Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Role of intergenerational effects on linear growth. (1/105)

Current knowledge on the role of intergenerational effects on linear growth is reviewed on the basis of a literature search and recent findings from an ongoing study in Guatemala. Fourteen studies were identified, most of which examined the intergenerational relationships in birth weight. Overall, for every 100 g increase in maternal birth weight, her child's birth weight increased by 10-20 g. The study samples were primarily from developed countries, and birth weight data were extracted from hospital records and/or birth registries. Among the few studies that examined associations between the adult heights of parents and their offspring, correlation coefficients of 0.42-0.5 were reported. None of the studies examined intergenerational relationships in birth length or linear growth patterns during early childhood, preadolescence and/or adolescence. Prospectively collected data from long-term studies being carried out in rural Guatemala provide the first evidence of intergenerational relationships in birth size in a developing country setting. Data were available for 215 mother-child pairs. Maternal birth size was a significant predictor (P < 0.05) of child's birth size after adjusting for gestational age and sex of the child and other potential confounders. Child's birth weight increased by 29 g/100 g increase in maternal birth weight which is nearly twice that reported in developed countries. Similarly, child's birth length increased by 0.2 cm for every 1 cm increase in mother's birth length. The effect of maternal birth weight remained significant even after adjusting for maternal adult size. More evidence from developing countries will help explain the underlying mechanisms and identify appropriate interventions to prevent growth retardation.  (+info)

International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism. (2/105)

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine. (3/105)

We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified.  (+info)

Time trends in the mortality rates for tobacco- and alcohol-related cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx in Japan, 1950-94. (4/105)

Mortality data of oral cancer over 40 years in Japan were analyzed to investigate time trends of the disease site-specifically and discuss the relation between these trends and the changing patterns of consumption of tobacco and alcohol beverages. Mortality rates were adjusted to the world standard population. In the males, overall oral cancer (ICD-9: 141-149) mortality rates have increased consistently from the lowest value of 1.25 (per 100,000 per year) in 1956 to 2.40 in 1992. The rates for females were constantly lower than those for males, and formed a modest peak of 0.96 in 1979. Regarding site-specific mortality rates, tongue cancer (141) presented a decreasing trend, while oro/hypopharyngeal (146, 148) and mouth (143-145) cancers showed increasing patterns, particularly in males. When the changing patterns of male truncated rates for ages 35-64 were compared with those of the annual consumption of cigarette and alcohol per capita, the time trend of oro/hypopharyngeal cancer mortality was analogous to cigarette consumption rather than to alcohol consumption, mouth cancer vice versa, and tongue cancer was not related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. The present findings suggest that tobacco and alcohol have different site-specific effects on the development of cancers within the oral cavity and pharynx.  (+info)

Social environment and year of birth influence type 1 diabetes risk for African-American and Latino children. (5/105)

OBJECTIVE: Credible epidemiological data, primarily from European-origin populations, indicate that environmental factors play an important role in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based registry of incident cases of type 1 diabetes among African-American and Latino children in Chicago was used to explore the influence of individual and neighborhood characteristics on diabetes risk. New cases of insulin-treated diabetes in African-American and Latino Chicagoans aged 0-17 years for 1985-1990 (n = 400) were assigned to one of 77 community areas based on street address. Census tables provided denominators, median household income, percentage of adults > or = 25 years old who had completed high school and college, and a crowding variable for each community area individual-level data were birth cohort, sex, and ethnicity. Outcomes in Poisson regression were sex-, ethnic-, and birth cohort-specific incidence rates. RESULTS: Significant univariate associations between diabetes risk and ethnicity, birth cohort, crowding, and the percentage of adults in each community area who had completed high school and college were observed. African-Americans had a relative risk (RR) of 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.76) compared with Latinos. Risk varied significantly by birth cohort in both ethnic groups. For every 10% increase in the proportion of adults who completed college, the RR for diabetes increased by 25% (RR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.44]). Social class variables were significant determinants of risk for African Americans, but not for Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: The strong birth cohort and social class associations observed in this study implicate an infectious exposure linked with age.  (+info)

Food safety knowledge and practice among elderly people living at home. (6/105)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the food storage knowledge and practice of elderly people living at home. METHODS: Three phase survey data collection: face to face interviews; dietary diaries with a food frequency questionnaire; and follow up interviews. SETTING: Urban Nottingham. PARTICIPANTS: 809 elderly people (aged 65+) randomly selected from general practitioner lists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondent's refrigerator temperature; knowledge of freezer star rating; understanding of "use by" and "sell by" dates; reported ability to read food product safety labels. RESULTS: From a weighted total of 645 refrigerators measured, 451 (70%) were too warm for the safe storage of food (> or = 6 degrees Celsius). Only 41% of respondents (n = 279) knew the star rating of their freezer. Within a smaller sub-sample knowledge of the "use by" and "sell by" dates was good, but 45% of these respondents reported difficulty reading food labels. The storage of foods at inappropriate temperatures was not independent of socioeconomic or demographic status, and tended to be more likely among the poorer and those not living alone. CONCLUSIONS: Food storage practices among the majority of elderly people interviewed in this study do not meet recommended safety standards to minimise the risk of food poisoning.  (+info)

A review of the healthy worker effect in occupational epidemiology. (7/105)

This review article aims to anatomize sources of the healthy worker effect (HWE) and to summarize advantages and limitations of several approaches frequently proposed to eliminate the HWE. Although the HWE is frequently addressed in the context of selection bias, our review suggests that the selection of occupational cohorts with advantageous health status would preferably be addressed as a source of confounding biases. The authors also conclude that the exclusion of unhealthy workers at employment and the study of active workers are the two main sources of HWE, and that the use of the general population as a comparison group in occupational epidemiology should be avoided if possible. The authors encourage investigators to make distinctions between the underlying factors related to the use of the general population as the comparison group in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Increase in cervical cancer mortality in Spain, 1951-1991. (8/105)

BACKGROUND: The trend in cervical cancer mortality in Spain from 1951 to 1991 is examined. METHODS: Analysis of national mortality statistics calculating age standardised mortality rates and an age-period cohort analysis. A fit to the Gompertz function was made to estimate the influence of the environmental factors on the mortality rates evolution. MAIN RESULTS: The age standardised mortality rate in Spain is lower than in other developed countries (USA or Estonia) and equal to Norwegian and Finland rates; but whereas in these countries the trend is to decrease, the Spanish rate has increased during this period, because of a cohort effect. A misclassification bias could be responsible for the trend in women aged 40 and older but the increasing trend in younger women could not be interpreted as espurious. The Gompertzian analysis suggests an increase in environmental factors causing cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer mortality rates are increasing in Spain because of environmental factors.  (+info)

Purpose This study was conducted to describe the trends and age-period-cohort effects within the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in Korea. (APC, C4.8%; 95% CI, C5.1% to C4.4%); however, the incidence and mortality rates among young ladies (< 30 years old) increased. An age-period-cohort model of the incidence and mortality rate showed reducing period effects between 1993 and 2008 and reducing cohort effects between 1928 and 1973, while birth cohorts after 1973 exhibited minor raises in the incidence and mortality Ciproxifan rate of cervical malignancy. Conclusion Recent decreases in the incidence and mortality rate of cervical malignancy were due to decreases in the period and cohort effects, which reflect the implementation of a tumor testing system and changes in lifestyle. However, our findings also highlighted an increase in cohort effects on the incidence and mortality rate among young ladies created after 1973. Keywords: Uterine cervical neoplasms, Incidence, Mortality, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimation of hazard functions in the log-linear age-period-cohort model. T2 - Application to lung cancer risk associated with geographical area. AU - Mdzinarishvili, Tengiz. AU - Gleason, Michael X.. AU - Sherman, Simon. N1 - Funding Information: This work was partially supported by 5 P30 CA3 6727 (NIH) grant and LB506 grant (Nebraska Department of Health). Authors acknowledge Dr. Leo Kinarsky for fruitful discussion and helpful comments.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - An efficient computing procedure for estimating the age-specific hazard functions by the log-linear age-period-cohort (LLAPC) model is proposed. This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer incidence rates and estimates the hazard function for populations with different exposures to a given categorical risk factor. For these populations, the ratio of the corresponding age-specific hazard functions is proposed for use as a measure of ...
This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so far future.The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important.We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age-period-cohort (APC) effects during 1987-2010 were evaluated by log-likelihood estimates in Poisson regression models presented as incidence rate ratios (IRR).There were 399,596 hip fractures in SE and 248,773 in DK. Age-standardized hip fracture rate was stable in SE men but decreased in SE women and in DK. Combined period + cohort effects were generally stronger in SE than DK and in women than men. IRR per period ranged from 1.05 to 1
Using longitudinal panel data, the aim of this study was to examine the contribution of age, period, and cohort effects on changes in physical activity over time in a population-based sample of Canadians. We focused on three domains of physical activities: leisure time, commuting (i.e. walking and cycling), and daily activities (i.e. sedentary behavior). We also examined whether changes in sedentary behavior related to changes in participation in leisure time and commuting activities. We used data from the Longitudinal National Population Health Survey (1994-2011): 10050 participants born between 1935 and 1984 grouped in five 10-years birth cohorts. We examined three outcomes: moderate-to-vigorous leisure time physical activity, active commuting, and sedentary behavior. We also included education, income, and body mass index as covariates. We used hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis to examine the contribution of age, period, and cohort effects to changes over time for each outcome. We found that
A cohort effect is a phenomenon where cohorts of a population differ from each other in some key attribute(s), such body mass. Birth mass, birth dates, rate of growth of juveniles, survival over the first winter, age of first reproduction, and adult survival rates are often related to the influence of the time of birth, which itself is a product of the environmental conditions cohorts face at birth as well as the nutritional condition of their mothers (itself a reflection of environmental conditions faced at or prior to birth). Environmental conditions that can influence birth and early growth attributes include droughts, abnormally high rainfall, late snowfall, and high population density. These and other factors influence birth attributes and early development of juveniles, and these early effects may persist and affect phenotypic quality throughout the lifetime of the cohort. Because many of these cohort effects - body size, body mass, etc. - are tied to survival and reproductive fitness, ...
Co-Principal Investigator: Takashi Yamashita (University of Maryland, Baltimore County). Purpose: Middle-aged and older workers represent nearly half of the U.S. labor force, yet little is known about this populations skill levels and how they interact with education, labor, and other outcomes. In this study, researchers are exploring associations among older U.S. adults skill proficiencies (i.e., literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills), employment, labor force status, lifelong learning and educational attainment and cohort effects on these associations. Skill proficiencies and lifelong learning are critical malleable factors for understanding employment and labor force issues in later life, and because more adults are staying in the labor force longer, policymakers and institutions of learning need to understand how these factors and proficiencies interact and predict education and labor outcomes.. Project Activities: This mixed-methods study will leverage national and international ...
Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Within a single, consistent HAPC-GLMM statistical modeling framework, the…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence of primary liver cancer in Italy between 1988 and 2002. T2 - An age-period-cohort analysis. AU - Dal Maso, Luigino. AU - Lise, Mauro. AU - Zambon, Paola. AU - Crocetti, Emanuele. AU - Serraino, Diego. AU - Ricceri, Fulvio. AU - Vercelli, Marina. AU - De Lisi, Vincenzo. AU - Tagliabue, Giovanna. AU - Federico, Massimo. AU - Falcini, Fabio. AU - Cassetti, Tiziana. AU - Donato, Andrea. AU - Fusco, Mario. AU - Budroni, Mario. AU - Ferretti, Stefano. AU - Tumino, Rosario. AU - Piffer, Silvano. AU - Bellù, Francesco. AU - Mangone, Lucia. AU - Giacomin, Adriano. AU - Vitarelli, Susanna. AU - Franceschi, Silvia. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - We conducted in Italy a study to evaluate trends of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to disentangle the period from birth-cohort effects on PLC incidence. Cases aged AB - We conducted in Italy a study to evaluate trends of primary liver cancer (PLC) and to disentangle the period from birth-cohort effects on PLC incidence. Cases aged KW - ...
Given that the cohort effect can be interpreted as a special case of the interaction between two categorical variables, the equation above satisfies the assumption that there is no interaction 21. Any violation of that assumption can be detected from graphs presenting the age-specific mortality rate by period. Lack of parallelism between the curves suggests the presence of the cohort effect 22.. This study used weighted parameterization, as proposed by Holford 20, as an alternative solution to the non-identifiability problem.. Given that lung cancer is a chronic, non-communicable disease, rate is assumed in this model to be constant within each of the given age and period categories. Individuals are also assumed to be independent cases and, consequently, contributions to different cells in the data base are also independent. Accordingly, the APC models for rates can be adjusted using Poisson Regression for event counts. This methodology permits the use of an offset term log(nijk), which ...
The analysis presented reveals a pessimistic set of findings concerning trends in frailty between 2002 and 2010. There is no evidence for improvement in levels of frailty across cohorts, with a strong suggestion of higher levels of frailty among recent cohorts compared with earlier cohorts (for those cohorts aged over 70 in 2002), particularly for the poorest individuals. This carries the negative implication that the continuing gains in life expectancy are composed of additional years spent in frailty with the potential for greater associated healthcare costs. Inequalities in frailty across the wealth distribution are stark and they appear to widen over the period 2002-2010; the increase in frailty in recent cohorts compared with earlier cohorts is most prominent among the poorest individuals with little evidence of such cohort differences among the most affluent. Levels of frailty are higher for women than for men and the analysis of cohort and gender-specific trajectories suggests that this ...
The implemented method uses for smoothing bivariate thin plate splines, bivariate lasso-type regularization, and allows for both period and cohort effects. Thus the mortality rates are modelled as the sum of four components: a smooth bivariate function of age and time, smooth one-dimensional cohort effects, smooth one-dimensional period effects and random errors.. ...
A cohort effect has cau sed a wave of rapid improvements to ripple upwards through mort ality rates in the UK.. For the past four dec ades, people born between 1925 and 1945 have benefited from faster mortality improvements than those born in adjacent generations.. The greatest mortality im provements in the 1960s were experienced by people then in their 30s, in the 1970s it was people then in their 40s, in the 1980s it was people then in their 50s and now in the 1990s it is people in their 60s. This illustrates the cohort effect centred on 1931. Whether the fast-food generations that followed can sustain the trend remains to be seen.. Where you live can also be an indicator of your life expectancy. This is a fact not lost on MGM which offers higher annuity rates to customers in the North of England and Scotland. Com ing from Sun derland, as I do, I find this fact slig htly disturbing. Like most people, given the choice between the possibility of slightly higher pension increases in the future ...
Observed changes in health-related behaviours and disease risk factors may arise from physiological or environmental changes, or from biases due to sampling or measurement errors. We illustrate problems in the interpretation of such changes with longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Mean plasma cholesterol was 14 mg/dl higher in 27- than in 20-year-old black men cross-sectionally, but longitudinally it declined by 4 mg/dl during the 7 years.
Bell, Andrew and Jones, Kelvyn (2014) Another futile quest? A simulation study of Yang and Lands Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort model. Demographic Research, 30 (-). pp. 333-360. ISSN 1435-9871 Full text not available from this repository. ...
Background:Incidence rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vary considerably by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. We assessed whether HCC among sub-groups of the population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and birth cohort are uniform or whether they interact with each other or have changed over time. Methods:Data were from the U.S. Cancer Statistics registry. We assessed annual trends within population sub-groups and examined for secular trends in the male-to-female ratio for HCC incidence. We used joinpoint regression to compute annual percent change and average annual percent change (AAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also used age-period-cohort models to disentangle period and cohort effects. Results:Between 2001 and 2015, HCC rates increased in men and women ≥50 years, remained stable among women aged 40-49, but decreased among males aged 40-44 (AAPC, 2.47%; 95% CI, 3.15%, 1.80%) and 45-49 (AAPC, 3.49%; 95% CI, 4.78%, 2.17%). As a result, the male-to-female incidence ...
Discussion. Anthropometric profiles were observed to differ between older adults in the same age range (71-81 years), born in different periods. Individuals in the more recent birth cohort (1927-1937) showed greater weight gain both in mean BMI and in prevalence of overweight as compared with individuals born in the older cohort (1916-1926). The effects of both birth cohort and age on anthropometric profile seem to have been greater among men than among women.. Despite the scarcity of international and Brazilian studies examining the evolution of body composition over time 5,6,7,21,22, particularly in the elderly population 23, some comparisons can be made. The findings of this study are consistent with the literature as regards the greater prevalence of overweight and obesity among women. In both 1997 and 2008, prevalence of overweight (BMI , 27kg/m2) was greater among women (37.3% in 1997 and 38.9% in 2008) than among men in the same years (respectively, 16% and 32.7%). Comparable prevalences ...
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The University of Zaragoza, sometimes referred to as Saragossa University, s a university located in Zaragoza, in the Aragon region of Spain. Founded .. .
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Many older adults are physically inactive and inactivity increases with age. This knowledge comes from cross-sectional studies. Cross-sectional studies may miss important trajectories within the older adults as a result of retirements, and poor health impact of promotional efforts. The aim of this study was to analyse, longitudinally, the annual effects of age group and birth cohort on self-reported regular exercise in the Swedish population aged 53-84 years during a 16-year period, for each sex separately. A random sample of non-institutionalized persons was interviewed three times from 1988 to 2004 by professional interviewers. In addition to three time-related variables - year of interview, age at the time of the interview, and year of birth - we included the following explanatory variables in the analyses: educational level, body mass index, smoking, and self-reported health status. The data were analysed by a mixed model with a random intercept. The total prevalence of self-reported regular
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Logistic regressions of age-period-cohort models for city arrest rates are estimated with data from seven U.S. cities for the years 1970-1980 to study the dependence of officially designated criminali
Reports on cognitive decline with age have, over the years, come out with two general findings: older adults do significantly worse than younger adults; older adults are just as good as younger adults. Part of the problem is that there are two different approaches to studying this, each with their own specific bias. You can keep testing the same group of people as they get older - the problem with this is that they get more and more practiced, which mitigates the effects of age. Or you can test different groups of people, comparing older with younger - but cohort differences (e.g., educational background) may disadvantage the older generations. There is also argument about when it starts. Some studies suggest we start declining in our 20s, others in our 60s.. One of my favorite cognitive aging researchers has now tried to find the true story using data from the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project involving nearly 3800 adults aged 18 to 97 tested on reasoning, spatial visualization, episodic memory, ...
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R. del Moral (Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain), J. Navarro (Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain), R. Lahoz-Beltra (Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain & Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain), M.G. Bedia M.G. (GIGA - Advanced Computer Graphics Group, Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain), F.J. Serón F.J. (GIGA - Advanced Computer Graphics Group, Department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain), P.C. Marijuán (Bioinformation Systems Biology Group, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza, Spain ...
Results of the present analyses of the RIDI study provide evidence of 1) large geographical variations in risk of childhood type 1 diabetes within Italy, with high-risk areas in both Sardinia and Trento, in the North-East of Italy; 2) a significantly lower risk in girls than in boys, which is more pronounced in Sardinia (−23%) than in peninsular Italy (−9%); and 3) a linear increasing temporal trend, with an annual increment of 2.94%, affecting all age-groups and both sexes. In our dataset, however, it was impossible to ascribe this increase definitively to either a birth cohort or a calendar period effect.. Our findings are based on a national registry using standardized methods of ascertainment of incident cases, covering 40% of the Italian population at risk; moreover, the long time period on which this report is based allows us to add to current knowledge on epidemiology of type 1 diabetes. Heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes risk has been reported worldwide, but Italy is one of the ...
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BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective and dynamic concept resulting from an interplay between importance of and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, it is unclear whether social contexts experienced by individuals born at specific times in history (cohort effects) may influence QoL in old age. This study aimed to compare among older persons born before, during, and at the end of World War II: a) satisfaction with QoL, overall and per domains; b) importance of QoL domains.. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study included representative samples of community-dwelling adults born in 1934-1938 (pre-war), 1939-1943 (war), and 1944-1948 (baby-boom) from the Lausanne cohort 65+. QoL was assessed overall, and in seven domains in 2011 and 2016. Two-by-two cohort comparisons were performed at ages 68-72 (war versus baby-boom) and 73-77 years (pre-war versus war).. RESULTS: Overall satisfaction with QoL did not differ between cohorts despite increased education level ...
This study found evidence of a cohort effect in ACIS incidence, a trend of increasing risk with longer duration of OC use, and an increased risk associated with HPV, especially HPV-18. Taken together, these results suggest that there has been a potential increase in ACIS incidence but do not completely rule out an increase due solely to detection bias.. The increasing incidence of ACIS and AC may be attributed to improved detection with the addition of endocervical brushes to cytologic screening. However, the endocervical brush was introduced in the early 1990s, and the incidence rates have been increasing since the 1970s. Another source of potential improved detection could be that more ACIS has been detected as it has become more widely discussed in the literature, bringing it to the attention of more pathologists. Further evaluation of the impact of screening on ACIS incidence may be possible in the setting of a population-based cytology registry.. If OC users are overrepresented in our case ...
Downloadable! Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 indicate that between 1996 and 2010 females on average lost some of the promotion momentum they had achieved at the beginning of mid-career, although they outperformed males in this regard. For both genders economic downturn has contributed to reduced promotion probabilities. In the case of women, however, cohort effects rather than the cycle seem to explain the promotion experience during the Great Recession. Promotions translate into higher real wage increases, and typically more so where job responsibilities increase. Crowding effects, if not necessarily a thing of the past, are no longer manifested in reduced female promotion rates or earnings.
Clinical trials commonly use adjudication committees to refine endpoints, but observational research or genome-wide association studies rarely do. Our goals were to establish definitions of cause-specific death after unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (URD-HCT), estimate discordance between reported and adjudicated cause-specific death, and identify factors contributing to inconsistency in cause-specific deathdetermination. A consensus panel adjudicated cause-specific deathin 1,484 patients who died within 1 year after HCT, derived from 3,532 acute leukemia or myelodysplasia patients after URD-HCT 2000-2011 reported by 151 U.S. transplant centers to CIBMTR. Deaths were classified as disease-related (DRM) or transplant-related (TRM). The panel agreed with ,99% of deaths reported by centers as DRM and 80% reported as TRM. Year of transplant (cohort effect) and disease status significantly influenced agreement between panel and centers. Sensitivity analysis of deaths ,100 ...
Background: The prevalence of asthma has been rising all over the world. The causes of this epidemic are still not completely known. In this study we aim to estimate the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort on the trends of asthma incidence in Italy.. Methods: Individual information on the history of asthma was collected on 35,375 adults aged 20-64 and born from 1940 to 1989, who were randomly sampled from the general Italian population in 1990/93, 1998/2000 and 2007/10. Overall 3,295 subjects reported asthma from 1,293,801 person-years at risk. Age-specific incidence rates were estimated for both sexes using 5-year age classes in different cohorts and period. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rates by age, birth cohort and period in males and females.. Results: Age, period and cohort showed significant independent effects (p<0.001) on incidence rates of asthma, which was greater in younger subjects and dramatically increased in recent generations. ...
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Background: Obesity is a growing problem worldwide and can often result in a variety of negative health outcomes. In this study we aim to apply partial least squares (PLS) methodology to estimate the separate effects of age, period and cohort on the trends in obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI). Methods: Using PLS we will obtain gender specific linear effects of age, period and cohort on obesity. We also explore and model nonlinear relationships of BMI with age, period and cohort. We analysed the results from 7,796 men and 10,220 women collected through the SLAN (Surveys of Lifestyle, attitudes and Nutrition) in Ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2007. Results: PLS analysis revealed a positive period effect over the years. Additionally, men born later tended to have lower BMI (−0.026 kg·m-2 yr-1, 95% CI: -0.030 to −0.024) and older men had in general higher BMI (0.029 kg·m-2 yr-1, 95% CI: 0.026 to 0.033). Similarly for women, those born later had lower BMI (−0.025 kg·m-2 yr-1, ...
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The scheme took effect from the 2005 cohort. 26 September - Reviews were announced for education awards, new school achievement ... 13 April - A blackout hits several parts of Singapore including Choa Chu Kang, affecting 80,000 households and lasting almost ... 29 June - A blackout occurred for the second time, affecting about one-third of Singapore residents. Investigations reveal that ...
Another 20th-century cohort of affected hatmakers has been studied in Tuscany, Italy. The experience of hatmakers in New Jersey ... Effects of chronic occupational exposure to mercury, such as that commonly experienced by affected hatters, include mental ... It usually begins in the fingers, but the eyelids, lips and tongue are affected early. As it progresses it passes to the arms ... FDA has concluded that the existing data support a finding that infants are not at risk for adverse health effects from the ...
... period and cohort effects" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. 93: 163-165. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.029. PMID 23701919. ... strengejacke.github.io/mixed-models-snippets/random-effects-within-between-effects-model.html#the-simple-random-effect-within- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bell, Andrew; Jones, Kelvyn (2014). "Explaining Fixed Effects: Random Effects Modeling ... analysis of large tables of counts using a Poisson random effects model Age period cohort analysis A recent review Cross- ...
The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times." "Did the Americanization Movement Succeed? An ... The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times". Social Science & Medicine (1982). 127: 63-73. doi: ... However, the new law did not have much effect on: the other women in the company and women how are highly qualified but were ... "The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence." "Booms, Busts and ...
Detrimental effects of the welfare state are consistent with the large cohort differences in benefit morale. Differential ... Effect: An Experiment in Belgium, France and the Netherlands CESifo Working Paper 3408, April 2011. (Dave Walsh and Ray Bull: ... and a greater preventive effect - cannot be ruled out. Neither can it be known how many were smart enough to under-report their ... did not affect their behavior. Criticisms of welfare Medicare fraud Mathieu Lefebvre, Pierre Pestieau, Arno Riedl, Marie Claire ...
"The Liberalization of American Attitudes to Homosexuality and the Impact of Age, Period, and Cohort Effects." Social Forces. ... The empirical research shows that sexual orientation does not affect the likelihood that people will abuse children. Many child ...
... has smaller cohort effects than reasoning performance (considered as fluid intelligence). Both exposure to vocabulary task and ... "Flynn effect" (Dickens & Flynn, 2002). Vocabulary performance (considered as crystallized intelligence) ...
The original cohort of registered by the Indian Council of Medical research (ICMR) was chosen on the basis of health effects ... Instead, the cohort of 96,000 was selected based on severe, moderate, and mildly affected areas based on death rates. Prior ... The selected cohort ratio was heavily skewed toward the severely affected area (75%) and such a selection would have introduced ... Eckerman I (1995). Long-term Health Effects of Exposure to the Bhopal Gases. Observations of the Hazardous Effects on the ...
The IE coefficients validating a cohort effect went from negative to positive in 2009. To this day, none can explain how these ... but results suggest that it might be explained through the cohort effect. Further descriptive epidemiological studies are ... In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, ... The CIR decreased with age between 2002 and 2016 and the age period effect decreased in all observed years. ...
"Effect of Prescription Drug Coupons on Statin Utilization and Expenditures: A Retrospective Cohort Study". Pharmacotherapy. 37 ... the overall effects, prescription non-compliance and health effects, reasons for high prices, prices in other countries, and ... Examples of affected medications include epinephrine auto-injectors and insulin.[17] Between 2011 and 2016, Mylan was the only ... In effect, drug manufacturers in the US were allowed to set their own prices resulting in the unregulated pricing variation for ...
Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent (5 May 2017). "Rethinking 'Generation Me': A Study of Cohort Effects from 1976-2006 ... The focal variable when analyzing generational or cohort differences in dark triad traits has tended to be narcissism, arising ... Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith (5 May 2017). "Birth Cohort Differences in the Monitoring the Future Dataset and Elsewhere ... Reidy, D. E., Zeichner, A. & Seibert, L. A. (2011). Unprovoked aggression: Effects of psychopathic traits and sadism. Journal ...
Lauderdale (2002). "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye colour among US whites". Ann. Hum. Biol. 29 (6): 657- ... In addition, flash photography can sometimes cause a "red-eye effect", in which the very bright light from a flash reflects off ... Another hypothesis about heterochromia is that it can result from a viral infection in utero affecting the development of one ... Wallow; Albert (1997). "The color of the human eye: a review of morphologic correlates and of some conditions that affect ...
... pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating the effects of urbanisation in South Africa". South ...
"The effect of breastfeeding duration on lung function at age 10 years: a prospective birth cohort study". Thorax. 64 (1): 62- ... does clinician education affect breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the hospital?". Birth. 36 (1): 54-9. doi:10.1111/j. ... "Effect of Breastfeeding on Lung Function in Childhood and Modulation by Maternal Asthma and Atopy". Pediatrics. 122 (9): S176- ... "Effects of Early Nutritional Interventions on the Development of Atopic Disease in Infants and Children: The Role of Maternal ...
The Harvard alumni health study is a cohort study focusing on the effect of exercise on coronary artery disease, strokes, ... As with all cohort studies, the narrow catchment criteria for participants was both a strength and a weakness: selecting only ...
The effects of flat feet fall under two categories, which are asymptomatic and symptomatic. Individuals with rigid flat feet ... Part 1: Prospective cohort study". Military Medicine. 170 (6): 623-28. doi:10.7205/MILMED.170.7.623. PMID 16130646. Giladi M, ... 2005). "Effect of foot orthoses on tibialis posterior activation in persons with pes planus". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 37 (1): 24- ... Treatment of flat feet may also be appropriate if there is associated foot or lower leg pain, or if the condition affects the ...
... and no significant positive effects for this cohort were reported by teachers for any elementary year.[15] ... effects would be expected to emerge from the 43 comparisons even if the data were random. The significant effect reported was ... and four-year-old cohorts. The four-year-old cohort showed no significant improvement in the Head Start year or kindergarten, ... the 4-year-old Head Start cohort did "significantly better" on vocabulary and the 3-year-old cohort tested better in oral ...
Evidence of health effects of multivitamins comes largely from prospective cohort studies which evaluate health differences ... It noted that one Swedish cohort study has indicated such an effect, but with all studies taken together, the association was ... The study found a significant effect on heart health in a low-salt diet, and a small effect due to omega-3 and folic acid ... A cohort study that received widespread media attention is the Physicians' Health Study II (PHS-II). PHS-II was a double-blind ...
Gauderman, W (2007). "Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study". The Lancet ... Factors affecting volumes[edit]. Several factors affect lung volumes; some can be controlled and some cannot be controlled. ... Air pollution exposure affects FEV1 in asthmatics, but also affects FVC and FEV1 in healthy adults even at low concentrations.[ ... The effects of body mass index on lung volumes. Chest. 2006 Sep; 130 (3) :827-33. PubMed PMID 16963682. ...
"Analysis of factors that affect outcome after transplantation of kidneys donated after cardiac death in the UK: A cohort study ... On some occasions "the likely effects on the well-being and rights of the public of exposing the full complexity, ambiguity, ...
... making this a period effect, not a cohort effect. In other words, adults of all ages were more cynical and disaffected in the ... The cohort has also been credited as entrepreneurial and productive in the workplace more broadly. The term Generation X has ... The cohort is likely to overtake boomers in 2028. A 2010 Census report counted approximately 84 million people living in the US ... In the U.S., Generation X was the first cohort to grow up post-integration after the racist Jim Crow laws. They were described ...
However, only retrospective cohort studies support the use and safety of etomidate for this test. In addition to its action and ... In those with sepsis, one dose of the medication does not appear to affect the risk of death. Another use for etomidate is to ... Hohl, CM; Kelly-Smith, CH; Yeug, TC; Sweet, DD; Doyle-Waters, MM; Schulzer, M (2010). "The effect of a bolus dose of etomidate ... 2009). "The effects of etomidate on adrenal responsiveness and mortality in patients with septic shock". Intensive Care Med. 35 ...
"Effect of Prescription Drug Coupons on Statin Utilization and Expenditures: A Retrospective Cohort Study". Pharmacotherapy. 37 ... In effect, drug manufacturers in the US were allowed to set their own prices resulting in the unregulated pricing variation for ... Prescription non-compliance and health effectsEdit. Another common way that people saved money, was to skip or reduce dosages ... One way to examine the potential impact of high drug prices on health outcomes is to look at the effects of having prescription ...
... that is not producing any output is termed surplus labour since this cohort could be moved to another sector with no effect on ... The Lewis model underestimates the full impact on the poor economy of a rapidly growing population, i.e. its effects on ... but also the amount of surplus labor and the effect of its withdrawal on output. The Lewis model was applied to the Egyptian ... and rising production via improved labour techniques has the effect of lowering the capital coefficient. Although labour is ...
"Identification and characterization of seven novel mutations of elastin gene in a cohort of patients affected by supravalvular ...
The former may be confounded due to cohort effects while the latter may be biased due to prior test experiences.[27] ... Evidence is consistent with the view that Gf is more affected by brain injury.[7][8] ... the other is invested in particular areas of crystallized skills which can be upset individually without affecting the others." ... specific training effects that do not generalize."[31] ...
Grand MD, Lauderdale DS (November-December 2002). "Cohort effects in a genetically determined trait: eye colour among US whites ... Personal effects and jewels. Prior to 2009, many of Marie's personal belongings were on display at Bran Castle, her residence ... Marie's popularity was severely affected during Michael's reign and, after refusing to be part of the regency council in 1929, ... what will be the effect upon their loyal subjects? Will the British Empire survive? Will Buckingham Palace look as solid then ...
Nausea, dizziness, and headaches, other side effect, can also indirectly affect appetite and result in weight loss. There is ... a prospective cohort study". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 2 (8): 702-709. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00271-0. ISSN 2215-0374. PMID ... The long-term effects on mental health disorders in later life of chronic use of methylphenidate is unknown. A 2009 FDA review ... Rebound effects are often the result of the stimulant dosage being too high or the individual not being able to tolerate ...
Baltes, P.; Reinert, G. (1969). "Cohort effects in cognitive development in children as revealed by cross sectional sequences ... focus on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way ... David Card, "Causal effect of education on earnings," in Handbook of labor economics, Orley Ashenfelter and David Card (Eds). ... Aleed, Yasser (2016). "Effects of Education in Developing Countries". Journal of Construction in Developing Countries. December ...
... and these effects are evident even without weight loss.[93] Aerobic exercise leads to a decrease in HbA1c and improved insulin ... a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 89 (3): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.diabres. ... a meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies". Chinese Medical Journal. 125 (23): 4301-6. PMID 23217404.. ... Although a more recent review found similar effects of ACEIs and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes.[117] There is ...
... pneumoniae against the bactericidal effect of mitomycin C.[17] Michod et al.[18] summarized evidence that induction of ... "The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious ... "Inhibitory and Bactericidal Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Streptococcus pneumoniae on Other Inhabitants of the ...
2010). «Identification and characterization of seven novel mutations of elastin gene in a cohort of patients affected by ...
HIV-related mortality (affected by the recent introduction of antiretrovirals) accounted for 20% of the effect. Mortality ... on the original cost of childhood coverage for these cohorts, most of which comes from lower cash transfer payments."[97] ... Not only do social norms within the state affect its determination of AFDC payment levels, but regional norms will affect a ... Effects[edit]. After Medicaid was enacted, some states repealed their filial responsibility laws, but most states still require ...
The only rule not allowed would be random assignment, for randomness amounts in effect to a nonrule". However, so-called ...
"Psychiatry Online Strong Inverse Association Between Height and Suicide in a Large Cohort of Swedish Men: Evidence of Early ... Disproportionate short stature can be further subdivided as specified by the body segments affected by shortening, namely limbs ... Short-limb short stature can be further subcategorised in accordance with limb segment affected by shortening. These ... barring troublesome side effects and excessive cost of treatments.[7] ...
The brain is divided into 4 lobes and each lobe or area has its own function.[14][15] A tumor in any of these lobes may affect ... "Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study". BMJ. 343: d6387. doi:10.1136/bmj.d6387. PMC ... Brain stem: Tumors on this can affect blood pressure, swallowing, and heartbeat.[citation needed] ... The amount of radiotherapy depends on the size of the area of the brain affected by cancer. Conventional external beam "whole- ...
Side effectsEdit. The side effects of antiandrogens vary depending on the type of antiandrogen - namely whether it is a ... matched cohort study". Br J Clin Pharmacol. doi:10.1111/bcp.13152. PMID 27735065.. ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[74] These side effects include breast ... Mechanisms and paradoxical effects". Ann. Endocrinol. Paris. 50 (3): 50(3):189-99. PMID 2530930.. ...
Research has suggested that job loss adversely affects cardiovascular health[20][82] as well as health in general.[83][84] ... 2012). Differential associations of job control components with mortality: A cohort study, 1986-2005. American Journal of ... a b Richardson, K. M., & Rothstein, H. R. (2008). Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs: A meta- ... Indirect effects also play a role; for example, impaired educational progress or complications outside of work, such as ...
Some of the most harmful effects known from such breeding includes its effects on the mortality rate as well as on the general ... a population-based child cohort study". American Journal of Human Biology. 26 (6): 784-95. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22599. PMID ... In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. ... EffectsEdit. Inbreeding increases the chances of the expression of deleterious recessive alleles by increasing homozygosity and ...
Skidmore, F M; Drago, V.; Foster, P S; Heilman, K M (2009). "Bilateral restless legs affecting a phantom limb, treated with ... 2005). "Prevalence of movement disorders in men and women aged 50-89 years (Bruneck Study cohort): a population-based study". ... "Restless legs syndrome as side effect of second generation antidepressants". Journal of Psychiatric Research 43 (1): 70-5. doi: ...
Possible weight loss effects of drinking water prior to meals[edit]. Main article: Weight loss effects of water ... an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein are associated ... Side effects[edit]. While there are studies that show the health and medical benefits of weight loss, a study in 2005 of around ... 1994). "Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". JAMA. 271 ( ...
Patients of sex reassignment surgery may experience changes in their physical health and quality of life, the side effects of ... "Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): ... possible by using a donor uterus long enough to carry a child to term as anti-rejection drugs do not seem to affect the fetus.[ ...
Examining the effects that activities and workload has upon the skeleton allows the archaeologist to examine who was doing what ... Bioarchaeologists sometimes create life tables, a type of cohort analysis, to understand the demographic characteristics (such ... It was long assumed that iron deficiency anemia has marked effects on the flat bones of the cranium of infants and young ... Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, which states that bones are physically affected and remodeled by physical activity or ...
Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999-10, 341 (15): 1097-105 [2008-12-22] ... Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years. New England Journal of Medicine. 12 June 2017. doi: ... Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N. Engl. J. Med. (Research Support). 2007-08, 357 (8): 741 ... Munger KL, Chitnis T, Ascherio A. Body size and risk of MS in two cohorts of US women. Neurology (Comparative Study). 2009, 73 ...
Choi WH, Lee IA «Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Effect of Ursolic Acid as a Novel Toxoplasmosis Inhibitor» (en anglès). ... Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort» (en anglès). PLoS One, 2016 Feb 17; 11 (2), pp: e0148435. DOI: 10.1371/ ...
... data on almost 900,000 subjects in 61 cohorts demonstrated that blood total cholesterol levels have an exponential effect on ... This result indicates that the low cholesterol effect occurs even among younger respondents, contradicting the previous ... while lower intake from food has the opposite effect. The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol ... assessment among cohorts of older people that this is a proxy or marker for frailty occurring with age.[30] ...
Mixed effects models. *Simultaneous equations models. *Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Linear regression. * ...
Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia ... side effects - simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) - sinusitis - social integration SIT - SIV - Special Projects of National ... placebo effect - plasma - plasma cells - platelets - PML - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii or ... cohort - colitis - combination therapy - community planning - Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) - ...
The long-term effects of this historical secondhand smoke exposure have not been well characterized.[61] ... "Mortality From Neurodegenerative Diseases in a Cohort of US Flight Attendants". American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 59 (7 ... Lee, Chongho; An, Myungsook; Noh, Yonghwi (2015-09-01). "The effects of emotional display rules on flight attendants' emotional ... The effect of cosmic radiation on air crew members is a subject of a growing body of research.[54][55] ...
In the 1900s, the school budget started to see the effects of suburban growth. In 1908, there were 6,483 students and a budget ... The class of 2017 outperformed their peers in Maryland and the nation on Advanced Placement exams, based on AP Cohort Results ...
a b Haines, Megan; et al. (2008). "Predictors and Effects of Self-Objectification in Lesbians", Psychology of Women Quarterly ... an academic cohort named the Lesbian History Group wrote: Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high ... More discussion on gender and sexual orientation identity has affected how many women label or view themselves. Most people in ... Vo, Christine, Carney, Michael (December 2007). "Ovarian Cancer Hormonal and Environmental Risk Effect", Obstetrics and ...
A cohort study suggested that treatment of FH with statins leads to a 48% reduction in death from coronary heart disease to a ... LDLR mutations are more common in certain populations, presumably because of a genetic phenomenon known as the founder effect- ... Less commonly, arteries of the brain are affected; this may lead to transient ischemic attacks (brief episodes of weakness on ... Some studies of FH cohorts suggest that additional risk factors are generally at play when a person develops atherosclerosis.[ ...
"The effect of ABO blood group on the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease" (abstract). Blood 69 (6): 1691-5. பப்மெட்:3495304 ... "Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium". Cancer research 70 ...
... of the cohort had progressive nephropathy despite having controlled the mean systolic BP level ,135 mmHg.[14] ... is affected; with one theory identifying glomerular ischemia as the main contributor to HN and the other identifying glomerular ...
... muscle weakness affecting an arm or a leg; or slurred and nasal speech. The parts of the body affected by early symptoms of ALS ... According to one cohort study, 11.5% of people with ALS have extraocular muscle dysfunction.[34] ... ALS can affect people at any age,[36] but the peak incidence is between 50-75 years[11] and decreases dramatically after 80 ... the disease eventually spreads to unaffected regions and the affected regions become more affected. Most people eventually are ...
The Roe effect is an hypothesis which suggests that since supporters of abortion rights cause the erosion of their own ... "Potassium Chloride-Induced Fetal Demise: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Efficacy and Safety". Journal of Ultrasound in ... An undue burden exists, and therefore, a provision of law is invalid, if its purpose or effect is to place a substantial ... The legalized abortion and crime effect is another controversial theory that posits legal abortion reduces crime, because ...
60-70% of each annual cohort enter higher education).[48] In recent years, a cut in the number of new student places has often ... Since it was the only way to university education and entrance was heavily affected by the status and choices of parents, it ... For instance, the results of the PISA of 2003 demonstrated the long-term effects of early childhood education on school ... But the Kodály philosophy still affects the point of view that many Finnish music educators have. Kodály's basic principles ...
Flood specific mold health effectsEdit. Among children and adolescents, the most common health effect post-flooding was lower ... "Levels of Household Mold Associated with Respiratory Symptoms in the First Year of Life in a Cohort at Risk for Asthma" ... Originally, toxic effects from mold were thought to be the result of exposure to the mycotoxins of some mold species, such as ... Health effectsEdit. Studies have shown that people who are atopic (sensitive), already suffer from allergies, asthma, or ...
Mixed effects models. *Simultaneous equations models. *Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). Linear regression. * ...
Cohort Effects. Last Updated on Fri, 04 Oct 2019 , Population Dynamics A cohort effect is a phenomenon where cohorts of a ... Long-term cohort effects affect overall reproductive success of cohorts over time through their effects on phenotypic quality. ... Cohort effects can also vary by sex; for example, cohort may affect growth of males but not females due to the greater ... Cohort effects can be either short term or long term. Short-term cohort effects influence age structure and population dynamics ...
... collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Within a single, consistent HAPC-GLMM statistical modeling framework, ... Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors ... Mixed Effects Models: Hierarchical APC-Cross-Classified Random Effects Models (HAPC-CCREM), Part I: The Basics ... Mixed Effects Models: Hierarchical APC-Cross-Classified Random Effects Models (HAPC-CCREM), Part II: Advanced Analyses ...
A "cohort effect" has cau sed a wave of rapid improvements to ripple upwards through mort ality rates in the UK. ... This illustrates the cohort effect centred on 1931. Whether the fast-food generations that followed can sustain the trend ...
IALS and ALL and classify cases into synthetic cohorts for estimating age and cohort effects on employment, labor force, skill ... and they can be combined to explore cohort effects. The researchers will pool samples from PIAAC, ... lifelong learning and educational attainment and cohort effects on these associations. Skill proficiencies and lifelong ... cohort), and other basic demographic characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic status). ...
keywords = "Cancer incidence, Cohort effect, Hazard function, Lung cancer, Temporal trend",. author = "Tengiz Mdzinarishvili ... This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer ... This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer ... This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer ...
In this study I examine whether either cohort or period effects may have influenced the interpretation of age effects. Six 10- ... There is evidence of period effects. Within cohorts, relative survival tends to increase with age. ... Differential survival is inferred from changes in the relative proportions of a cohort in each education category as the cohort ... In cross-section, younger persons generally show stronger education effects on survival, although this pattern is clearer for ...
... Alan B. Krueger, Jorn-Steffen Pischke ... w7200 The Labor Supply Effects of the Social Security Earnings Test. Imbens, Rubin, and Sacerdote. w7001 Estimating the Effect ... to estimate the effect of Social Security wealth on the labor supply of older men in the 1970s and 1980s. The analysis focuses ... Second t variation in benefit levels across cohorts is used to estimate the relationship between benefits and labor supply. The ...
Effect of anxiolytic.... *Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study ... Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study BMJ 2014; 348 :g1996 ... Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2014; 348 doi: https ... Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study ...
Effect of childhood socioeconomic conditions on cancer onset in later life: an ambidirectional cohort study. ... The second aim was to test whether this effect remained after adjusting for ASCs, for both cancer overall and by site. ... A recent review on CSCs and adult cancer identified only two studies that investigated both the independent and joint effect of ... The second aim was to test whether this effect remained after adjusting for adult life conditions, ASCs, for cancer overall and ...
Time trends, cohort effects, and geographic patterns in stroke mortality--United States.. Feinleib M1, Ingster L, Rosenberg H, ... Trends are analyzed in terms of both period and cohort effects. Monthly data are examined using a time series regression model ... On a cohort basis, each successive birth cohort since 1890 has improved their life-span experience from stroke deaths. Maps of ...
Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? Prospective cohort study BMJ 2005; 331 : ... Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? Prospective cohort study. BMJ 2005; 331 ... Does dietary folate intake modify effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk? Prospective cohort study ... The Melbourne collaborative cohort study is a prospective cohort study of 41 528 people (24 479 women) aged between 27 and 75 ...
... Young-Gun Kim,1 JungHyun Byun ... N. Amador-Licona, J. M. Guízar-Mendoza, E. Vargas, G. Sánchez-Camargo, and L. Zamora-Mata, "The short-term effect of a switch ... A collaborative meta-analysis of general and high-risk population cohorts," Kidney International, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 93-104, ... A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts," Kidney International, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1341-1352, 2011. ...
This procyclical promotion cohort effect persists even after controlling for workers initial jobs, and explains at least half ... of the wage cohort effects that previous studies have focused on. We repeat the same analyses using personnel records from a ... Using the Swedish employer-employee matched data, we find that a cohort of workers entering the labor market during a boom gets ... This paper studies the long-term effects of the business cycle on workers future promotions and wages. ...
A cartoon suitable for use in teaching about cohort effects versus age effects in epidemiological studies. The cartoon is ... Cartoon: Cohort and Age Effects. A cartoon suitable for use in teaching about cohort effects versus age effects in ...
Effect of neuroticism on risk of cardiovascular disease in depressed persons - a Swedish population-based cohort study.. Almas ... The combined effect of depression and neuroticism on the risk of CVD revealed HRs ranging from 1.0 to 1.9 after adjusting for ... The aim of this study was to determine if neuroticism is an effect-modifier in the association between depression and CVD. Data ... derived from a longitudinal cohort study on mental health, work and relations among adults (20-64 years), including 10,443 ...
Costa, Dora L. and Kahn, Matthew E., Electricity Consumption and Durable Housing: Understanding Cohort Effects (January 2011). ... Electricity Consumption and Durable Housing: Understanding Cohort Effects. NBER Working Paper No. w16732 ...
Seasonal effects on the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps: a prospective cohort study. Scott R. Garrison, Colin R. Dormuth, ... Seasonal effects on the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps: a prospective cohort study ... Garrison et al entitled "Seasonal effects of the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps : a prospective cohort study" published ... Garrison et al entitled "Seasonal effects of the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps : a prospective cohort study" published ...
Thirdly, I propose that a birth-cohort effect is the underlying cause, although in this special case the other way round. The ... Recently, a high-profile study reported a negative birth-cohort effect on leukocyte mean telomere length in human populations, ... Accordingly, because of the resulting birth-cohort effect, there is no need for any paradoxical telomere lengthening in older ... The paradox of longer sperm telomeres in older mens testes: a birth-cohort effect caused by transgenerational telomere erosion ...
... as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of ... HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in ... Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort. A Notice by the Health and ... HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in ...
Cohort studies published before July 2017 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. ... "The Effect of Vitamin A on Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, no. 9: ... The Effect of Vitamin A on Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. Xinge Zhang 1,†. ... Zhang X, Zhang R, Moore JB, Wang Y, Yan H, Wu Y, Tan A, Fu J, Shen Z, Qin G, Li R, Chen G. The Effect of Vitamin A on Fracture ...
This study aimed to estimate the effect of the length of EBF on iron status at 6 - 8 months of age among a cohort of Bolivian ... This study aimed to estimate the effect of the length of EBF on iron status at 6 - 8 months of age among a cohort of Bolivian ... Effect of infant feeding practices on iron status in a cohort study of Bolivian infants. ... Effect of infant feeding practices on iron status in a cohort study of Bolivian infants. BMC Pediatrics, 18(107), [107]. https ...
... BMJ. 2010 Nov 23;341:c6149 ... Setting: Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women. ...
This retrospective cohort study, the largest of its kind, contained people in the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) between 1977 ... To minimize amalgam exposure misclassification the cohort was restricted to people who, at NZDF entry, were aged RESULTS: The ... Further follow-up of the cohort will permit investigation of diseases more common in the elderly. PMID: 15155698 [PubMed - as ... final cohort contained 20 000 people, 84% males. Associations with medical diagnostic categories, particularly disorders of the ...
DESIGN: Pooled data from 5 prospective cohorts. SETTING: Hand-intensive industrial settings, including manufacturing, assembly, ... Effects of varying case definition on carpal tunnel syndrome prevalence estimates in a pooled cohort.. ... DESIGN: Pooled data from 5 prospective cohorts. SETTING: Hand-intensive industrial settings, including manufacturing, assembly ...
The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study ... The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study ...
... little is known about these effects in BPH progression. With the Sample Cohort DB data during 2007 and 2017 from the Health ... and anti-aging effects. Contrary to the studies characterizing metformin effects in prostate cancer, ... Future observational studies and prospective trials are needed to confirm the effects of metformin on BPH progression. ... Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) in South Korea, we investigated the preventative effect of metformin on BPH ...
Effects of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health events on work and earnings: a population-based retrospective cohort study ... Effects of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health events on work and earnings: a population-based retrospective cohort study ... Effects of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health events on work and earnings: a population-based retrospective cohort study ... Effects of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health events on work and earnings: a population-based retrospective cohort study ...
... Huss, Magnus Umeå universitet, Teknisk- ... Finally, as substantial size variation among individuals can develop within cohorts, also intra-cohort cannibalism can occur. ... 1. Ontogenetic scaling and the development of within-cohort size structure. Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster ,, ... Such variation may develop even when individuals are born in the same environment, i.e. within a cohort. I have studied the ...
... its incidence and risk factors have not been measured outside of small institutional cohorts. We analyzed ... ... Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study.. 08:00 EDT 26th July ... Summary of "Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study.". ... The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and ...
... SØren ... It seems that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy has a small but significant effect on the quality of life in later ... The latest follow-up study from the cohort was performed in 1993 and 7,222 of the surviving children were identified (now aged ... Nevertheless, pregnant mothers should be made aware of the potential long-term effects smoking can have on their children. ...
The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study ... The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study ... However, if each lost quality adjusted life year is considered to be worth €22 200, the net effect is reversed to be €70 200 (€ ... However, when a monetary value for life years lost was taken into account, the beneficial net effect of non-smoking to society ...
Effect of Coffee and Green Tea Consumption on the Risk of Liver Cancer: Cohort Analysis by Hepatitis Virus Infection Status. ... Effect of Coffee and Green Tea Consumption on the Risk of Liver Cancer: Cohort Analysis by Hepatitis Virus Infection Status ... Effect of Coffee and Green Tea Consumption on the Risk of Liver Cancer: Cohort Analysis by Hepatitis Virus Infection Status ... Effect of Coffee and Green Tea Consumption on the Risk of Liver Cancer: Cohort Analysis by Hepatitis Virus Infection Status ...
ART-naïve women initiating cART between January 2000/June 2010 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas Cohort were ...
To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on the results we estimated the cohort members relative risk of lung cancer, which ... Estrogen and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Protective Effect in a Nationwide Cohort Study of Patients with Prostate Cancer in ... Estrogen and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Protective Effect in a Nationwide Cohort Study of Patients with Prostate Cancer in ... Estrogen and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Protective Effect in a Nationwide Cohort Study of Patients with Prostate Cancer in ...
Combined Effect of Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Prospective Cohort of Subjects With ... Combined Effect of Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Prospective Cohort of Subjects With ... Combined Effect of Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Prospective Cohort of Subjects With ... Combined Effect of Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Prospective Cohort of Subjects With ...
  • Age-Period-Cohort Analysis: New Models, Methods, and Empirical Applications is based on a decade of the authors' collaborative work in age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. (routledge.com)
  • Because many of these cohort effects - body size, body mass, etc. - are tied to survival and reproductive fitness, cohort effects can influence population dynamics above and beyond the effects associated with typical age-specific reproductive potential or survival patterns. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Cohort effects are most often expressed as lowered reproductive output in the population as a whole as well as lowered lifetime reproductive success of individuals in that cohort. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Differences among cohorts in lifetime reproductive performance have been demonstrated in a diverse array of taxa, including large mammals, marine mammals, birds, fish, insects, and plants. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Long-term cohort effects affect overall reproductive success of cohorts over time through their effects on phenotypic quality. (ecologycenter.us)
  • for example, cohort may affect growth of males but not females due to the greater reproductive activities of males in polygynous species. (ecologycenter.us)
  • In this study, researchers are exploring associations among older U.S. adults' skill proficiencies (i.e., literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills), employment, labor force status, lifelong learning and educational attainment and cohort effects on these associations. (ed.gov)
  • Purpose This study was conducted to describe the trends and age-period-cohort effects within the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in Korea. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • Therefore, the present study was carried out to describe secular trends in the incidence and mortality rate of cervical malignancy in Korea, and to use age-period-cohort analysis to evaluate these factors self-employed effects. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • An age-period-cohort model of the incidence and mortality rate showed reducing period effects between 1993 and 2008 and reducing cohort effects between 1928 and 1973, while birth cohorts after 1973 exhibited minor raises in the incidence and mortality Ciproxifan rate of cervical malignancy. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • Conclusion Recent decreases in the incidence and mortality rate of cervical malignancy were due to decreases in the period and cohort effects, which reflect the implementation of a tumor testing system and changes in lifestyle. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer incidence rates and estimates the hazard function for populations with different exposures to a given categorical risk factor. (nebraska.edu)
  • However, our findings also highlighted an increase in cohort effects on the incidence and mortality rate among young ladies created after 1973. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • A 'cohort effect' is a phenomenon where cohorts of a population differ from each other in some key attribute(s), such body mass. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Short-term cohort effects influence age structure and population dynamics by affecting the numbers of individuals in the cohort that live to be recruited. (ecologycenter.us)
  • The researchers will pool samples from PIAAC, IALS and ALL and classify cases into synthetic cohorts for estimating age and cohort effects on employment, labor force, skill proficiencies and lifelong learning. (ed.gov)
  • The authors show how the empirical application of the models to various problems leads to many fascinating findings on how outcome variables develop along the age, period, and cohort dimensions. (routledge.com)
  • Birth mass, birth dates, rate of growth of juveniles, survival over the first winter, age of first reproduction, and adult survival rates are often related to the influence of the time of birth, which itself is a product of the environmental conditions cohorts face at birth as well as the nutritional condition of their mothers (itself a reflection of environmental conditions faced at or prior to birth). (ecologycenter.us)
  • These and other factors influence birth attributes and early development of juveniles, and these early effects may persist and affect phenotypic quality throughout the lifetime of the cohort. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Mdzinarishvili, T, Gleason, MX & Sherman, S 2010, ' Estimation of hazard functions in the log-linear age-period-cohort model: Application to lung cancer risk associated with geographical area ', Cancer Informatics , vol. 9, pp. 67-78. (nebraska.edu)
  • Although populations need not have complex age-class structure to show cohort effects (e.g., annual plants), cohort effects most commonly occur because of environmental or density stress, which most commonly affects relatively ^-selected species that also tend to have a complex age-class structure. (ecologycenter.us)
  • An efficient computing procedure for estimating the age-specific hazard functions by the log-linear age-period-cohort (LLAPC) model is proposed. (nebraska.edu)
  • Moreover, period effects reflect the factors that influence all age groups simultaneously, such as implementation of a screening system, while cohort effects reflect changes in lifestyle or external environmental exposures. (complextraitgenomics.com)
  • A "cohort effect" has cau sed a wave of rapid improvements to ripple upwards through mort ality rates in the UK. (moneymarketing.co.uk)
  • These surveys cover a number of skills including literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in digital environments, and they can be combined to explore cohort effects. (ed.gov)
  • Design Retrospective cohort study. (bmj.com)
  • This retrospective cohort study, the largest of its kind, contained people in the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) between 1977 and 1997. (prohealth.com)
  • A retrospective cohort study was created including patients who underwent breast reconstruction at the authors' institution from 1996 to 2016. (ovid.com)
  • Retrospective cohort study. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is a retrospective cohort study of deliveries from a tertiary maternity service in Metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, occurring between 2005 and 2009. (frontiersin.org)
  • The retrospective cohort analysis retrieved 3 cases. (bmj.com)
  • This retrospective cohort study was performed to elucidate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 genes and the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin. (deepdyve.com)
  • The presentation will discuss the initial results of a retrospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant acupuncture on IVF reproductive outcomes. (acupunctureresearch.org.uk)
  • Factors affecting likelihood of applicants being offered a place in medical schools in the United Kingdom in 1996 and 1997: retrospective study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Melbourne collaborative cohort study is a prospective cohort study of 41 528 people (24 479 women) aged between 27 and 75 years at baseline (99.3% aged 40-69). (bmj.com)
  • Here we tested the ability of this multigenic model to predict stroke risk in a large population-based prospective cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS This large prospective cohort study provides evidence that SNPs of genes encoding prototypical inflammatory molecules may be used to create multigenic models that predict stroke risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we investigated whether this multigenic model may predict stroke risk in a large population-based prospective cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2018-08-01 00:00:00 Summary Introduction We have investigated orofacial pain in a prospective cohort of obese and normal-weight subjects undergoing fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Specifically, this prospective cohort study compared orthodontic pain experience during the first week of fixed-appliance therapy in two groups of children aged between 12 and 18 years and classified as normal weight and obese based upon body mass index (BMI). (deepdyve.com)
  • ROCHE, SJL y WALTERS, J . Indomethacin and heterotopic ossification in acetabular fractures: A prospective cohort study of the effect indomethacin has on the incidence and severity of heterotopic ossification . (scielo.org.za)
  • 36 weeks of gestation) born to non-smoking mothers participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study. (ccceh.org)
  • The design entails a prospective cohort study with a follow-up duration of 2 years starting in 2017, including 1000 school going children between the ages of 9 to 16 years old. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effect of cannabis use in people with chronic non-cancer pain prescribed opioids: findings from a 4-year prospective cohort study. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • Body mass index and cancer incidence:a prospective cohort study in northern China]. (openrepository.com)
  • Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effects of Recurrent Diverticular Hemorrhage: A Large Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that estrogen protects against the development of gastric cancer, we identified a large cohort of men exposed to therapy with high doses of estrogen, that is, men with prostate cancer diagnosed in Sweden during the period 1961 and 1980 ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Trends are analyzed in terms of both period and cohort effects. (nih.gov)
  • These were plotted for graphical presentation purposes and fitted to Poisson regression models to assess age, period, and cohort effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the longitudinal association between parenting style measured at age 4 years and risk of childhood overweight/obesity from age 5 to 12 years in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) birth-cohort. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results support a conclusion that labor supply continued to decline for the "notch babies" who received lower Social Security benefits than earlier cohorts. (nber.org)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition with linagliptin and effects on hyperglycaemia and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal dysfunction: rationale and design of the MARLINA-T2D™ trial," Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research , vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 455-462, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • I concur with the conclusion of the systematic review with recommendations Dr. Katzberg co-authored that "quinine derivatives for the treatment of muscle cramps should be avoided for routine treatment" with its use reserved for patients informed of the potentially serious side effects of this agent "when cramps are very disabling, no other agents relieve symptoms, and there is careful monitoring of side effects. (cmaj.ca)
  • We therefore sought to determine the effects of metformin on survival and length of stay in a high-risk cohort of diabetic patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of a structured skin care regimen for critically ill patients with fecal incontinence. (ovid.com)
  • Babiera GV, Rao R, Feng L, Meric-Bernstam F, Kuerer HM, Singletary SE, Hunt KK, Ross MI, Gwyn KM, Feig BW (2006) Effect of primary tumor extirpation in breast cancer patients who present with stage IV disease and an intact primary tumor. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSION While a timely work-up of advanced PC patients remains important, delays in treatment initiation due to repeated biopsies, inclusion in a clinical study or transfer to a specialized cancer center appear to be justified in light of the absence of a strong adverse effect of prolonged TTI on prognosis in advanced PC patients. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Objectives To investigate GC-induced bone loss in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (low dose) or transplants (high dose) through a meta-analysis of cohorts. (bmj.com)
  • Cohorts studying patients using bisphosphonates or other anti-osteoporotic drugs or diseases associated with influence on bone loss were excluded. (bmj.com)
  • The Dublin Uveitis Evaluation Tool (DUET) algorithm was developed and validated in a cohort of consecutive patients with AU who were all screened by a rheumatologist for the presence of SpA. (jrheum.org)
  • This study is unique in examining the effect of SpA on patients prior to diagnosis. (jrheum.org)
  • The aim of the Effect of Disease Level on Outcomes of Supervised Exercise in Intermittent Claudication Registry is to determine the effect of the location of stenosis on the outcomes of supervised exercise in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease. (eur.nl)
  • The study compares patients who have had acupuncture to a matched cohort of patients who received IVF usual care only at an NHS Fertility clinic between Jan 2011- Dec 2017. (acupunctureresearch.org.uk)
  • Different effects of cardiac and diaphragm function assessed by ultrasound on extubation outcomes in difficult-to-wean patients: a cohort study. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We designed a cohort study to preform diaphragm ultrasound and TTE before and after the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) in difficult-to-wean patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • We thus assessed the effect of missing ACPA in patients with early inflammatory arthritis in terms of diagnosis and treatment opportunities to determine whether the failure to perform ACPA testing could cause a gap in care. (jrheum.org)
  • Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of dietary folate intake on the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. (bmj.com)
  • HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. (federalregister.gov)
  • They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It seems that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy has a small but significant effect on the quality of life in later adult life. (hindawi.com)
  • The investigators are studying the relationship between exposure to vehicular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the short- and long-term respiratory effects on children who have well-characterized asthma. (epa.gov)
  • Among the reasons for this continuing uncertainty are its illegal status, making it difficult to obtain reliable estimates of cannabis exposure, and the common practice of combining cannabis with tobacco, which makes it difficult to separate the effects of the two substances [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cohort effect relates to lifelong exposure to disease risk factors shared by a whole generation, and period effect relates to factors that simultaneously affect the whole population, such as the introduction of widely available medical care and changes in diagnostic or cause-of-death coding practices. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season affects white matter diffusion measures in collegiate contact sport athletes. (unl.edu)
  • Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between head impact exposure, white matter diffusion measures, and cognition over the course of a single season, even in the absence of diagnosed concussion, in a cohort of college athletes. (unl.edu)
  • We use a new marginal structural Cox model to estimate the effect of abacavir as a flexible function of past exposures while accounting for risk factors that potentially lie on a causal pathway between exposure to abacavir and CVD. (uzh.ch)
  • The estimated function for the effect of past exposures suggests that exposure during the past 6-36 months caused the greatest increase in risk. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abacavir increases the risk of a CVD event: the effect of exposure is not immediate, rather the risk increases as exposure cumulates over the past few years. (uzh.ch)
  • The well-established effects of prolonged exposure of breast tissue to estrogen vary according to breast cancer receptor subtypes and are most consistent for the hormone dependent tumors ( 21 - 23 ). (sjweh.fi)
  • Research on reproductive health effects on children from low-level, long-term exposure to pesticides currently used in the agricultural industry is limited and those on neurobehavioral effects have produced conflicting evidence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Method Multicentre cohort study during May-June 2012 from 95 centres (89 within the UK). (bmj.com)
  • Objective To study the net economic effect of smoking on society. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -We examined changes in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in 412,881 Korean men in birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972 over 8 years from 1992 to 2000 and separately analyzed the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. (drmcdougall.com)
  • Given that ACPA testing is not uniformly covered by the public healthcare systems, such as those in Canada, our objective was to identify the effect of missing ACPA testing on the quality of care and disease outcomes of Canadians with early inflammatory arthritis in the first 3 months of treatment, because that is likely when the initial decisions regarding DMARD treatment would be made. (jrheum.org)
  • Effect of neuroticism on risk of cardiovascular disease in depressed persons - a Swedish population-based cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • Bjørnestad EØ, Borsholm RA, Svingen GFTS, Pedersen ER, Seifert R, Midttun Ø, Ueland PM, Tell GST, Bønaa KH, Nygård O. Neopterin as an effect modifier of the cardiovascular risk predicted by total homocysteine: A prospective 2-cohort study. (uib.no)
  • Combined effects of child and adult elevated blood pressure on subclinical atherosclerosis: the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium. (edu.au)
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the independent effect of increased body size on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Does surgical approach affect outcome after fixation of intra-articular fractures of distal humerus? (medworm.com)
  • We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. (columbia.edu)
  • These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. (columbia.edu)
  • Participants will receive standard care, meaning supervised exercise therapy first, with endovascular or open revascularisation in case of insufficient effect (at the discretion of patient and vascular surgeon). (eur.nl)
  • Setting: Pregnant women attending routine ultrasound examination were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). (uib.no)
  • Missing Anticitrullinated Protein Antibody Does Not Affect Short-term Outcomes in Early Inflammatory Arthritis: From the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort. (medworm.com)
  • The effect of missing ACPA testing was studied to determine whether failure to perform ACPA testing could cause a care gap in early inflammatory arthritis. (medworm.com)
  • a Swedish population-based cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • We compared the associations between use of these substances and lung function in a population-based cohort (n=1,037). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We identified 721 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma in Nordic population-based cancer registries and identified late effects in national hospital registries covering the period 1977-2012. (lu.se)
  • This cohort study investigated the effect of early life nutrition on later performance in developmental milestones and cognitive tests. (who.int)
  • The main goal of the study was to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the neurodevelopment of children over a 7-year follow-up period and to test the hypothesis that the observed cognitive gain in breastfed children in the first years of life is a strong predictor of their cognitive development trajectory, which may be continued in later life. (ccceh.org)
  • We excluded women with a confirmed diagnosis of invasive breast cancer before baseline (n = 381) and women who reported a diagnosis of angina, heart attack, or diabetes at baseline (n = 1461), because their diets were not representative of the whole cohort and we could not rule out the possibility that they had changed their diet in response to a recent diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • response expectancies of 18 treatment-related side effects, questions about baseline health and hormonal treatment, emotional state, and coping style. (urotoday.com)
  • Using data from this cohort, baseline differences by RI were assessed using Pearson's χ² and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. (bmj.com)
  • AbstractObjectivesTo identify baseline predictors of remission and low disease activity (LDA) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the GLADAR (Grupo Latino Americano De estudio de la Artritis Reumatoide) cohort.MethodsPatients with 1- and 2-year follow-up visits were included. (medworm.com)
  • Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. (nih.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis, we used the Melbourne collaborative cohort study to investigate if the association between alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer is modified by intake of dietary folate. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion This study is the first to investigate the association between NSAIDs and echocardiographic parameters and suggests that there is a transient effect of short-term use of NSAIDs on the left ventricular dimension and function of the heart. (bmj.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of detraining on TWI in athletes. (bmj.com)
  • To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction between GDM and maternal body mass index (BMI) on individual neonatal growth parameters and their relationship to each other. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of obesity on pain in subjects undertaking routine orthodontic treatment with fixed-appliances. (deepdyve.com)
  • We used logistic regression to investigate cross-sectional associations with frequency of cannabis use, and lagged mixed-effects models to examine temporal associations between cannabis use and outcomes. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • the protective effect of folate on breast cancer is more pronounced for heavy drinkers. (bmj.com)
  • Effects of varying case definition on carpal tunnel syndrome prevalence estimates in a pooled cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • For statistical comparisons, we calculated the difference in prevalence estimates between 1971-1972 and 1999-2000 for each cohort. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In cross-section, younger persons generally show stronger education effects on survival, although this pattern is clearer for women than for men. (jhu.edu)
  • Because estrogen therapy was the treatment of choice for prostate cancer in Sweden between 1950 and 1980, cohort members diagnosed earlier than 1980 were considered exposed to estrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Path analysis showed that breastfeeding may have an effect even into adult life. (who.int)
  • Corresponding results were obtained in a field study covering 13 studied young-of-the-year perch cohorts in a small lake. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results suggest that exploitation competition is a major factor behind growth patterns in young fish cohorts, generally leading to size convergence. (diva-portal.org)
  • Results An exponential age effect was present for both sexes regardless of cohort or period. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. (columbia.edu)
  • Results: One hundred and fifty-eight (44.6%) of the 354 cohort members had died by the census date. (ebscohost.com)
  • Results During 174 million person-years of follow-up between 1977 and 2011, a total of 190 004 cohort members developed appendicitis and 45 202 developed UC. (bmj.com)
  • It is difficult to assess the extent to which the results observed in this cohort would hold for other working populations, other conditions of employment, or in other cultural settings. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This procyclical promotion cohort effect persists even after controlling for workers' initial jobs, and explains at least half of the wage cohort effects that previous studies have focused on. (repec.org)
  • However, it is unknown whether its effect persists into advanced old age. (ebscohost.com)
  • Further follow-up of the cohort will permit investigation of diseases more common in the elderly. (prohealth.com)
  • Effect of obesity and overweight on left ventricular diastolic function: a community-based study in an elderly cohort. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 These diseases mainly affect the elderly and can prove to be a source of neurological sequelae and disability. (ahajournals.org)
  • This paper studies the long-term effects of the business cycle on workers' future promotions and wages. (repec.org)
  • A cartoon suitable for use in teaching about cohort effects versus age effects in epidemiological studies. (causeweb.org)
  • Cohort studies published before July 2017 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. (mdpi.com)
  • Validity of biobank studies on hormone associated cancers depend on the extent the sample preservation is affecting the hormone measurements. (diva-portal.org)
  • The birthday effect has been seen in studies of general populations in England and Wales, Switzerland, Ukraine, and the United States, as well as in smaller populations such as Major League Baseball players. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been suggested that it may be a statistical artifact, perhaps as a result of anomalies in reporting, but the birthday effect has also been seen in studies that control for known reporting anomalies. (wikipedia.org)
  • DESIGN: Pooled data from 5 prospective cohorts. (cdc.gov)
  • A nonrandomized, quasi-experimental research design (comparison cohort) was used for data collection. (ovid.com)
  • Design A cohort of 7.1 million individuals was established by linkage of national registers in Denmark with data on kinship and diagnoses of appendicitis and UC. (bmj.com)
  • The prospective longitudinal design is a further strength of this study to evaluate the reproductive and neurobehavioural effects of different pesticides on children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Minimal contributions were found for cereals and dairy products, possibly because they are heterogeneous categories of foods with differential health effects, and for fish and seafood, the intake of which is low in this population. (harvard.edu)
  • Factors affecting the probability of first year medical student dropout in the UK: a logistic analysis for the intake cohorts of 1980-92. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These adverse reactions to acute PAH exposures, when recurrent over 3-5 years, have the cumulative effects of more severe asthma and reduced lung function growth. (epa.gov)
  • Orofacial pain is a common adverse effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed-appliances, particularly during the first few days after placement (9-16). (deepdyve.com)
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy was associated with a drastic reduction in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), although it was associated with neonatal adverse effects. (springermedizin.de)
  • Antiretroviral use is associated with a high frequency but mainly low severity adverse effects in newborns. (springermedizin.de)
  • However, when a monetary value for life years lost was taken into account, the beneficial net effect of non-smoking to society was about €70 000 per individual. (bmj.com)
  • Observational, 12‐month, cohort study completed over 4 years. (hsr.org)
  • We investigated the effect of long-term storage (up to 22 years) on immunoassay measurements of three groups of hormones and associated proteins: sex-steroids [estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], pregnancy-specific hormones [human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), placental growth hormone (pGH), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)], and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family hormones exploiting the world largest serum bank, the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC). (diva-portal.org)
  • Three cohorts of students in this study were eligible or attended HISD prekindergarten during the 2001-2002 (Cohort I), 2002-2003 (Cohort II), and 2003-2004 (Cohort III) academic years. (ed.gov)
  • We examined lung function response and side effects to rapamycin in a national cohort. (bmj.com)
  • Early intervention with low-dose rapamycin may preserve lung function and reduce side effects. (bmj.com)
  • The effects of cannabis on lung function remain unclear and may be different from those of tobacco. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cannabis appears to have different effects on lung function from those of tobacco. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In accordance with the hypothesis of the fetal origins of health and disease, the pronounced effects of GDM on fetal growth patterns demonstrated in this study are likely to influence long-term health outcomes in children. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effects on the fetus including those that effect growth are not only associated with short-term complications for the neonate but are also associated with health outcomes in later life. (frontiersin.org)
  • This same cohort completed vision-related [Vision Core Measure 1 (VCM1)] and general health [Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36)] questionnaires when AU was active and resolved. (jrheum.org)
  • Discussion: Using several data quality management strategies, we have established a comprehensive clinical database that provides information about care and outcomes for Canadian children affected by IMD. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Apart from the contribution of age, clear cohort and period effects were evident for diabetes, although the magnitude of the effect was slightly less than that for obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Maternal obesity has been described to have similar effect on BW as GDM ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Approximately one-third of pregnancies are affected by maternal obesity, and in the female Australian population 2011-2012, approximately 56% were classified as overweight or obese ( 1 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • or the effect of unmeasured confounders, is unknown. (bmj.com)
  • First t this paper uses time-series variations in benefit levels to estimate the relationship between benefits and labor supply in an era when real benefits were falling for new recipients: Second t variation in benefit levels across cohorts is used to estimate the relationship between benefits and labor supply. (nber.org)
  • Nevertheless, pregnant mothers should be made aware of the potential long-term effects smoking can have on their children. (hindawi.com)
  • This study was a cohort of newborns from HIV pregnant women followed at the CAISM/UNICAMP Obstetric Clinic from 2000 to 2015. (springermedizin.de)
  • Differential survival is inferred from changes in the relative proportions of a cohort in each education category as the cohort ages. (jhu.edu)
  • To explain the commonly observed pattern of size divergence in animal cohorts, including fish, we suggest that differential timing of diet shifts or mechanisms not related to exploitative interactions must be taken into account. (diva-portal.org)
  • For cohorts with members born in 1926 or earlier, LTBI prevalence was significantly lower in 1999-2000 compared to 1971-1972. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Long-Term Effects of Maternal Smoking on Quality of Life. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the neonatal effects to maternal ART. (springermedizin.de)
  • The analyses of genetic effects in age-matched samples suggest a role of environmental and age-related mechanisms in the associations of different SNPs with TC. (duke.edu)
  • Longitudinal Cohort Study on the Short-Term, Intermediate, and Long-Term Effects of HISD Prekindergarten on Academic Performance, Behavior, College Preparedness, and School Persistence, 2017-2018. (ed.gov)