Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (1/105)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (2/105)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine. (3/105)

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

Time trends in the mortality rates for tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx in Japan, 1950-94. (4/105)

Mortality data of oral cancer over 40 years in Japan were analyzed to investigate time trends of the disease site-specifically and discuss the relation between these trends and the changing patterns of consumption of tobacco and alcohol beverages. Mortality rates were adjusted to the world standard population. In the males, overall oral cancer (ICD-9: 141-149) mortality rates have increased consistently from the lowest value of 1.25 (per 100,000 per year) in 1956 to 2.40 in 1992. The rates for females were constantly lower than those for males, and formed a modest peak of 0.96 in 1979. Regarding site-specific mortality rates, tongue cancer (141) presented a decreasing trend, while oro/hypopharyngeal (146, 148) and mouth (143-145) cancers showed increasing patterns, particularly in males. When the changing patterns of male truncated rates for ages 35-64 were compared with those of the annual consumption of cigarette and alcohol per capita, the time trend of oro/hypopharyngeal cancer mortality was analogous to cigarette consumption rather than to alcohol consumption, mouth cancer vice versa, and tongue cancer was not related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. The present findings suggest that tobacco and alcohol have different site-specific effects on the development of cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx.  (+info)

Social environment and year of birth influence type 1 diabetes risk for African-American and Latino children. (5/105)

OBJECTIVE: Credible epidemiological data, primarily from European-origin populations, indicate that environmental factors play an important role in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based registry of incident cases of type 1 diabetes among African-American and Latino children in Chicago was used to explore the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics on diabetes risk. New cases of insulin-treated diabetes in African-American and Latino Chicagoans aged 0-17 years for 1985-1990 (n = 400) were assigned to one of 77 community areas based on street address. Census tables provided denominators, median household income, percentage of adults > or = 25 years old who had completed high school and college, and a crowding variable for each community area individual-level data were birth cohort, sex, and ethnicity. Outcomes in Poisson regression were sex-, ethnic-, and birth cohort-specific incidence rates. RESULTS: Significant univariate associations between diabetes risk and ethnicity, birth cohort, crowding, and the percentage of adults in each community area who had completed high school and college were observed. African-Americans had a relative risk (RR) of 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.76) compared with Latinos. Risk varied significantly by birth cohort in both ethnic groups. For every 10% increase in the proportion of adults who completed college, the RR for diabetes increased by 25% (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.44]). Social class variables were significant determinants of risk for African Americans, but not for Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: The strong birth cohort and social class associations observed in this study implicate an infectious exposure linked with age.  (+info)

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home. (6/105)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and "sell by" dates; reported ability to read food product safety labels. RESULTS: From a weighted total of 645 refrigerators measured, 451 (70%) were too warm for the safe storage of food (> or = 6 degrees Celsius). Only 41% of respondents (n = 279) knew the star rating of their freezer. Within a smaller sub-sample knowledge of the "use by" and "sell by" dates was good, but 45% of these respondents reported difficulty reading food labels. The storage of foods at inappropriate temperatures was not independent of socioeconomic or demographic status, and tended to be more likely among the poorer and those not living alone. CONCLUSIONS: Food storage practices among the majority of elderly people interviewed in this study do not meet recommended safety standards to minimise the risk of food poisoning.  (+info)

A review of the healthy worker effect in occupational epidemiology. (7/105)

This review article aims to anatomize sources of the healthy worker effect (HWE) and to summarize advantages and limitations of several approaches frequently proposed to eliminate the HWE. Although the HWE is frequently addressed in the context of selection bias, our review suggests that the selection of occupational cohorts with advantageous health status would preferably be addressed as a source of confounding biases. The authors also conclude that the exclusion of unhealthy workers at employment and the study of active workers are the two main sources of HWE, and that the use of the general population as a comparison group in occupational epidemiology should be avoided if possible. The authors encourage investigators to make distinctions between the underlying factors related to the use of the general population as the comparison group in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991. (8/105)

BACKGROUND: The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined. METHODS: Analysis of national mortality statistics calculating age standardised mortality rates and an age-period cohort analysis. A fit to the Gompertz function was made to estimate the influence of the environmental factors on the mortality rates evolution. MAIN RESULTS: The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer mortality rates are increasing in Spain because of environmental factors.  (+info)

A "cohort effect" refers to a phenomenon where individuals who belong to the same generation or group, born during the same period, share similar experiences, exposures, and behaviors that can influence their health outcomes differently from other generations. These shared experiences and exposures can include historical events, societal trends, technological advancements, and changes in public policy that occur during their formative years and beyond.

In medical research, a cohort study is an observational study design where a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to examine the incidence and prevalence of specific health outcomes. When these studies focus on comparing health outcomes across different birth cohorts, they aim to identify cohort effects that may influence disease risk, morbidity, and mortality.

Examples of cohort effects include the impact of historical smoking patterns on lung cancer rates, the influence of changes in vaccination policies on infectious disease incidence, or the effect of technological advancements on sedentary behavior and obesity prevalence. Understanding cohort effects is essential for developing targeted public health interventions and prevention strategies that consider the unique experiences and exposures of different generations.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Mortality, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being mortal; the quality or fact of being subject to death. It is often used in reference to the mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a specific population, divided by the size of that population, per a given time period. This can be used as a measure of the risk of death among a population.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Poisson Distribution is actually a statistical concept rather than a medical term. Here's a general definition:

Poisson Distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space, as long as these events occur with a known average rate and independently of each other. It is often used in fields such as physics, engineering, economics, and medical research to model rare events or low-probability phenomena.

In the context of medical research, Poisson Distribution might be used to analyze the number of adverse events that occur during a clinical trial, the frequency of disease outbreaks in a population, or the rate of successes or failures in a series of experiments.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Epidemiologic methods are systematic approaches used to investigate and understand the distribution, determinants, and outcomes of health-related events or diseases in a population. These methods are applied to study the patterns of disease occurrence and transmission, identify risk factors and causes, and evaluate interventions for prevention and control. The core components of epidemiologic methods include:

1. Descriptive Epidemiology: This involves the systematic collection and analysis of data on the who, what, when, and where of health events to describe their distribution in a population. It includes measures such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as geographic and temporal patterns.

2. Analytical Epidemiology: This involves the use of statistical methods to examine associations between potential risk factors and health outcomes. It includes observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) and experimental studies (randomized controlled trials). The goal is to identify causal relationships and quantify the strength of associations.

3. Experimental Epidemiology: This involves the design and implementation of interventions or experiments to test hypotheses about disease prevention and control. It includes randomized controlled trials, community trials, and other experimental study designs.

4. Surveillance and Monitoring: This involves ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data for early detection, tracking, and response to health events or diseases.

5. Ethical Considerations: Epidemiologic studies must adhere to ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes obtaining informed consent, ensuring confidentiality, and minimizing harm to study participants.

Overall, epidemiologic methods provide a framework for investigating and understanding the complex interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors that contribute to the occurrence of health-related events or diseases in populations.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Cohort Effects on Earnings Profiles Cohort effect in Lung Function among Smokers v t e v t e (Articles needing additional ... For example, cohort effects are critical issues in school enrollment. In order to determine whether a cohort effect is present ... and cohort effects can be an indicator of this sort of phenomenon. Cohort effects are important to resource dependency, and ... a researcher may conduct a cohort study. Political socialization Socialization Cohort Atingdui, Norissa (2011), "Cohort Effect ...
II: Cohort effects. Journal of affective disorders, 30(1), 15-26. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson ... II: Cohort effects". Journal of Affective Disorders. 30 (1): 15-26. doi:10.1016/0165-0327(94)90147-3 - via ScienceDirect. " ... He also studied how financial stress affects African Americans' mental well-being, and emphasized the positive impact of racial ... Does marriage have positive effects on the psychological well-being of the individual?. Journal of health and social behavior, ...
Sometimes different cohorts have different characteristics; this is called a cohort effect. There may be a cohort effect for ... "What is a cohort effect? Comparison of three statistical methods for modeling cohort effects in obesity prevalence in the ... As time passes, older cohorts will die out and be replaced by younger cohorts, resulting in a decline in newspaper readership. ... younger cohorts appear to read fewer newspapers than older cohort groups, even though newspapers generally target a wide range ...
There may also be age versus cohort effects. Successful aging Fries, James F. (1980). "Aging, Natural Death, and the ... Whether this trend continues may depend upon the effect of the obesity epidemic on the next generation of older people." See ...
"Research Spotlight: Cohort Effects in Children's Delay-of-Gratification". Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working ... "Cohort Effects in Children's Delay of Gratification" (PDF). Developmental Psychology. 54 (8): 1395-1407. doi:10.1037/dev0000533 ... Gyurak, Anett; Ayduk, Ozlem (October 2007). "Defensive physiological reactions to rejection: the effect of self-esteem and ... cool' focus". Psychological Science 2007: "Defensive physiological reactions to rejection: the effect of self-esteem and ...
The scheme took effect from the 2005 cohort. 26 September - Reviews were announced for education awards, new school achievement ... 13 April - A blackout hits several parts of Singapore including Choa Chu Kang, affecting 80,000 households and lasting almost ... 29 June - A blackout occurred for the second time, affecting about one-third of Singapore residents. Investigations reveal that ...
Additionally, the effect is robust to cohort effects. Patterns of the male midlife crisis mimick that of female's. This reduces ... aging or death of parents physical changes associated with aging Mid-life crisis can affect men and women differently because ... "Does low socioeconomic status potentiate the effects of heightened cardiovascular responses to stress on the progression of ... is being answered through recent research that attempts to balance such factors as response bias and experimenter effects in ...
"Cohort Crowding: How Resources Affect Collegiate Attainment." PSC Research Report No. 04-557. 4 2004. Abstract. Bound, John, ... "Labor Market Effects of Pensions and Implications for Teachers." Education Finance and Policy. Vol. 5, No. 4: 463-491. Bound, ... It suggests how an information nudge or letter intervention can affect one's decision, and in this case, for the better as more ... Much of Turner's work explores how higher educational opportunities - in colleges and universities - affects the labor market, ...
The Effect of Cohort Size on Wages in Brazil. Population Association of America Meeting 1992, Toronto. "John Luke Gallup". ...
Garrott RA, Rotella JJ, Siniff DB, Parkinson CL, Stauffer GE (2012). "Environmental variation and cohort effects in an ... However, the effects of global climate change on Antarctic seals are still to be fully determined. Research estimates seal ... Climate changes affecting the duration and the extent of the sea ice and nutrient availability could potentially reduce pups' ... However, the disturbance effects of the increasing seasonal tourism in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic on Weddell seal ...
... period and cohort effects" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. 93: 163-165. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.029. PMID 23701919. ... Bell, Andrew; Jones, Kelvyn (2014). "Explaining Fixed Effects: Random Effects Modeling of Time-Series Cross-Sectional and Panel ... analysis of large tables of counts using a Poisson random effects model Age period cohort analysis A recent review Cross- ... "Explaining Fixed Effects: Random Effects Modeling of Time-Series Cross-Sectional and Panel Data". Political Science Research ...
Additionally, aging experiences are shaped by cohort and period effects. Also reflecting the life course focus, consider the ... 2. Birth cohorts play an influential role in the process of social change. According to this theory, which stems from the life ... According to this theory, older adults born during different time periods form cohorts that define "age strata". There are two ... investigating the effects of an aging population on society, and the design of residential spaces for older people that ...
June 2012). "Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study". BMJ Open. 2 (6): e001851. doi: ... As of 15 April, the eruption was not large enough to have an effect on global temperatures like that of Mount Pinatubo and ... This rise in water temperature was thought to be related to the eruption nearby and was affecting part of the Krossá drainage ... The effect also spread beyond Iceland. Ash from the current Eyjafjallajökull eruption contains one-third the concentration ...
Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent (5 May 2017). "Rethinking 'Generation Me': A Study of Cohort Effects from 1976-2006 ... Typically, any positive effects from the Dark Triad and low Honesty-Humility occur at the individual level, that is, any ... According to both research and theory, persons who are highly affected by the Dark Triad are influenced by external, ... The focal variable when analyzing generational or cohort differences in dark triad traits has tended to be narcissism, arising ...
More recent research no longer supports this, and is inconclusive as to the true effects of estrogen on hippocampal volume as ... findings from a longitudinal community cohort". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 98 (9): 3829-3838. doi: ... Epperson, C.N.; Amin, Z.; Ruparel, K.; Gur, R.; Loughead, J. (2012). "Interactive effects of estrogen and serotonin on brain ... Clement, Yuri N.; Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao K.; Ernst, Edzard (2011). "Effects of herbal and dietary supplements on cognition ...
Buchanan D, Doblin B, Sai T, Garcia P (2006). "The effects of respite care for homeless patients: a cohort study". Am J Public ...
... cohort study exploring the 'weekend effect'". Br J Anaesth. 118 (1): 112-122. doi:10.1093/bja/aew398. hdl:10044/1/41749. PMID ... The degree of effect is usually higher for the 'Out-of-Hours Effect' rather than the 'Weekend Effect'. This suggests that the ' ... Weekend Effect'. This suggests that the 'Weekend Effect' may be nothing to do with the weekend per se, but may be an effect ... The effects of the weekend on patient outcomes has been a concern since the late 1970s, and a 'weekend effect' is now well ...
Dasa TT, Okunlola MA, Dessie Y (2022). "Effect of grand multiparity on adverse maternal outcomes: A prospective cohort study". ... Asynclitism can also affect the development of facial structures and nerves during pregnancy, with lifelong consequences for ... Complications can occur before, during, and after birth that affect both parent and baby. Asynclitism can lead to a slower and ... Fetal head asynclitism may affect progression of labor, increase the need for obstetrical intervention, and may be associated ...
... competing risks and cohort effects". International Journal of Epidemiology. 28 (1): 19-29. doi:10.1093/ije/28.1.19. PMID ... The effects of the accident are being remedied. Assistance has been provided for any affected people. An investigative ... explore how radiation affected people living in the area and information about the long-term side effects of radiation exposure ... a decrease from the 35 municipalities in 2011 and the 117 municipalities affected during 1986. The after-effects of Chernobyl ...
Cohort effect Groupthink Public opinion Political culture Political cognition Glasberg, Davita Silfen; Shannon, Deric (2011). ... Families have an effect on "political knowledge, identification, efficacy, and participation", depending on variables such as " ... This demonstrates that the mass media attention to an issue affects public opinion. More so, extensive exposure to television ... this demonstrates that region affects patterns in media socialization. Income level is also an important factor; high-income ...
Grant MD, Lauderdale DS (2002). "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye colour among US whites". Ann. Hum. Biol ... In addition, flash photography can sometimes cause a "red-eye effect", in which the very bright light from a flash reflects off ... Dave Johnson (16 January 2009). "HOW TO: Avoid the red eye effect". New Zealand PC World. Archived from the original on 24 ... This occurs in humans and certain breeds of domesticated animals and affects less than 1 percent of the world's population. The ...
This effect was consistent across age and race cohorts. A similar study among 12,275,033 Swiss found the highest mortality on ... A small study by Leonard Zusne found birthday effects among both male and female cohorts, where women were more likely to die ... there is a Passover effect among the Jewish community (which moves with the festival), and a Mid-Autumn Festival effect among ... while others find no significant gender effect. Suggested mechanisms for the effect include alcohol consumption, psychological ...
Child Development, 65, 684-698 Baltes, P., & Reinert, G. (1969). Cohort effects in cognitive development in children as ... This effect, however, appears to be limited by the stronger effect of initial intelligence. The Critical Thinking project at ... This means the opposite effect, that education affects ability, is likely small. An effective way to understand the genetic and ... A study done in Germany proved how education did affect the intelligence of students and proof of intelligence affecting ...
Another 20th-century cohort of affected hatmakers has been studied in Tuscany, Italy. The experience of hatmakers in New Jersey ... Effects of chronic occupational exposure to mercury, such as that commonly experienced by affected hatters, include mental ... It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms ... FDA has concluded that the existing data support a finding that infants are not at risk for adverse health effects from the ...
May address the cohort effect and help to indicate causal directions of effects. Cross-sequential study: Groups of different ... Prospective cohort study: Participants are recruited prior to the proposed independent effects being administered or occurring ... Retrospective cohort study: Participants are chosen, then data are collected about their past experiences. ...
Westhoff, John L.; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Littell, Christopher T. (2012-06-13). "Effects of experience and commercialisation on ... survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study". BMJ. 344: e3782. doi:10.1136/bmj.e3782. ISSN 1756-1833. PMC ...
"Age stratification and cohort effects in scholarly communication: a study of social sciences". Scientometrics. 109 (2): 997- ... or academic age affect review decisions? An analysis of submissions to the journal Biological Conservation". Biological ...
... and Cohort Effects in Autism Incidence in California from 1994 to 2005." International Journal of Epidemiology. 2011; doi: ... "Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy: An Analysis of a National Sample of Adolescent Girls", in Peer ... "Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy Risk". PPFY Network, Vol2. No3. 1998 Bearman, Peter S and Laura ... Power in Numbers: Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy. National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy: ...
"Associations of Positive Affect and Negative Affect With Allostatic Load: A Lifelines Cohort Study". Psychosomatic Medicine. 80 ... Allostatic load effects can be measured in the body. When tabulated in the form of allostatic load indices using sophisticated ... Allostatic load is not unique to humans and may be used to evaluate the physiological effects of chronic or frequent stress in ... The largest contribution to the allostatic load is the effect of stress on the brain. Allostasis is the system which helps to ...
Bang Jensen, Britt; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Myr, Camilla; Brun, Edgar (December 2012). "Cohort study of effect of vaccination on ... However, the effect of this has been questioned since the number of PD outbreaks has not been reduced. Jansen, M D; Bang Jensen ... It affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by Marine SAV2 and SAV3 and has also been identified in Rainbow trout ( ... "Effect of pancreas disease caused by SAV 2 on protein and fat digestion in Atlantic salmon". Journal of Fish Diseases. 42 (1): ...
  • The term cohort effect is used in social science to describe variations in the characteristics of an area of study (such as the incidence of a characteristic or the age at onset) over time among individuals who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience, such as year of birth, or year of exposure to radiation. (
  • In order to determine whether a cohort effect is present, a researcher may conduct a cohort study. (
  • The study was a prospective cohort study of homeless and vulnerably housed adults in three Canadian cities. (
  • This cohort study aimed to identify the associations of dairy protein intake with the risk of developing a low muscle mass during a 12-year follow-up period, using data from 4412 middle-aged Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study participants with a normal baseline muscle mass. (
  • Comparing findings from separate trials is necessary to choose among treatment options, however differences among study cohorts may impede these comparisons. (
  • We prospectively studied sustained effects (>2 weeks abstinence) of a low dose of ecstasy on the brain in ecstasy-naive volunteers using a combination of advanced MR techniques and self-report questionnaires on psychopathology as part of the NeXT (Netherlands XTC Toxicity) study. (
  • Therefore, this study aimed to develop a new explanatory pathway from sibling effect to early childhood development and explored the mediation effect of family SES in the pathway. (
  • From April 2018 to December 2019, we conducted a national retrospective cohort study in 551 cities in China, and a total of 115,915 preschool-aged children were selected for the final analysis. (
  • This study concluded that family SES mediated the negative effects of one sibling on early child development. (
  • Methods Population-based linked cohort study of a national myocardial infarction registry. (
  • Design - Population-based retrospective cohort study using linked cancer registry and administrative data at ICES. (
  • Methods - A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data held within ICES (formerly: the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences). (
  • Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of technology-utilising rehabilitation on different intensities of physical activity (PA) and determine the explanatory factors of PA change. (
  • Material and methods This was a prospective cohort study. (
  • Methods Data were from the 1998-2010 'Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development' cohort (n=698). (
  • Patients from the PBN group who entered the network were excluded from the study irrespective of their date of entry, which did not affect the analyses (Additional file 2 ). (
  • The effect of tracheostomy delay time on outcome of patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation: A STROBE-compliant retrospective cohort study. (
  • The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of anxiety at 13 years of age on the presence of chronic pain, pain-related anxiety, and pain-related disability at 17 years of age in a large longitudinal cohort. (
  • Methods: We examined the process and performance of remotely delivered ABPM using two methodologies: firstly, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and secondly, a quantitative analysis comparing ABPM data from a subgroup of 65 participants of the Screening for Hypertension in the INpatient Environment (SHINE) diagnostic accuracy study. (
  • NB: The public health protection of households participating in this more intensive monitoring overrides research issues: if on-site inspections demonstrate an imminent hazard situation or if urinary PNP results indicate overexposure in the course of data collection, the usual relocation interventions must be put into effect, regardless of the impact on the study. (
  • Scholars@Duke publication: The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome study: baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort including racial effects. (
  • Design: Retrospective cohort study. (
  • Causal models for addressing the healthy worker effect in an occupational cohort study. (
  • Design Three prospective cohort studies with repeated measures of diet and lifestyle factors. (
  • Ambient ozone and incident diabetes: a prospective analysis in a large cohort of African American women. (
  • Methods: We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes associated with exposure to ozone in a cohort of 45,231 African American women living in 56 metropolitan areas across the United States. (
  • We hypothesized that mother-reported anxiety at 13 would be associated with the presence of chronic pain at 17 and an increase in pain-related anxiety using all available data from the longitudinal cohort. (
  • A longitudinal cohort analysis was performed, using medical and long-term care claims data from 38 525 patients between 2015-2019. (
  • We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging (GERA) cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. (
  • Multimorbidity and healthcare utilization among home care clients with dementia in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort. (
  • Interventions for peri-implantitis and their effects on further bone loss: A retrospective analysis of a registry-based cohort. (
  • Direct comparisons of results from separate trials of lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions are compromised by marked differences in enrolled cohorts. (
  • We here use two British birth-cohort datasets (the 1958 NCDS and the 1970 BCS) to map out the time profile of the effect of childhood on adult outcomes, including life satisfaction. (
  • As a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with many age-related diseases, this increase in obesity prevalence, together with the demographic shift in the proportion of older individuals, calls for substantial efforts to better understand how BMI affects long-term health outcomes. (
  • We also analyzed the effect of physician decision time, tracheostomy delay time, and procedure type on clinical outcomes.A total of 134 patients were included. (
  • Discussion Using several data quality management strategies, we have established a comprehensive clinical database that provides information about care and outcomes for Canadian children affected by IMD. (
  • The toxicity information for some of the health effects listed above may be categorical in nature (presence/absence of genotoxicity or skin irritation, for example) while other outcomes are expressed through quantitative information and/or potency data. (
  • The numerical cut points defining each OEB reflect the spectrum of possible outcomes, from little or no adverse effects (band A) through highly toxic/lethal at low exposures (band E). (
  • Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical datasets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans. (
  • This paper outlines the Health Effects Monitoring Program, including some initial findings of the 2017-2018 sampling. (
  • Factors affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related costs: a multivariate analysis of a Swedish COPD cohort. (
  • Age-period-cohort (APC) differences in walking trends among Korean older adults were examined. (
  • Differential APC effects by environmental conditions likely influence walking prevalence changes among older adults. (
  • Walking promotion for older adults should consider APC effects and environmental conditions. (
  • BLLs and associated toxic effects differ in children and adults. (
  • In occupationally exposed adults, subtle or nonspecific neurocognitive effects have been reported at BLLs as low as 20-30 µg/dL (Mantere et al. (
  • During the webinar, the lead author, Dr. Eleni Papadopoulou, from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, presented the data published in Environmental International in December 2021, which are relevant when considering long-term health effects associated with PFAS exposure at early life stage for metabolic disorders and overall call for a more restrictive approach to the regulation of those chemicals. (
  • Recent studies suggest that neurodevelopmental effects may occur at BLLs lower than 10 µg/dL (Canfield et al. (
  • 2000). Many animal studies have established the multiple neurotoxic effects of lead (ATSDR, 2007). (
  • Cohort Effects in the Prevalence and Survival of People with Dementia in a Rural Area in Northern Sweden. (
  • In medicine, the 'cohort effect' describes the idea that more recent birth cohorts have an increased incidence and younger age of onset of their illness. (
  • Quantitative exposure to metalworking fluid s and bladder cancer incidence in a cohort of autoworkers. (
  • Non- surgical procedures were insufficient to prevent further bone loss at implant sites affected by moderate/severe peri-implantitis . (
  • These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. (
  • The ATHLETE cohorts, including the HELIX participants, have assessed early (embryonic, fetal, and infant) organ development using cutting-edge measurements of advanced cardiac and great vessel imaging (anatomical and functional echocardiography and MRI), as well as trajectories of cardiometabolic health (e.g., blood pressure, macrovascular and microvascular phenotypes, weight gain, lipid profiles) into adolescence. (
  • Whether the effects continue to widen with increasing duration of exposure to poverty as the children age should be investigated. (
  • Prenatal and postnatal exposure to PFAS and cardiometabolic factors and inflammation status in children from six European cohorts. (
  • Developing children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals. (
  • Members of affected households will be faced with difficult decisions regarding the risks of MP exposure and costs and benefits of alternative interventions. (
  • The effects of combined dermal exposures to MP and PNP, as well as combined exposure to MP and other pesticides identified in the field, should be investigated in a relevant animal model (pig, monkey, hairless guinea pig). (
  • The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. (
  • The effect of tracheostomy delay time on outcome has not yet been evaluated before.Patients older than 18 years who underwent tracheostomy for PMV were retrospectively collected. (
  • It is debated whether ecstasy use has neurotoxic effects on the human brain and what the effects are of a low dose of ecstasy use. (
  • Cohorts in organizations are often defined by entry or birth date, and they retain some common characteristic (size, cohesiveness, competition) that can affect the organization. (
  • In both birth cohorts child non-cognitive skills are the strongest predictors of adult life satisfaction at all ages. (
  • The slow progress, or even lack thereof, in some countries with large birth cohorts affects global coverage. (
  • Note: The NOAEL/BMDL (or, in some cases lowest observed adverse effect level) are used in this analysis, NOT the agency RfD or MRL, because of differences in purpose and dose adjustments. (
  • A fact sheet , outlining exactly how PFAS chemicals affect women, pregnancy and human development (also in collaboration with the Natural Resources Defence Council - NRDC). (
  • Women planning to become pregnant should avoid all alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of illegal drugs (eg, cocaine) before and during the pregnancy, because these activities may have serious deleterious effects on the fetus. (
  • During this consultation, the patient can be advised about the possible risks associated with her condition during pregnancy and about the possible teratogenic effects of her medications. (
  • It is also unclear what the interplay of these two effects of time implies for future aggregate turnout. (
  • Across the genome, we find only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3 . (
  • These results suggest that when large, even late onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. (
  • Conclusion These data from large cohorts do not support an inverse association between high amount of total dairy consumption and risk of mortality. (
  • In this paper, we investigate the association between ozone and incident type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of African American women. (
  • Pathway analysis was used to verify the mediation effect of SES. (
  • Click here to download a flyer, available in 10 languages, illustrating how ATHLETE can help us better understand how environmental pollutants affect our health over a lifetime, and how we can prevent this from happening by taking individual, community and policy action. (
  • Clinical, environmental, and genetic risk factors for substance use disorders: characterizing combined effects across multiple cohorts. (
  • We examined whether models that include a clinical/environmental risk index (CERI) and polygenic scores (PGS) are able to identify individuals at increased risk of SUD in young adulthood across four longitudinal cohorts for a combined sample of N = 15,134. (
  • Overall, the combined measures of clinical, environmental, and genetic risk demonstrated modest ability to distinguish between affected and unaffected individuals in young adulthood. (
  • Additionally, a range of uncertainty factors were considered for deriving OELs that correspond to each band, including interspecies extrapolation, human variability, and severity of effects. (
  • The long-lasting effects of family and childhood on adult wellbeing: evidence from British cohort data ," CEP Discussion Papers dp1493, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE. (
  • The long-lasting effects of family and childhood on adult wellbeing: Evidence from British cohort data ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 290-311. (
  • The long-lasting effects of family and childhood on adult wellbeing: Evidence from British cohort data ," PSE-Ecole d'économie de Paris (Postprint) halshs-02489764, HAL. (
  • The Long-Lasting Effects of Family and Childhood on Adult Wellbeing: Evidence from British Cohort Data ," GLO Discussion Paper Series 184, Global Labor Organization (GLO). (
  • Despite several similarities, the Look AHEAD and ACCORD cohorts represent distinct populations. (
  • No distinct period effects were found. (
  • In the latter case, clearly specified quantitative benchmarks, such as median lethal doses (LD50s) for acute toxicity and no- observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs), or equivalent point of departure such as benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL), for STOT-RE, are used. (
  • In this nationwide cohort of one million fertile women, BMI, height, and parity only had minor but statistically significant effects on the risk of uncomplicated cystitis. (
  • The results showed that there were significant risk effects of a sibling on preschoolers' overall neurodevelopment including communication, gross motor, fine motor, and problem-solving delay. (
  • Conclusion A latency period for the detrimental effects of child poverty on the risk of overweight or obesity was detected. (
  • Childhood depression seems to be evident at earlier ages in successive cohorts and often occurs with comorbid psychiatric disorders, increased risk for suicide , substance abuse , and behavior problems. (
  • Hypothesis tests and multilevel regression models were used to assess the associations and their strength between sibling effect and neurodevelopmental delay. (
  • Editor's Note: Other researchers have found evidence of a cohort effect for unipolar depression, substance abuse, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (
  • Cohort effects are important to resource dependency, and economics theorists when these groups affect structures of influence within their larger organizations. (
  • We also observed increased impulsivity (+3.7% on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and decreased depression (-28.0% on the Beck Depression Inventory) in novel ecstasy users, although effect sizes were limited and clinical relevance questionable. (
  • To evaluate the impact of these new professionals, we focused on one chronic neurological disease affecting all aspects of health, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (
  • Equilibrated blood lead levels (BLLs) after chronic intake are associated with certain toxic effects. (
  • The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. (
  • However, we found effects in two sub-elements of total healthcare costs, being a decrease of 19.7% (95% CI: 7.7%-30.2%) in annual hospital costs and an increase of 10.2% (95% CI: 2.3%-18.6%) in annual primary care costs. (
  • The Health Effects Monitoring Program acknowledges that our work takes place in Chief Drygeese territory. (
  • The health effects of dairy could depend on the comparison foods used to replace dairy. (
  • Testing viability effects of sets of genetic variants that jointly influence one of 42 traits, we detect a number of strong signals. (
  • A GWAS identified several genetic variants with age-specific effects on BMI, most of which are more important for BMI prior to age 55 than at later ages [ 7 ]. (
  • showed that while a genetic score comprised of 97 genetic variants for BMI was associated with BMI across all age categories, the effect declined in late-life [ 8 ]. (