in Sweden". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e16885. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...616885D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016885. PMC 3043071. ... In these studies, most of the patients have reported being very happy with the results and very few of the patients have ... Several studies tried to measure the quality of life and self-perceive physical health using different scales. Overall, ... A study reported an overall increase of masturbation frequencies exhibited in most transsexual individuals and 78% of them were ...
Handloff, Robert Earl (ed.) (1991), Ivory Coast: A Country Study, Library of Congress Country Studies, Washington: U.S. GPO, ... of the 18-to-25-year cohort between 2009 and 2012.[107] ... A major study of the issue in 2016, published in Fortune ... "Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. November 1988. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. ... "Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. November 1988. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. ...
Studies of dental enamel hypoplasia are used to study child health. Unlike bone, teeth are not remodeled, so they can provide a ... Bioarchaeologists sometimes create life tables, a type of cohort analysis, to understand the demographic characteristics (such ... δ13C studies have been used in North America to document the transition from a C3 to a C4 (native North American plants to corn ... A study of iron-deficiency among early Mongolian nomads showed that although overall rates of cribra orbitalia declined from ...
Munger KL, Chitnis T, Ascherio A. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology (Comparative Study). 2009, 73 ... A systematic review of cohort studies. Lancet (Review). 2006, 368 (9536): 666-78. PMID 16920472. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06) ... BMJ (Comparative Study). 2008, 337: a494 [2016-01-20]. PMC 2500200. PMID 18617488. doi:10.1136/bmj.a494. (原始内容存档于2009-02-22).. ... Comparative Study). 2008-02, 5 (2): e29 [2016-01-20]. PMC 2225430. PMID 18254654. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050029. (原始内容存档于 ...
Sroka J, Wójcik-Fatla A, Zwoliński J, Zajac V, et al «Preliminary study on the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ixodes ... Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort» (en anglès). PLoS One, 2016 Feb 17; 11 (2), pp: e0148435. DOI: 10.1371/ ... An Autopsy Study» (en anglès). Ann Indian Acad Neurol, 2018 Abr-Jun; 21 (2), pp: 161-163. DOI: 10.4103/aian.AIAN_387_17. PMC: ... pros and cons of the Toxoplasma-human model in studying the manipulation hypothesis» (en anglès). J Exp Biol, 2013 Gen 1; 216 ( ...
The Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles. April 2006, 63 (4): 385-90 [28 September 2013]. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.4.385. (原始内容存档于 ... Quality of life in a large cohort of mid-aged Colombian women assessed using the Cervantes Scale. Menopause. 2012, 19 (8): 924- ... Predictive factors of age at menopause in a large Australian twin study. Hum Biol. 1998, 70 (6): 1073-91. PMID 9825597.. ... Risk of infertility in patients with celiac disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Arq Gastroenterol. 2014, 51 (2 ...
... a population-based cohort study". Gastroenterology 129 (1): 113-21. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2005.04.014 . PMID 16012941 . ...
A 2007 study pooling data on almost 900,000 subjects in 61 cohorts demonstrated that blood total cholesterol levels have an ... Four prospective American studies". Circulation 79 (1): 8-15. PMID 2642759. *↑ Espenshade PJ, Hughes AL (2007). "Regulation of ... West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 333 (20): 1301-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199511163332001. PMID ... 30 years of follow-up from the Framingham study". JAMA 257: 2176-80. doi:10.1001/jama.257.16.2176. PMID 3560398. ...
Conversely, Best and Chakravarti (1990) studied the problem as an active set identification problem, and proposed a primal ...
Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia ... dose-ranging study - dose-response relationship - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug interaction - DSMB - Duffy ... wasting syndrome - Western blot - white blood cells - wild-type virus - window period - Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) - ... natural history study - natural killer cells (NK cells) - NCI - New Drug Application - nebulized - Nef - neoplasm - nephrotoxic ...
Other studies have found increased rates of breast and skin cancer,[47] reduced respiratory health,[48] adverse reproductive ... "Mortality From Neurodegenerative Diseases in a Cohort of US Flight Attendants". American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 59 (7 ... "I don't think the girls thought they could question it': high heels policy study author". Global News. Retrieved 16 May 2016.. ... "Study Examines Cancer Rates Among Flight Attendants". Retrieved 2019-04-05.. ...
Analysis of a cohort of 8559 patients]". Gastroenterol Hepatol (Spanish; Castilian). 34 (4), s. 243-7. doi:10.1016/j.gastrohep. ... July 2008). "Hepatic granulomas: histological and molecular pathological approach to differential diagnosis--a study of 442 ... "Isospora cholangiopathy: case study with histologic characterization and molecular confirmation". Hum. Pathol. 40 (9), s. 1342 ...
The class of 2017 outperformed their peers in Maryland and the nation on Advanced Placement exams, based on AP Cohort Results ... and one honors-level social studies credit.[20] ...
Up to this study, only physicians and psychiatrists studied sexual behavior, and almost always the results were interpreted ... an academic cohort named the Lesbian History Group wrote: Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high ... Vanita, Ruth (2007). "Lesbian Studies and Activism in India", Journal of Lesbian Studies, 11 (3/4), pp. 245-253. ... Hite, Shere (1976). The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study on Female Sexuality , MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-551851-8 ...
A cohort study suggested that treatment of FH with statins leads to a 48% reduction in death from coronary heart disease to a ... Some studies of FH cohorts suggest that additional risk factors are generally at play when a person develops atherosclerosis.[ ... The global prevalence of FH is approximately 10 million people.[7] In most populations studied, heterozygous FH occurs in about ... November 1995). "A pilot study of ex vivo gene therapy for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia". Nat. Med. 1 (11): 1148- ...
Moss WL (1910). "Studies on isoagglutinins and isohemolysins". Bulletin Johns Hopkins Hospital 21: 63-70. ... "Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium". Cancer research 70 ... "Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer" ...
... studies show that anything higher or lower than this can increase cardiovascular risk. According to the African American Study ... of the cohort had progressive nephropathy despite having controlled the mean systolic BP level ,135 mmHg.[14] ...
Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature. Angela M. Cheung and Stephen W. Hwang ... Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature ... Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature ... Risk of death among homeless women: a cohort study and review of the literature ...
The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a ... The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a ... Childhood cognition in the 1970 British Cohort Study Data Note. *Overweight and obesity in mid-life: Evidence from the 1970 ... Are you a 1970 cohort member? Tell us about your research CLS tracks published work using cohort data in order to help other ...
These studies are sometimes called case-control studies nested in a cohort or case-cohort studies. The collection of data on ... Cohort study. This study identifies a group of people and follows them over a period of time to see how their exposures affect ... A nested case-control study is a special type of case-control study in which cases of a disease are drawn for the same cohort ... Case-control study. A case-control study is an epidemiological study that is often used to identify risk factors for a medical ...
Methods Our cohort study is based on nationwide Danish health registries, comprising all women with an embryo transfer during 1 ... Funding The study was supported by the Research Foundation of the Region of Southern Denmark, and the Free Research Foundation ... Objectives No studies have examined the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with rheumatoid ... The cohorts comprised 1149 embryo transfers in women with rheumatoid arthritis, and 198 941 embryo transfers in women without ...
DES Mothers Study - The DES Mothers Study began in 1980. The participant group (cohort) included approximately 3,000 women ... For this reason, new people cannot be added to the study.. Following is a list and brief description of the DES Cohort Studies. ... NCI recruited for this study primarily from previously studied groups and their family members. These cohort groups were ... Dieckmann Cohort - Participants in the group, assembled in 1974 to study DES-related health risks, included approximately 800 ...
In a cohort study, a defined population with known information on exposure is followed up. Information on diseases or causes of ... Any study in which there are measures of some characteristic of one or more cohorts at two or more points in time is cohort ... Schwab M. (2015) Cohort Study. In: Schwab M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ... Cohort Study Health Problem Cancer Research Cancer Risk Life History These keywords were added by machine and not by the ...
... delineate the strengths and limitations of a cohort study, recognize potential pitfalls, and apply the results of a cohort ... This online course can help you recognize a cohort study, ... Apply the results of a cohort study to patient scenarios. ... Delineate the strengths and limitations of a cohort study. *Identify clinical questions that could be best answered using a ... Recognize potential pitfalls encountered in cohort studies, and strategies to address these ...
COHORT STUDY In the analytic method of epidemiological study called a cohort study, subsets of a defined population are ... COHORT STUDY. In the analytic method of epidemiological study called a cohort study, subsets of a defined population are ... Cohort studies are sometimes called prospective or longitudinal studies. It is important to emphasize that a cohort study, like ... A by-product of cohort studies is the use of some of the persons studied to conduct one or more case-control studies that are " ...
Analysis of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) Wave 2: Incidence and Transitions (Executive Summary) Fact Sheets: ... The study of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) is funded by. the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Massachusetts ... There are a number of reports relevant to the MAGIC study. We recommend:. Correlates of Problem Gambling: A Bibliography, July ... Analysis of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) Wave 2: Incidence and Transitions (Executive Summary) ...
The case-cohort design is an efficient alternative to the full cohort design. When compared with the case-control study nested ... the ratio of the subcohort to cases in the entire cohort, the entire size of the case-cohort study, N, is simply formulated as ... N full denotes the sample size needed for the cohort study and N 1full (N 0full) is the size of the exposed (unexposed) ... 3.Cai J, Zeng D. Sample size/power calculation for case-cohort studies. Biometrics. 2004;60:1015-1024.. * Cited Here... , ...
Furthermore, the cohort study has the potential to actively promote healthy behaviours. For example, study team members readily ... The cohort study allowed us to demonstrate that A(H1N1)pdm09 was well established in the greater population of Lima at the time ... Peru population-based cohort study. In 2009, the United States Naval Medical Research Unit 6 in Lima, Peru, with support from ... The cohort studies discussed in the article were funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Armed Forces ...
What is the MAGIC Study?. The Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort or MAGIC Study is a multi-year study being carried out by a ... The study of the Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort (MAGIC) is funded by. the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Massachusetts ... Massachusetts Gaming Commission awards gambling cohort study to Volberg and UMass Amherst ... The study includes people who have never gambled as well as people who gamble regularly. The MAGIC Research Team will use ...
Many major findings about the health effects of lifestyle factors come from cohort studies. Find out how this medical research ... These long-term studies are sometimes called longitudinal studies.. Fast facts on cohort studies *Cohort studies typically ... Nurses Health Study. One famous example of a cohort study is the Nurses Health Study, a large, long-running analysis of ... This study recruited its second generation cohort for the Nurses Health Study II in 1989, and its third-generation cohort of ...
The latest UK birth cohort study was named Life Study at a central London meeting earlier today. The launch of the studys ... "This is an important and exciting moment for the study," said Professor Carol Dezateux, Director of Life Study. "We are ... which is exactly what Life Study aims to do. This critical study will help researchers to understand the complex interaction ... We needed to find a memorable name for the study that could grow alongside its participants and have meaning for them whatever ...
... to be studied, one distinguishes between current and historical cohort studies. In a current cohort study, the data concerning ... Cohort study. The starting point of a cohort study is the recording of healthy subjects with and without exposure to the ... Current and historical cohort studies. Depending on the time when the cohort study is initiated relative to occurrence of the ... In recent years, historical cohort studies have been referred to as retrospective cohort studies by some authors, because data ...
A cohort study follows a group of people over time to understand the relationship between some attribute shared by the group of ... people at the beginning of the study and the eventual outcome. ... Cohort study in action. Returning to our example, a cohort ... In a cohort study, the study participants are followed over time-from weeks to years, depending on the time frame. The goal is ... If cohort studies are second-best, then why use them? They may be the only way to explore certain questions. For example, it ...
Dr Roy Soiza Consultant Geriatrician. Professor Alison Murray Neuroradiologist. Professor Geraldine McNeill Professor of Public Health Nutrition. Professor Louise Phillips Psychologist. Dr Leone Craig Research Fellow in Public Health Nutrition. Professor Paul Haggarty Life-long Health Theme Leader, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health. Dr Roger Staff Clinical Scientist, Image Analysis. Dr Chris McNeil Research Fellow, Biomedical Imaging. Dr Anca Sandu-Giuraniuc Research Fellow, Biomedical Imaging. Dr Leela Narayanan Clinical Research Fellow, Biomedical Imaging. Dr Gordon Waiter and Dr Trevor Ahearn, Lecturers in MR Physics, Image Analysis. Mrs Dawn Younie, Secretary, arranges MRI appointments. Mrs Teresa Morris, ABC administrator, financial management of grants. Ms Dorota Chapko, PhD student. ...
Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value ... The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. ...
Known as the "The Navajo Birth Cohort Study" (NBCS), the goal of the study is to better understand the relationship between ... "A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium Exposure in the Navajo Nation" is the first prospective ... epidemiologic study of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a uranium-exposed population. ...
To establish an HIV Cohort Study at the study site.. *To assess the rate of virological failure among patients on first line ... Kumasi Cohort Study (KCS). This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. ... The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Kumasi Cohort Study. Official Title ICMJE Efficacy of First and Second Line ART in HIV Patients Treated at the Komfo Anokye ...
... cohort and period differences in cognitive abilities as well as on other variables included in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. ... An example is provided of how corrections for cohort and period effects can be applied to adjust longitudinal estimates to ... definitions are provided for the computation of cohort and period effects and cumulative findings through the seventh study ... Studies of Cohort and Period Differences. Studies of Cohort and Period Differences. Chapter:. (p.133) chapter six Studies of ...
Study Description. Citation Christensen, Kaare, and Duke University. Danish 1905 Cohort Study, 1998. ICPSR03960-v3. Ann Arbor, ... Danish 1905 Cohort Study, 1998 (ICPSR 3960) Principal Investigator(s): Christensen, Kaare, University of Southern Denmark. ... A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: The cohorts for heart and aging ... Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study. Journal ...
... and applied communications studies and black studies.. "I am extremely thankful that this degree program gave me the ... "This program puts you in control of what you study," said Kortney Webb, of New Baden. "My focus areas are biology and exercise ... SIUE also offers a masters in integrative studies to prepare students for the fast pace of change in society and gain ... May commencement ceremony will celebrate the first cohort of graduates to earn a bachelors in integrative studies. The ...
Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study BMJ 2005; :bmj;bmj.38623.532384.55v1 ... Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2005; doi: ... University of Hertfordshire: Clinical Lecturer in Physician Associate Studies The Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust: ...
Study cohorts. We identified four study cohorts. The primary cohort was patients admitted to hospital with sepsis. The ... Study population. We studied participants in the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal survey of 37 000 adults ... Patients were not involved in the study design, recruitment, or conduct of the study. Key results of studies involving HRS are ... Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Int J Epidemiol2014;43:576-85. doi:10.1093/ije/dyu067 pmid:24671021. ...
Varenicline Pregnancy Cohort Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... Varenicline Pregnancy Cohort Study. Official Title Varenicline Pregnancy Cohort Study Protocol Chantix (Registered)/Champix-( ... A prospective population-based cohort study to examine whether varenicline use during pregnancy is associated with an increased ... Study Population The study population will consist of all live born and stillborn infants in Denmark and Sweden.. ...
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants , 29 weeks gestation, admitted to neonatal intensive care units ... Study design. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants , 29 weeks gestation, admitted to neonatal intensive care ... Singh, B., Shah, P.S., Afifi, J. et al. Probiotics for preterm infants: A National Retrospective Cohort Study. J Perinatol 39, ... Probiotic Use and Safety in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Matched Cohort Study *Keyaria D. Gray ...
Wismut uranium miners cohort study. The Wismut cohort is one of the largest cohort studies of miners occupationally exposed to ... The German uranium miners cohort study (Wismut cohort) is one of the largest single cohort studies of miners occupationally ... Wismut uranium miners cohort study. The Wismut cohort is the largest cohort of miners occupationally exposed to radon. The ... Publications on the German Wismut Uranium Miners Cohort Study (under participation of the BfS). more ...
Victora C. Cohort profile: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort. Tilling K. 20 Victora CG ... Cohort profile: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. Sharma PP. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age ... Cohort profile: the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. 18 Geronimus AT. Domingues MR. Barros AJ. 40:1205-1214.) 2000. ... Cohort profile: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. 30 Mackenbach JP. International Journal of Epidemiology 2008. BMJ ...
  • The latest UK birth cohort study was named ' Life Study ' at a central London meeting earlier today. (
  • For example, in a birth cohort, what's common to all individuals is their birth year. (
  • A total of 6796 children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort were interviewed at elementary school age (8 and 10 years) about bullying experiences with a previously validated bullying interview and at secondary school age (12.9 years) about parasomnias such as nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking by trained postgraduate psychologists. (
  • A Prospective Birth Cohort Study Involving Environmental Uranium Exposure in the Navajo Nation" is the first prospective epidemiologic study of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a uranium-exposed population. (
  • Known as the "The Navajo Birth Cohort Study" (NBCS), the goal of the study is to better understand the relationship between uranium exposures and birth outcomes and early developmental delays on the Navajo Nation. (
  • In order to clearly determine the presence of atopic disorders and depression, we used more valid tools than had been employed earlier and we had access to a database (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort), in which individuals were followed up prospectively until the age of 31 years. (
  • These diagnostic tools and an access to the genetically homogenous Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort database enabled us to carry out the research. (
  • The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study is comprised of an unselected, genetically homogenous general population: in the two northernmost Finnish provinces, that is, Oulu and Lapland, 96% of all women ( n =12 068), with an expected date of delivery falling between 1st January and 31st December in 1966, were evaluated and they gave birth to 12 058 live infants. (
  • But thanks to an October 2003 grant, the Autism Birth Cohort, a joint project of Columbia University and the Norwegian government, is now one of the largest research studies on autism in history.The number of children with autism-a chronic neurological disorder that impairs communication and social interaction-has increased from approximately one in 1,000 to one in 150, and no one can conclusively say why. (
  • The frequency of this disorder is likely to be increasing … it's an area that has deserved a great deal more emphasis than it has had for a long time," said Dr. Ian Lipkin, director of the Autism Birth Cohort and a professor at the School of Public Health. (
  • Birth Cohort. (
  • Thimerosal is one of the many possible toxic and infectious agents whose effects the Autism Birth Cohort will examine. (
  • Hornig said that one of the most revolutionary aspects of the Autism Birth Cohort is its access to funds to buy a certain type of test tube. (
  • I know that sounds very trivial, but this is basically the turning point that turns this birth cohort into one that is unique in the world," she said, because the test tubes allow for the collection of the genetic material RNA. (
  • Hornig's research with mice helped demonstrate a link between thimerosal and autism worth pursuing in the Autism Birth Cohort. (
  • The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort was followed up prospectively from pregnancy up to the age of 31 years. (
  • The Impact of Low Income on Child Health: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study ," CASE Papers 085, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE. (
  • The Impact of Low-Income on Child Health: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study ," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 04/098, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK. (
  • The impact of low income on child health: evidence from a birth cohort study ," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6305, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library. (
  • Thus a group of people who were born on a day or in a particular period, say 1948, form a birth cohort. (
  • Data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study ( n = 15,117), containing information from surveys and registers are used. (
  • Methods Our cohort study is based on nationwide Danish health registries, comprising all women with an embryo transfer during 1 January 1994 through 30 June 2017. (
  • The objective of this task is to identify, develop, and evaluate simple, cost effective monitoring methods that can be used to develop exposure classifications for the proposed Longitudinal Cohort Study. (
  • Methods once evaluated should be applicable to other epidemiological studies. (
  • To motivate greater use of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and competing methods, we use causal diagrams to describe the sources of selection bias in cohort studies employing a time-to-event framework when the quantity of interest is an absolute measure (e.g., absolute risk, survival function) or relative effect measure (e.g., risk difference, risk ratio). (
  • However, educated hypotheses based on prior research and background knowledge are used to select variables to be included in the regression model for cohort studies, and statistical methods can be used to identify and account potential confounders from these variables. (
  • and c) assess the clinical/paraclinical features that help differentiate PINSs from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, adult inpatients with PINSs underwent extensive diagnostic assessment and therapeutic protocols at inclusion and during a minimum 2-year follow-up. (
  • Methods: A multifaceted national effort employed novel strategies to recruit a diverse cohort, and collected biological and environmental samples and extensive data on potential breast cancer risk factors. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -A prospective cohort design was used. (
  • Methods: Randomly selected adults were recruited into a bio-medical representative cohort study based in the north western suburbs of the capital of South Australia -- Adelaide. (
  • Connecticut Mothers Study - The participants included women who delivered babies during 1946-1965 at medical offices in Fairfield and New Haven Counties, Connecticut. (
  • The participants are now included in the DES Combined Cohort Studies (Hadjimichael, 1984). (
  • the first included mothers who were participants in a study at the University of Chicago in the early 1950s. (
  • British Research Medical Council (BRMC) Study - Participants included pregnant diabetic women enrolled in clinical trial and DES Daughters and DES Sons identified through follow-up study, for a total of 151 participants (79 DES-exposed and 72 unexposed people) (Reid, 1955). (
  • For example, scientists may ask participants to record specific lifestyle details over the course of a study. (
  • In experimental studies, such as RCTs, the scientists intervene, for example, by giving participants a new drug and assessing the outcomes. (
  • We needed to find a memorable name for the study that could grow alongside its participants and have meaning for them whatever their background. (
  • In a cohort study, the study participants are followed over time-from weeks to years, depending on the time frame. (
  • In terms of levels of evidence for establishing relationships between exposure and outcome, cohort studies are considered second to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) because RCTs limit the possibility for biases by randomly assigning one group of participants to an intervention/treatment and another group to non-intervention/treatment or placebo. (
  • This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants. (
  • In a prospective cohort study, we examined and followed participants enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study between November 2003 and April 2015. (
  • The cohort included 108 135 participants with a median age of 68 years. (
  • 14 - 16 In a 2018 study involving 98 344 participants from the general population of Denmark, we found that lymphopenia was associated with a high risk of infectious disease. (
  • New technology will allow for intensified study into gene expression of study participants. (
  • The cohort study, by Seena Fazel from the University of Oxford, and colleagues, showed in subgroup analysis that this association was evident in participants aged 15-24, but not significant for individuals aged 25 and older. (
  • Bias can also be mitigated in a cohort study when selecting participants for the cohort. (
  • The CHASING COVID study will follow participants through July 2022. (
  • The study team is aiming to get at least 5,000 baseline specimens before sending out a second round of kits to participants. (
  • The current study examined evidence for sexual behavior change in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among participants of a clinical cohort in Uganda. (
  • Partner turnover rates and the proportion of HIV-infected participants on ART, two key factors for modeling the potential impact of ART on the epidemic, were also studied. (
  • During a study pre-test in 2009 and the study main launch in 2010, prospective participants were randomly selected by their mobile phone network operator to be invited to participate. (
  • Participants are also asked to give permission for the study to access their NHS and mobile phone records. (
  • NICHD plans to establish new epidemiology cohort(s) of least 2000 participants to stimulate research on a wide range of HIV research hypotheses pertinent to reproductive age women. (
  • We identified twenty studies of coffee consumption and total mortality, including 129 538 cases of deaths among the 973 904 participants. (
  • Background: Analysis was undertaken on data from randomly selected participants of a biomedical cohort study to assess representativeness. (
  • The cohort participants were 4060 randomly selected adults (18+ years). (
  • Results: There were no major differences between study participants and the comparison population in terms of current smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, overall health status and proportions with current high blood pressure and cholesterol readings. (
  • There were some demographic differences with study participants more likely to be in the middle level of household income and education level. (
  • Many of my doubts about the difference between studies in epidemiology have been cleared up. (
  • Cohorts were ancient Roman military units, but in modern epidemiology the word "cohort" is used to describe a group with a shared characteristic. (
  • Cohort studies represent one of the fundamental designs of epidemiology which are used in research in the fields of medicine, nursing, psychology, social science, and in any field reliant on 'difficult to reach' answers that are based on evidence (statistics). (
  • The Communities, Households and SARS/COV-2 Epidemiology (CHASING) COVID study has been in the field since March 28, 2020, and is one of the earliest national longitudinal studies of COVID-19 to be launched since the pandemic began spreading in the United States. (
  • We are more than six months into the COVID-19 pandemic, and there are still many critical questions, some of which can only be answered with longitudinal epidemiologic studies," says Dr. Denis Nash, Distinguished Professor of Epidemiology at CUNY SPH and a Principal Investigator of the CHASING COVID study. (
  • Most recently, nested case-control molecular epidemiology studies and occupational exposure analyses of lung cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have been conducted. (
  • The DESAD was assembled to conduct studies to determine if DES Daughters were at an increased risk for health problems related associated with their exposure to DES (Labarthe, 1978). (
  • In a cohort study, a defined population with known information on exposure is followed up. (
  • In the analytic method of epidemiological study called a cohort study, subsets of a defined population are identified and categorized on the basis of exposure to known levels of a risk factor that is believed to be associated with a disease outcome such as coronary heart disease or cancer. (
  • Several cohort studies of cancer risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation have made use of existing data to shorten considerably the many years of observation that would otherwise be required to demonstrate and measure levels of risk. (
  • Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. (
  • Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. (
  • Although long-term integrated exposure measurements are a critical component of exposure assessment, the ability to include these measurements into epidemiological studies is often limited by time, budget, and compliance issues. (
  • Cohort studies typically observe large groups of individuals, recording their exposure to certain risk factors to find clues as to the possible causes of disease. (
  • The starting point of a cohort study is the recording of healthy subjects with and without exposure to the putative agent or the characteristic being studied. (
  • The measure of association between exposure and disease in cohort studies is the relative risk. (
  • In a current cohort study, the data concerning exposure are assembled prior to the occurrence of disease-the current cohort design thus representing a true prospective study. (
  • The information generated by this study may be of value in developing programs to mitigate environmental uranium exposure. (
  • In cohort studies, we follow groups of people over time, we collect data on their exposure and outcome, and try to estimate whether there is an association between the group-defining characteristic and the outcome of interest. (
  • Prenatal mercury exposure in a multicenter cohort study in Spain. (
  • NIEHS epidemiologists are collaborating with scientists from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study to explore how exposure to environmental contaminats in early life may affect adult health. (
  • The main objective of this three-year research project is to analyze the cohorts of FDNY firefighters and EMS workers, both WTC-exposed and non-WTC exposed in order to compare cancer incidence by WTC-exposure status during the early post-9/11 years. (
  • The comparison group may be the general population from which the cohort is drawn, or it may be another cohort of persons thought to have had little or no exposure to the substance under investigation, but otherwise similar. (
  • Longitudinal Cohort Study of Prenatal Exposure to Mercury in. (
  • Neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to methylmercury has been studied but no firm conclusions have been reached on the dose-response relationship, especially at levels of exposure less than 10 ppm. (
  • This study has enrolled a total of 1700 pregnant women and their children in Slovenia, Croatia, Italy and Greece to assess the impact of mercury exposure through fish consumption during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment. (
  • They allow researchers to compare outcomes according to exposure to suspected risk factors by creating a hypothesis to study. (
  • In a cohort study, patients are sampled on the basis of exposure and are followed over time, and the occurrence of outcomes is assessed. (
  • A case series may be a study that samples patients with both a specific outcome and a specific exposure, or one that samples patients with a specific outcome and includes patients regardless of whether they have specific exposures. (
  • All studies involve some descriptive or analytic type of comparison of exposure and disease status. (
  • The exposure of interest is determined for each member of the cohort and the group is followed to document incidence in the exposed and non-exposed members. (
  • This study identifies a group of people and follows them over a period of time to see how their exposures affect their outcomes. (
  • however, for the majority of individuals within the study population exposures vary dramatically over time (62 subjects sampled six times during a one-year period - air, food, water, dust, and urine). (
  • Additionally, the study will provide additional baseline data on exposures, behaviors, and chronic health that may be of value in developing health education and outreach to increase prenatal care utilization. (
  • and 3) to conduct a ten-day exploratory study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to compare real-time exposures between tobacco users and nonusers. (
  • Select a cohort (defined population) BEFORE any of its members become exposed or before the exposures are identified. (
  • Members of the cohort have been followed through multiple in-person interviews to obtain information on diet, occupational and environmental exposures, and various lifestyle factors. (
  • The study, ' Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study' is published in The BMJ. (
  • A case-control study is an epidemiological study that is often used to identify risk factors for a medical condition. (
  • This is a more powerful observational method of epidemiological study than a case-control study, but as the above account makes clear, it is a major undertaking, involving prolonged study of very large numbers. (
  • In this course, you will learn about the main epidemiological study designs, including cross-sectional and ecological studies, case-control and cohort studies, as well as the more complex nested case-control and case-cohort designs. (
  • The Cohort is a broad-based epidemiological study that uses new technology to identify how genetics, environment, and timing combine to cause autism. (
  • CLS tracks published work using cohort data in order to help other researchers avoid duplication and also demonstrate the value of the studies to the research community. (
  • In a prospective cohort study, researchers raise a question and form a hypothesis about what might cause a disease. (
  • This critical study will help researchers to understand the complex interaction between biology, behaviour and the environment, and how this interaction influences a child's health and wellbeing as he/she develops. (
  • Researchers in such a study could determine what's affecting the workers' RTW. (
  • The finding says nothing about cause and effect but is consistent with other studies suggesting that HDL plays a role in immunity, say researchers, who propose that it might help explain infection risks observed in some clinical trials of HDL-modifying therapies. (
  • The researchers matched 6342 statin users in the overall cohort with 6342 nonusers, according to baseline demographics, comorbidities, presence of renal disease, healthcare utilization, and medication use. (
  • The researchers also identified a "healthy cohort" of 3982 statin users and 21,988 nonusers, and they matched 3351 statin users with 3351 nonusers. (
  • The Cohort study is now complete, and we commissioned a longitudinal analysis of the entire 10-year data from researchers at Sheffield and York Universities. (
  • The strength of a cohort study is that it is the best way to determine the causes of a disease, condition or issue because it allows researchers to follow one group of people over time and allows researchers to study multiple outcomes at one time. (
  • This is an observational study, so cannot establish cause, and the researchers point to some limitations that may have affected their results. (
  • These studies lay the groundwork for future research and help inform researchers about disease incidence, viral diversity and host genetics and treatment outcomes. (
  • The scientific community and the public can access much of the MACS data, and study investigators actively pursue collaborations with outside researchers who propose studies of high scientific quality to the MACS leadership. (
  • A study led by the University of Birmingham provides strong support for current recommendations on treating patients with an underactive thyroid and validates latest UK and US guidelines, say researchers. (
  • The Canary database curators determine, for each included study, the type of study methodology employed by the researchers (using this classification protocol ). (
  • In a study that seemed to cross the line between experimental and observational, researchers used cages to segregate several populations of fish living in different proximities to a wastewater treatment facility, then compared responses in each group (Mitz and Giesy 1985). (
  • This type of study can describe characteristics or outcomes in a particular group of people, but cannot determine how they compare with people who are treated differently or who do not have the condition. (
  • These outcomes may be the incidence of diagnosed disease, and/or deaths certified due to the disease being studied, as well as deaths due to other causes. (
  • When compared with the case-control study nested within the cohort, the case-cohort design has flexibility for a series of exploratory analyses because a single subcohort is employed to analyze multiple outcomes. (
  • Cohort studies are a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease and to establish links between risk factors and health outcomes. (
  • Strengths of a cohort study include the fact that multiple outcomes can be observed. (
  • Overall, the present study provides novel evidence on the link between HDL and infection-related outcomes. (
  • We are missing more extensive, real-world data of the effectiveness of statins on total morbidity and all-cause mortality, and we need further studies specifically focusing on long-term outcomes in primary prevention. (
  • In addition to COVID-19 outcomes, the CHASING COVID study is also gathering critical data on mental health, employment, and economic outcomes, and factors that influence them over time. (
  • As the largest prospective observational study reported worldwide so far, it provides a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of patients hospitalised in the UK with COVID-19 and their outcomes. (
  • Studies in China have reported risk factors associated with severe COVID-19, but studies describing the features and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 who have been admitted to hospital in Europe are lacking. (
  • This new research study will help to define and understand clinical outcomes over the course of young women's reproductive lives, including a focus on the effects of HIV and antiretroviral treatment during pregnancies and post-partum periods. (
  • The primary study outcomes were change in IPSS, BP, and heart rate from baseline. (
  • As in experimental studies, only one risk factor at a time can be examined in this way, whereas a number of different outcomes can be assessed. (
  • Other historical cohort studies have shown that repeated chest X-rays (or fluoroscopic screenings) increase the risk of breast cancer many years later. (
  • Depending on the time when the cohort study is initiated relative to occurrence of the disease(s) to be studied, one distinguishes between current and historical cohort studies. (
  • Numerous limitations exist in conducting longitudinal/cohort studies. (
  • For a more detailed account of design, conduct and analyses of epidemiological studies, the reader is referred to textbooks and methodological articles given in the list of references. (
  • Nevertheless, despite the large study size and the sensitivity analyses provided, the presence of additional confounders or reverse causation cannot be fully excluded. (
  • The final number of cohort members, whose completed variable information was available in multivariate logistic analyses, was 2721 males and 2968 females. (
  • Analyses from the Danish HIV Cohort Study showed that, despite comparable economic means and general education of healthcare personnel, antiretroviral treatment of HIV in Greenland began later and has been implemented at a slower pace with lower therapeutic effectiveness than in Denmark. (
  • The Nurses' Health Study is one example of a large cohort study, and it has produced many important links between lifestyle choices and health by following hundreds of thousands of women across North America. (
  • The study is controlled by including other common characteristics of the cohort in the statistical analysis. (
  • Any study in which there are measures of some characteristic of one or more cohorts at two or more points in time is cohort analysis. (
  • A "cohort" is any group of people with a shared characteristic. (
  • The present study extends our understanding about putative gender differences of this association and provides further epidemiological evidence for our previous finding that the association between atopy and depression may be characteristic for females only. (
  • A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that samples a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time. (
  • It is a type of panel study where the individuals in the panel share a common characteristic. (
  • A cohort is a group of people who share a common characteristic or experience within a defined period (e.g., are currently living, are exposed to a drug or vaccine or pollutant, or undergo a certain medical procedure). (
  • The essential characteristic in the design of cohort studies is the comparison of outcome in an exposed group and a nonexposed group(or a group with a certain characteristic and a group w/o that characteristic). (
  • Major problem with a prospective cohort design is that the cohort must be followed up for a long period of time. (
  • You can find out more about the 1970 British Cohort Study by viewing an interview with its Principal Investigator, Alice Sullivan below. (
  • To control the coronavirus pandemic, we need to understand the impact of the public health response at several levels," says Dr. Christian Grov, the other Principal Investigator of the study and Professor and Chair of the CUNY SPH Department of Community Health and Social Sciences. (
  • The Wismut cohort is the largest cohort of miners occupationally exposed to radon. (
  • The Wismut cohort is one of the largest cohort studies of miners occupationally exposed to radon. (
  • The University of Glasgow is one of six universities to have contributed to the largest cohort study to date on the detailed characterisation of hospital COVID-19 patients in the world. (
  • Of 97,166 persons followed in the longitudinal Copenhagen General Population Study , 9% experienced an infectious-disease hospitalization over a median of 6 years, according to the report published December 8, 2017 in the European Heart Journal , with lead author Dr Christian M Madsen (Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark). (
  • The analysis was restricted to 4194 women (1125 couples) with ≤6 cycles of pregnancy attempt time at study enrolment (2013-2017). (
  • Scientists affiliated with the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network, or eMERGE, this week published the first results of an ongoing study to determine whether data from electronic medical records can be used to identify disease phenotypes with sufficient statistical power for use in genome-wide association studies. (
  • The case-cohort design is an efficient alternative to the full cohort design. (
  • Nevertheless, the case-cohort design has not often been employed. (
  • We show a simple sample size formula for the case-cohort design interpretable as the straightforward expansion of the conventional sample-size formula for the cohort study. (
  • You will also learn about nested case-control and case-cohort studies, which allow us to harness the advantages of cohort studies in more efficient ways. (
  • We then modify complex, real-world data from the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort study and estimate the absolute and relative change in the occurrence of death with and without inverse probability-of-censoring weighted correction using the modified University of North Carolina data. (
  • The Original Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study consisted of 5,209 respondents of a random sample of 2/3 of the adult population of Framingham, Massachusetts, 30 to 62 years of age by household, in 1948. (
  • Retrospective cohort studies look at data that already exist and try to identify risk factors for particular conditions. (
  • They can be prospective studies and gather data going forward, or retrospective cohort studies, which look at data already collected. (
  • Thus, our group will examine the onset of type and characteristics of PE by a retrospective cohort study to discuss if susceptibility gene and pathogenic genetic variation were existing in PE patients, also to find the relativity between clinical phenotype and genotype. (
  • Retrospective cohort study of 4002 singleton pregnancies with a gestational age ≥34 w at Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, during 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. (
  • Using a population-based retrospective cohort design, and utilizing the Western Australian Data Linkage System for the period 2000-2002 (2.5 years), the study found that 992 people died of either AD alone or AD with at least one other condition recorded on the death certificate. (
  • Retrospective cohort studies restrict the investigators ability to reduce confounding and bias because collected information is restricted to data that already exists. (
  • We report mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of women who used homeless shelters in Toronto. (
  • In addition, we analyzed data from published studies of mortality rates among homeless women in 6 other cities (Montreal, Copenhagen, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Brighton, UK). (
  • Previous studies have focused on excess mortality observed among homeless people relative to their counterparts in the general population. (
  • 14 In a study of homeless people in Boston, mortality rates among men were 5.9, 3.0 and 1.6 times higher than those in the general population for people 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years of age respectively. (
  • No study has investigated a priori the effect of digoxin on mortality in patients with AF. (
  • Using data from the Registry of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive care Admissions (RIKS-HIA), we studied the 1-year mortality among patients admitted to coronary care units with AF, CHF, or AF+CHF with or without digoxin ( n = 60,764) during 1995-2003. (
  • Nevertheless, they say this is the largest study of its kind outside of China and clearly shows that severe covid-19 leads to a prolonged hospital stay and a high mortality rate. (
  • The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of inherited predisposition on cancer mortality among the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry. (
  • Association of Elevated Body Mass Index and Hypertension with Mortality: the CroHort Study. (
  • Aim of this study was to investigate association of elevated body mass index and hypertension with general mortality in the cohort from Croatian Adult Health Cohort Study (CroHort). (
  • Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis. (
  • This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. (
  • Estimate the mortality risks associated with specific currently popular hypnotics in a matched cohort design, using proportional hazards regression models. (
  • HealthDay)-Psoriasis is significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, according to a study published online Aug. 12 in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. (
  • We also compare our results with those of other published studies of homeless women and with data for women in the general population. (
  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency ( 2012-58-0018, 17/37434). (
  • 1 Data from a prospective cohort study known as the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study was used. (
  • Another major limitation of passive surveillance is the lack of a precise population denominator from which to calculate attack rates and disease burden without resorting to additional studies, especially in developing countries, where accurate data on demographics and health service usage are rarely available. (
  • Experimental research provides data from which firmer conclusions can be made as compared with epidemiological studies. (
  • This study is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA), the aging program within ICPSR. (
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (
  • All patients were continuously enrolled in the healthcare plan during the study, and there were no missing data. (
  • The EMGO + institute has a number of institute specific resources that strongly facilitate scientific integrity and the quality of all phases of research, including study design, data collection, data analysis and reporting. (
  • The data on HSCL-25 depression subscale, doctor-diagnosed life-time depression and fish consumption (during the previous 6 months) of cohort members were obtained by postal questionnaires at the age of 31. (
  • The data on life-time fish consumption of cohort members were not available. (
  • In this study, Fazel and colleagues compared the rate of violent crime while individuals were prescribed SSRIs with the rate of violent crime in the same individuals while not receiving medication, using matched data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Swedish national crime register. (
  • This paper proposes an empirical implementation of the concept of inequality of opportunity in health and applies this to data from the UK National Child Development Study. (
  • Cohort studies can be retrospective (looking back in time, thus using existing data such as medical records or claims database) or prospective (requiring the collection of new data). (
  • There are advantages to this design however, as retrospective studies are much cheaper and faster because the data has already been collected and stored. (
  • The Information Commissioner has advised that this research study complies fully with the requirements of the Data Protection Act 1998. (
  • The results of the study will be published following independent review but no individually identifying data will ever be published. (
  • Conclusions PCS with its large scale and wealth of socio-economic and medical data can be a unique platform for studying the etiology of non-communicable diseases and effective interventions in Iran. (
  • 5 A recent report on self-poisoning in Australia 8 provided only limited information about drug overdoses in older people, while an earlier, small study of deliberate self-poisoning by mature Australians included data only to July 1998. (
  • Cohort studies of such patients are important, they say, and this study is a testament to good planning and preparation before, and implementation of data collection during a pandemic. (
  • A cohort study is a longitudinal study that identifies a group of subjects sharing some attributes (a "cohort") then takes measurements on the subjects at various points in time and records data for the group. (
  • Through behavioral questionnaires and the collection of biological specimens, study staff gather 8,500 separate pieces of information from each participant every six months, generating a gold mine of data and specimens for investigation. (
  • Over the years, data and biological samples (blood/buccal cell and urine) collected in the SWHS have been used to evaluate many important etiologic hypotheses and support multiple studies. (
  • In some cases, cohort studies are preferred to randomized experimental design. (
  • One of the reasons hindering the wide use of the design may be the scarcity of the information essential for planning individual studies, including sample size calculation. (
  • Recently, Cai and Zeng 3,4 have presented a method for power/sample size calculation as a natural generalization of the log-rank test in the full cohort design. (
  • The cohort study design is the best available scientific method for measuring the effects of a suspected risk factor. (
  • UK academics from social, environmental, clinical, and biomedical sciences together with UK policymakers attending today's scientific conference have an opportunity to engage with Life Study and its design and to comment on the topics and measures that have been proposed for inclusion in the pilot phase of the study, due to commence in 2013. (
  • Choosing an appropriate study design is a critical decision that can largely determine whether your study will successfully answer your research question. (
  • The final module is dedicated to randomised controlled trials, which is often considered the optimal study design, especially in clinical research. (
  • By the end of this course, you will be able to choose the most suitable study design considering the research question, the available time, and resources. (
  • In this module, you will learn how to design such a study, the kind of problems which may arise and how it compares with case-control studies. (
  • By the end of the module, you will be able to choose the best study design in a variety of contexts. (
  • In particular, we're looking at observational studies within the analytic study design group. (
  • The MACC Study employs a multilevel design, including a cohort sequential design of five ages at the individual level where individuals (adolescents) are surveyed every six months. (
  • Double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are generally considered superior methodology in the hierarchy of evidence in treatment, because they allow for the most control over other variables that could affect the outcome, and the randomization and blinding processes reduce bias in the study design. (
  • Study design and setting A retrospective death registry-based study that examined a stratified random sample of death notification forms (DNFs) of patients who died in hospitals in Palestine was reported in 2012. (
  • A longitudinal design was used to study the effectiveness of an intervention, the Communities Care program (CCP), in changing harmful social norms associated with GBV in a community in Mogadishu, Somalia. (
  • To address some of the potential issues of using a longitudinal design in a conflict-affected setting, the research team from John Hopkins and their NGO partners (Comitato Internazionale per lo Sviluppo dei Popoli - CISP) had to carefully consider the study design. (
  • Case series are a commonly reported study design, but the label "case series" is used inconsistently and sometimes incorrectly. (
  • This course will teach you how to design studies to produce statistically valid conclusions. (
  • Design Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. (
  • Design strengths included matching patient and control cohorts by age, gender and smoking. (
  • The choice of study design can have a major effect on the ability of a study to fulfill such criteria. (
  • The forward directional approach of a cohort study is considered to approximate an experimental design. (
  • The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000-2001. (
  • The Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), a collaborative study by NCI, Vanderbilt University, and the Shanghai Cancer Institute, is a prospective cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women who were recruited between 1997 and 2000. (
  • A cohort study of people presenting to a tertiary toxicology centre after self-poisoning over 26 years (1987-2012). (
  • The University's Dr Antonia Ho, Clinical Senior Lecturer/Consultant in Infectious Diseases at the UofG-MRC Centre for Virus Research (CVR), coordinated Scottish patient recruitment on behalf of the study, recruiting around a third of all consented patients in the UK. (
  • The study is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Liverpool Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, NIHR Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool with Public Health England. (
  • This thesis describes the clinical, radiological and genetic associations of psoriatic arthritis in a single centre cohort in South Africa. (
  • The primary aim of the MACC study was to evaluate local tobacco control programs in Minnesota, and the secondary aim was to better define the patterns of tobacco use in young adults and to evaluate the effects of tobacco control programs on these patterns. (
  • The NL-SH is a unique cohort, as it includes adults ranging from 18 to 70 years at baseline, and hearing impairment is the central topic under investigation. (
  • The CHASING COVID study follows a cohort of thousands of adults residing in the U.S. recruited using internet-based strategies. (
  • The Career Tracker cohorts (or SNSF-CTC) will start in October 2018 with a ten-year timeline. (
  • MUSIC] As you know, epidemiologic studies can be split into two types, descriptive and analytic. (
  • You've previously learned about descriptive studies and now we're focusing on analytic studies, these deal with individuals. (
  • All female staff that works, examination and delivery in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from Dec 1995 to Dec 2016 should be in the cohort. (
  • For these reasons, cohort studies are undertaken only when the investigators have good evidence to support their working hypothesis. (
  • After case-control studies had revealed evidence suggesting that the use of diagnostic X-rays during pregnancy might increase the risk of cancer in childhood, several cohort studies were set up to confirm or refute this evidence. (
  • However, there are numbers of epidemiologic study have analyzed high risk factor of PE which provides significant medical evidence of prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment for PE, there is only little study focus on susceptibility gene and pathogenic genetic variation. (
  • There is growing recognition of the powerful role that longitudinal research can play in building evidence for policy and programme development, and there is considerable interest in establishing new longitudinal studies in developing countries. (
  • The idea that chronic fatigue has an infectious origin has become popular, but the main evidence for such an association has come from retrospective case-control studies, which are subject to ascertainment bias. (
  • Our study shows no evidence that common infective episodes in primary care are related to the onset of chronic fatigue or chronic fatigue syndrome. (
  • The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. (
  • In this three-year project, investigators will examine male youth initiation of ST (i.e., chew, snuff, snus, and dissolvables) and dual use, as well as the marketing, advertising and other environmental factors that may contribute to initiation, by administering self-report questionnaires to a cohort of 1050 rural and 1050 urban Ohio males aged 11-14 and their families. (
  • MACS investigators prospectively study the natural and treated history of HIV infection in thousands of homosexual and bisexual men at sites in Baltimore, Chicago, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles. (
  • You will also develop the skills to identify strengths and limitations of the various study designs. (
  • PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify all related prospective cohort studies. (
  • The COSMOS study aims to carry out long term health monitoring of a large group of people to identify if there are any health issues linked to long term mobile phone use. (
  • In studies from a total of 7 cities, the risk of death among homeless women was greater than that among women in the general population by a factor of 4.6 to 31.2 in the younger age group and 1.0 to 2.0 in the older age group. (
  • Case crossover studies look at the effects of factors that are thought to increase the risk of a particular outcome in the short term. (
  • For example, this type of study might be used to look at the effects of changes in air pollution levels on the short-term risk of asthma attacks. (
  • This type of study is normally used to look at the effect of suspected risk factors that cannot be controlled experimentally, for example the effect of smoking on lung cancer. (
  • The cohort was created to determine if women exposed to DES during pregnancy were at increased risk for cancer (Greenberg, 1984). (
  • It is a study of samples of the population of Framingham, Massachusetts, in which several risk factors associated with coronary heart disease , other cardiovascular diseases, and more recently, several other chronic diseases, have been assessed. (
  • This and several other cohort studies have clarified our understanding of the principal risk factors for coronary heart disease, such as elevated serum lipids, high blood pressure , and cigarette smoking. (
  • A prospective population-based cohort study to examine whether varenicline use during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations in infants above that associated with smoking during pregnancy. (
  • The large scale, the long observation period and the wealth of information about different risk factors make this study unique. (
  • COPENHAGEN, DENMARK - High and low levels of HDL cholesterol predicted increased risk of infectious disease, especially gastroenteritis and bacterial pneumonia , in a large population-based cohort study [ 1 ] . (
  • that is, the risk in the confirmation cohort didn't follow a U-shaped curve. (
  • Therefore, he said, in the overall much smaller confirmation cohort there were probably too few people at high HDL levels for the increased risk to be apparent. (
  • According to Nordestgaard, the findings are consistent with his group's earlier study [ 3 ] in which high levels of HDL-C predicted an increased risk of death from any cause. (
  • DALLAS, TX - A large, 8-year retrospective study with a median 6.4-year follow-up associated long-term statin use with an increased risk of kidney disease [ 1 ] . (
  • Our study did not examine whether the benefits outweigh the risk (it was not designed for that)," he noted. (
  • In the overall cohort, statin use was associated with a significantly increased risk of different types of kidney disease. (
  • In a subgroup analysis of that study, it was found that digoxin increased the death rate [relative risk (RR) = 1.42), but it was suggested that this may have been attributable to prescription of digoxin for patients at greater risk of death, such as those with congestive heart failure (CHF). (
  • Observational studies have shown lymphopenia to be associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, 1 - 5 cancer, 6 - 11 liver disease (including alcohol abuse disorders) 12 , 13 and systemic autoimmune disease. (
  • Physical activity and risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. (
  • A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed to investigate the effect of PA on hypertension risk. (
  • The initial objective of the Hoorn Study was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and associated risk factors in a study population of approximately 2,500 people. (
  • Case-control studies permit the identification of risk factors for disease and usually requires a much smaller sample size than cohort studies. (
  • Abstract Objectives The pars cohort study (PCS) is a 10-year cohort study aiming to investigate the burden and the major risk factors of non-communicable diseases, and to establish a setting to launch interventions for prevention of these diseases and controlling their risk factors. (
  • The new study -- published today in The BMJ and led by the University of Liverpool, University of Edinburgh and Imperial College London -- revealed age, male sex, obesity, and underlying illness have emerged as risk factors for severe COVID-19 or death in the UK. (
  • Prof Malcolm Semple, a study lead, added: "Our study identifies sectors of the population that are at greatest risk of a poor outcome, and shows the importance of forward planning and investment in preparedness studies. (
  • Whereas a cohort study, in principle, enables the calculation of an absolute risk or a rate for the outcome, such a calculation is not possible in a case series. (
  • Leu M, Czene K, Reilly M. Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Bias correction of estimates of familial risk from population-based cohort studies. (
  • Start with a group of subjects who lack a positive history of the outcome of interest yet are at risk for it (cohort). (
  • Significantly more people who reported a medium to very high alcohol risk participated in the study. (
  • Conclusion: People with risky behaviours participated in this health study in the same proportions as people without these risk factors. (
  • Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have an increased risk for long-term opioid use, according to a study published online Sept. 11 in JAMA Dermatology. (
  • The conclusions that can be drawn from findings of these types of studies are, however, much weaker compared to those of cohort and case-control studies. (
  • Cohort studies are observational-meaning the researcher observes what's happening or naturally occurring , measures variables of interest and draws conclusions. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this preconception cohort study, there was little overall association between female or male marijuana use and fecundability. (
  • The study population will consist of all live born and stillborn infants in Denmark and Sweden. (
  • Olsen R, Greisen G, Schrøder M, Brok J. Prophylactic probiotics for preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. (
  • Costeloe K, Hardy P, Juszczak E, Wilks M, Millar MR. Probiotics in preterm infants study collaborative G. Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 in very preterm infants: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. (
  • Supporting this, in one prospective study, mothers of 224 infants reported 74% and 100% to suffer at least one local disturbance during the eruption of the front and back teeth, respectively. (
  • The Cohort will follow over 75,000 Norwegian expectant mothers and their children, analyzing their medical records, blood samples, and survey questionnaires in order to trace specific agents to the onset of the disease. (
  • Questionnaires assessing fatigue and psychiatric morbidity were sent to all patients aged 18-45 years in the study practices. (
  • Funding The study was supported by the Research Foundation of the Region of Southern Denmark, and the Free Research Foundation at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. (
  • For research purposes, a cohort is any group of individuals who are linked in some way or who have experienced the same significant life event within a given period. (
  • The Massachusetts Gambling Impact Cohort or MAGIC Study is a multi-year study being carried out by a research team from the University of Massachusetts Amherst School of Public Health & Health Sciences (SPHHS). (
  • Using participant responses, the MAGIC Research Team will be able to study gambling problems as they emerge. (
  • What is a cohort study in medical research? (
  • Professor Paul Boyle, Chief Executive of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) which funds Life Study, in partnership with the Medical Research Council (MRC), said: "There can be no more important goal than to improve the lives, health and wellbeing of children, which is exactly what Life Study aims to do. (
  • Cohort and case-control methodologies are the main tools for analytical epidemiological research. (
  • The cohort allows for the investigation of various research issues and previous results were published in many publications. (
  • The Symposium seeks to provide an opportunity to reflect on challenges and opportunities of longitudinal research in low income settings, identifying lessons and best practices for future studies. (
  • The MACS led key studies that linked sexual behavior to HIV transmission, determined the median period of time between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, showed that an imbalance of T-cell types precedes AIDS, and made a multitude of other pivotal discoveries that advanced HIV/AIDS research. (
  • NIAID conducts and supports research - at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide - to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. (
  • Our preliminary review of the animal sentinel literature has found that some potentially useful study designs, such as case-control and cohort, are under-utilized in animal sentinel research. (
  • Although the study is conducted in occupationally exposed responders, the results will be relevant to other individuals exposed to the WTC attacks. (
  • The measure of disease in cohort studies is the incidence rate, which is the proportion of subjects who develop the disease under study within a specified time period. (
  • Nevertheless, no study has evaluated the incidence and severity of PEP after re-treatment and after initial RCT of teeth with vital or necrotic pulp [ 3 ]. (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, severity, and types of PEP presenting after root canal treatment in teeth with vital or necrotic pulp and after retreatment. (
  • The study groups follow a group of people who do not have the disease for a period of time and see who develops the disease (new incidence). (
  • The CPEA cohort will support the creative combination of scholarship and activism within education, encouraging critical reflection on both the conceptual and practical potential and limitations of that tradition. (
  • 15 A study of people using homeless shelters in New York found age-adjusted death rates 2 to 3 times higher than those in the city's general population. (
  • A before and after study measures particular characteristics of a population or group of individuals at the end of an event or intervention and compares them with those characteristics before the event or intervention. (
  • A by-product of cohort studies is the use of some of the persons studied to conduct one or more case-control studies that are "nested" within the total cohort population. (
  • N full denotes the sample size needed for the cohort study and N 1full ( N 0full ) is the size of the exposed (unexposed) population in the full cohort, that is, N full = (1 + K ) N 1full where K = N 0full /N 1full . (
  • In addition, stratification of the study population (i.e., the majority of the environmental/biological samples collected from the "highly exposed population" of children) often is required, given the expense of multiroute, multimedia monitoring (numerous non-detect results are counterproductive in determining sources). (
  • i.e. the cohort population. (
  • When a confirmation analysis was conducted on another population-based cohort, 9387 patients from the Copenhagen City Heart Study , the lower HDL-C concentration was associated with an HR of 2.00 (1.16-3.43) for any infectious-disease hospitalization, and the higher concentration was associated with an HR of 1.13 (0.80-1.60), both compared with the midrange HDL-C concentration. (
  • A meta-analysis of population-based studies in Canada reached much the same conclusion. (
  • A total of 1883 mother and child pairs from a population-based cohort were included between 2004 and 2008. (
  • We reported a modest excess of cancer cases in the WTC-exposed cohort compared with the US population. (
  • During the 4-year study period, about 850,000 individuals (10.8% of the Swedish population) were prescribed SSRIs, and 1% of these individuals were convicted of a violent crime. (
  • The Institute for Implementation Science in Population Health (ISPH) at the CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy (CUNY SPH) has received $3.4 million in emergency funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, to support its ongoing national longitudinal COVID-19 study. (
  • The cohort represents a geographically and socio-demographically diverse sample of the U.S. adult population: all fifty U.S. states are represented in the cohort, as are the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and Guam. (
  • Changes and variation in the disease or health status of a study population as the study group moves through time. (
  • Select a cohort on the basis of some factor (e.g., where they live) and take histories (e.g., blood tests) on the entire population to separate into exposed and non-exposed groups. (
  • Postinfectious neurologic syndromes: A prospective cohort study. (
  • This is not to say that findings from cohort and case-control studies always reflect true associations which can be universally generalized. (
  • Although information of such extraneous factors is collected and quantitatively adjusted for when they are known to be present, findings from observational epidemiological studies are generally less conclusive than those from experimental studies because of the less strict control of extraneous factors. (
  • The findings of this study, though cautionary, suggest that short-term [randomized controlled trial] may not fully describe long-term adverse effects of statins," Acharya and colleagues conclude. (
  • The most notable findings in the longitudinal study concern gender differences. (
  • We undertook to validate this criteria in our cohort, and the findings are discussed in chapter 5. (
  • Most of the information on treatment outcome and recurrence rates of CCA has come from the study of patients in the Registry. (
  • The experimental approach allows control of the effect of extraneous factors that may have an effect on the outcome under study, but are not under investigation. (
  • The goal is to understand the relationship between some attribute related to the cohort at the beginning of the study and the eventual outcome. (
  • We report a prospective study of the outcome of clinically diagnosed infections in patients presenting to UK general practitioners. (
  • Case-control studies are relatively simple and economical to carry out, but the one weakness is that only one outcome may be studied at a time. (
  • In a cohort study, exposed and unexposed individuals are compared over time in a forward direction to determine whether an outcome occurs. (
  • The overall aim of the GORILLA study is to investigate the biological and environmental determinants of child growth comprehensively in a poor resource rural setting of Rwanda. (
  • One of these is the Framingham study, which began in 1948 and still continues. (
  • GWAS studies have indeed identified several genes that have effect only in PsA and not psoriasis or have substantially larger effects in PsA. (
  • Clearly more genetic and functional studies are needed to unravel the genetic associations further and elucidate the functional relevance of genes residing in the GWAS-associated regions. (
  • After 20 years, the death rates from lung cancer , other respiratory system cancers, chronic obstructive lung disease, and coronary heart disease all showed significant differences related to smoking habits among this large cohort (Doll and Peto 1976). (