A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
Experiential, attitudinal, emotional, or behavioral phenomena occurring during the course of treatment. They apply to the patient or therapist (i.e., nurse, doctor, etc.) individually or to their interaction. (American Psychological Association: Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A psychological state of awareness, the practices that promote this awareness, a mode of processing information and a character trait. As a therapy mindfulness is defined as a moment-to-moment awareness of one's experience without judgment and as a state and not a trait.
A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A person's view of himself.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

Effectiveness of brief intervention on non-dependent alcohol drinkers (EBIAL): a Spanish multi-centre study. (1/2336)

OBJECTIVE: The project was designed to compare the effectiveness of brief intervention (BI) versus simple advice (SA) in the secondary prevention of hazardous alcohol consumption. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up was conducted. A total of 74 community-based primary care practices (328 physicians) located in 13 Spanish autonomous regions were recruited initially. Out of 546 men screened, only 229 were randomized into BI (n = 104) and SA (n = 125); 44.6% of practices finalized the study. The interventions on the BI group consisted of a 15-minute counselling visit carried out by physicians which included: (i) alcohol quantification, (ii) information on safe limits, (iii) advice, (iv) drinking limits agreement, (v) self-informative booklet with drinking diary record and (vi) unscheduled reinforcement visits. The SA group spent 5 minutes which included (i), (ii) and (iii). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between both groups at baseline on alcohol use, age, socioeconomic status and CAGE score. After the 12-month follow-up there was a significant decrease in frequency of excessive drinkers (67% of BI group reached targeted consumption, versus 44% of SA; P < 0.001) as well as weekly alcohol intake reduction (BI reached 52 versus 32% in SA; P < 0.001). A trend to improve outcome with the number of reinforcement visits was found with BI. The only predictor of success was the initial alcohol consumption level. CONCLUSIONS: Brief intervention is more effective than simple advice to reduce alcohol intake on adult men who attend primary care services in Spain.  (+info)

Empirical comparison of two psychological therapies. Self psychology and cognitive orientation in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. (2/2336)

The authors investigated the applicability of self psychological treatment (SPT) and cognitive orientation treatment (COT) to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Thirty-three patients participated in this study. The bulimic patients (n = 25) were randomly assigned either to SPT, COT, or control/nutritional counseling only (C/NC). The anorexic patients (n = 8) were randomly assigned to either SPT or COT. Patients were administered a battery of outcome measures assessing eating disorders symptomatology, attitudes toward food, self structure, and general psychiatric symptoms. After SPT, significant improvement was observed. After COT, slight but nonsignificant improvement was observed. After C/NC, almost no changes could be detected.  (+info)

Management of non-cardiac chest pain: from research to clinical practice. (3/2336)

BACKGROUND: Non-cardiac chest pain assessed by cardiologists in their outpatient clinics or by coronary angiography usually has a poor symptomatic functional and psychological outcome. Randomised trials have shown the effectiveness of specialist psychological treatment with those who have persistent symptoms, but such treatment is not always acceptable to patients and may not be feasible in routine clinical settings. OBJECTIVES: To describe a sample of patients referred to cardiac outpatient clinics from primary care in a single health district who were consecutively reassured by cardiologists that there was not a cardiac cause for their presenting symptom of chest pain. DESIGN: Systematic recording of referral and medical information of patients consecutively reassured by cardiologists. Reassessment in research clinic six weeks later (with a view to inclusion in a randomised trial of psychological treatment, which has been separately reported) and followed up at six months. SETTING: A cardiac clinic in a teaching hospital providing a district service to patients referred from primary care. PATIENTS: 133 patients from the Oxfordshire district presenting with chest pain and consecutively reassured that there was no cardiac cause during the recruitment period; 69 had normal coronary angiograms and 64 were reassured without angiography. INTERVENTION: A subgroup (n = 56) with persistent disabling chest pain at six weeks were invited to take part in a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised interview and self report measures of chest pain, other physical symptoms, mood and anxiety, everyday activities, and beliefs about the cause of symptoms at six week assessment; repeat of self report measures at six months. RESULTS: Patients had a good outcome at six weeks, but most had persistent, clinically significant symptoms and distress. Some found the six week assessment and discussion useful. The psychological treatment was helpful to most of those recruited to the treatment trial, but a minority (15%) of those treated appeared to need more intensive and individual collaborative management. Patients reassured following angiography were compared with those reassured without invasive investigation. They had longer histories of chest pain, more often reported breathlessness on exertion, and were more likely to have previously been diagnosed as having angina, treated with antianginal medication, and admitted to hospital as emergencies. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a need for "stepped" aftercare, with management tailored according to clinical need. This may range from simple reassurance and explanation in the cardiac clinic to more intensive individual psychological treatment of associated underlying and often enduring psychological problems. Simple ways in which the cardiologist might improve care to patients with non-cardiac chest pain are suggested, and the need for access to specialist psychological treatment discussed.  (+info)

Treatment of atypical depression with cognitive therapy or phenelzine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (4/2336)

BACKGROUND: Patients with atypical depression are more likely to respond to monoamine oxidase inhibitors than to tricyclic antidepressants. They are frequently offered psychotherapy in the absence of controlled tests. There are no prospective, randomized, controlled trials, to our knowledge, of psychotherapy for atypical depression or of cognitive therapy compared with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Since there is only 1 placebo-controlled trial of cognitive therapy, this trial fills a gap in the literature on psychotherapy for depression. METHODS: Outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder and atypical features (N = 108) were treated in a 10-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing acute-phase cognitive therapy or clinical management plus either phenelzine sulfate or placebo. Atypical features were defined as reactive mood plus at least 2 additional symptoms: hypersomnia, hyperphagia, leaden paralysis, or lifetime sensitivity to rejection. RESULTS: With the use of an intention-to-treat strategy, the response rates (21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score, < or =9) were significantly greater after cognitive therapy (58%) and phenelzine (58%) than after pill placebo (28%). Phenelzine and cognitive therapy also reduced symptoms significantly more than placebo according to contrasts after a repeated-measures analysis of covariance and random regression with the use of the blind evaluator's final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score. The scores between cognitive therapy and phenelzine did not differ significantly. Supplemental analyses of other symptom severity measures confirm the finding. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive therapy may offer an effective alternative to standard acute-phase treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor for outpatients with major depressive disorder and atypical features.  (+info)

Managing somatic preoccupation. (5/2336)

Somatically preoccupied patients are a heterogeneous group of persons who have no genuine physical disorder but manifest psychologic conflicts in a somatic fashion; who have a notable psychologic overlay that accompanies or complicates a genuine physical disorder; or who have psychophysiologic symptoms in which psychologic factors play a major role in physiologic symptoms. In the primary care setting, somatic preoccupation is far more prevalent among patients than are the psychiatric disorders collectively referred to as somatoform disorders (e.g., somatization disorder, hypochondriasis). Diagnostic clues include normal results from physical examination and diagnostic tests, multiple unexplained symptoms, high health care utilization patterns and specific factors in the family and the social history. Treatment may include a physician behavior management strategy, antidepressants, psychiatric consultation and cognitive-behavior therapy.  (+info)

Should schizophrenia be treated as a neurocognitive disorder? (6/2336)

The search is on for meaningful psychopharmacological and cognitive/behavioral interventions for neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Findings in this area are emerging rapidly, and in the absence of integrating frameworks, they are destined to emerge chaotically. Clear guidelines for testing neurocognitive interventions and interpreting results are critical at this early stage. In this article, we present three models of increasing complexity that attempt to elucidate the role of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia in relation to treatment and outcome. Through discussion of the models, we will consider methodological issues and interpretive challenges facing this line of investigation, including direct versus indirect neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications, selection of particular neurocognitive constructs for intervention, the importance of construct validity in interpreting cognitive/behavioral studies, and the expected durability of treatment effects. With a growing confidence that some neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia can be modified, questions that seemed irrelevant only a few years ago are now fundamental. The field will need to reconsider what constitutes a successful intervention, what the relevant outcomes are, and how to define treatment efficacy.  (+info)

Reduction in seizure frequency following a short-term group intervention for adults with epilepsy. (7/2336)

A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a group intervention combining a range of psychological approaches and techniques for seizure management in adults with poorly controlled epilepsy. An uncontrolled AB group design was employed. Seven adults with intractable seizures took part in 8, weekly group sessions which included providing information, employed cognitive-behavioural techniques and addressed emotional difficulties. Weekly seizure logs were kept by participants during the intervention and the following 3 months. Five questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention and at 2-months follow-up to provide an indication of psychosocial well-being. Seizure frequency and scores on the questionnaires were used as outcome measures. There was a significant reduction in seizure frequency in the group, which persisted at follow-up. There were no significant changes on any of the questionnaires. The results suggest that a group-based intervention incorporating a range of psychological techniques may be effective for improving seizure control. The link between seizure reduction and psychological and psychosocial well-being needs further investigation.  (+info)

In pursuit of perfection: a primary care physician's guide to body dysmorphic disorder. (8/2336)

Body dysmorphic disorder is an under-recognized chronic problem that is defined as an excessive preoccupation with an imagined or a minor defect of a localized facial feature or body part, resulting in decreased social, academic and occupational functioning. Patients who have body dysmorphic disorder are preoccupied with an ideal body image and view themselves as ugly or misshapen. Comorbid psychiatric disorders may also be present in these patients. Body dysmorphic disorder is distinguished from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa that encompass a preoccupation with overall body shape and weight. Psychosocial and neurochemical factors, specifically serotonin dysfunction, are postulated etiologies. Treatment approaches include cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and psychotropic medication. To relieve the symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, in higher dosages than those typically recommended for other psychiatric disorders, may be necessary. A trusting relationship between the patient and the family physician may encourage compliance with medical treatment and bridge the transition to psychiatric intervention.  (+info)

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Meditation is not a medical term, but it is often used in the context of mental and physical health. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) defines meditation as "a mind and body practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state."

Meditation can be used as a means of reducing stress and improving overall health and well-being. Some research suggests that meditation may have beneficial effects on conditions such as anxiety, depression, high blood pressure, and chronic pain. However, more rigorous studies are needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of meditation as a medical intervention.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Group psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which a trained therapist treats a small group of individuals together as a group. The therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and social interactions among the members of the group. The group becomes a social microcosm for each individual, allowing them to understand and work through their issues in relation to others.

The size of the group typically ranges from 5-12 members, and meetings can be held in various settings such as hospitals, community mental health centers, or private practice offices. The duration of the therapy can vary, ranging from brief, time-limited groups that meet for several weeks to longer-term groups that meet for several months or even years.

Group psychotherapy can be used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, trauma, and relational difficulties. The therapist facilitates the group process by creating a safe and supportive environment where members can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with one another. Through this process, members can gain insights into their own behavior, develop new social skills, and improve their relationships with others.

Psychotherapeutic processes refer to the methods and techniques used in psychotherapy to help individuals understand and overcome their emotional, cognitive, or behavioral issues. These processes involve various elements such as:

1. Establishing a therapeutic relationship: Building trust and rapport between the therapist and the client is crucial for successful therapy. This relationship provides a safe and supportive environment where the client can explore their thoughts and feelings.

2. Assessment and diagnosis: The psychotherapist evaluates the client's mental health status, identifies any underlying issues or disorders, and develops an individualized treatment plan based on this information.

3. Psychological interventions: These are specific techniques used to address the client's concerns, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, or humanistic therapy. Each approach has its own unique focus, goals, and methods for helping clients change negative patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

4. Collaborative goal setting: Both the therapist and client work together to establish clear, realistic goals for treatment that align with the client's needs and values.

5. Self-exploration and self-understanding: Through various therapeutic techniques, clients gain insights into their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, allowing them to better understand themselves and their motivations.

6. Emotional regulation and coping skills development: Clients learn strategies to manage their emotions more effectively and cope with stressors in healthier ways.

7. Problem-solving and decision-making: Therapists help clients develop critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities, enabling them to make better choices and navigate challenges in their lives.

8. Personal growth and change: As clients progress through therapy, they may experience positive changes in their self-concept, relationships, and overall well-being.

9. Termination and relapse prevention: At the end of treatment, therapists and clients review progress made, discuss any remaining concerns, and develop a plan to maintain gains and prevent future relapses.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Phenelzine is a type of medication known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which breaks down certain chemicals in the brain such as neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine). This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine is primarily used off-label for the treatment of depression that has not responded to other antidepressant medications. It is also used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like phenelzine have several dietary restrictions and potential serious drug interactions due to their mechanism of action. Therefore, they are typically considered a last resort when other antidepressants have failed.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Mindfulness is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in the field of mental health and medicine. Here's a general definition:

Mindfulness is a state of consciousness characterized by non-judgmental awareness and acceptance of the present moment. It involves paying attention to thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a curious and open manner, without getting caught up in them or reacting impulsively. Mindfulness can be cultivated through various practices such as meditation, yoga, and other mindfulness-based interventions.

In medical and psychological contexts, mindfulness is often used as a therapeutic technique to help individuals manage symptoms of anxiety, depression, stress, chronic pain, and other health conditions. Research has shown that mindfulness can have numerous benefits for both physical and mental health, including reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression, improving attention and focus, enhancing emotional regulation, and increasing self-awareness and self-compassion.

I am not able to find a medical definition for "implosive therapy" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or psychotherapy. It may be a term specific to certain alternative or unconventional approaches, and I would recommend conducting further research to find more information from reliable sources.

However, in the context of psychotherapy, "implosive therapy" is a technique that was developed by psychiatrist Arnold A. Lazarus as a part of his multimodal therapy approach. It involves the use of imaginal exposure to feared stimuli or situations in order to reduce anxiety and avoidance behaviors. The therapist asks the client to vividly imagine a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking scenarios, starting with less distressing ones and gradually moving towards more anxiety-provoking ones. This process is repeated until the anxiety response to the imagined scenarios decreases or disappears.

It's important to note that implosive therapy should be administered by a qualified mental health professional who has received proper training in this technique, as it can potentially lead to increased distress if not conducted appropriately.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

Clinical protocols, also known as clinical practice guidelines or care paths, are systematically developed statements that assist healthcare professionals and patients in making decisions about the appropriate healthcare for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence and consist of a set of recommendations that are designed to optimize patient outcomes, improve the quality of care, and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Clinical protocols may cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and disease prevention, and are developed by professional organizations, government agencies, and other groups with expertise in the relevant field.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

Professional-patient relations, also known as physician-patient relationships or doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interactions and communications between healthcare professionals and their patients. It is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery that involves trust, respect, understanding, and collaboration. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines it as "a ethical relationship in which a physician, by virtue of knowledge and skills, provides medical services to a patient in need."

Professional-patient relations encompass various elements, including:

1. Informed Consent: Healthcare professionals must provide patients with adequate information about their medical condition, treatment options, benefits, risks, and alternatives to enable them to make informed decisions about their healthcare.
2. Confidentiality: Healthcare professionals must respect patients' privacy and maintain the confidentiality of their medical information, except in specific circumstances where disclosure is required by law or necessary for patient safety.
3. Communication: Healthcare professionals must communicate effectively with patients, listening to their concerns, answering their questions, and providing clear and concise explanations about their medical condition and treatment plan.
4. Empathy and Compassion: Healthcare professionals must demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their emotional and psychological needs and providing support and comfort when necessary.
5. Cultural Competence: Healthcare professionals must be aware of and respect cultural differences among their patients, adapting their communication style and treatment approach to meet the unique needs of each patient.
6. Shared Decision-Making: Healthcare professionals and patients should work together to make medical decisions based on the best available evidence, the patient's values and preferences, and the healthcare professional's expertise.
7. Continuity of Care: Healthcare professionals must ensure continuity of care for their patients, coordinating with other healthcare providers and ensuring that patients receive appropriate follow-up care.

Professional-patient relations are essential to achieving positive health outcomes, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing medical errors and adverse events. Healthcare professionals must maintain ethical and professional standards in their interactions with patients, recognizing the power imbalance in the relationship and striving to promote trust, respect, and collaboration.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Personality disorders are a class of mental health conditions characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate significantly from the norms of their culture. These patterns often lead to distress for the individual and/or impairments in personal relationships, work, or social functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), identifies ten specific personality disorders, which are grouped into three clusters based on descriptive similarities:

1. Cluster A (Odd or Eccentric) - characterized by odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors:
* Paranoid Personality Disorder
* Schizoid Personality Disorder
* Schizotypal Personality Disorder
2. Cluster B (Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic) - marked by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors:
* Antisocial Personality Disorder
* Borderline Personality Disorder
* Histrionic Personality Disorder
* Narcissistic Personality Disorder
3. Cluster C (Anxious or Fearful) - featuring anxious, fearful behaviors:
* Avoidant Personality Disorder
* Dependent Personality Disorder
* Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

It is important to note that personality disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat. They often require comprehensive assessments by mental health professionals, such as psychologists or psychiatrists, who specialize in personality disorders. Effective treatments typically involve long-term, specialized psychotherapies, with some cases potentially benefiting from medication management for co-occurring symptoms like anxiety or depression.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

An Introduction to Cognitive Therapy & Cognitive Behavioural Approaches What is Cognitive Therapy Academy of Cognitive Therapy ... "Why Distinguish Between Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy". Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. ... "Questions and Answers about Cognitive Therapy". About Cognitive Therapy. Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. ... As cognitive therapy continued to grow in popularity, the non-profit "Academy of Cognitive Therapy" was created in 1998 to ...
... "the father of cognitive behavioral therapy". It was these two therapies, rational emotive therapy, and cognitive therapy, that ... cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, metacognitive therapy, metacognitive ... cognitive processing therapy, cognitive therapy, metacognitive therapy, metacognitive training, relaxation training, ... Over time, cognitive behavior therapy came to be known not only as a therapy, but as an umbrella term for all cognitive-based ...
A computer-assisted type of cognitive rehabilitation therapy called cognitive remediation therapy has been used to treat ... Cognitive rehabilitation therapy (offered by a trained therapist) is a subset of Cognitive Rehabilitation (community-based ... "Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: What We Know and Don't Know about Its Efficacy" (PDF). ECRI ... Approaches to cognitive rehabilitation therapy are generally separated into two broad categories: restorative and compensatory ...
... (CRT) also known as the Ashby Memory Method is a Cognitive therapy for dementia, based on the ... Cognitive therapy, All stub articles, Cognitive psychology stubs). ... ElderWise, Alzheimer Disease: Early Diagnosis & Treatment "Alzheimer: Early Diagnosis & Cognitive Retention Therapy". Archived ... "Cognitive Retention Therapy: Building Bridges to Memory". CSA Journal. 31 (Health): 27-31. Archived from the original on 2012- ...
... cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) evolved as an integrative therapy based on ideas from cognitive and analytic therapies. CAT ... Cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) is a form of psychological therapy initially developed in the United Kingdom by Anthony Ryle. ... In a 1979 paper, he proposed a shorter, more active form of therapy which integrated elements from cognitive therapy practice ( ... Cognitive Analytic Therapy: Active Participation in Change. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Ryle, A (1995). Cognitive Analytic ...
... ". About Us , Cognitive Processing Therapy. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2019. "Cognitive ... "What Is the Difference Between Talk Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? , CBT Toronto". Cognitive Behaviour Therapy ... Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a manualized therapy used by clinicians to help people recover from posttraumatic stress ... Cognitive behavioral therapy Posttraumatic stress disorder Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1993). Cognitive processing ...
... was adapted for anorexia nervosa by Professor Kate Tchanturia and colleagues at the Institute of ... Effects on cognitive skill performance in schizophrenia are durable for months after the therapies are withdrawn, particularly ... Tchanturia, K. (2014). Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) for Eating and Weight Disorders. Routledge. Tchanturia, K., Davies, ... ISBN 9781119998433 Owen, I., Lindvall Dahlgren, C., & Lask, B. Cognitive Remediation Therapy. In B. Lask & R. Bryant-Waugh (Eds ...
"Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: Publication Trends and Future Directions". Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 31 (1): 3-7. doi:10.1080/ ... Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the application of cognitive science to the ... "Cognitive Behaviour Therapy". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2017. Official ... Cognitive science journals, Psychotherapy journals, Behavior therapy, Academic journals established in 1972, Quarterly journals ...
... (CEBT) is an extended version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at helping ... "Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders", Encyclopedia of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. ... CEBT uses techniques from other types of treatment such as Cognitive behavior therapy and Dialectical behavioral therapy. The ... Cognitive behavioral therapy aims to treat where a patient needs the most help, whether that is emotional, behavioral, ...
... (MBCT) is an approach to psychotherapy that uses cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods ... Manicavasgar, V.; Parker, G.; Perich, T. (2011). "Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Vs. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy as a ... applications and resources Your Guide to Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, MBCT.com Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy ... Cognitive therapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Mindfulness (psychology), Meditation). ...
... (I-CBT) is a branch of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that is mainly used to ... "Cognitive behavioral therapy - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2021-06-07. Goleman, Daniel (1995). Emotional ... Beck, Judith S. (1995). Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1609185046. Cordier, Dr. ... Thomas (2016). An Introduction To The Interpersonal Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment System: A 21st Century Recipe for ...
... (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy or counselling that aims at addressing ... "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)". Retrieved 20 April 2014. Dorsey, S (2012). "Trauma-focused CBT for youth ... "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)". Retrieved 20 April 2014. Thomas, Fiona C.; Puente‐Duran, Sofia; ... "TF-CBT Web: A web-based learning course for trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy". Retrieved 20 April 2014. "TF-CBT.org ...
Cognitive therapy within CBT-I is not synonymous with versions of cognitive behavioral therapy that are not targeted at ... Imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT) is a modified cognitive behavioral therapy technique used to treat recurring nightmares. This ... "An open trial of cognitive therapy for chronic insomnia". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 45 (10): 2491-501. doi:10.1016/j.brat ... when delivered as monotherapies or multi-component therapies without cognitive therapy. A 2023 systematic review by McLaren et ...
... based cognitive therapy Multimodal therapy Problem-solving therapy Prolonged exposure therapy Rational emotive behavior therapy ... Cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron Beck. Cognitive analytic therapy Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy ... therapy Cognitive processing therapy for Post traumatic stress disorder Compassion focused therapy Computerised cognitive ... "Third wave cognitive and behavioural therapies: compassion focused therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy and positive ...
He is recognized as the founder of cognitive therapy, one of the elements from which cognitive behavior therapy developed. His ... Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, a non-profit organization located in suburban Philadelphia, is an international ... "Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research". Psychology Net. Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2011-10 ... Aaron T. Beck, Developer of Cognitive Therapy, Dies at 100". The New York Times. 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2021-11-22. Carey, ...
MUJIK.BIZ, Leonid Shiriaev -. "ABCT , Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". www. ... The Association for Advancement of Behavioral Therapies/Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies has been at the ... and Cognitive Therapies conducts a variety of activities to support and disseminate the behavioral and cognitive therapies. The ... Because cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is based on broad principles of human learning and adaptation, it can be used to ...
The roots of CBTraining lie in a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and general cognitive training. Cognitive ... "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Psychology Today". www.psychologytoday.com. Retrieved 2020-11-30. Simons DJ, Boot WR, Charness N ... Although CBTraining employs some similar concepts that define Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, there are some fundamental ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Behavioural sciences). ...
Pessimistic explanatory style Cognitive therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy Self-concept Cognitive bias Automatic negative ... "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , CBT , Simply Psychology". www.simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 2016-10-04. Beck, Aaron T.; Steer ... Beck, Aaron, T (1979-01-01). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 11. ISBN 978-0898629194.{{cite ... Beck's cognitive triad, also known as the negative triad, is a cognitive-therapeutic view of the three key elements of a ...
Challenging and changing cognitive distortions is a key element of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Cognitive comes from the ... In cognitive therapy, decatastrophizing or decatastrophization is a cognitive restructuring technique that may be used to treat ... In 1957, American psychologist Albert Ellis, though he did not know it yet, would aid cognitive therapy in correcting cognitive ... "History of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". National Association of Cognitive Behavioral Therapists Online Headquarters. National ...
... dissonance Cognitive distortion Cognitive linguistics Cognitive module Cognitive space Cognitive style Cognitive therapy (CT) ... Animal cognition Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) Cognitive bias Cognitive bias mitigation Cognitive bias modification ... Ingram, Rick (February 2003). "Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression" (PDF). Cognitive Therapy and Research. 27 (1 ... A cognitive vulnerability in cognitive psychology is an erroneous belief, cognitive bias, or pattern of thought that ...
... the discipline of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved. Aaron T. Beck is generally regarded as the father of cognitive ... The line between cognitive psychology and cognitive science can be blurry. Cognitive psychology is better understood as ... In his 1987 book titled Cognitive Therapy of Depression, Beck puts forth three salient points with regard to his reasoning for ... 38) Beck, A.T., Freeman, A., & Davis, D.D. (2004). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford ...
Beck developed cognitive therapies to address and change these beliefs in order to help manage depression. Cognitive therapy ... "A conceptual framework for the choice of interventions in cognitive therapy". Cognitive Therapy and Research. Springer Science ... Cognitive stimulation Cognitive stimulation aims to enhance "cognitive and social functioning". Its main goal is global ... Early stages of AD and vascular dementia Cognitive training and cognitive dementia are cognitive intervention programmes used ...
... therapies for anxiety, depression and addiction called cognitive bias modification therapy (CBMT). CBMT is sub-group of ... The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) has been used to help understand the connection between cognitive biases and cognitive ... Cognitive bias mitigation and cognitive bias modification are forms of debiasing specifically applicable to cognitive biases ... CBM combines evidence and theory from the cognitive model of anxiety, cognitive neuroscience, and attentional models. Cognitive ...
"Cognitive therapy". In Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M. (eds.). Acceptance and mindfulness in cognitive behavior therapy: ... ACT, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) ... Though mindfulness- and acceptance-based strategies have not been emphasized in cognitive therapy relative to cognitive change ... Ruiz Jiménez, Francisco José (2012). "Acceptance and commitment therapy versus traditional cognitive behavioral therapy: A ...
Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive therapy, Borderline personality disorder). ... Cognitive strategies expand on standard cognitive behavioral therapy techniques such as listing pros and cons of a schema, ... traditional cognitive behavioral therapy). Schema therapy is an integrative psychotherapy combining theory and techniques from ... including cognitive behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic object relations theory, attachment theory, and Gestalt therapy. Four ...
Kingdon, D. G., & Turkington, D. (1994). Cognitive-behavioral therapy of schizophrenia. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press. (CS1 ... A cognitive shift or shift in cognitive focus is triggered by the brain's response and change due to some external force. A ... Cognitive shifts can occur with or without the aid of an externally ingested psychoactive substance such as LSD or peyote. ... Cognitive shifts may occur after a therapist identifies an underlying fear or response mechanism and assists the client with ...
"ABCT , Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". www.abct.org. Retrieved 2020-11-30 ... She led a multi-site randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the ... in 2012 and President of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in 2004-2005. She served as a member of the ... Behavior Therapy, 42(4), 740-750. Beck, J. G., Palyo, S. A., Winer, E. H., Schwagler, B. E., & Ang, E. J. (2007). Virtual ...
Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2008). Acceptance and commitment therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: ... Craske has served as President of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. She was a member of the DSM-IV work ... Other research focuses on anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence and the use of cognitive behavioral therapy as ... Craske, Michelle G. (2017). Cognitive-behavioral therapy. American Psychological Association (Second ed.). Washington, DC. ISBN ...
"ABCT , Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". www.abct.org. Retrieved 2015-11-22 ... A pilot study of couple-based cognitive-behavior therapy". Behavior Therapy. 44 (3): 395-407. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.02.005. ... A Pilot Study of Couple-Based Cognitive-Behavior Therapy". Behavior Therapy. 44 (3): 395-407. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.02.005. ... He is a Fellow and Past President of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) and serves on the ...
"ABCT , Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". www.abct.org. Retrieved 2018-08-09 ... "Successful cognitive behavioral therapy in youth equals decreased ..." Medical Xpress. Medical Xpress. Retrieved 12 November ... of APA in addition to being President of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy(AABT, now ABCT). Kendall ...
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic pain. ... Nonspecific back pain - cognitive behavioral; Backache - chronic - cognitive behavioral; Lumbar pain - chronic - cognitive ... Cognitive behavioral therapy and back pain. In: Steinmetz MP, Beryen SH, Benzel EC eds. Benzels Spine Surgery. 5th ed. ... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic pain. ...
Cognitive therapy and relaxation therapy. In cognitive therapy, the patient is educated to correct inaccurate beliefs about ... Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be used to ameliorate factors that perpetuate or ... Multicomponent therapy that includes behavioral therapy without cognitive therapy is also recommended in the treatment of ... is a term for the combination of cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy, such as stimulus-control therapy or sleep- ...
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) helps patients to understand how automatic thoughts and false ... Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with cognitive restructuring, relaxation techniques, breathing exercises, hypnotic ... Pharmacotherapy, cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), and other psychological treatment modalities are used to manage panic ... Cognitive-behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy is recommended for patients with panic disorder who prefer nonpharmacologic ...
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effective for Treating Trauma Symptoms in Children and Teens ... Many Mental Health Clinicians Using Other, Unproven Therapies. Individual and group cognitive behavioral therapy is effective ... In addition to individual and group cognitive therapy, the Task Force evaluated other interventions including art therapy, play ... Cognitive therapy focuses on a persons thoughts and beliefs, and how they influence mood and actions, and aims to change a ...
An Introduction to Cognitive Therapy & Cognitive Behavioural Approaches What is Cognitive Therapy Academy of Cognitive Therapy ... "Why Distinguish Between Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy". Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. ... "Questions and Answers about Cognitive Therapy". About Cognitive Therapy. Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research. ... As cognitive therapy continued to grow in popularity, the non-profit "Academy of Cognitive Therapy" was created in 1998 to ...
... used Cognitive therapy books online including bestsellers & rare titles at the best prices. Shop Cognitive therapy books at ... Book subjects like Cognitive therapy. *Psychology > Movements > Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). *Self-Help > Anxieties & ... Cognitive Behavior Therapy:... Judith S Beck, PhD, Aaron T Beck, MD (Foreword by) Buy from $6.93 eBook from $39.00 ... Cognitive Processing Therapy... Patricia A Resick, PhD, Abpp, Candice M Monson, PhD Buy from $24.49 eBook from $29.40 ...
According to Dr Mack, "ELITE-cog" is the only study thus far to look at the relationship of hormone therapy to cognitive ... Results of previous studies looking at the effect of hormone therapy on memory and other aspects of cognitive function have ... Cite this: No Cognitive Difference Between Early, Late Estrogen Therapy - Medscape - Oct 19, 2014. ... NATIONAL HARBOR, Maryland - Oral estradiol therapy neither improves nor harms cognitive function in menopausal women, ...
... or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias ... Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Dialectic Behavior Therapy." [1] ... Cognitive behavioral therapy. While similar views of emotion have existed for millennia, cognitive therapy was developed in its ... Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias ...
An Introduction to cognitive behaviour therapy:. http://www.bookdepository.com/An-Introduction-Cognitive-Behaviour-Therapy- ... An Introduction to cognitive behaviour therapy:. http://www.bookdepository.com/An-Introduction-Cognitive-Behaviour-Therapy- ... View more information about cognitive behaviour therapy. Teaching staff. Dr Emily Cooney. CBT Programme Director/ Senior ... View more information about cognitive behaviour therapy. Teaching staff. Dr Emily Cooney. CBT Programme Director/ Senior ...
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is based on the principle that thoughts, feelings, and perceptions influence behavior and ... How Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treat Depression?. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) uses cognitive strategies to help ... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) encompasses a range of cognitive and behavioral techniques and approaches from structured ... What Are the Types of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)?. *Medical Author: Rohini Radhakrishnan, ENT, Head and Neck Surgeon ...
COGNITIVE THERAPY FORUM ARCHIVE Return to the active forum Cognitive Therapy with Children Joop Meijers Ph.D · 7/10/97 at 5:17 ... Re: Cognitive Therapy with Children, by Lia Ades, 6/14/99 *. CT with Aspbergers syndrome in adolescents and young adults, by ... My field of spec: cognitive-behavior therapy with children. I am very interested in hearing from others about their own ... In addition: which video-material (except for Bernards tapes) is available on cognitive therapy with children. Is there any ...
This psychotherapy method draws from and combines the techniques of cognitive psychotherapy and behavior therapy. ... This psychotherapy method draws from and combines the techniques of cognitive psychotherapy and behavior therapy. ...
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Presidents New Researcher Award. Association for Behavioral and Cognitive ... Cognitive Behavior Therapy Funding This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader ... Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Student Dissertation Awards. Virginia A. Roswell Student Dissertation Award ... Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Student Dissertation Awards. Virginia A. Roswell Student Dissertation Award ...
2019) Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment: an Experimental Study in a Nursing Home. ... Cognitive Stimulation therapy. In: "Making a difference" (Bahasa Indonesia version) *Prasetya V. G. H, Halim M. S., Adhiatma W ... Cognitive stimulation therapy on older women with dementia in Indonesia; the impact on executive function. [Poster session]. ... Currently we are doing a 3-arms intervention study, consisting of groups of community-dwelling older people with mild cognitive ...
CBT is a type of talk therapy that helps people realize the connection between thoughts and behavior. We explore how it can be ... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of talk therapy that can help people of all ages, including younger children and ... 2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: A randomized, ... Play therapy. Arts and crafts, dolls and puppets, or role-playing are used to help the child address problems and work out ...
CBT is a type of talk therapy that helps people realize the connection between thoughts and behavior. We explore how it can be ... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of talk therapy that can help people of all ages, including younger children and ... 2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: A randomized, ... Play therapy. Arts and crafts, dolls and puppets, or role-playing are used to help the child address problems and work out ...
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Discover our PGDip in cognitive behavioural therapy CBT (Severe Mental Health) at the University of Southampton. Learn on this ... Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (Severe Mental Health) (PGDip) is a course in the Psychology subject area. Here are some ... Develop your cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) knowledge and skills to the level of a competent CBT practitioner on this ... Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (Severe Mental Health) (PGDip) starting September 2024 for 2 years ...
Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy is Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy that uses gameplay to help children overcome mental ... The Effects of Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Child Sexual Abuse Victims. EasyChair Preprint no. 5890. 3 pages• ... Keyphrases: anxiety, Child Sexual Abuse, Depression, Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy, mental health, Post Traumatic ... Booklet{EasyChair:5890, author = {Laura McLean}, title = {The Effects of Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Child ...
Cognitive-behavioural therapies for children and adolescents - Volume 7 Issue 3 ... The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Children with Anxiety Disorder. Korea ... The merging of behaviour and cognitive therapy into cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) occurred in the 1980s in both Europe ... The merging of behaviour and cognitive therapy into cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) occurred in the 1980s in both Europe ...
The Wisdom of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): A Perfect Gift for New Moms ... Treating the Psychological and the Physical: Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Neurological Disorders ... that many master level clinicians have never learned the foundations of cognitive behavioral therapy. ... Is Your Child Scared By Halloween? A Cognitive Behavioral Therapist Offers Help ...
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Specific interventions for sleep problems have gained the status of established evidence-based ... Cognitive behavioral therapy "refresher" sessions every 3 months to yearly will also help maintain good sleep hygiene ... This section primarily reviews forms of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that are effective in treating a broad range of ... For patients with PLMS or RLS, dopaminergic therapy may be necessary; however, only limited data on dopaminergic therapy in ...
Journalism professor David Tuller returns to TWiV for a discussion of the PACE trial for ME/CFS: the many flaws in the trial, why its conclusions are useless, and why the data must be released and re-examined. You can find TWiV #397 at microbe.tv/twiv, or listen below. [powerpress url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/twiv/TWiV397.mp3″] Click arrow to play Download TWiV 397 (67 MB …. TWiV 397: Trial by error Read More ». ...
PhD Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) are perhaps the two best-known and studied methods ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Similarities and Differences By James A. Henry, ... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) are perhaps the two best-known and studied methods of ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Similarities and Differences. By James A. Henry, PhD ...
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) aims to uncover unhelpful or problematic ways of thinking in order to change unwanted or ... What is cognitive behavioral therapy and how does it work?. CBT aims to uncover unhelpful or problematic ways of thinking in ... But there does seem to be a common starting place most psychologists and other therapists rely on: cognitive behavioral therapy ... You can also check the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies directory to search for a provider.) "Its important ...
Solanto gives cognitive behavioral therapy techniques that can help ADHD adults adults overcome procrastination and improve ... Listen to "CBT for ADHD: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Improve Time Management and Executive Function" with Mary Solanto Ph.D ... In ADDitudes ADHD Experts Podcast episode 54, Mary Solanto, Ph.D., outlines cognitive behavioral therapy techniques that can ... Mary Solanto Ph.D. outlines cognitive behavioral therapy techniques that can help ADHD adults overcome procrastination ward off ...
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Behavior therapy teaches you how to calm your mind and body so you can feel better and think more clearly, thus making better ... Cognitive Behavior Therapy takes two effective forms of Psychotherapy and combines them. * Behavior Therapy: Behavior therapy ... Cognitive Therapy: Cognitive therapy shows you how certain thinking patterns can cause a persons symptoms by giving them a ... Cognitive Behavior Therapy. The therapy with by far the most research support. In study after study, CBT has been shown to be ...
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  • Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies President's New Researcher Award ABCT's 2013-2014 President, Dean McKay, Ph.D., invites submissions for the 36th Annual President's New Researcher Award. (medworm.com)
  • The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies is an interdisciplinary organization committed to the advancement of a scientific approach to the understanding and amelioration of problems of the human condition. (k12academics.com)
  • A cognitive case conceptualization is developed by the cognitive therapist as a guide to understand the individual's internal reality, select appropriate interventions and identify areas of distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • With patience and a good therapist, however, cognitive therapy can be a valuable tool in recovery. (mentalhelp.net)
  • The cognitive therapist provides techniques to give the client a greater degree of control over negative thinking by correcting "cognitive distortions" or correcting thinking errors that abet such distortions, in a process called cognitive restructuring. (mentalhelp.net)
  • The variety of available therapies and therapist credentials being offered is endless, and often confusing and difficult for clients to navigate. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The therapist can get the information they need for therapy by asking the patient to jot down their negative beliefs that come up during the week. (medicinenet.com)
  • The therapist will focus on behavioral and cognitive issues directly related to trauma the child has experienced. (healthline.com)
  • is a cognitive behavioural therapist with over 25 years experience. (dummies.com)
  • With younger children, the therapist is likely to be more active and will make use of a higher proportion of behavioural to cognitive techniques. (cambridge.org)
  • The therapy (whether it's delivered over one session or several) starts with both the therapist and patient collaboratively identifying the problem and problematic thinking. (nbcnews.com)
  • In Cognitive Behavior Therapy , the therapist doesn't settle for just nodding wisely while you carry the whole burden of finding the answers you came to therapy for. (addictionnomore.com)
  • The cognitive therapist will try to elicit automatic thoughts, which are thoughts that come spontaneously, seem plausible to the patient, and are associated with negative affect. (cognitivetherapynyc.com)
  • If you are looking for a therapist who offers Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, please browse our list of practitioners below. (counsellingbc.com)
  • CBT was also directly compared to other specific psychological interventions, and therapist-led CBT resulted in greater reductions in behavioral and cognitive symptoms than interpersonal psychotherapy at posttreatment. (researchgate.net)
  • You can find a therapist in England by visiting nhs.uk/service-search/find-a-psychological-therapies-service . (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • You can pay for private therapy too, with fees upwards of £40 a session, but always make sure that you go to a therapist who is accredited with the British Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies or on the British Psychological Society's list of chartered psychologists. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • What are Clients Asking Their Therapist During Therapist-Assisted Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? (cambridge.org)
  • Gain the confidence and knowledge to be your own Cognitive Behavioral Therapist, enabling you to take control of your mental and emotional well-being. (reed.co.uk)
  • We are currently conducting a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Internet-based, therapist-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy compared to Internet-based, therapist-assisted supportive therapy for WTC rescue, recovery and clean-up workers with persistent clinically significant PTSD symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • The newest and most effective cognitive and behavioral therapy for depression is the cognitive behavioral-analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP). (mentalhelp.net)
  • Our practice focuses primarily on cognitive-behavioural therapy, delivered by highly qualified professionals, because that's what current psychotherapy research tells us works best for most people. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy. (medicinenet.com)
  • This psychotherapy method draws from and combines the techniques of cognitive psychotherapy and behavior therapy . (behavenet.com)
  • Cognitive behavioural therapy, or CBT for short, is often cited as the gold standard of psychotherapy. (dummies.com)
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy takes two effective forms of Psychotherapy and combines them. (addictionnomore.com)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a modern form of short-term psychotherapy based on the idea that the way an individual thinks and feels affects the way he behaves. (intechopen.com)
  • At follow-up, CBT outperformed interpersonal psychotherapy only on cognitive symptoms. (researchgate.net)
  • cognitive symptoms than interpersonal psychotherapy at posttreatment. (researchgate.net)
  • interpersonal psychotherapy only on cognitive symptoms. (researchgate.net)
  • The AASM guideline recommends psychological and behavioral interventions (including, but not limited to, cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT]) as effective in the treatment of chronic comorbid insomnia as well as primary insomnia. (medscape.com)
  • The guideline also encourages these interventions as initial therapy when appropriate. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to individual and group cognitive therapy, the Task Force evaluated other interventions including art therapy, play therapy, drug therapy, and psychological debriefing, but could not find sufficient scientific evidence to support their use. (cdc.gov)
  • As cognitive therapy continued to grow in popularity, the non-profit "Academy of Cognitive Therapy" was created in 1998 to accredit cognitive therapists, create a forum for members to share research and interventions, and to educate the public about cognitive therapy and related mental health issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, cognitive-behavioural strategies with children and adolescents use enactive, performance-based procedures as well as cognitive interventions to produce changes in thinking, feeling and behaviour. (cambridge.org)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the most recognized psychological interventions to improve the overall quality of life of cancer survivors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a treatment approach that uses psychological and behavioral interventions to alter the patient's dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has evolved over more than 60 years from traditional face-to-face therapy to a diverse range of therapies such as internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral interventions. (frontiersin.org)
  • As mentioned above, Beck's cognitive therapy for depression includes activity scheduling treatment strategies adapted from earlier behavioral interventions but also includes cognitive strategies such as cognitive restructuring that were designed to directly challenge and change maladaptive thoughts. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, at times, such approaches may be called either cognitive therapy or CBT, with both incorporating behavioral and cognitive interventions. (medscape.com)
  • Exercise, mind-body interventions, and behavioral treatments (including cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness practices) can encourage active patient participation in the care plan and help address the effects of pain in the patient's life. (cdc.gov)
  • Discussion: The results will advance the use and knowledge of secondary prevention interventions such as ergonomic tools and cognitive behavior therapy, to reduce injury, pain, and disability and to encourage appropriate uses of analgesic medications among HCWs. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the U.S-based National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists: "There are several approaches to cognitive-behavioral therapy, including Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational Living Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Dialectic Behavior Therapy. (mentalhelp.net)
  • With thoughts stipulated as being the cause of emotions rather than vice-versa, cognitive therapists reverse the causal order more generally used by psychotherapists. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Particular adaptations that therapists make in working with children are to do with pacing the content and speed of therapy at a level appropriate for the child, bearing in mind the younger child's limitations in metacognition and ineptitude in labelling feelings. (cambridge.org)
  • But there does seem to be a common starting place most psychologists and other therapists rely on: cognitive behavioral therapy (or "CBT" as it's commonly referred to). (nbcnews.com)
  • CBT therapists often assign homework like reading assignments, writing in a journal and other tasks to help them sharpen the skills they acquire in therapy. (behavioralassociates.com)
  • CBT is a form of psychological therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pharmacotherapy, cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), and other psychological treatment modalities are used to manage panic disorder. (medscape.com)
  • The good news is there is substantial research showing the effectiveness of group or individual cognitive behavioral therapy in treating children and teens experiencing the psychological effects of trauma. (cdc.gov)
  • The American Psychological Association (APA) recognizes CBT as an effective form of psychological therapy and psychiatric medications. (nbcnews.com)
  • Evidence suggests that CBT is the most effective psychological intervention to improve tiredness caused by cancer therapy and can make the quality of life of cancer survivors better ( 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a psychological approach that deals with the way in which clients think about themselves, other people and the world. (counsellingbc.com)
  • The good news is that you can now access psychological therapies, including CBT, through self-referral and you no longer have to see your GP or other health professional first. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Mindfulness -based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may have positive physiological and psychological benefits for breast cancer survivors . (bvsalud.org)
  • In a Canadian review of the evidence, they explored something called 'cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia,' or CBT-I. You will have heard of regular CBT - commonly used to treat anxiety and depression - but CBT-I is a different program altogether. (mydr.com.au)
  • Application of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to common mental health disorders, anxiety, depression, substance abuse and psychotic disorders. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The course is both practical and applied and is designed so participants develop skills which enable them to use Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) in their workplace. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The merging of behaviour and cognitive therapy into cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) occurred in the 1980s in both Europe and North America, particularly on the basis of the successful treatment of panic disorder by Clark (1986) in the UK and Barlow (1988) in the USA. (cambridge.org)
  • cognitive-behavioural approaches can be defined as a rational amalgam: a purposeful attempt to preserve the demonstrated positive effects of behaviour therapy within a less doctrinaire context and to incorporate the cognitive activities of the client into the efforts to produce therapeutic change. (cambridge.org)
  • Applications to particular disorders have been well described in Graham's Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy for Children and Families ( Reference Graham Graham, 1998 ), which should be recommended reading for child and adolescent psychiatrists. (cambridge.org)
  • Despite cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) being the first-line intervention for the disorder, it is often not readily available to patients in need. (nih.gov)
  • In 1995, Ellis created the term "rational emotive behaviour therapy" (REBT) because behavioral factors constitute a fundamental component of this treatment approach [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • More recently, practitioners and scholars started to call it rational emotive and "cognitive behaviour therapy" to emphasize its role in CBT paradigm. (intechopen.com)
  • Although internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) yields large clinical outcomes when accompanied by therapeutic support, a portion of clients do not benefit from treatment. (cambridge.org)
  • Reference Kessler, Aguilar-Gaxiola, Alonso, Chatterji, Lee, Ormel and Wang 2009 ) that can be effectively treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) delivered in individual (e.g. (cambridge.org)
  • This course is ideal for counsellors, NLP practitioners, hypnotherapists and life coaches who want to add Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to their skills and techniques. (reed.co.uk)
  • Beck initially focused on depression and developed a list of "errors" (cognitive distortion) in thinking that he proposed could maintain depression, including arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, overgeneralization, and magnification (of negatives) and minimization (of positives). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mary Solanto Ph.D. outlines cognitive behavioral therapy techniques that can help ADHD adults overcome procrastination ward off the irrational thoughts that can lead to anxiety and depression and more. (additudemag.com)
  • The most cited keywords were "Quality-of-life," "Cognitive-behavioral therapy," "Depression," "Cognitive therapy" and "Breast-cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rick Nauert, PsychCentral: New Canadian research finds a reduction in primary care visits among individuals receiving mindfulness-based therapy for depression. (wildmind.org)
  • Although some critics initially dismissed mindfulness-based therapies as vacuous and New Age-y, dozens of randomized-controlled trials in the past decade have shown that they can be effective in managing depression, panic disorders, social phobias, sleep problems and even borderline personality disorder. (wildmind.org)
  • A study of 160 patients with major depression, led by Dr. Segal and published in the Archives of General Psychiatry last month, found that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was just as good at as antidepressants at warding off relapses of depression. (wildmind.org)
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based form of talk therapy that is effective for anxiety, depression, life transitions, ADD/ADHD and many other mental and physical health symptoms. (behavioralassociates.com)
  • With regard to depression, CBT refers to the use of both cognitive restructuring and the behavioral strategy of activity scheduling or behavioral activation. (medscape.com)
  • Cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of depression stem from early behavioral treatments that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. (medscape.com)
  • Although early versions of activity scheduling primarily focused on increasing mood-related pleasant events, Beck incorporated a form of activity scheduling into his cognitive therapy for depression, aimed at increasing both pleasant events and providing a sense of accomplishment or mastery (eg, working on a resume, completing a school assignment). (medscape.com)
  • During the 1970s, cognitive treatments for depression began to gain in popularity and empirical support, with the most well-known being Beck et al's cognitive therapy for depression. (medscape.com)
  • Within the CBT model, individuals with depression are viewed as exhibiting the "cognitive triad" of depression, which includes a negative view of themselves, a negative view of their environment, and a negative view of their future. (medscape.com)
  • TCPR: Dr. Perlis, you are one of the major researchers of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia. (thecarlatreport.com)
  • Sanchia N. Halim MS. (2019) Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment: an Experimental Study in a Nursing Home. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • CT is one therapeutic approach within the larger group of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) and was first expounded by Beck in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Family therapy sees the unit as a whole, rather than a group of individual member, and this approach can be used to meet a range of of therapeutic outcomes. (counsellingbc.com)
  • Thus, this study aimed to develop a therapeutic protocol based on the Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder in children ages 7 to 11, made possible by the adoption of the bibliographic method. (bvsalud.org)
  • Investigators discovered frequent health service users who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy showed a significant reduction in non-mental health care visits over a one-year period, compared with those who received other types of group therapy. (wildmind.org)
  • The mindfulness therapy group had one fewer non-mental health visit per year, for every two individuals treated with this therapy - which translates into a reduction of nearly 2,500 visits to primary care physicians, emergency departments or non-psychiatric specialists in Ontario over eight years. (wildmind.org)
  • They are not necessarily true, but they can have self-fulfilling consequences," says Zindel V. Segal, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Toronto who devised Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to help depressed patients. (wildmind.org)
  • Mindfulness is essentially a holistic form of therapy in which a number of healing methods such as meditation, movement, counselling skills and lifestyle training all apply. (proprofs.com)
  • Mindfulness is indeed a holistic form of therapy that incorporates various healing methods. (proprofs.com)
  • Immediate impact of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) among women with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) encompasses a range of cognitive and behavioral techniques and approaches from structured psychotherapies to self-help materials. (medicinenet.com)
  • This part-time course is accredited by the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) at level 1 and will count towards your accreditation as an individual practitioner. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Psychotherapies differ from other types of therapy, such as medications, in that they involve a psychologist or other trained professional working with an individual or group to identify a problem and develop solutions. (nbcnews.com)
  • The whole idea of cognitive behavioral therapy is to equip patients to deal with the condition and the resultant outcomes in a more effective manner. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Mental Health organizations have estimated that more than 75 percent of U.S. mental health professionals who treat children and teens with post traumatic stress disorder are using therapies that are not known to be effective. (cdc.gov)
  • The good news is, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-often associated with treating acute mental health conditions-is finding its way into the workplace, where it's being used as a way to combat one of the most common occupational health issues: stress. (dummies.com)
  • Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy is Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy that uses gameplay to help children overcome mental health disorders and or abuse. (easychair.org)
  • Hundreds of studies by research psychologists and psychiatrists have made it clear Cognitive Behavior Therapy is a clinically and research-proven breakthrough in mental health care. (addictionnomore.com)
  • In recent years a new form of mental health treatment called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has undoubtedly become popular. (pauldouglass.co.uk)
  • Behavior and cognitive psychology are important markers and approaches that help specialists in dealing with the conditions faced by patients with mental health issues. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • In addition to being used for managing the conditions that are commonly seen in children, cognitive behavioral therapy is also a frontline option for treating individuals with mental health issues that are regarded as borderline. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • He called his approach Rational Therapy (RT) at first, then Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) and later Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). (wikipedia.org)
  • A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Approach to Relationship Problems. (nacbt.org)
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be used to ameliorate factors that perpetuate or exacerbate chronic insomnia, such as poor sleep habits, hyperarousal, irregular sleep schedules, inadequate sleep hygiene, and misconceptions about sleep. (medscape.com)
  • CBT is most effective for primary insomnia, but it is also effective for comorbid insomnia as adjunctive therapy. (medscape.com)
  • How cost-effective is fully automated digital cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for insomnia? (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Could cognitive behavioural therapy helps to treat insomnia? (mydr.com.au)
  • Cognitive Stimulation therapy. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We have been advised by NHS Education Scotland (NES) that there are a few places still available on their planned Cognitive Stimulation Therapy workshops which are taking place in January 2018. (scottishcare.org)
  • This new cognitive approach came into conflict with the behaviorism common at the time, which claimed that talk of mental causes was not scientific or meaningful, and that assessing stimuli and behavioral responses was the best way to practice psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For additional information regarding nonopioid therapy approaches for treating acute pain, please refer to Recommendation 1 in the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline. (cdc.gov)
  • Becoming disillusioned with long-term psychodynamic approaches based on gaining insight into unconscious emotions, in the late 1950s Aaron T. Beck came to the conclusion that the way in which his patients perceived and attributed meaning in their daily lives-a process known as cognition-was a key to therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considered as one of the most modern and effective approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy differs from other methods that have been in use for treating mental disorders. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a term that encompasses numerous specific treatment approaches for various psychiatric disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Although behavioral approaches typically do not include any direct attempts to change cognitions (but attempt to indirectly do so through changes in behavior), cognitive therapy does directly attempt to change behavior but does so for the ultimate goal of changing cognitions in order to reduce depressive symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Lila Nachtigall, MD, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at New York University-Langone Medical Center, New York City, told Medscape Medical News that the findings surprised her because the lack of cognitive benefit in younger menopausal women conflicts with her clinical experience. (medscape.com)
  • Her clinical interests are in working with people with psychosis, and adopting a cognitive behavioural approach to living well with voices and paranoia. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, affects around one in 800 births and results in a variety of clinical manifestations, including decline in cognitive capacity. (scienceblog.com)
  • From the clinical viewpoint, cognitive performance increased in 6 of the 7 patients with better three-dimensional representation, better understanding of instructions, improved reasoning, attention, and episodic memory. (scienceblog.com)
  • These measures to improve cognitive functions were confirmed by brain imaging conducted by the CHUV Department of Clinical Neurosciences, which revealed a significant increase in functional connectivity. (scienceblog.com)
  • Precursors of certain aspects of cognitive therapy have been identified in various ancient philosophical traditions, particularly Stoicism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of previous studies looking at the effect of hormone therapy on memory and other aspects of cognitive function have conflicted, with some showing harm and others benefit. (medscape.com)
  • Abstract: We investigated the feasibility of videophones for the delivery of problem-solving therapy (PST) for informal hospice caregivers. (unt.edu)
  • Individual and group cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in reducing depressive disorders, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder or other trauma symptoms in children and teenagers, according to an extensive review of dozens of studies conducted by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, an independent group of scientists partially funded by the federal government. (cdc.gov)
  • He later expanded his focus to include anxiety disorders, in Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders in 1976, and other disorders later on. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, many clinicians are using other types of therapy, such as art, play or drug therapy, which are not proven to be effective. (cdc.gov)
  • We hope these findings will encourage clinicians to use the therapies that are shown to be effective," said Robert Hahn, Ph.D., MPH, coordinating scientist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Community Guide Branch and an author of the Task Force report. (cdc.gov)
  • We have found, from our workshops, that many master level clinicians have never learned the foundations of cognitive behavioral therapy. (adaa.org)
  • Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD , by Patricia A. Resick, Candice M. Monson, and Kathleen M. Chard, is the authoritative CPT treatment manual for clinicians. (guilford.com)
  • Clinicians should maximize use of nonpharmacologic and nonopioid therapies as appropriate for the specific condition and patient and only consider opioid therapy for acute pain if benefits are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. (cdc.gov)
  • There was no evidence that CBT was more efficacious than behavior therapy or nonspecific supportive therapies. (researchgate.net)
  • evidence that CBT was more efficacious than behavior therapy or nonspecific supportive therapies. (researchgate.net)
  • However, the 1970s saw a general "cognitive revolution" in psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one of the GTA's most trusted and respected psychology practices, we provide therapy services to to a wide range of clients referred to us from local family physicians. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Cognitive therapy focuses on a person's thoughts and beliefs, and how they influence mood and actions, and aims to change a person's distorted thinking patterns. (cdc.gov)
  • Behavioral therapy focuses on actions and aims to change unhealthy behavior patterns. (cdc.gov)
  • Therapy focuses on the present and the future, rather than on the past. (healthline.com)
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy focuses on finding out exactly what needs to be changed and what doesn't and then works by targeting those areas. (addictionnomore.com)
  • CBT focuses on exactly what traditional therapies tend to leave out: How to achieve BENEFICIAL CHANGE, as opposed to mere explanation or "insight. (addictionnomore.com)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of counseling that focuses on changing certain thoughts and behavior patterns to control the symptoms of a condition. (wellspan.org)
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy focuses on current issues and challenges that affect the client right now. (counsellingbc.com)
  • Family Therapy is different from family systems counselling in that it focuses on relationships within the immediate family unit. (counsellingbc.com)
  • Therapy usually involves an agreed upon goal and a set number of sessions. (healthline.com)
  • 9 Accomplishing these goals involves numerous components of therapy. (ata.org)
  • 11 The intervention, which involves counseling and sound therapy, is designed to facilitate the learning process known as "habituation"-both to any reactions to tinnitus and to the awareness of tinnitus. (ata.org)
  • Stimulus control therapy involves attaching the bed to sleep only - only going to bed when you feel sleepy, staying out of bed when you're awake. (mydr.com.au)
  • Although some may believe that cognitive therapy involves the power of positive thinking, this is an incorrect evaluation. (cognitivetherapynyc.com)
  • NOS One is a term used to refer to a specific process in therapy that involves initializing the entire therapy process. (proprofs.com)
  • Currently we are doing a 3-arms intervention study, consisting of groups of community-dwelling older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) receiving CST and Brain Vitality Exercise, CST only, and treatment as usual. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The effect of CST intervention frequency and combination with other intervention modalities in elderly with Cognitive impairment. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • An Inserm team at the Lille Neuroscience & Cognition laboratory (Inserm/Université de Lille, Lille University Hospital) has joined forces with its counterparts at Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) to test the efficacy of GnRH injection therapy in order to improve the cognitive functions of a small group of patients with Down syndrome. (scienceblog.com)
  • The researchers therefore decided to test the efficacy of pulsatile GnRH therapy on cognitive and olfactory deficits in trisomic mice, following a protocol identical to that used in humans. (scienceblog.com)
  • Objective: This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for eating disorders. (researchgate.net)
  • Before therapy is instituted, most patients are asked to maintain a sleep diary for 1-2 weeks (see Sleep Diary). (medscape.com)
  • According to Dr Mack, "ELITE-cog" is the only study thus far to look at the relationship of hormone therapy to cognitive function during the span of a woman's postmenopausal lifetime, and it is the only one adequately powered to detect differences, with 643 patients initially enrolled and 445 remaining at 5 years in the two-by-two trial. (medscape.com)
  • For sound therapy, patients "enrich their sound environment" and they often use ear-level devices (sound generators) that produce broadband noise, which is adjusted according to a specific protocol. (ata.org)
  • Then a pilot study testing GnRH pulsatile injection therapy was conducted in seven patients. (scienceblog.com)
  • These patients are given pulsatile GnRH therapy in order to reproduce the natural pulsatile rhythm of this hormone's secretion, in order to induce puberty. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy aims to help patients conquer their self doubts in two ways: Either by changing the behaviors that go along with it (I'm so fat-I need to get to the gym! (wildmind.org)
  • Patients are often surprised to be told that there is a point when formal therapy will end that is not so far in the future. (behavioralassociates.com)
  • Among the more popular methods that have been proven to have impressive results, cognitive behavioral therapy is regarded as effective, offering holistic treatment to help patients lead a life that is as close as possible to normal. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • How does cognitive behavioral therapy assist patients diagnosed with mental disorders? (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • CBT is different in that, it is more of a therapy that equips the patients. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model, which states that thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected, and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapy may consist of testing the assumptions which one makes and looking for new information that could help shift the assumptions in a way that leads to different emotional or behavioral reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is this change in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reaction that leads to long-lasting results in a brief amount of time. (behavioralassociates.com)
  • The core premise of this treatment approach was pioneered by Albert Ellis who in 1957 introduced the term "rational emotive therapy" (RET) to emphasize its focus on emotional outcomes. (intechopen.com)
  • A study published by Martin Keller MD of Brown University and others in the May 18, 2000 New England Journal of Medicine compared the antidepressant Serzone with the talking therapy CBASP. (mentalhelp.net)
  • These aims are achieved through the investigation and application of behavioral, cognitive, and other evidence-based principles to assessment, prevention, and treatment. (k12academics.com)
  • Gain a comprehensive understanding of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, its principles, and its application in various contexts. (reed.co.uk)
  • Educational content will integrate a self-management approach to chronic pain using proven cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles. (cdc.gov)
  • First the scientists revealed a dysfunction of the GnRH neurons in an animal model of Down syndrome and its impacts on the cognitive function impairment associated with the condition. (scienceblog.com)
  • CBASP is largely derivative of other talking therapies such as cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal therapy. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Albert Ellis worked on cognitive treatment methods from the 1950s (Ellis, 1956). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1995, Judith released Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond, a treatment manual endorsed by her father Aaron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of cognitive function, which is a secondary outcome, the study showed no effect on early vs late treatment. (medscape.com)
  • However, in recent years, cognitive and behavioral techniques have often been combined into cognitive behavioral treatment. (mentalhelp.net)
  • In Down syndrome, pulsatile GnRH therapy is looking promising, especially as it is an existing treatment with no significant side effects," adds Pitteloud. (scienceblog.com)
  • Therefore, it is especially vital to monitor and ameliorate the adverse consequences of cancer treatment in the course of the chronic process of cancer therapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • It can be used as a supplement to other forms of therapy, or it can be the primary treatment plan. (counsellingbc.com)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy is often the first treatment of choice to manage conditions among children. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • The treatment includes aspects considered relevant by the studied literature, such as psychoeducation, programming of pleasurable activities, problem-solving, cognitive restructuring, training in social skills, and parental involvement throughout the treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Successively, Aaron Beck in 1976 created "cognitive therapy" (CT), which served as the bases for the development of CBT. (intechopen.com)
  • Although cognitive therapy has often included some behavioral components, advocates of Beck's particular approach sought to maintain and establish its integrity as a distinct, standardized form of cognitive behavioral therapy in which the cognitive shift is the key mechanism of change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lund University Cognitive Science, 179. (lu.se)
  • CBT is a form of talk therapy designed to help people recognize unhelpful thoughts and behaviors and learn how to change them. (healthline.com)
  • NATIONAL HARBOR, Maryland - Oral estradiol therapy neither improves nor harms cognitive function in menopausal women, regardless of time since menopause. (medscape.com)
  • While similar views of emotion have existed for millennia, cognitive therapy was developed in its present form by Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck in the 1950s and 1960s. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Increased screening to identify trauma symptoms in children can help these kids get the therapy they need and lessen the likelihood they will engage in these risky health behaviors when they become adults. (cdc.gov)
  • While CBT isn't designed to "cure" conditions such as ADHD, it can be used to complement other therapies and to help improve specific symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Cognitive therapy shows you how certain thinking patterns can cause a person's symptoms by giving them a distorted picture of what's really going on in their life. (addictionnomore.com)
  • The use of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in addition to antipsychotic regimen to treat persistent psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia is growing. (nih.gov)
  • At Behavioral Associates we often combine CBT with biofeedback , neurofeedback and/or Virtual Reality Therapy to treat symptoms organically and without the use of medications. (behavioralassociates.com)
  • JE is associated with immense social and financial burden because of the severe neuropsychiatric sequelae and the need for physical and cognitive therapy throughout the patient's lifetime ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The 2011 second edition of "Basics and Beyond" (also endorsed by Aaron T. Beck) was titled Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Basics and Beyond, Second Edition, and adopted the name "CBT" for Aaron's therapy from its beginning. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the name suggests, cognitive-behavioral treatments incorporate both cognitive and behavioral strategies. (medscape.com)
  • Behavioral modification techniques and cognitive therapy techniques became joined, giving rise to a common concept of cognitive behavioral therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10 Components of CBT specific to tinnitus typically include relaxation techniques, activities for distraction, changing thoughts about tinnitus ("cognitive restructuring"), and education about health, sleep hygiene, and the auditory system. (ata.org)
  • In ADDitude's ADHD Experts Podcast episode 54, Mary Solanto, Ph.D., outlines cognitive behavioral therapy techniques that can help ADHD adults overcome procrastination. (additudemag.com)
  • The cognitive assessment attempts to elicit the patient's idiosyncratic interpretations of events. (cognitivetherapynyc.com)
  • The patient's interpretation is key, for it will become one of the initial targets for therapy. (cognitivetherapynyc.com)
  • This type of therapy can give your child realistic strategies to improve their lives in the here and now. (healthline.com)
  • Given the lack of supporting data, it is advisable to employ behavioral and cognitive strategies initially in most cases. (medscape.com)
  • Behavior therapy teaches you how to calm your mind and body so you can feel better and think more clearly, thus making better decisions. (addictionnomore.com)
  • This CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy) course teaches the skills required for those wishing to learn Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for self-help and those wishing to learn CBT for therapy and counselling. (reed.co.uk)
  • Although audiologists (or any non-behavioral health provider) should not perform CBT without the necessary training and supervision, they could learn to teach the behavioral components of CBT, which require much less training than the cognitive components. (ata.org)
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic pain . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Several nonopioid pharmacologic therapies can be used for chronic pain conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Cognitive therapy is often used in conjunction with mood stabilizing medications to treat bipolar disorder. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Your child can have CBT alone or in combination with medications or any other therapies they might need. (healthline.com)
  • It is important to note that continuing opioid therapy during the subacute time frame might represent the start of long-term opioid therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 7 ] Cognitive therapy is based on the fundamental assumptions that (1) cognitive activity affects behavior, (2) cognitive activity can be monitored and changed, and (3) cognitive changes can lead to desired behavioral changes. (medscape.com)
  • The Inserm scientists were then able to demonstrate that restoring physiological GnRH system function restores cognitive and olfactory functions in trisomic mice. (scienceblog.com)