Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (1/105)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (2/105)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine. (3/105)

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

Time trends in the mortality rates for tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx in Japan, 1950-94. (4/105)

Mortality data of oral cancer over 40 years in Japan were analyzed to investigate time trends of the disease site-specifically and discuss the relation between these trends and the changing patterns of consumption of tobacco and alcohol beverages. Mortality rates were adjusted to the world standard population. In the males, overall oral cancer (ICD-9: 141-149) mortality rates have increased consistently from the lowest value of 1.25 (per 100,000 per year) in 1956 to 2.40 in 1992. The rates for females were constantly lower than those for males, and formed a modest peak of 0.96 in 1979. Regarding site-specific mortality rates, tongue cancer (141) presented a decreasing trend, while oro/hypopharyngeal (146, 148) and mouth (143-145) cancers showed increasing patterns, particularly in males. When the changing patterns of male truncated rates for ages 35-64 were compared with those of the annual consumption of cigarette and alcohol per capita, the time trend of oro/hypopharyngeal cancer mortality was analogous to cigarette consumption rather than to alcohol consumption, mouth cancer vice versa, and tongue cancer was not related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. The present findings suggest that tobacco and alcohol have different site-specific effects on the development of cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx.  (+info)

Social environment and year of birth influence type 1 diabetes risk for African-American and Latino children. (5/105)

OBJECTIVE: Credible epidemiological data, primarily from European-origin populations, indicate that environmental factors play an important role in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based registry of incident cases of type 1 diabetes among African-American and Latino children in Chicago was used to explore the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics on diabetes risk. New cases of insulin-treated diabetes in African-American and Latino Chicagoans aged 0-17 years for 1985-1990 (n = 400) were assigned to one of 77 community areas based on street address. Census tables provided denominators, median household income, percentage of adults > or = 25 years old who had completed high school and college, and a crowding variable for each community area individual-level data were birth cohort, sex, and ethnicity. Outcomes in Poisson regression were sex-, ethnic-, and birth cohort-specific incidence rates. RESULTS: Significant univariate associations between diabetes risk and ethnicity, birth cohort, crowding, and the percentage of adults in each community area who had completed high school and college were observed. African-Americans had a relative risk (RR) of 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.76) compared with Latinos. Risk varied significantly by birth cohort in both ethnic groups. For every 10% increase in the proportion of adults who completed college, the RR for diabetes increased by 25% (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.44]). Social class variables were significant determinants of risk for African Americans, but not for Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: The strong birth cohort and social class associations observed in this study implicate an infectious exposure linked with age.  (+info)

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home. (6/105)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and "sell by" dates; reported ability to read food product safety labels. RESULTS: From a weighted total of 645 refrigerators measured, 451 (70%) were too warm for the safe storage of food (> or = 6 degrees Celsius). Only 41% of respondents (n = 279) knew the star rating of their freezer. Within a smaller sub-sample knowledge of the "use by" and "sell by" dates was good, but 45% of these respondents reported difficulty reading food labels. The storage of foods at inappropriate temperatures was not independent of socioeconomic or demographic status, and tended to be more likely among the poorer and those not living alone. CONCLUSIONS: Food storage practices among the majority of elderly people interviewed in this study do not meet recommended safety standards to minimise the risk of food poisoning.  (+info)

A review of the healthy worker effect in occupational epidemiology. (7/105)

This review article aims to anatomize sources of the healthy worker effect (HWE) and to summarize advantages and limitations of several approaches frequently proposed to eliminate the HWE. Although the HWE is frequently addressed in the context of selection bias, our review suggests that the selection of occupational cohorts with advantageous health status would preferably be addressed as a source of confounding biases. The authors also conclude that the exclusion of unhealthy workers at employment and the study of active workers are the two main sources of HWE, and that the use of the general population as a comparison group in occupational epidemiology should be avoided if possible. The authors encourage investigators to make distinctions between the underlying factors related to the use of the general population as the comparison group in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991. (8/105)

BACKGROUND: The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined. METHODS: Analysis of national mortality statistics calculating age standardised mortality rates and an age-period cohort analysis. A fit to the Gompertz function was made to estimate the influence of the environmental factors on the mortality rates evolution. MAIN RESULTS: The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer mortality rates are increasing in Spain because of environmental factors.  (+info)

Purpose This study was conducted to describe the trends and age-period-cohort effects within the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in Korea. (APC, C4.8%; 95% CI, C5.1% to C4.4%); however, the incidence and mortality rates among young ladies (< 30 years old) increased. An age-period-cohort model of the incidence and mortality rate showed reducing period effects between 1993 and 2008 and reducing cohort effects between 1928 and 1973, while birth cohorts after 1973 exhibited minor raises in the incidence and mortality Ciproxifan rate of cervical malignancy. Conclusion Recent decreases in the incidence and mortality rate of cervical malignancy were due to decreases in the period and cohort effects, which reflect the implementation of a tumor testing system and changes in lifestyle. However, our findings also highlighted an increase in cohort effects on the incidence and mortality rate among young ladies created after 1973. Keywords: Uterine cervical neoplasms, Incidence, Mortality, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of hazard functions in the log-linear age-period-cohort model. T2 - Application to lung cancer risk associated with geographical area. AU - Mdzinarishvili, Tengiz. AU - Gleason, Michael X.. AU - Sherman, Simon. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partially supported by 5 P30 CA3 6727 (NIH) grant and LB506 grant (Nebraska Department of Health). Authors acknowledge Dr. Leo Kinarsky for fruitful discussion and helpful comments.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - An efficient computing procedure for estimating the age-specific hazard functions by the log-linear age-period-cohort (LLAPC) model is proposed. This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer incidence rates and estimates the hazard function for populations with different exposures to a given categorical risk factor. For these populations, the ratio of the corresponding age-specific hazard functions is proposed for use as a measure of ...
This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so far future.The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important.We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age-period-cohort (APC) effects during 1987-2010 were evaluated by log-likelihood estimates in Poisson regression models presented as incidence rate ratios (IRR).There were 399,596 hip fractures in SE and 248,773 in DK. Age-standardized hip fracture rate was stable in SE men but decreased in SE women and in DK. Combined period + cohort effects were generally stronger in SE than DK and in women than men. IRR per period ranged from 1.05 to 1
Using longitudinal panel data, the aim of this study was to examine the contribution of age, period, and cohort effects on changes in physical activity over time in a population-based sample of Canadians. We focused on three domains of physical activities: leisure time, commuting (i.e. walking and cycling), and daily activities (i.e. sedentary behavior). We also examined whether changes in sedentary behavior related to changes in participation in leisure time and commuting activities. We used data from the Longitudinal National Population Health Survey (1994-2011): 10050 participants born between 1935 and 1984 grouped in five 10-years birth cohorts. We examined three outcomes: moderate-to-vigorous leisure time physical activity, active commuting, and sedentary behavior. We also included education, income, and body mass index as covariates. We used hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis to examine the contribution of age, period, and cohort effects to changes over time for each outcome. We found that
A cohort effect is a phenomenon where cohorts of a population differ from each other in some key attribute(s), such body mass. Birth mass, birth dates, rate of growth of juveniles, survival over the first winter, age of first reproduction, and adult survival rates are often related to the influence of the time of birth, which itself is a product of the environmental conditions cohorts face at birth as well as the nutritional condition of their mothers (itself a reflection of environmental conditions faced at or prior to birth). Environmental conditions that can influence birth and early growth attributes include droughts, abnormally high rainfall, late snowfall, and high population density. These and other factors influence birth attributes and early development of juveniles, and these early effects may persist and affect phenotypic quality throughout the lifetime of the cohort. Because many of these cohort effects - body size, body mass, etc. - are tied to survival and reproductive fitness, ...
Co-Principal Investigator: Takashi Yamashita (University of Maryland, Baltimore County). Purpose: Middle-aged and older workers represent nearly half of the U.S. labor force, yet little is known about this populations skill levels and how they interact with education, labor, and other outcomes. In this study, researchers are exploring associations among older U.S. adults skill proficiencies (i.e., literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills), employment, labor force status, lifelong learning and educational attainment and cohort effects on these associations. Skill proficiencies and lifelong learning are critical malleable factors for understanding employment and labor force issues in later life, and because more adults are staying in the labor force longer, policymakers and institutions of learning need to understand how these factors and proficiencies interact and predict education and labor outcomes.. Project Activities: This mixed-methods study will leverage national and international ...
Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Within a single, consistent HAPC-GLMM statistical modeling framework, the…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence of primary liver cancer in Italy between 1988 and 2002. T2 - An age-period-cohort analysis. AU - Dal Maso, Luigino. AU - Lise, Mauro. AU - Zambon, Paola. AU - Crocetti, Emanuele. AU - Serraino, Diego. AU - Ricceri, Fulvio. AU - Vercelli, Marina. AU - De Lisi, Vincenzo. AU - Tagliabue, Giovanna. AU - Federico, Massimo. AU - Falcini, Fabio. AU - Cassetti, Tiziana. AU - Donato, Andrea. AU - Fusco, Mario. AU - Budroni, Mario. AU - Ferretti, Stefano. AU - Tumino, Rosario. AU - Piffer, Silvano. AU - Bellù, Francesco. AU - Mangone, Lucia. AU - Giacomin, Adriano. AU - Vitarelli, Susanna. AU - Franceschi, Silvia. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - We conducted in Italy a study to evaluate trends of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to disentangle the period from birth-cohort effects on PLC incidence. Cases aged AB - We conducted in Italy a study to evaluate trends of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to disentangle the period from birth-cohort effects on PLC incidence. Cases aged KW - ...
Given that the cohort effect can be interpreted as a special case of the interaction between two categorical variables, the equation above satisfies the assumption that there is no interaction 21. Any violation of that assumption can be detected from graphs presenting the age-specific mortality rate by period. Lack of parallelism between the curves suggests the presence of the cohort effect 22.. This study used weighted parameterization, as proposed by Holford 20, as an alternative solution to the non-identifiability problem.. Given that lung cancer is a chronic, non-communicable disease, rate is assumed in this model to be constant within each of the given age and period categories. Individuals are also assumed to be independent cases and, consequently, contributions to different cells in the data base are also independent. Accordingly, the APC models for rates can be adjusted using Poisson Regression for event counts. This methodology permits the use of an offset term log(nijk), which ...
The analysis presented reveals a pessimistic set of findings concerning trends in frailty between 2002 and 2010. There is no evidence for improvement in levels of frailty across cohorts, with a strong suggestion of higher levels of frailty among recent cohorts compared with earlier cohorts (for those cohorts aged over 70 in 2002), particularly for the poorest individuals. This carries the negative implication that the continuing gains in life expectancy are composed of additional years spent in frailty with the potential for greater associated healthcare costs. Inequalities in frailty across the wealth distribution are stark and they appear to widen over the period 2002-2010; the increase in frailty in recent cohorts compared with earlier cohorts is most prominent among the poorest individuals with little evidence of such cohort differences among the most affluent. Levels of frailty are higher for women than for men and the analysis of cohort and gender-specific trajectories suggests that this ...
The implemented method uses for smoothing bivariate thin plate splines, bivariate lasso-type regularization, and allows for both period and cohort effects. Thus the mortality rates are modelled as the sum of four components: a smooth bivariate function of age and time, smooth one-dimensional cohort effects, smooth one-dimensional period effects and random errors.. ...
A cohort effect has cau sed a wave of rapid improvements to ripple upwards through mort ality rates in the UK.. For the past four dec ades, people born between 1925 and 1945 have benefited from faster mortality improvements than those born in adjacent generations.. The greatest mortality im provements in the 1960s were experienced by people then in their 30s, in the 1970s it was people then in their 40s, in the 1980s it was people then in their 50s and now in the 1990s it is people in their 60s. This illustrates the cohort effect centred on 1931. Whether the fast-food generations that followed can sustain the trend remains to be seen.. Where you live can also be an indicator of your life expectancy. This is a fact not lost on MGM which offers higher annuity rates to customers in the North of England and Scotland. Com ing from Sun derland, as I do, I find this fact slig htly disturbing. Like most people, given the choice between the possibility of slightly higher pension increases in the future ...
Observed changes in health-related behaviours and disease risk factors may arise from physiological or environmental changes, or from biases due to sampling or measurement errors. We illustrate problems in the interpretation of such changes with longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Mean plasma cholesterol was 14 mg/dl higher in 27- than in 20-year-old black men cross-sectionally, but longitudinally it declined by 4 mg/dl during the 7 years.
Bell, Andrew and Jones, Kelvyn (2014) Another futile quest? A simulation study of Yang and Lands Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort model. Demographic Research, 30 (-). pp. 333-360. ISSN 1435-9871 Full text not available from this repository. ...
Background:Incidence rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary considerably by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. We assessed whether HCC among sub-groups of the population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth cohort are uniform or whether they interact with each other or have changed over time. Methods:Data were from the U.S. Cancer Statistics registry. We assessed annual trends within population sub-groups and examined for secular trends in the male-to-female ratio for HCC incidence. We used joinpoint regression to compute annual percent change and average annual percent change (AAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also used age-period-cohort models to disentangle period and cohort effects. Results:Between 2001 and 2015, HCC rates increased in men and women ≥50 years, remained stable among women aged 40-49, but decreased among males aged 40-44 (AAPC, 2.47%; 95% CI, 3.15%, 1.80%) and 45-49 (AAPC, 3.49%; 95% CI, 4.78%, 2.17%). As a result, the male-to-female incidence ...
Discussion. Anthropometric profiles were observed to differ between older adults in the same age range (71-81 years), born in different periods. Individuals in the more recent birth cohort (1927-1937) showed greater weight gain both in mean BMI and in prevalence of overweight as compared with individuals born in the older cohort (1916-1926). The effects of both birth cohort and age on anthropometric profile seem to have been greater among men than among women.. Despite the scarcity of international and Brazilian studies examining the evolution of body composition over time 5,6,7,21,22, particularly in the elderly population 23, some comparisons can be made. The findings of this study are consistent with the literature as regards the greater prevalence of overweight and obesity among women. In both 1997 and 2008, prevalence of overweight (BMI , 27kg/m2) was greater among women (37.3% in 1997 and 38.9% in 2008) than among men in the same years (respectively, 16% and 32.7%). Comparable prevalences ...
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The University of Zaragoza, sometimes referred to as Saragossa University, s a university located in Zaragoza, in the Aragon region of Spain. Founded .. .
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Many older adults are physically inactive and inactivity increases with age. This knowledge comes from cross-sectional studies. Cross-sectional studies may miss important trajectories within the older adults as a result of retirements, and poor health impact of promotional efforts. The aim of this study was to analyse, longitudinally, the annual effects of age group and birth cohort on self-reported regular exercise in the Swedish population aged 53-84 years during a 16-year period, for each sex separately. A random sample of non-institutionalized persons was interviewed three times from 1988 to 2004 by professional interviewers. In addition to three time-related variables - year of interview, age at the time of the interview, and year of birth - we included the following explanatory variables in the analyses: educational level, body mass index, smoking, and self-reported health status. The data were analysed by a mixed model with a random intercept. The total prevalence of self-reported regular
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Logistic regressions of age-period-cohort models for city arrest rates are estimated with data from seven U.S. cities for the years 1970-1980 to study the dependence of officially designated criminali
Reports on cognitive decline with age have, over the years, come out with two general findings: older adults do significantly worse than younger adults; older adults are just as good as younger adults. Part of the problem is that there are two different approaches to studying this, each with their own specific bias. You can keep testing the same group of people as they get older - the problem with this is that they get more and more practiced, which mitigates the effects of age. Or you can test different groups of people, comparing older with younger - but cohort differences (e.g., educational background) may disadvantage the older generations. There is also argument about when it starts. Some studies suggest we start declining in our 20s, others in our 60s.. One of my favorite cognitive aging researchers has now tried to find the true story using data from the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project involving nearly 3800 adults aged 18 to 97 tested on reasoning, spatial visualization, episodic memory, ...
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R. del Moral (Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain), J. Navarro (Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain), R. Lahoz-Beltra (Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain & Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain), M.G. Bedia M.G. (GIGA - Advanced Computer Graphics Group, Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain), F.J. Serón F.J. (GIGA - Advanced Computer Graphics Group, Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain), P.C. Marijuán (Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain ...
Results of the present analyses of the RIDI study provide evidence of 1) large geographical variations in risk of childhood type 1 diabetes within Italy, with high-risk areas in both Sardinia and Trento, in the North-East of Italy; 2) a significantly lower risk in girls than in boys, which is more pronounced in Sardinia (−23%) than in peninsular Italy (−9%); and 3) a linear increasing temporal trend, with an annual increment of 2.94%, affecting all age-groups and both sexes. In our dataset, however, it was impossible to ascribe this increase definitively to either a birth cohort or a calendar period effect.. Our findings are based on a national registry using standardized methods of ascertainment of incident cases, covering 40% of the Italian population at risk; moreover, the long time period on which this report is based allows us to add to current knowledge on epidemiology of type 1 diabetes. Heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes risk has been reported worldwide, but Italy is one of the ...
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BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective and dynamic concept resulting from an interplay between importance of and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, it is unclear whether social contexts experienced by individuals born at specific times in history (cohort effects) may influence QoL in old age. This study aimed to compare among older persons born before, during, and at the end of World War II: a) satisfaction with QoL, overall and per domains; b) importance of QoL domains.. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study included representative samples of community-dwelling adults born in 1934-1938 (pre-war), 1939-1943 (war), and 1944-1948 (baby-boom) from the Lausanne cohort 65+. QoL was assessed overall, and in seven domains in 2011 and 2016. Two-by-two cohort comparisons were performed at ages 68-72 (war versus baby-boom) and 73-77 years (pre-war versus war).. RESULTS: Overall satisfaction with QoL did not differ between cohorts despite increased education level ...
This study found evidence of a cohort effect in ACIS incidence, a trend of increasing risk with longer duration of OC use, and an increased risk associated with HPV, especially HPV-18. Taken together, these results suggest that there has been a potential increase in ACIS incidence but do not completely rule out an increase due solely to detection bias.. The increasing incidence of ACIS and AC may be attributed to improved detection with the addition of endocervical brushes to cytologic screening. However, the endocervical brush was introduced in the early 1990s, and the incidence rates have been increasing since the 1970s. Another source of potential improved detection could be that more ACIS has been detected as it has become more widely discussed in the literature, bringing it to the attention of more pathologists. Further evaluation of the impact of screening on ACIS incidence may be possible in the setting of a population-based cytology registry.. If OC users are overrepresented in our case ...
Downloadable! Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 indicate that between 1996 and 2010 females on average lost some of the promotion momentum they had achieved at the beginning of mid-career, although they outperformed males in this regard. For both genders economic downturn has contributed to reduced promotion probabilities. In the case of women, however, cohort effects rather than the cycle seem to explain the promotion experience during the Great Recession. Promotions translate into higher real wage increases, and typically more so where job responsibilities increase. Crowding effects, if not necessarily a thing of the past, are no longer manifested in reduced female promotion rates or earnings.
In order to determine whether we can replicate the cross-sectional findings with an accelerated longitudinal dataset (ie, aim 1), we will, for example, apply dynamic growth models, to fit the developmental (ageing) shape of each cognitive process. The proposed set-up ensures that individual data points can be plotted against time (for an ASC example78) and that we can actually build a linear mixed model of change in which we can model individual change, potential cohort effects and potential measurement effects. Moreover, these techniques can provide information on whether growth curves differ shape for different cognitive subdomains. For these analyses, we primarily will use data points for those participants of whom we have cognitive data at two timepoints (T1 and T2). For aim 2, we will mainly use a bottom-up approach, where community detection will be used in order to form subgroups for which we perform an independent replication, focus on external validation on T1, longitudinal stability of ...
Clinical trials commonly use adjudication committees to refine endpoints, but observational research or genome-wide association studies rarely do. Our goals were to establish definitions of cause-specific death after unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (URD-HCT), estimate discordance between reported and adjudicated cause-specific death, and identify factors contributing to inconsistency in cause-specific deathdetermination. A consensus panel adjudicated cause-specific deathin 1,484 patients who died within 1 year after HCT, derived from 3,532 acute leukemia or myelodysplasia patients after URD-HCT 2000-2011 reported by 151 U.S. transplant centers to CIBMTR. Deaths were classified as disease-related (DRM) or transplant-related (TRM). The panel agreed with ,99% of deaths reported by centers as DRM and 80% reported as TRM. Year of transplant (cohort effect) and disease status significantly influenced agreement between panel and centers. Sensitivity analysis of deaths ,100 ...
Background: The prevalence of asthma has been rising all over the world. The causes of this epidemic are still not completely known. In this study we aim to estimate the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort on the trends of asthma incidence in Italy.. Methods: Individual information on the history of asthma was collected on 35,375 adults aged 20-64 and born from 1940 to 1989, who were randomly sampled from the general Italian population in 1990/93, 1998/2000 and 2007/10. Overall 3,295 subjects reported asthma from 1,293,801 person-years at risk. Age-specific incidence rates were estimated for both sexes using 5-year age classes in different cohorts and period. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rates by age, birth cohort and period in males and females.. Results: Age, period and cohort showed significant independent effects (p<0.001) on incidence rates of asthma, which was greater in younger subjects and dramatically increased in recent generations. ...
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Zaragoza is a warm and inviting city strategically located between Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, Valencia and Toulouse. In peoples haste to see the big cities, this gem is often passed without so much as a second look. The city welcomes visitors with its rich culture, shopping, eating, and sightseeing. Its more than 2,000 years of history makes the city one of the greatest historical and artistic legacies in Spain. It is situated in Aragon, one of the previous kingdoms of Spain.
Zaragoza is a warm and inviting city strategically located between Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, Valencia and Toulouse. In peoples haste to see the big cities, this gem is often passed without so much as a second look. The city welcomes visitors with its rich culture, shopping, eating and sightseeing. Its more than 2000 years of history makes the city one of the greatest historical and artistical legacies in Spain. It is situated in Aragon, one of the previous kingdoms of Spain.
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Neem contact op met Dra. Conchita Pinilla Lozano. Een Plastic surgeon in Zaragoza. Boek een afspraak met Dra. Conchita Pinilla Lozano via Crisalix.
The FDA has announced that Agricola Zaragoza, Inc. of McAllen, Texas is recalling Jalapeno Peppers distributed since June 30th, 2008 (see CDC Report below)
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Background: Obesity is a growing problem worldwide and can often result in a variety of negative health outcomes. In this study we aim to apply partial least squares (PLS) methodology to estimate the separate effects of age, period and cohort on the trends in obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). Methods: Using PLS we will obtain gender specific linear effects of age, period and cohort on obesity. We also explore and model nonlinear relationships of BMI with age, period and cohort. We analysed the results from 7,796 men and 10,220 women collected through the SLAN (Surveys of Lifestyle, attitudes and Nutrition) in Ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2007. Results: PLS analysis revealed a positive period effect over the years. Additionally, men born later tended to have lower BMI (−0.026 kg·m-2 yr-1, 95% CI: -0.030 to −0.024) and older men had in general higher BMI (0.029 kg·m-2 yr-1, 95% CI: 0.026 to 0.033). Similarly for women, those born later had lower BMI (−0.025 kg·m-2 yr-1, ...
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Although found in most restaurants across Navarre, the T-bone steaks of Baztan-Bidasoa are the most highly-prized. They are usually grilled over hot coals.
The Pyrenees rise in the north of Navarre, forming a landscape of evergreen valleys which spread to the east. The high mountains become less extreme as they...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact sja60.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Graduate Workshop in Economic and Social History series.. ...
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Completed in 2009 in Zaragoza, Spain. Images by Jesús Granada, Pedro Pegenaute . The building location has a special value based on the relationship between the built-up area of the city and the urban banks of the Ebro river,...
REAL MADRID bounced back from their bitter Spanish Cup exit by beating Zaragoza 3-1 to move seven points clear at the top of La Liga.
Regional Hospital Of Jackson surgery costs and medicare payments. Inpatient and outpatient procedure costs. Compare hospital costs in the US
Sometimes different cohorts have different characteristics; this is called a cohort effect. There may be a cohort effect for ... "What is a cohort effect? Comparison of three statistical methods for modeling cohort effects in obesity prevalence in the ... As time passes, older cohorts will die out and be replaced by younger cohorts, resulting in a decline in newspaper readership. ... younger cohorts appear to read fewer newspapers than older cohort groups, even though newspapers generally target a wide range ...
"Research Spotlight: Cohort Effects in Children's Delay-of-Gratification". Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working ... "Cohort Effects in Children's Delay of Gratification". Developmental Psychology. 54 (8): 1395-1407. doi:10.1037/dev0000533. PMID ... Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Ozlem (October 2007). "Defensive physiological reactions to rejection: the effect of self-esteem and ... cool' focus". Psychological Science 2007: "Defensive physiological reactions to rejection: the effect of self-esteem and ...
There may also be age versus cohort effects. Successful aging Fries, James F. (1980). "Aging, Natural Death, and the ... Whether this trend continues may depend upon the effect of the obesity epidemic on the next generation of older people." See ...
The scheme took effect from the 2005 cohort. 26 September - Reviews were announced for education awards, new school achievement ... 13 April - A blackout hits several parts of Singapore including Choa Chu Kang, affecting 80,000 households and lasting almost ... 29 June - A blackout occurred for the second time, affecting about one-third of Singapore residents. Investigations reveal that ...
"Cohort Crowding: How Resources Affect Collegiate Attainment." PSC Research Report No. 04-557. 4 2004. Abstract. Bound, John, ... "Labor Market Effects of Pensions and Implications for Teachers." Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 5, No. 4: 463-491. Bound, ... It suggests how an information nudge or letter intervention can affect one's decision, and in this case, for the better as more ... Much of Turner's work explores how higher educational opportunities - in colleges and universities - affects the labor market, ...
... period and cohort effects" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. 93: 163-165. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.029. PMID 23701919.. ... Bell, Andrew; Jones, Kelvyn (2014). "Explaining Fixed Effects: Random Effects Modeling of Time-Series Cross-Sectional and Panel ... "Age period cohort". ResearchGate.. *^ "Kelvyn Jones, FBA FLSW - Google Scholar Citations". scholar.google.co.uk. Retrieved 8 ... offers all that fixed effects can provide and more.[16][17][18] They also challenge the Fixed Effects Vector Decomposition ( ...
The Effect of Cohort Size on Wages in Brazil. Population Association of America Meeting 1992, Toronto. "John Luke Gallup". ...
Garrott RA, Rotella JJ, Siniff DB, Parkinson CL, Stauffer GE (2012). "Environmental variation and cohort effects in an ... However, the effects of global climate change on Antarctic seals are still to be fully determined. Research estimates seal ... Climate changes affecting the duration and the extent of the sea ice and nutrients availability could potentially reduce pups' ... However, the disturbance effects of the increasing seasonal tourism in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic on Weddell seal behavior ...
The IE coefficients validating a cohort effect went from negative to positive in 2009. To this day, none can explain how these ... but results suggest that it might be explained through the cohort effect. Further descriptive epidemiological studies are ... In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, ... The CIR decreased with age between 2002 and 2016 and the age period effect decreased in all observed years. ...
"Effect of Prescription Drug Coupons on Statin Utilization and Expenditures: A Retrospective Cohort Study". Pharmacotherapy. 37 ... the overall effects, prescription non-compliance and health effects, reasons for high prices, prices in other countries, and ... Examples of affected medications include epinephrine auto-injectors and insulin.[17] Between 2011 and 2016, Mylan was the only ... In effect, drug manufacturers in the US were allowed to set their own prices resulting in the unregulated pricing variation for ...
Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent (5 May 2017). "Rethinking 'Generation Me': A Study of Cohort Effects from 1976-2006 ... The focal variable when analyzing generational or cohort differences in dark triad traits has tended to be narcissism, arising ... Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith (5 May 2017). "Birth Cohort Differences in the Monitoring the Future Dataset and Elsewhere ... Reidy, D. E., Zeichner, A. & Seibert, L. A. (2011). Unprovoked aggression: Effects of psychopathic traits and sadism. Journal ...
Additionally, aging experiences are shaped by cohort and period effects. Also reflecting the life course focus, consider the ... 2. Birth cohorts play an influential role in the process of social change. According to this theory, which stems from the life ... According to this theory, older adults born during different time periods form cohorts that define "age strata". There are two ... investigating the effects of an aging population on society, and the design of residential spaces for older people that ...
June 2012). "Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study". BMJ Open. 2 (6): e001851. doi: ... As of 15 April, the eruption was not large enough to have an effect on global temperatures like that of Mount Pinatubo and ... This rise in water temperature was thought to be related to the eruption nearby and was affecting part of the Krossá drainage ... The effect also spread beyond Iceland. Ash from the current Eyjafjallajökull eruption contains one-third the concentration ...
Lauderdale (2002). "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye colour among US whites". Ann. Hum. Biol. 29 (6): 657- ... In addition, flash photography can sometimes cause a "red-eye effect", in which the very bright light from a flash reflects off ... Another hypothesis about heterochromia is that it can result from a viral infection in utero affecting the development of one ... Wallow; Albert (1997). "The color of the human eye: a review of morphologic correlates and of some conditions that affect ...
... when hormone therapy can have detrimental effects on cognition. Research is inconclusive as to the true effects of estrogen on ... findings from a longitudinal community cohort". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 98 (9): 3829-3838. doi: ... Estrogen has direct effects on the hippocampus, which in turn relates to mood, including increasing dendritic spine density and ... Maki, P.M.; S.M.Resnick (2001). "Effects of estrogen on patterns of brain activity at rest and during cognitive activity: a ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Buchanan D, Doblin B, Sai T, Garcia P (2006). "The effects of respite care for homeless ... patients: a cohort study". Am J Public Health. 96: 1278-81. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.067850. PMC 1483848. PMID 16735635. Kertesz ...
... competing risks and cohort effects". International Journal of Epidemiology. 28 (1): 19-29. doi:10.1093/ije/28.1.19. PMID ... The effects of the accident are being remedied. Assistance has been provided for any affected people. An investigative ... Nagataki, Shigenobu (23 July 2010). "Latest Knowledge on Radiological Effects: Radiation Health Effects of Atomic Bomb ... a decrease from the 35 municipalities in 2011 and the 117 municipalities affected during 1986. The after-effects of Chernobyl ...
Cohort effect Groupthink Public opinion Political culture Political cognition Glasberg, Davita Silfen; Shannon, Deric (2011). ... Families have an effect on "political knowledge, identification, efficacy, and participation", depending on variables such as " ... This demonstrates that the mass media attention to an issue affects public opinion. More so, extensive exposure to television ... this demonstrates that region affects patterns in media socialization. Income level is also an important factor; high-income ...
Grant MD, Lauderdale DS (2002). "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye colour among US whites". Ann. Hum. Biol ... In addition, flash photography can sometimes cause a "red-eye effect", in which the very bright light from a flash reflects off ... Dave Johnson (16 January 2009). "HOW TO: Avoid the red eye effect". New Zealand PC World. Archived from the original on 24 ... Another hypothesis about heterochromia is that it can result from a viral infection in utero affecting the development of one ...
"The effect of breastfeeding duration on lung function at age 10 years: a prospective birth cohort study". Thorax. 64 (1): 62- ... does clinician education affect breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the hospital?". Birth. 36 (1): 54-9. doi:10.1111/j. ... "Effect of Breastfeeding on Lung Function in Childhood and Modulation by Maternal Asthma and Atopy". Pediatrics. 122 (9): S176- ... "Effects of Early Nutritional Interventions on the Development of Atopic Disease in Infants and Children: The Role of Maternal ...
Child Development, 65, 684-698 Baltes, P., & Reinert, G. (1969). Cohort effects in cognitive development in children as ... This effect, however, appears to be limited by the stronger effect of initial intelligence. The Critical Thinking project at ... This means the opposite effect, that education affects ability, is likely small. An effective way to understand the genetic and ... A study done in Germany proved how education did affect the intelligence of students and proof of intelligence affecting ...
Baltes, P.; Reinert, G. (1969). "Cohort effects in cognitive development in children as revealed by cross sectional sequences ... focus on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way ... David Card, "Causal effect of education on earnings," in Handbook of labor economics, Orley Ashenfelter and David Card (Eds). ... The purpose of education in a given time and place affects who is taught, what is taught, and how the education system behaves ...
Another 20th-century cohort of affected hatmakers has been studied in Tuscany, Italy. The experience of hatmakers in New Jersey ... Effects of chronic occupational exposure to mercury, such as that commonly experienced by affected hatters, include mental ... It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms ... FDA has concluded that the existing data support a finding that infants are not at risk for adverse health effects from the ...
"Age stratification and cohort effects in scholarly communication: a study of social sciences". Scientometrics. 109 (2): 997- ... or academic age affect review decisions? An analysis of submissions to the journal Biological Conservation". Biological ...
Gauderman, W (2007). "Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study". The Lancet ... Factors affecting volumes[edit]. Several factors affect lung volumes; some can be controlled and some cannot be controlled. ... Air pollution exposure affects FEV1 in asthmatics, but also affects FVC and FEV1 in healthy adults even at low concentrations.[ ... The effects of body mass index on lung volumes. Chest. 2006 Sep; 130 (3) :827-33. PubMed PMID 16963682. ...
... and Cohort Effects in Autism Incidence in California from 1994 to 2005." International Journal of Epidemiology. 2011; doi: ... "Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy: An Analysis of a National Sample of Adolescent Girls", in Peer ... "Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy Risk". PPFY Network, Vol2. No3. 1998 Bearman, Peter S and Laura ... Power in Numbers: Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy. National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy: ...
"Associations of Positive Affect and Negative Affect With Allostatic Load: A Lifelines Cohort Study". Psychosomatic Medicine. 80 ... Allostatic load effects can be measured in the body. When tabulated in the form of allostatic load indices using sophisticated ... Allostatic load is not unique to humans and may be used to evaluate the physiological effects of chronic or frequent stress in ... The largest contribution to the allostatic load is the effect of stress on the brain. Allostasis is the system which helps to ...
The IE coefficients validating a cohort effect went from negative to positive in 2009. To this day, none can explain how these ... but results suggest that it might be explained through the cohort effect. Further descriptive epidemiological studies are ... Scientists have been doing research on the matter by creating an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis to back up their relevant ... In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, ...
... and these effects are evident even without weight loss.[93] Aerobic exercise leads to a decrease in HbA1c and improved insulin ... a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 89 (3): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.diabres. ... a meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies". Chinese Medical Journal. 125 (23): 4301-6. PMID 23217404.. ... Although a more recent review found similar effects of ACEIs and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes.[117] There is ...
... pneumoniae against the bactericidal effect of mitomycin C.[17] Michod et al.[18] summarized evidence that induction of ... "The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious ... "Inhibitory and Bactericidal Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Streptococcus pneumoniae on Other Inhabitants of the ...
2010). «Identification and characterization of seven novel mutations of elastin gene in a cohort of patients affected by ...
HIV-related mortality (affected by the recent introduction of antiretrovirals) accounted for 20% of the effect. Mortality ... on the original cost of childhood coverage for these cohorts, most of which comes from lower cash transfer payments."[97] ... Not only do social norms within the state affect its determination of AFDC payment levels, but regional norms will affect a ... Effects[edit]. After Medicaid was enacted, some states repealed their filial responsibility laws, but most states still require ...
The only rule not allowed would be random assignment, for randomness amounts in effect to a nonrule". However, so-called ...
"Psychiatry Online Strong Inverse Association Between Height and Suicide in a Large Cohort of Swedish Men: Evidence of Early ... Disproportionate short stature can be further subdivided as specified by the body segments affected by shortening, namely limbs ... Short-limb short stature can be further subcategorised in accordance with limb segment affected by shortening. These ... barring troublesome side effects and excessive cost of treatments.[7] ...
The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function.[14][15] A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... "Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study". BMJ. 343: d6387. doi:10.1136/bmj.d6387. PMC ... Brain stem: Tumors on this can affect blood pressure, swallowing, and heartbeat.[citation needed] ... The amount of radiotherapy depends on the size of the area of the brain affected by cancer. Conventional external beam "whole- ...
Side effectsEdit. The side effects of antiandrogens vary depending on the type of antiandrogen - namely whether it is a ... matched cohort study". Br J Clin Pharmacol. doi:10.1111/bcp.13152. PMID 27735065.. ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[74] These side effects include breast ... Mechanisms and paradoxical effects". Ann. Endocrinol. Paris. 50 (3): 50(3):189-99. PMID 2530930.. ...
Research has suggested that job loss adversely affects cardiovascular health[20][82] as well as health in general.[83][84] ... 2012). Differential associations of job control components with mortality: A cohort study, 1986-2005. American Journal of ... a b Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: A meta- ... Indirect effects also play a role; for example, impaired educational progress or complications outside of work, such as ...
Some of the most harmful effects known from such breeding includes its effects on the mortality rate as well as on the general ... a population-based child cohort study". American Journal of Human Biology. 26 (6): 784-95. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22599. PMID ... In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. ... EffectsEdit. Inbreeding increases the chances of the expression of deleterious recessive alleles by increasing homozygosity and ...
Skidmore, F M; Drago, V.; Foster, P S; Heilman, K M (2009). "Bilateral restless legs affecting a phantom limb, treated with ... 2005). "Prevalence of movement disorders in men and women aged 50-89 years (Bruneck Study cohort): a population-based study". ... "Restless legs syndrome as side effect of second generation antidepressants". Journal of Psychiatric Research 43 (1): 70-5. doi: ...
Possible weight loss effects of drinking water prior to meals[edit]. Main article: Weight loss effects of water ... an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein are associated ... Side effects[edit]. While there are studies that show the health and medical benefits of weight loss, a study in 2005 of around ... 1994). "Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". JAMA. 271 ( ...
Patients of sex reassignment surgery may experience changes in their physical health and quality of life, the side effects of ... "Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): ... possible by using a donor uterus long enough to carry a child to term as anti-rejection drugs do not seem to affect the fetus.[ ...
Examining the effects that activities and workload has upon the skeleton allows the archaeologist to examine who was doing what ... Bioarchaeologists sometimes create life tables, a type of cohort analysis, to understand the demographic characteristics (such ... It was long assumed that iron deficiency anemia has marked effects on the flat bones of the cranium of infants and young ... Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, which states that bones are physically affected and remodeled by physical activity or ...
Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999-10, 341 (15): 1097-105 [2008-12-22] ... Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. New England Journal of Medicine. 12 June 2017. doi: ... Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N. Engl. J. Med. (Research Support). 2007-08, 357 (8): 741 ... Munger KL, Chitnis T, Ascherio A. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology (Comparative Study). 2009, 73 ...
Choi WH, Lee IA «Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Effect of Ursolic Acid as a Novel Toxoplasmosis Inhibitor» (en anglès). ... Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort» (en anglès). PLoS One, 2016 Feb 17; 11 (2), pp: e0148435. DOI: 10.1371/ ...
The WHI: the effect of hormone replacement therapy on fracture prevention. Climacteric. June 2012, 15 (3): 263-66. PMID ... Quality of life in a large cohort of mid-aged Colombian women assessed using the Cervantes Scale. Menopause. 2012, 19 (8): 924- ... Petri Nahás EA, Pontes A, Nahas-Neto J, Borges VT, Dias R, Traiman P. Effect of total abdominal hysterectomy on ovarian blood ... Bellipanni, G; Di Marzo, F; Blasi, F; Di Marzo, A. Effects of melatonin in perimenopausal and menopausal women: our personal ...
... data on almost 900,000 subjects in 61 cohorts demonstrated that blood total cholesterol levels have an exponential effect on ... This result indicates that the low cholesterol effect occurs even among younger respondents, contradicting the previous ... while lower intake from food has the opposite effect. The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol ... assessment among cohorts of older people that this is a proxy or marker for frailty occurring with age.[30] ...
Mixed effects models. *Simultaneous equations models. *Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Linear regression. * ...
Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia ... side effects - simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) - sinusitis - social integration SIT - SIV - Special Projects of National ... placebo effect - plasma - plasma cells - platelets - PML - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii or ... cohort - colitis - combination therapy - community planning - Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) - ...
The long-term effects of this historical secondhand smoke exposure have not been well characterized.[61] ... "Mortality From Neurodegenerative Diseases in a Cohort of US Flight Attendants". American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 59 (7 ... Lee, Chongho; An, Myungsook; Noh, Yonghwi (2015-09-01). "The effects of emotional display rules on flight attendants' emotional ... The effect of cosmic radiation on air crew members is a subject of a growing body of research.[54][55] ...
In the 1900s, the school budget started to see the effects of suburban growth. In 1908, there were 6,483 students and a budget ... The class of 2017 outperformed their peers in Maryland and the nation on Advanced Placement exams, based on AP Cohort Results ...
a b Haines, Megan; et al. (2008). "Predictors and Effects of Self-Objectification in Lesbians", Psychology of Women Quarterly ... an academic cohort named the Lesbian History Group wrote: Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high ... More discussion on gender and sexual orientation identity has affected how many women label or view themselves. Most people in ... Vo, Christine, Carney, Michael (December 2007). "Ovarian Cancer Hormonal and Environmental Risk Effect", Obstetrics and ...
A cohort study suggested that treatment of FH with statins leads to a 48% reduction in death from coronary heart disease to a ... LDLR mutations are more common in certain populations, presumably because of a genetic phenomenon known as the founder effect- ... Less commonly, arteries of the brain are affected; this may lead to transient ischemic attacks (brief episodes of weakness on ... Some studies of FH cohorts suggest that additional risk factors are generally at play when a person develops atherosclerosis.[ ...
"The effect of ABO blood group on the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease" (abstract). Blood 69 (6): 1691-5. பப்மெட்:3495304 ... "Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium". Cancer research 70 ...
... of the cohort had progressive nephropathy despite having controlled the mean systolic BP level ,135 mmHg.[14] ... is affected; with one theory identifying glomerular ischemia as the main contributor to HN and the other identifying glomerular ...
... muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg; or slurred and nasal speech. The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS ... According to one cohort study, 11.5% of people with ALS have extraocular muscle dysfunction.[34] ... ALS can affect people at any age,[36] but the peak incidence is between 50-75 years[11] and decreases dramatically after 80 ... the disease eventually spreads to unaffected regions and the affected regions become more affected. Most people eventually are ...
The Roe effect is an hypothesis which suggests that since supporters of abortion rights cause the erosion of their own ... "Potassium Chloride-Induced Fetal Demise: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Efficacy and Safety". Journal of Ultrasound in ... An undue burden exists, and therefore, a provision of law is invalid, if its purpose or effect is to place a substantial ... The legalized abortion and crime effect is another controversial theory that posits legal abortion reduces crime, because ...
60-70% of each annual cohort enter higher education).[48] In recent years, a cut in the number of new student places has often ... Since it was the only way to university education and entrance was heavily affected by the status and choices of parents, it ... For instance, the results of the PISA of 2003 demonstrated the long-term effects of early childhood education on school ... But the Kodály philosophy still affects the point of view that many Finnish music educators have. Kodály's basic principles ...
Flood specific mold health effectsEdit. Among children and adolescents, the most common health effect post-flooding was lower ... "Levels of Household Mold Associated with Respiratory Symptoms in the First Year of Life in a Cohort at Risk for Asthma" ... Originally, toxic effects from mold were thought to be the result of exposure to the mycotoxins of some mold species, such as ... Health effectsEdit. Studies have shown that people who are atopic (sensitive), already suffer from allergies, asthma, or ...
In this study I examine whether either cohort or period effects may have influenced the interpretation of age effects. Six 10- ... There is evidence of period effects. Within cohorts, relative survival tends to increase with age. ... Differential survival is inferred from changes in the relative proportions of a cohort in each education category as the cohort ... In cross-section, younger persons generally show stronger education effects on survival, although this pattern is clearer for ...
... Alan B. Krueger, Jorn-Steffen Pischke ... w7200 The Labor Supply Effects of the Social Security Earnings Test. Imbens, Rubin, and Sacerdote. w7001 Estimating the Effect ... to estimate the effect of Social Security wealth on the labor supply of older men in the 1970s and 1980s. The analysis focuses ... Second t variation in benefit levels across cohorts is used to estimate the relationship between benefits and labor supply. The ...
Effect of anxiolytic.... *Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study ... Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study BMJ 2014; 348 :g1996 ... Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2014; 348 doi: https ... Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study ...
Effect of retirement.... *Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study ... Some studies have suggested a beneficial effect, at least in some groups, others an adverse effect, and still others no effect ... Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study BMJ 2010; 341 :c6149 doi: ... Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study. BMJ 2010; 341 doi: https ...
Effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study. ... The second aim was to test whether this effect remained after adjusting for ASCs, for both cancer overall and by site. ... A recent review on CSCs and adult cancer identified only two studies that investigated both the independent and joint effect of ... The second aim was to test whether this effect remained after adjusting for adult life conditions, ASCs, for cancer overall and ...
For example, cohort effects are critical issues in school enrollment. In order to determine whether a cohort effect is present ... Political socialization Socialization Cohort Effects on Earnings Profiles Cohort effect in Lung Function among Smokers. ... and cohort effects can be an indicator of this sort of phenomenon. Cohort effects are important to resource dependency, and ... Cohort effects are important to epidemiologists searching for patterns in illnesses. Certain illnesses may be socially affected ...
Time trends, cohort effects, and geographic patterns in stroke mortality--United States.. Feinleib M1, Ingster L, Rosenberg H, ... Trends are analyzed in terms of both period and cohort effects. Monthly data are examined using a time series regression model ... On a cohort basis, each successive birth cohort since 1890 has improved their life-span experience from stroke deaths. Maps of ...
... Young-Gun Kim,1 JungHyun Byun ... N. Amador-Licona, J. M. Guízar-Mendoza, E. Vargas, G. Sánchez-Camargo, and L. Zamora-Mata, "The short-term effect of a switch ... A collaborative meta-analysis of general and high-risk population cohorts," Kidney International, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 93-104, ... A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts," Kidney International, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1341-1352, 2011. ...
This procyclical promotion cohort effect persists even after controlling for workers initial jobs, and explains at least half ... of the wage cohort effects that previous studies have focused on. We repeat the same analyses using personnel records from a ... Using the Swedish employer-employee matched data, we find that a cohort of workers entering the labor market during a boom gets ... This paper studies the long-term effects of the business cycle on workers future promotions and wages. ...
A cartoon suitable for use in teaching about cohort effects versus age effects in epidemiological studies. The cartoon is ... Cartoon: Cohort and Age Effects. A cartoon suitable for use in teaching about cohort effects versus age effects in ...
Effect of neuroticism on risk of cardiovascular disease in depressed persons - a Swedish population-based cohort study.. Almas ... The combined effect of depression and neuroticism on the risk of CVD revealed HRs ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 after adjusting for ... The aim of this study was to determine if neuroticism is an effect-modifier in the association between depression and CVD. Data ... derived from a longitudinal cohort study on mental health, work and relations among adults (20-64 years), including 10,443 ...
Costa, Dora L. and Kahn, Matthew E., Electricity Consumption and Durable Housing: Understanding Cohort Effects (January 2011). ... Electricity Consumption and Durable Housing: Understanding Cohort Effects. NBER Working Paper No. w16732 ...
Seasonal effects on the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps: a prospective cohort study. Scott R. Garrison, Colin R. Dormuth, ... Seasonal effects on the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps: a prospective cohort study ... Garrison et al entitled "Seasonal effects of the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps : a prospective cohort study" published ... Garrison et al entitled "Seasonal effects of the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps : a prospective cohort study" published ...
Thirdly, I propose that a birth-cohort effect is the underlying cause, although in this special case the other way round. The ... Recently, a high-profile study reported a negative birth-cohort effect on leukocyte mean telomere length in human populations, ... Accordingly, because of the resulting birth-cohort effect, there is no need for any paradoxical telomere lengthening in older ... The paradox of longer sperm telomeres in older mens testes: a birth-cohort effect caused by transgenerational telomere erosion ...
... as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of ... HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in ... Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort. A Notice by the Health and ... HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in ...
Cohort studies published before July 2017 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. ... "The Effect of Vitamin A on Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, no. 9: ... The Effect of Vitamin A on Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. Xinge Zhang 1,†. ... Zhang X, Zhang R, Moore JB, Wang Y, Yan H, Wu Y, Tan A, Fu J, Shen Z, Qin G, Li R, Chen G. The Effect of Vitamin A on Fracture ...
The Ontario Family Medicine Residents Cohort Study: factors affecting residents decisions to practise obstetrics. Marshall ... The Ontario Family Medicine Residents Cohort Study: factors affecting residents decisions to practise obstetrics ... The Ontario Family Medicine Residents Cohort Study: factors affecting residents decisions to practise obstetrics ... The Ontario Family Medicine Residents Cohort Study: factors affecting residents decisions to practise obstetrics ...
We build on previous literature documenting that cohorts graduating in bad times have lower wages and poorer health for many ... While this variation has been documented previously, the reasons why the effect of education on income, health and health ... "Cohort Effects in Promotions and Wages: Evidence from Sweden and the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of ... "When Does Education Matter? The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times," NBER Working Papers 20156 ...
This study aimed to estimate the effect of the length of EBF on iron status at 6 - 8 months of age among a cohort of Bolivian ... This study aimed to estimate the effect of the length of EBF on iron status at 6 - 8 months of age among a cohort of Bolivian ... Effect of infant feeding practices on iron status in a cohort study of Bolivian infants. ... Effect of infant feeding practices on iron status in a cohort study of Bolivian infants. BMC Pediatrics, 18(107), [107]. https ...
... CMAJ. 2015 Mar 3;187(4):248-253. doi: ...
... BMJ. 2010 Nov 23;341:c6149 ... Setting: Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women. ...
This retrospective cohort study, the largest of its kind, contained people in the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) between 1977 ... To minimize amalgam exposure misclassification the cohort was restricted to people who, at NZDF entry, were aged RESULTS: The ... Further follow-up of the cohort will permit investigation of diseases more common in the elderly. PMID: 15155698 [PubMed - as ... final cohort contained 20 000 people, 84% males. Associations with medical diagnostic categories, particularly disorders of the ...
DESIGN: Pooled data from 5 prospective cohorts. SETTING: Hand-intensive industrial settings, including manufacturing, assembly, ... Effects of varying case definition on carpal tunnel syndrome prevalence estimates in a pooled cohort.. ... DESIGN: Pooled data from 5 prospective cohorts. SETTING: Hand-intensive industrial settings, including manufacturing, assembly ...
... a prospective birth cohort study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: ... Effect of Supplemental Folic Acid in Pregnancy On Childhood Asthma: a Prospective Birth Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Dec ... Effect of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy on childhood asthma: a prospective birth cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170( ...
The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study ... The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study ...
... little is known about these effects in BPH progression. With the Sample Cohort DB data during 2007 and 2017 from the Health ... and anti-aging effects. Contrary to the studies characterizing metformin effects in prostate cancer, ... Future observational studies and prospective trials are needed to confirm the effects of metformin on BPH progression. ... Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) in South Korea, we investigated the preventative effect of metformin on BPH ...
Effects of self-reported health conditions and pesticide exposures on probability of follow-up in a prospective cohort study. ... Potential for selection bias was evaluated by comparing exposure-disease associations between the entire cohort and the follow- ... study investigated the potential for selection bias due to non-participation in the follow-up of a large prospective cohort ...
... Huss, Magnus Umeå universitet, Teknisk- ... Finally, as substantial size variation among individuals can develop within cohorts, also intra-cohort cannibalism can occur. ... 1. Ontogenetic scaling and the development of within-cohort size structure. Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster ,, ... Such variation may develop even when individuals are born in the same environment, i.e. within a cohort. I have studied the ...
... its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. We analyzed ... ... Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study.. 08:00 EDT 26th July ... Summary of "Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study.". ... The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and ...
... SØren ... It seems that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy has a small but significant effect on the quality of life in later ... The latest follow-up study from the cohort was performed in 1993 and 7,222 of the surviving children were identified (now aged ... Nevertheless, pregnant mothers should be made aware of the potential long-term effects smoking can have on their children. ...
  • Design Retrospective cohort study. (bmj.com)
  • This retrospective cohort study, the largest of its kind, contained people in the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) between 1977 and 1997. (prohealth.com)
  • A retrospective cohort study was created including patients who underwent breast reconstruction at the authors' institution from 1996 to 2016. (ovid.com)
  • Retrospective cohort study. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is a retrospective cohort study of deliveries from a tertiary maternity service in Metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, occurring between 2005 and 2009. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methods We conducted a multicentre retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery with general anaesthesia at two major, competing tertiary care hospital networks. (bmj.com)
  • The retrospective cohort analysis retrieved 3 cases. (bmj.com)
  • This retrospective cohort study was performed to elucidate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 genes and the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin. (deepdyve.com)
  • The presentation will discuss the initial results of a retrospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant acupuncture on IVF reproductive outcomes. (acupunctureresearch.org.uk)
  • Methods: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer recorded in the Swedish Cancer Register in 1961-2000. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The methods used in this cohort study have been described elsewhere ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study was conducted using a prospective cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in the Go-DARTS (Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland) study, which includes genetic and clinical information of patients with diabetes within the Tayside region of Scotland, U.K. The above-mentioned inflammatory SNPs were investigated in 2,182 Go-DARTS participants. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods In the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study, the effect of NSAIDs on left ventricular end-systolic dimension, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, fractional shortening and left ventricular systolic function was studied in all participants for whom an echocardiogram was available (n=5307). (bmj.com)
  • Methods A community-based cohort of patients with PD (n=235) were included and assessed at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Deaths due to cerebrovascular diseases in the period from 1952 through 1991 and the corresponding population figures were grouped into 11 age groups and 8 5-year periods, from which age-specific mortality rates for 18 birth cohorts were then computed. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods: A prospective cohort study at a Division I NCAA athletic program of 80 nonconcussed varsity football and ice hockey players who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration time history of the head following impact, and 79 non-contact sport athletes. (unl.edu)
  • Methods: The Aberdeen Birth Cohort born in 1921 (n = 354) and that had an IQ test as part of the national Scottish Mental Survey of 1932 were seen in 1997 at age 76 years when childhood and adult socio-environmental, medical and cognitive data were collected. (ebscohost.com)
  • Methods and analysis This multicentre prospective cohort study aims to enrol 320 patients in 10 vascular centres across the Netherlands. (eur.nl)
  • Materials and methods Study design This prospective cohort study compared the effects of obesity on orthodontic pain experience during initial tooth alignment with fixed-appliances. (deepdyve.com)
  • METHODS: We assess the effect of exposure to abacavir on the risk of CVD events in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. (uzh.ch)
  • We use matching methods to control for a rich set of adolescent and family characteristics and we find that personality traits do affect study choices and performance in test scores - particularly in mathematics and science. (iza.org)
  • Methods The cohort comprised 155 540 public sector female workers in Denmark who were followed from 2007-2012. (sjweh.fi)
  • Methods A cohort from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study totaling 13,953 men between 20 and 90 years of age who did not have hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or cancer completed 3 to 28 (mean of 3.8) follow-up medical examinations between 1970 and 2006. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Methods: The Pain and Opioids IN Treatment study is a prospective, national, observational cohort of people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Conclusions In this large cohort of patients attending UK primary care, anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs were associated with significantly increased risk of mortality over a seven year period, after adjusting for a range of potential confounders. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence of adverse effects 5 including increased risk of dementia 6 7 8 and other psychomotor impairments (daytime fatigue, ataxia, falls, and road traffic incidents), 9 10 11 12 13 14 cancer, 15 16 17 pneumonia, and other infections 18 has increased concerns of an association with premature mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Time trends, cohort effects, and geographic patterns in stroke mortality--United States. (nih.gov)
  • Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis," The Lancet , vol. 375, no. 9731, pp. 2073-2081, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients We studied mortality, paid income and tobacco taxes, and the cumulative costs due to pensions and medical care among tobacco smoking and non-smoking individuals in a 27-year prospective cohort study of 1976 men from Eastern Finland. (bmj.com)
  • This study sought to describe these effects on the decline of stroke mortality in Spain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Age- and period-adjusted stroke mortality increased for earlier cohorts and decreased for generations born between 1892 and 1940. (ahajournals.org)
  • If the decreasing period effect fails to offset this increase, future years may see a deceleration in the current decline in stroke mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, age-period-cohort analysis of mortality time trends measures the component explained by birth cohort and risk of dying vis-à-vis circumstances prevailing at the time of death, ie, the period effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study sought to describe time trends in cerebrovascular mortality and assess age-period-cohort effects on stroke mortality in Spain to explain the decline in mortality and provide a basis for future projections. (ahajournals.org)
  • In primary analysis, we imputed missing data and determined whether exposure to night surgery affects 30-day mortality using a mixed-effects model with individual anaesthesia and surgical providers as random effects. (bmj.com)
  • Results Among 350 235 participants in the primary imputed cohort, the mortality rate was 0.9% (n=2804/322 327) after day and 3.4% (n=940/27 908) after night surgery. (bmj.com)
  • Across the genome, we found only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3. (columbia.edu)
  • It has been established that under certain mortality assumptions, the current value of the Cross-sectional Average length of Life (CAL) is equal to the life expectancy for the cohort currently reaching its life expectancy. (ebscohost.com)
  • Joint effect of diabetes and opiate use on all-cause and cause-specific mortality: the Golestan cohort study. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the joint effect of diabetes and opiate use on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We look at effects of smoking on mortality differences between men and women in high income countries over the period 1950 and 2015. (sdu.dk)
  • We examined changes in smoking-attributable mortality fractions as estimated by the Preston-Glei-Wilmoth method by age (ages 50-85) across birth cohorts 1870-1965. (sdu.dk)
  • While smoking-attributable mortality was still increasing for older female cohorts, it was declining for females in the more recent cohorts in the US and Europe, as well as for males in all three regions. (sdu.dk)
  • The precipitous decline in smoking-attributable mortality in recent cohorts bodes somewhat hopeful. (sdu.dk)
  • The aim of the current study was to determine whether participants in a prospective cohort study on melanoma have a different incidence and mortality of melanoma compared with non-participants and the background population. (lu.se)
  • Trends are analyzed in terms of both period and cohort effects. (nih.gov)
  • These were plotted for graphical presentation purposes and fitted to Poisson regression models to assess age, period, and cohort effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the assumption that factors related to the obstetrics training of family medicine residents may be influencing this trend, we conducted a cohort study of residents' stated intentions with regard to practising obstetrics, their educational experiences and their subsequent obstetric practice. (cmaj.ca)
  • We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. (columbia.edu)
  • To assess the longitudinal association between parenting style measured at age 4 years and risk of childhood overweight/obesity from age 5 to 12 years in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) birth-cohort. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results support a conclusion that labor supply continued to decline for the "notch babies" who received lower Social Security benefits than earlier cohorts. (nber.org)
  • DESIGN: Pooled data from 5 prospective cohorts. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we focus on SNPs that had been robustly replicated in previous GWAS and were also genotyped in a large sample of 21,183 participants from three large prospective cohorts, including Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, Framingham Offspring Study (FOS) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). (omicsonline.org)
  • Yang J, Zhao J (2011) Cumulative Effect of Common Genetic Variants Predicts Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Study of 21,183 Subjects from Three Large Prospective Cohorts. (omicsonline.org)
  • Recently, a high-profile study reported a negative birth-cohort effect on leukocyte mean telomere length in human populations, namely the progressive loss of telomeric sequence between healthy human generations. (springer.com)
  • Accordingly, because of the resulting birth-cohort effect, there is no need for any paradoxical telomere lengthening in older men's gonads to interpret the old-father-long-telomered-offspring data. (springer.com)
  • Although older age groups have higher rates of TB infection than younger groups, nationally representative U.S. survey data suggest that observed LTBI prevalence in older people represents an underestimate of infection, because of the birth cohort effect and waning immunologic reactivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The term cohort effect is used in social science to describe variations in the characteristics of an area of study (such as the incidence of a characteristic or the age at onset) over time among individuals who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience, such as year of birth, or year of exposure to radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. (federalregister.gov)
  • Potential for selection bias was evaluated by comparing exposure-disease associations between the entire cohort and the follow-up subset. (ilo.org)
  • They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It seems that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy has a small but significant effect on the quality of life in later adult life. (hindawi.com)
  • The investigators are studying the relationship between exposure to vehicular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the short- and long-term respiratory effects on children who have well-characterized asthma. (epa.gov)
  • Among the reasons for this continuing uncertainty are its illegal status, making it difficult to obtain reliable estimates of cannabis exposure, and the common practice of combining cannabis with tobacco, which makes it difficult to separate the effects of the two substances [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cohort effect relates to lifelong exposure to disease risk factors shared by a whole generation, and period effect relates to factors that simultaneously affect the whole population, such as the introduction of widely available medical care and changes in diagnostic or cause-of-death coding practices. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season affects white matter diffusion measures in collegiate contact sport athletes. (unl.edu)
  • Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between head impact exposure, white matter diffusion measures, and cognition over the course of a single season, even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, in a cohort of college athletes. (unl.edu)
  • We use a new marginal structural Cox model to estimate the effect of abacavir as a flexible function of past exposures while accounting for risk factors that potentially lie on a causal pathway between exposure to abacavir and CVD. (uzh.ch)
  • The estimated function for the effect of past exposures suggests that exposure during the past 6-36 months caused the greatest increase in risk. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abacavir increases the risk of a CVD event: the effect of exposure is not immediate, rather the risk increases as exposure cumulates over the past few years. (uzh.ch)
  • The well-established effects of prolonged exposure of breast tissue to estrogen vary according to breast cancer receptor subtypes and are most consistent for the hormone dependent tumors ( 21 - 23 ). (sjweh.fi)
  • Research on reproductive health effects on children from low-level, long-term exposure to pesticides currently used in the agricultural industry is limited and those on neurobehavioral effects have produced conflicting evidence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Method Multicentre cohort study during May-June 2012 from 95 centres (89 within the UK). (bmj.com)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition with linagliptin and effects on hyperglycaemia and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal dysfunction: rationale and design of the MARLINA-T2D™ trial," Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research , vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 455-462, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • I concur with the conclusion of the systematic review with recommendations Dr. Katzberg co-authored that "quinine derivatives for the treatment of muscle cramps should be avoided for routine treatment" with its use reserved for patients informed of the potentially serious side effects of this agent "when cramps are very disabling, no other agents relieve symptoms, and there is careful monitoring of side effects. (cmaj.ca)
  • We therefore sought to determine the effects of metformin on survival and length of stay in a high-risk cohort of diabetic patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of a structured skin care regimen for critically ill patients with fecal incontinence. (ovid.com)
  • 0.001), towards a greater effect in patients undergoing ambulatory/same-day surgery (OR adj 1.81, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.35) compared with inpatients (OR adj 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.34). (bmj.com)
  • Babiera GV, Rao R, Feng L, Meric-Bernstam F, Kuerer HM, Singletary SE, Hunt KK, Ross MI, Gwyn KM, Feig BW (2006) Effect of primary tumor extirpation in breast cancer patients who present with stage IV disease and an intact primary tumor. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSION While a timely work-up of advanced PC patients remains important, delays in treatment initiation due to repeated biopsies, inclusion in a clinical study or transfer to a specialized cancer center appear to be justified in light of the absence of a strong adverse effect of prolonged TTI on prognosis in advanced PC patients. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Objectives To investigate GC-induced bone loss in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (low dose) or transplants (high dose) through a meta-analysis of cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • Cohorts studying patients using bisphosphonates or other anti-osteoporotic drugs or diseases associated with influence on bone loss were excluded. (bmj.com)
  • The Dublin Uveitis Evaluation Tool (DUET) algorithm was developed and validated in a cohort of consecutive patients with AU who were all screened by a rheumatologist for the presence of SpA. (jrheum.org)
  • This study is unique in examining the effect of SpA on patients prior to diagnosis. (jrheum.org)
  • The aim of the Effect of Disease Level on Outcomes of Supervised Exercise in Intermittent Claudication Registry is to determine the effect of the location of stenosis on the outcomes of supervised exercise in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease. (eur.nl)
  • The study compares patients who have had acupuncture to a matched cohort of patients who received IVF usual care only at an NHS Fertility clinic between Jan 2011- Dec 2017. (acupunctureresearch.org.uk)
  • Different effects of cardiac and diaphragm function assessed by ultrasound on extubation outcomes in difficult-to-wean patients: a cohort study. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We designed a cohort study to preform diaphragm ultrasound and TTE before and after the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) in difficult-to-wean patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • These adverse reactions to acute PAH exposures, when recurrent over 3-5 years, have the cumulative effects of more severe asthma and reduced lung function growth. (epa.gov)
  • We examined lung function response and side effects to rapamycin in a national cohort. (bmj.com)
  • Early intervention with low-dose rapamycin may preserve lung function and reduce side effects. (bmj.com)
  • The effects of cannabis on lung function remain unclear and may be different from those of tobacco. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We compared the associations between use of these substances and lung function in a population-based cohort (n=1,037). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cannabis appears to have different effects on lung function from those of tobacco. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although these findings do not support the suggestion that cannabis smokers are more susceptible to emphysema, they do indicate that cannabis and tobacco may have quite different effects on lung function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Objective To study the net economic effect of smoking on society. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -We examined changes in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in 412,881 Korean men in birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972 over 8 years from 1992 to 2000 and separately analyzed the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. (drmcdougall.com)
  • In cross-section, younger persons generally show stronger education effects on survival, although this pattern is clearer for women than for men. (jhu.edu)
  • There may be a cohort effect for newspaper readership: younger cohorts appear to read fewer newspapers than older cohort groups, even though newspapers generally target a wide range of age groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • As time passes, older cohorts will die out and be replaced by younger cohorts, resulting in a decline in newspaper readership. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the potential for selection bias due to non-participation in the follow-up of a large prospective cohort study. (ilo.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS This large prospective cohort study provides evidence that SNPs of genes encoding prototypical inflammatory molecules may be used to create multigenic models that predict stroke risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Effect of obesity and overweight on left ventricular diastolic function: a community-based study in an elderly cohort. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS -In Korean male birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972, the age-specific prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in men aged 28-59 years increased annually by 0.41% (3.03 to 6.29%), 0.18% (0.70 to 2.16%), and 1.49% (23.48 to 35.41%), respectively, from 1992 to 2000. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Apart from the contribution of age, clear cohort and period effects were evident for diabetes, although the magnitude of the effect was slightly less than that for obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Maternal obesity has been described to have similar effect on BW as GDM ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Approximately one-third of pregnancies are affected by maternal obesity, and in the female Australian population 2011-2012, approximately 56% were classified as overweight or obese ( 1 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of obesity on pain in subjects undertaking routine orthodontic treatment with fixed-appliances. (deepdyve.com)
  • The effect sizes did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained. (stopumts.nl)
  • Results An exponential age effect was present for both sexes regardless of cohort or period. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, there was a convergence between sexes across recent cohorts. (sdu.dk)
  • These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. (columbia.edu)
  • Participants will receive standard care, meaning supervised exercise therapy first, with endovascular or open revascularisation in case of insufficient effect (at the discretion of patient and vascular surgeon). (eur.nl)
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the independent effect of increased body size on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Does surgical approach affect outcome after fixation of intra-articular fractures of distal humerus? (medworm.com)
  • ROCHE, SJL y WALTERS, J . Indomethacin and heterotopic ossification in acetabular fractures: A prospective cohort study of the effect indomethacin has on the incidence and severity of heterotopic ossification . (scielo.org.za)
  • Observational, 12‐month, cohort study completed over 4 years. (hsr.org)
  • Effect of neuroticism on risk of cardiovascular disease in depressed persons - a Swedish population-based cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • Bjørnestad EØ, Borsholm RA, Svingen GFTS, Pedersen ER, Seifert R, Midttun Ø, Ueland PM, Tell GST, Bønaa KH, Nygård O. Neopterin as an effect modifier of the cardiovascular risk predicted by total homocysteine: A prospective 2-cohort study. (uib.no)
  • Combined effects of child and adult elevated blood pressure on subclinical atherosclerosis: the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium. (edu.au)
  • Setting: Pregnant women attending routine ultrasound examination were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). (uib.no)
  • There is evidence of period effects. (jhu.edu)
  • 1 However, empirical evidence on its effects on health remains inconsistent. (bmj.com)
  • Cohort Effects in Promotions and Wages: Evidence from Sweden and the United States ," Journal of Human Resources , University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(3). (repec.org)
  • The Effect of Implicit Contracts on the Movement of Wages over the Business Cycle: Evidence from Micro Data ," Journal of Political Economy , University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 665-688, August. (repec.org)
  • Epidemiological and experimental evidence for detrimental effects of cell phone use on semen quality is still equivocal. (stopumts.nl)
  • Parenting style was time-independent, but there was no evidence of a within-subject effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • A number of studies have investigated the effect of different fixed-appliance systems on orthodontic pain, but there is little evidence to suggest that any particular appliance combination is associated with less pain than any other (12, 13, 15, 17-20). (deepdyve.com)
  • People who used cannabis had greater pain and lower self-efficacy in managing pain, and there was no evidence that cannabis use reduced pain severity or interference or exerted an opioid-sparing effect. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • or the effect of unmeasured confounders, is unknown. (bmj.com)
  • In accordance with the hypothesis of the fetal origins of health and disease, the pronounced effects of GDM on fetal growth patterns demonstrated in this study are likely to influence long-term health outcomes in children. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects on the fetus including those that effect growth are not only associated with short-term complications for the neonate but are also associated with health outcomes in later life. (frontiersin.org)
  • Secondary outcomes were 30-day morbidity and the mediating effect of blood transfusion rates and provider handovers on the effect of night surgery on outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • This same cohort completed vision-related [Vision Core Measure 1 (VCM1)] and general health [Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36)] questionnaires when AU was active and resolved. (jrheum.org)
  • The study aims to investigate the effect of acupuncture on IVF outcomes of live birth and clinical pregnancy rate and whether number of acupuncture sessions or age range correlates with improved outcome. (acupunctureresearch.org.uk)
  • We used logistic regression to investigate cross-sectional associations with frequency of cannabis use, and lagged mixed-effects models to examine temporal associations between cannabis use and outcomes. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Cumulative Effects of Job Characteristics on Health ," Department of Economics Working Papers 2008-05, McMaster University. (repec.org)
  • Cumulative Effects of Job Characteristics on Health ," NBER Working Papers 15121, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • This cohort study investigated the effect of early life nutrition on later performance in developmental milestones and cognitive tests. (who.int)
  • The main goal of the study was to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the neurodevelopment of children over a 7-year follow-up period and to test the hypothesis that the observed cognitive gain in breastfed children in the first years of life is a strong predictor of their cognitive development trajectory, which may be continued in later life. (ccceh.org)
  • This study investigated the effects of sharing a classroom during primary school on cognitive achievement in twins. (bmj.com)
  • We examined whether childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSCs) are associated with cancer risk in later life and whether this effect remained after adjusting for adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ASCs). (springer.com)
  • A collaborative meta-analysis of general and high-risk population cohorts," Kidney International , vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 93-104, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The combined effect of depression and neuroticism on the risk of CVD revealed HRs ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 after adjusting for age and gender, socioeconomic position, prevalent hypertension and diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although recurrent diverticular hemorrhage is common, its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Conclusions: Our study indicates a reduced risk of gastric cancer in a male cohort exposed to estrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We assessed the risk of gastric cancer in this cohort compared with the entire comparable background population of Sweden. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we tested the ability of this multigenic model to predict stroke risk in a large population-based prospective cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated whether this multigenic model may predict stroke risk in a large population-based prospective cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Public awareness about the health effects of opiates, and improvement of diabetes care especially among individuals with or at risk of opiate use, are necessary. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study. (sjweh.fi)
  • Conclusions These findings do not support an overall short-term effect of night shift work on breast cancer risk. (sjweh.fi)
  • Except for variants in the TCF7L2 gene which had a modest effect on diabetic risk, most genetic variants identified so far have only a weak association with diabetes . (omicsonline.org)
  • It is possible that the combination of multiple variants may have a larger effect on disease risk and improve risk prediction. (omicsonline.org)
  • Survivors and controls, and diagnostic subgroups were contrasted to identify the general and relative risk for late effects by sub-diagnosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Survivors of neuroblastoma have a highly increased long-term risk for somatic late effects in all the main disease groups as compared to background levels. (lu.se)
  • Setting Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. (bmj.com)
  • Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. (nih.gov)
  • 2018-08-01 00:00:00 Summary Introduction We have investigated orofacial pain in a prospective cohort of obese and normal-weight subjects undergoing fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment. (deepdyve.com)
  • a Swedish population-based cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • Golestan Cohort study is a prospective population-based study in Iran. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We identified 721 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma in Nordic population-based cancer registries and identified late effects in national hospital registries covering the period 1977-2012. (lu.se)
  • Effects of varying case definition on carpal tunnel syndrome prevalence estimates in a pooled cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • For statistical comparisons, we calculated the difference in prevalence estimates between 1971-1972 and 1999-2000 for each cohort. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Figure 1 displays LTBI prevalence estimates and associated 95% CI by birth cohort years and NHANES sample year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Short- and Long-Term Career Effects of Graduating in a Recession: Hysteresis and Heterogeneity in the Market for College Graduates ," NBER Working Papers 12159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • The Short- and Long-Term Career Effects of Graduating in a Recession: Hysteresis and Heterogeneity in the Market for College Graduates ," IZA Discussion Papers 3578, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • We build on previous literature documenting that cohorts graduating in bad times have lower wages and poorer health for many years after graduation, compared to those graduating in good times. (repec.org)
  • Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans. (columbia.edu)
  • This article outlines the findings of an evaluation of a telephone health coaching service and its effect on hospital use and associated costs. (nuffieldtrust.org.uk)
  • A plausible explanation for the increase in heavy drinking around retirement could be that increased leisure time after retirement provides more opportunities for drinking, and not having to work during the day after may decrease constraints on drinking.Conclusions: Our findings of increased consumption around retirement suggest that information about negative effects of alcohol consumption should be included in pre-retirement planning programs. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions Our findings underscore the potential modifying effect of fitness on BP trajectory with aging over the male adult life span. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Effect of cannabis use in people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids: findings from a 4-year prospective cohort study. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • response expectancies of 18 treatment-related side effects, questions about baseline health and hormonal treatment, emotional state, and coping style. (urotoday.com)
  • Using data from this cohort, baseline differences by RI were assessed using Pearson's χ² and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. (bmj.com)
  • Among these, we were able to successfully confirm the associations of 12 SNPs with baseline prevalent T2D in these two cohorts. (omicsonline.org)
  • We present the incidence of specific and overall functional and health-related late effects in a national adult survivor cohort. (diva-portal.org)
  • Because estrogen therapy was the treatment of choice for prostate cancer in Sweden between 1950 and 1980, cohort members diagnosed earlier than 1980 were considered exposed to estrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First t this paper uses time-series variations in benefit levels to estimate the relationship between benefits and labor supply in an era when real benefits were falling for new recipients: Second t variation in benefit levels across cohorts is used to estimate the relationship between benefits and labor supply. (nber.org)
  • Given the complex aetiology of cancer and often long latency period, adopting a life course perspective helps to better understand the different pathways that may affect cancer onset in later life and thus explain more of the variation (Potischman et al. (springer.com)
  • While this variation has been documented previously, the reasons why the effect of education on income, health and health behaviors varies is not well understood. (repec.org)
  • Variation in growth rates among individuals leading to the formation of broad size distributions is commonly observed in animal cohorts. (diva-portal.org)
  • We introduced young-of-the-year perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) cohorts with different variation in body size distributions in pond enclosures. (diva-portal.org)
  • Such variation may develop even when individuals are born in the same environment, i.e. within a cohort. (diva-portal.org)
  • I have studied the sources and consequences of variation within and among cohorts from egg through early ontogeny using young-of-the-year (YOY) perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) as study organism. (diva-portal.org)
  • This creates an exogenous source of age variation within the same cohort that breaks the linear dependence between the three variables. (open.ac.uk)
  • Path analysis showed that breastfeeding may have an effect even into adult life. (who.int)
  • Using weighted data analysis software to account for NHANES survey design, we calculated the difference in LTBI prevalence between 1971-1972 and 1999-2000 for birth cohorts corresponding to 5-year intervals (1912-1916, 1917-1921,1922-1926, 1927-1931, 1932-1936, 1937-1941, 1942-1946). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A nonrandomized, quasi-experimental research design (comparison cohort) was used for data collection. (ovid.com)
  • Design A cohort of 7.1 million individuals was established by linkage of national registers in Denmark with data on kinship and diagnoses of appendicitis and UC. (bmj.com)
  • The design entails a prospective cohort study with a follow-up duration of 2 years starting in 2017, including 1000 school going children between the ages of 9 to 16 years old. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The prospective longitudinal design is a further strength of this study to evaluate the reproductive and neurobehavioural effects of different pesticides on children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This procyclical promotion cohort effect persists even after controlling for workers' initial jobs, and explains at least half of the wage cohort effects that previous studies have focused on. (repec.org)
  • However, it is unknown whether its effect persists into advanced old age. (ebscohost.com)
  • It is difficult to assess the extent to which the results observed in this cohort would hold for other working populations, other conditions of employment, or in other cultural settings. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Six 10-year birth cohorts are followed over 30 years through decennial censuses. (jhu.edu)
  • However, when a monetary value for life years lost was taken into account, the beneficial net effect of non-smoking to society was about €70 000 per individual. (bmj.com)
  • Cohorts corresponding to birth years were constructed in 5-year intervals (1912-1916, 1917-1921,1922-1926, 1927-1931, 1932-1936, 1937-1941, 1942-1946) based on available 1971-1972 and 1999-2000 NHANES data by age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, we could not report comparisons for people born before 1912, and the comparison for people who in 1971-1972 were age 55-59 years (1912-1916 birth cohort) includes in 1999-2000 all people age 83 or older (born in 1916 or earlier). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report data by birth cohort years and corresponding ages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated the effect of long-term storage (up to 22 years) on immunoassay measurements of three groups of hormones and associated proteins: sex-steroids [estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], pregnancy-specific hormones [human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), placental growth hormone (pGH), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)], and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family hormones exploiting the world largest serum bank, the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC). (diva-portal.org)
  • Results During 174 million person-years of follow-up between 1977 and 2011, a total of 190 004 cohort members developed appendicitis and 45 202 developed UC. (bmj.com)
  • Specifically, this prospective cohort study compared orthodontic pain experience during the first week of fixed-appliance therapy in two groups of children aged between 12 and 18 years and classified as normal weight and obese based upon body mass index (BMI). (deepdyve.com)
  • Three cohorts of students in this study were eligible or attended HISD prekindergarten during the 2001-2002 (Cohort I), 2002-2003 (Cohort II), and 2003-2004 (Cohort III) academic years. (ed.gov)
  • In demography, a cohort is a group of people with the same year (or group of adjacent years) of birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further follow-up of the cohort will permit investigation of diseases more common in the elderly. (prohealth.com)
  • 1 These diseases mainly affect the elderly and can prove to be a source of neurological sequelae and disability. (ahajournals.org)
  • Corresponding results were obtained in a field study covering 13 studied young-of-the-year perch cohorts in a small lake. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results suggest that exploitation competition is a major factor behind growth patterns in young fish cohorts, generally leading to size convergence. (diva-portal.org)
  • Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China. (stopumts.nl)
  • Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility. (stopumts.nl)
  • Adjustment for cohort restriction and foreign-birth did not qualitatively change the results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. (columbia.edu)
  • Results: One hundred and fifty-eight (44.6%) of the 354 cohort members had died by the census date. (ebscohost.com)
  • Some studies have suggested a beneficial effect, at least in some groups, others an adverse effect, and still others no effect of retirement on health. (bmj.com)
  • This paper studies the long-term effects of the business cycle on workers' future promotions and wages. (repec.org)
  • A cartoon suitable for use in teaching about cohort effects versus age effects in epidemiological studies. (causeweb.org)
  • Cohort studies published before July 2017 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. (mdpi.com)
  • Validity of biobank studies on hormone associated cancers depend on the extent the sample preservation is affecting the hormone measurements. (diva-portal.org)
  • Wolfram, P. "Cohort replacement and the downward trend in newspaper readership" Newspaper Research 21.2 (2000): 11-22 Lee, T.-T. & Wei, L. "How Newspaper Readership Affects Political Participation" Newspaper Research Journal 29.3 (2008): 8-23 Conhaim, W.W. "Newspaper readership threatened by Web. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cohort effects are important to epidemiologists searching for patterns in illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we use laboratory derived size-scaling relationships to identify mechanisms driving changes in size distribution patterns within cohorts during early ontogeny. (diva-portal.org)
  • and How have they affected male-female survival differences? (sdu.dk)
  • Age-period-cohort analysis enables description of birth cohort and period-of-death components. (ahajournals.org)
  • Effect modification by number of male partners and sensitivity analysis to rule out reverse causality were also conducted. (bmj.com)
  • According to clinical manifestations and kidney histology the cases identified by systematic review and cohort analysis were classified as: A) Glomerulonephritis associated with systemic vasculitis (GNSV), B) glomerulonephritis in lupus-like syndrome (GNLS), C) other autoimmune renal disorders (OARD). (bmj.com)
  • An age-period- cohort analysis of the panel data of the SOEP panel suggests that period effects are significantly negative. (uni-mannheim.de)
  • As the prevalence of several chronic and degenerative diseases increases with age, distinguishing the health effects of retirement from those of age is difficult. (bmj.com)
  • Long-Term Effects of Maternal Smoking on Quality of Life. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction between GDM and maternal body mass index (BMI) on individual neonatal growth parameters and their relationship to each other. (frontiersin.org)