Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.United StatesMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.

Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. 3. WAIS verbal and performance IQs as a function of post-traumatic amnesia duration and time from injury. (1/8507)

Two studies are reported are reported in which severely head-injured patients were followed up and Verbal (VIQ) and Performance (PIQ) IQs obtained on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale at four intervals after injury. In the first study 51 patients were systematically followed, and results were based upon serial testing. In the second study results were based on the earliest data available from an additional 98 patients who had not been followed so systematically, in order to introduce a control for the effects of practice. Patients in both studies were categorised into four groups of the severity of head injury based upon duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). In both studies, VIQ level was found to be related to PTA duration at three months after injury, while PIQ was related to PTA duration at both three and six months. No such relationships were found at 12 and 30 months after injury. Results are discussed in the context of previous studies relating the outcome of head injury to the duration of PTA.  (+info)

Efficacy and safety of rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: international randomised controlled trial. (2/8507)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of rivastigmine on the core domains of Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, multicentre, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. Patients received either placebo, 1-4 mg/day (lower dose) rivastigmine, or 6-12 mg/day (higher dose) rivastigmine. Doses were increased in one of two fixed dose ranges (1-4 mg/day or 6-12 mg/day) over the first 12 weeks with a subsequent assessment period of 14 weeks. SETTING: 45 centres in Europe and North America. PARTICIPANTS: 725 patients with mild to moderately severe probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, and the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale, rating on the clinician interview based impression of change incorporating caregiver information scale, and the progressive deterioration scale. RESULTS: At the end of the study cognitive function had deteriorated among those in the placebo group. Scores on the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale improved in patients in the higher dose group when compared with patients taking placebo (P<0.05). Significantly more patients in the higher dose group had improved by 4 points or more than had improved in the placebo group (24% (57/242) v 16% (39/238)). Global function as rated by the clinician interview scale had significantly improved among those in the higher dose group compared with those taking placebo (P<0.001), and significantly more patients in the higher dose group showed improvement than did in the placebo group (37% (80/219) v 20% (46/230)). Mean scores on the progressive deterioration scale improved from baseline in patients in the higher dose group but fell in the placebo group. Adverse events were predominantly gastrointestinal, of mild to moderate severity, transient, and occurred mainly during escalation of the dose. 23% (55/242) of those in the higher dose group, 7% (18/242) of those in the lower dose group, and 7% (16/239) of those in the placebo group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Rivastigmine is well tolerated and effective. It improves cognition, participation in activities of daily living, and global evaluation ratings in patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. This is the first treatment to show compelling evidence of efficacy in a predominantly European population.  (+info)

The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children. (3/8507)

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention.  (+info)

Attention and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. A critical review. (4/8507)

In this review we summarize the progress that has been made in the research on attentional and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Like memory, attention is now recognized as consisting of subtypes that differ in their function and anatomical basis. We base our review upon a classification of three subtypes of attention: selective, sustained and divided. This model derives from lesion studies, animal electrophysiological recordings and functional imaging. We examine how these subcomponents of attention can be reconciled with neuropsychological models of attentional control, particularly the Supervisory Attentional System and the Central Executive System of Shallice and Baddeley, respectively. We also discuss the relationship of attention to the concept of executive function. Current evidence suggests that after an initial amnesic stage in Alzheimer's disease, attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. This is consistent with the possibility that difficulties with activities of daily living, which occur in even mildly demented patients, may be related to attentional deficits. It appears that divided attention and aspects of selective attention, such as set-shifting and response selection, are particularly vulnerable while sustained attention is relatively preserved in the early stages. The phenomenon of cognitive slowing in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing emphasizes the need to discriminate quantitative changes in attention dysfunction from qualitative changes which may be specifically related to the disease process. The neuropathological basis of these attentional deficits remains unsettled, with two competing hypotheses: spread of pathology from the medial temporal to basal forebrain structures versus corticocortical tract disconnection. Finally we discuss the difficulties of comparing evidence across studies and look at the implications for the design of future studies and future directions that may be fruitful in the research on attention in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Does vestibular stimulation activate thalamocortical mechanisms that reintegrate impaired cortical regions? (5/8507)

Caloric stimulation induced a transient reversal of multimodal hemispatial cognitive deficits in an 81-year-old woman with an acute left cerebral hemisphere stroke. The patient had unawareness of her right hand (asomatognosia), right-sided visual unawareness (hemineglect), aphasia and right-sided weakness (hemiplegia) prior to the stimulation. Transient improvements in impaired sensory, motor, linguistic and cognitive function developed within 30 s following application of the caloric stimulus and onset of horizontal nystagmus. The effect persisted for 3 min and ceased completely after 5 min. While several recent reports have described the capacity of caloric stimulation to transiently improve or reverse a wide range of attentional, cognitive and motor impairments, most examples are in right-hemisphere-damaged patients with long-standing brain injury. Typically, patients have been tested several months or years after the onset of the deficit. A possible mechanism for the temporary reintegration of multiple cognitive functions in this patient is discussed.  (+info)

Longer term quality of life and outcome in stroke patients: is the Barthel index alone an adequate measure of outcome? (6/8507)

OBJECTIVES: To consider whether the Barthel Index alone provides sufficient information about the long term outcome of stroke. DESIGN: Cross sectional follow up study with a structured interview questionnaire and measures of impairment, disability, handicap, and general health. The scales used were the hospital anxiety and depression scale, mini mental state examination, Barthel index, modified Rankin scale, London handicap scale, Frenchay activities index, SF36, Nottingham health profile, life satisfaction index, and the caregiver strain index. SETTING: South east London. SUBJECTS: People, and their identified carers, resident in south east London in 1989-90 when they had their first in a life-time stroke aged under 75 years. INTERVENTIONS: Observational study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison and correlation of the individual Barthel index scores with the scores on other outcome measures. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (42%) people were known to be alive, of whom 106 (86%) were interviewed. The median age was 71 years (range 34-79). The mean interval between the stroke and follow up was 4.9 years. The rank correlation coefficients between the Barthel and the different dimensions of the SF36 ranged from r = 0.217 (with the role emotional dimension) to r = 0.810 (with the physical functioning dimension); with the Nottingham health profile the range was r = -0.189 (with the sleep dimension, NS) to r = -0.840 (with the physical mobility dimension); with the hospital and anxiety scale depression component the coefficient was r = -0.563, with the life satisfaction index r = 0.361, with the London handicap scale r = 0.726 and with the Frenchay activities index r = 0.826. CONCLUSIONS: The place of the Barthel index as the standard outcome measure for populations of stroke patients is still justified for long term follow up, and may be a proxy for different outcome measures intended for the assessment of other domains.  (+info)

Confusional state in stroke: relation to preexisting dementia, patient characteristics, and outcome. (7/8507)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute confusional state (ACS) is frequent in hospitalized stroke patients. We previously showed that 16% of patients admitted for a stroke have preexisting dementia. The extent to which preexisting cognitive decline is associated with a risk of ACS at the acute stage of stroke remains to be systematically examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ACS in acute stroke patients, to study the influence of preexisting cognitive decline and other patient characteristics, and to evaluate the influence of ACS on outcome. METHODS: We diagnosed ACS using DSM-IV criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale with a cutoff of 10 in 202 consecutive stroke patients aged 40 years or older (median age, 75 years; range, 42 to 101 years). Cognitive functioning before stroke was assessed with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. RESULTS: Forty-nine stroke patients (24.3%; 95% CI, 18.3% to 30.2%) had an ACS during hospitalization. Using logistic regression analysis, we found preexisting cognitive decline (P=0.006) and metabolic or infectious disorders (P=0.008) to be independent predictors of ACS. Functional, but not vital, prognosis was worse in patients with ACS at discharge and 6 months after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: ACS occurs in one fourth of stroke patients older than 40 years. Its occurrence requires inquiry for a preexisting cognitive decline, which usually remains unrecognized in the absence of a systematic evaluation.  (+info)

Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (8/8507)

Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning.  (+info)

Results Among patients with MCI, greater severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater global cognitive impairment, with a moderate effect size. A mediation analysis revealed that patients with MCI experiencing depressive symptoms may exhibit global cognitive impairment because their depressive symptoms were reducing their capacity for working memory, episodic memory and non-speed-based executive functions. A moderation analysis indicated that this effect was consistent across age, gender, years of education and APOE-e4 status for working memory and episodic memory, and was observed in patients with MCI older than 65 years for executive functions. In cognitively normal elderly adults and patients with AD, depressive symptoms were not associated with global cognitive impairment. ...
U.S., March 20 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03081429) titled A Prospective Cohort Study of Perioperative Covert Stroke and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction on March 10. Brief Summary: With the development of population aging, the incidence of covert stroke and cognitive dysfunction gradually increased. Currently, there is still lack of prospective cohort study with large sample size on the relationship between perioperative covert stroke and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The investigators will perform a prospective cohort study. The aim of the study is to determine whether there is an association between perioperative covert stroke and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Study Start Date: Study Type: Observational Condition: Anesthesia Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction Covert Stroke Intervention: Not Provided Recruitment Status: Not yet recruiting Sponsor: Beijing Tiantan Hospital ...
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Washington D.C. [USA], June 10 (ANI): U.S. researchers have found that radiation therapy (RT) used for treating patients with brain tumors can alter neural networks and cause long-term cognitive impairment.
Long-term cognitive impairment is a significant public health problem. In the October 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the BRAIN-ICU
This study aimed to assess the relationship between renal impairment and cognitive decline. Of the 3769 patients, 396 (10%) had cognitive impairment at the outset. After the 2-year follow-up, 194 participants (6.2%) developed new cognitive impairment. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that moderate-to-severe impaired renal function was associated with incident cognitive impairment after 2 years in a large cohort of elderly subjects ...
Objective: Mini-mental state examination, a nonspecific measure of global cognitive function, and the clock drawing test, a very concise and specific measure of cognitive function, are among the most widely used screening tests for cognitive dysfunction. The present research aimed to examine the correspondence between MMSE and CDT scores. Methods: A total of ...
Objective: To use functional MRI )fMRI) to investigate whether hippocampal activation during a memory task can predict cognitive decline in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: 25 older individuals with MCI performed a visual scene encoding task during fMRI scanning, and were followed clinically for at least 4 years after scanning. A hypothesis driven analysis of fMRI data was performed. First, fMRI data were analysed at the group level to identify the regions of the hippocampal formation that were engaged by this memory task. Parameter estimates of each subjects memory related hippocampal activation )% signal change) were extracted and were analysed with a linear regression model to determine whether hippocampal activation predicted the degree or rate of cognitive decline, as measured by change in Clinical Dementia Rating Sum-of-Boxes )CDR-SB). Results: Over 5.9 (1.2) years of follow-up after scanning, subjects varied widely in degree and rate of cognitive decline (change ...
Although cognitive disabilities and intellectual disabilities are related, the terms refer to different effects and conditions. In this lesson, we...
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery. POCD is distinct from emergence delirium. It occurs most commonly in older patients and those with pre-existing cognitive impairment. The causes of POCD are not understood. It does not appear to be caused by lack of oxygen or impaired blood flow to the brain and is equally likely under regional and general anesthesia. It may be mediated by the bodys inflammatory response to surgery. POCD is common after cardiac surgery, and recent studies have now verified that POCD also exists after major non-cardiac surgery, although at a lower incidence. The risk of POCD increases with age, and the type of surgery is also important because there is a very low incidence associated with minor surgery. POCD is common in adult patients of all ages at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subjective cognitive complaints and objective cognitive impairment in parkinsons disease. AU - Hong, Jin Yong. AU - Lee, Yoonju. AU - Sunwoo, Mun Kyung. AU - Sohn, Young H.. AU - Lee, Phil Hyu. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. N2 - Background and Purpose Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are very common in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). However, the relationship between SCCs and objective cognitive impairment is still unclear. This study aimed to determine whether SCCs are correlated with objective cognitive performance in patients with PD. Methods Totals of 148 cognitively normal patients, 71 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 31 demented patients were recruited consecutively from a movement-disor-ders clinic. Their SCCs and cognitive performances were evaluated using the Cognitive Complaints Interview (CCI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results The CCI score increased with age, duration of PD, and depression score, and was inversely ...
Major surgeries, such as cardiac or orthopaedic procedures in particular, expose the patient to extensive trauma, blood loss, and tissue injury; all of these factors effectively modulate the immune system to ultimately trigger an inflammatory response. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), the condition being characterized by impairment of short and long-term memory, is one of common complicates following surgery. Recently, our data have demonstrated that neuroinflammation and microglia activation in the hippocampus following surgery are associated with cognitive decline. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the inflammatory signaling pathways specifically involved with POCD, with a particular interest between systemic inflammation and local inflammation in the brain following surgery. The data presented in this thesis introduce the general concepts and the involvement of inflammation in the etiology of cognitive dysfunctions using a mouse model of POCD. Upon the identification of ...
Objective : Performance validity tests (PVTs) are essential in neuropsychological evaluations; however, it has been questioned how PVTs function in the context of cognitive impairment, and whether cognitive impairment alone is sufficient to cause PVT failure. Further, there is concern that some clinicians will disregard failed PVTs due to their perception that failures represent false-positive errors secondary to cognitive impairment. This study examined patterns associated with cognitively impaired versus noncredible performance across a battery of PVTs and neuropsychological tests. Additionally, the impact of VA service-connection and disability-seeking status on test validity was investigated. Method : A mixed-clinical sample of 103 veterans were administered six PVTs and neuropsychological tests. Performance was compared across three groups: valid-cognitively unimpaired, valid-cognitively impaired, and noncredible. Results : Significant PVT score differences and failure rates emerged across ...
Free download the The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) 1.0 iPhone & iPad app (★★½,522 downloads),The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is the most widely used cognitive test for dementia in US clinical pract
Improving psychological well-being and cognitive health is now listed as the priority on the healthy aging agenda. Depression and cognitive impairment are great challenges for the elderly population. There have been numerous studies on depression and cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the neural correlates of depression and cognitive impairment have not yet been elucidated. With the development of neuroscience and relevant technologies, studies on anatomical and functional neural networks, neurobiological mechanisms of mood and cognition in old age will provide more insight into the potential diagnosis, prevention and intervention in depression and cognitive impairment. For example, longitudinal neuroimaging studies depicting the trajectories of patterns of structural and functional brain networks of mild cognitive impairment may provide potential imaging markers for the onset of dementia.Population-based studies have addressed the potential interaction between mood and cognitive impairment in
In this prospective cohort study of black and white adults in the United States aged 45 and older, free of stroke and baseline cognitive impairment, mid-range to high Lifes Simple 7 scores at baseline were associated with lower incidence of clinically relevant cognitive impairment on a 3-test measure of verbal learning, memory, and fluency. Rather than a dose-response pattern across the range of Lifes Simple 7 scores, we observed that associations with ICI were the same for the highest tertile of Lifes Simple 7 score and the middle tertile, relative to the lowest tertile. This pattern suggests that even intermediate levels of CVH are preferable to low levels of CVH. This is an encouraging message for population health promotion, because intermediate CVH is a more realistic target than ideal CVH for many individuals.. The purpose of the Lifes Simple 7 metric is to summarize several modifiable factors into a single score to promote and measure individual- and population-level improvements in ...
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is the deterioration of cognitive performance after anesthesia and surgery, and manifests as impairments in short-term memory, concentration, language comprehension, and social integration skills ...
...Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is the deterioration of cognitive ......,Aspartic,acid,in,the,hippocampus:,A,biomarker,for,postoperative,cognitive,dysfunction,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Presbycusis-related tinnitus and cognitive impairment are common in the elderly and generate a massive burden on family and society. Except for age, the study explored the gender differences in the prevalence of the three diseases. We found that women have an advantage in maintaining better cognitive and auditory functions. Recent studies suggest the complex links among the three diseases. Peripheral hearing loss can affect sound coding and neural plasticity, which will lead to cognitive impairment and tinnitus. The deficits of the central nervous system, especially central auditory structures, can, in turn, cause the presbycusis. The interaction among three diseases indicated that comprehensive assessment, intervention and treatment in consideration of hearing loss, tinnitus and cognitive impairment are important to decay aging.
Author(s): Simon, Tony J; Wu, Zhongle; Avants, Brian; Zhang, Hui; Gee, James C; Stebbins, Glenn T | Abstract: BACKGROUND:Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common genetic causes of cognitive impairment and developmental disability yet little is known about the neural bases of those challenges. Here we expand upon our previous neurocognitive studies by specifically investigating the hypothesis that changes in neural connectivity relate to cognitive impairment in children with the disorder. METHODS:Whole brain analyses of multiple measures computed from diffusion tensor image data acquired from the brains of children with the disorder and typically developing controls. We also correlated diffusion tensor data with performance on a visuospatial cognitive task that taps spatial attention. RESULTS:Analyses revealed four common clusters, in the parietal and frontal lobes, that showed complementary patterns of connectivity in children with the deletion and typical controls. We interpreted
VP/VLBW individuals had significantly lower IQ scores than term-born individuals across all time points into adulthood. Approximately 1 in 4 VP/VLBW adults had a severe cognitive impairment and mean differences between VP/VLBW and term-born individuals in IQ scores were partly explained by those with cognitive impairment. IQ scores were consistently found to be more stable from childhood to adulthood in VP/VLBW than term-born individuals, yet this difference in stability disappeared when individuals with severe cognitive impairment in adulthood were excluded. Cognitive function in adulthood could be fairly well estimated from age 6 years in term-born children and already from age 20 months in VP/VLBW children. IQ scores were highly stable in VP/VLBW individuals who had cognitive impairment in adulthood.. VP/VLBW children are known to be at risk for neurodevelopmental problems, including cognitive impairment and higher risk of lower educational qualifications in young adulthood compared with ...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with moderate cognitive impairment in verbal memory, mental flexibility, and information processing speed, while other cognitive functions remain relatively unaffected.1 Moreover, epidemiological studies have shown that DM2 patients have a twofold increased risk of developing either vascular dementia or Alzheimers disease.1,2 In the present study we examined whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and "cognitive impairment, no dementia" (CIND)-two concepts that are used to describe cognitive impairment in the transitional state between normal aging and early dementia-can be applied to the cognitive impairments encountered in a population based sample of DM2 patients. Recently, these concepts have attracted considerable attention, as individuals who meet the criteria for either MCI or CIND are known to have a substantially increased risk of developing dementia.3,4 MCI is defined as a memory deficit without impairments in other cognitive domains.3 ...
The incidence of severe forms of HIV-associated neuorcognitive disorders, or HAND, has declined significantly with the availability of combination antiretroviral drug therapy over the last 20 years.. But the prevalence of the milder form has remained stable and even slightly increased, affecting 50 to 60 per cent of people living with HIV and AIDS.. "Screening tools have not been updated to reflect this change," said Dr. Sean B. Rourke, a neuropsychologist who heads the Neurobehavioural Research Unit at St. Michaels. "We are still trying to use or adapt the older dementia screening tools to catch the milder form of HAND.". Dr. Rourke said that having effective screening tests to identify and differentiate the two different forms of HAND is important for treatment decision-making. The current standards of practice requires a detailed neuropsychological examination, which is time-consuming and not readily accessible.. "Identifying that patients have a mild form of this condition is critical," ...
Given the aging population and the corresponding increase in the incidence of AD, information on the prognosis of AD will help practitioners and unpaid caregivers to better meet the needs of patients with AD.. This well designed, prospective study by Larson et al provides estimates of survival after initial diagnosis of AD. Estimated survival rates were longer than those reported by the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (3.2 y for men and 3.4 y for women).1 This difference may be attributed to the older sample in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.. Length of survival after onset of AD may be quite different from length of survival after initial diagnosis. Identifying the precise onset of AD may be difficult because of the insidious nature of the disease, unpaid caregivers lack of awareness of changes in cognition and functional abilities, and the patients ability to compensate for impairments. Although diagnosis at the onset of disease may not alter the natural course of AD, it could ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Mini-Mental State Exam, Mini-Mental Status Exam, Folstein Mini Mental Status Exam, Folstein MMSE, MMSE.
Studies have investigated the potential protective effects that diet may have on late-life depression incidence. This disorder can, however, affect the persons food intake, widely known as the reverse causality hypothesis of depression. To test this hypothesis, we compared mean nutrient intakes from three 24-h recalls during the year depression was detected (Geriatric Depression Scale ≥11 or antidepressant medication) with intakes from 1 year earlier among community-dwelling older adults (67-83 years) followed up annually in the 4-year Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Aging, who were free of depression and cognitive impairment at baseline. Participants (n 158, 64·4 % female) who became depressed and had data available for all follow-up years were matched by age group and sex with non-depressed participants. General linear mixed models were adjusted for percentage changes in physical activity, functional autonomy and stressful life events reported at the time of positive screening. ...
Although the Seattle Longitudinal Study was designed to focus on cognitive changes in normal community-dwelling populations, it is inevitable that a prospective study of aging will eventually include in its successive follow-up cycles individuals who are beginning to show cognitive impairment and eventually may develop full-blown symptoms of dementia. This chapter reports some initial findings on the apolipoprotein E genetic marker of dementia as it relates to cognitive decline. Studies involving the neuropsychological assessment of a community-dwelling sample of older adults who have not previously been identified as suffering from cognitive impairment are described, along with the extension analyses that link the clinical measures with the psychometric battery for the study of normal aging. The chapter ends by analyzing studies that obtain postdicted estimates of earlier performance on the neuropsychological measures and speak to the possibility of early detection of risk for cognitive ...
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Results:. The mean age of the patients was 80 years; 68% of patients were women. Patients with six or more depressive symptoms had greater comorbid illness, functional impairment, and cognitive impairment at admission than patients with fewer depressive symptoms. Three-year mortality was higher in patients with six or more depressive symptoms (56% compared with 40%; hazard ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.22 to 2.00]; P , 0.001). After adjustment for age, acute illness severity, comorbid illness, functional impairment, and cognitive impairment at the time of admission, patients with six or more depressive symptoms continued to have a higher mortality rate during the 3 years after admission (hazard ratio, 1.34 [CI, 1.03 to 1.73]). Although depressive symptoms contributed less to the mortality rate than did the total burden of comorbid medical illnesses, the excess mortality rate associated with depressive symptoms was greater than that conferred by one additional comorbid medical condition. ...
The classification of neurodegenerative disorders is based on the major component of the protein aggregates in the brain. The most common altered proteins associated with neurodegeneration are Hyperphosphorylated tau (HPt), beta amyloid (Aβ), alpha-synclein (αS) and transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP43). In this study we assessed the incidence and the neuroanatomical distribution of proteins associated with neurodegeneration in the brain tissue of cognitively unimpaired subjects.. We demonstrated the early involvement of the Locus Coeruleus (LC) with HPt pathology in cognitively unimpaired mid aged subjects, a finding which supports the notion that LC is an initiation site of HPt pathology. This may suggest that development of clinical assessment techniques and radiological investigations reflecting early LC alterations may help in identifying subjects with early stages of neurodegeneration.. Furthermore, we studied a large cohort of cognitively unimpaired subjects with age at ...
welcome to the forum! i agree that one of the most frustrating parts of this dd is the problem with cognitive functions. i am currently working towards my bachelors in accounting and have definitely seen a decline in my ability to remember information. i have had to fall back on notes, notes, notes! i have notes in a couple of different places regarding when everything is due-in my planner, on my dry erase board, sticky notes on my computer-and that seems to really have helped me get things done on time. with regards to remembering important information, ive started relating information i need to know to other things..little tips or jingles or small poems or whatever that contains the information i need to remember and that has really helped, too. also, i take all of my classes online (which is very helpful!) and NEVER do homework or take a test if im in a lot of pain or overly tired or hungry. if youre taking in person classes then you obviously dont have the freedom of flexibility that ...
Retention of certain metabolites in the blood may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with kidney failure, revealed a new study.
Cognitive dysfunction can make a person feel hopeless, and they may turn to unfortunate sources in an effort to regain some control over their mental state. Commonly abused substances include alcohol, illegal narcotics and prescription drugs. Stimulants are a commonly abused drug for those who are dealing with cognitive issues that impair the sharpness of their mental processes. It is also possible to become addicted to legitimately prescribed medication that was initially aimed at treating a cognitive disorder. Individuals with cognitive impairment may become dependent on their medications and suffer withdrawal if they attempt to get off them without proper medical supervision.. If you or a loved one is addicted to medication for a cognitive disorder, help is available. Call our 24/7 hotline at 1-888-997-3147 for information on how you can get free of your addiction while managing the symptoms of your cognitive disorder.. ...
Multivariable repeated measures regression analysis identified three independent predictors of NPZ-3 worsening during follow-up ranging from 2 to 9 years (median 6): More years since entering the parent study (and thus more years on ART) and a time-varying CD4 count above 350 (versus below) protected against neurocognitive decline. Compared with a nadir CD4 count below 51, a nadir of 51 to 200 or above 200 tended to protect against decline, but those associations fell short of statistical significance. Among comorbidity risk factors, only a history of stroke independently raised the odds of declining NPZ-3 score. In a nonsignificant association, injection drug use tended to boost odds of worsening neurocognitive function ...
Results A total of 12,336 participants (baseline age 56.8 [5.7], 21% black, 56% women) were included. After adjusting for demographic variables, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities, each standard deviation (SD) increase in midlife inflammation composite score was associated with an additional 20-year decline of −0.035 SD (95% confidence interval: −0.062 to −0.007) on the cognitive composite score. We found a similar association between each SD increase in midlife CRP level and additional 20-year cognitive decline (−0.038 SD, 95% confidence interval: −0.057 to −0.019). Participants with a midlife inflammation composite score in the top quartile had a 7.8% steeper cognitive decline, compared to participants in the lowest quartile; CRP in the top quartile was associated with an 11.6% steeper cognitive decline. In cognitive domain-specific analyses, elevated midlife inflammatory markers were most consistently associated with declines in memory. Results were similar after adjusting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive impairment is a negative short-term and long-term prognostic factor in elderly patients with hip fracture. AU - Benedetti, M. G.. AU - Ginex, V.. AU - Mariani, E.. AU - Zati, A.. AU - Cotti, A.. AU - Pignotti, E.. AU - Clerici, F.. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Background. Subjects with severe cognitive impairment (CI) have a high-risk of hip fractures with increased rate of adverse postoperative functional outcomes and mortality. Aim. To evaluate the impact of different degrees of CI on functional recovery and mortality after hip fracture. Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Two orthopedic surgery units. Population. Two hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients after a hip surgery. Methods. Patients were assessed at baseline through the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), an instrument that allows to categorize subjects as follows: cognitively intact (SPMSQ≥8) or with mild (SPMSQ=6-7), moderate (SPMSQ=3-5) and severe CI ...
March 18, 2014 - Brain imaging using nuclear imaging radiotracers can detect early evidence of Alzheimers disease that may predict future cognitive decline among adults with mild or no cognitive impairment. This is according to a 36-month follow-up study led by Duke Medicine.. The national, multicenter study confirms earlier findings suggesting that identifying silent beta-amyloid plaque build-up in the brain could help guide care and treatment decisions for patients at risk for Alzheimers. The findings appeared online March 11, 2014, in Molecular Psychiatry, a Nature Publishing Group journal.. "Our research found that healthy adults and those with mild memory loss who have a positive scan for these plaques have a much faster rate of decline on memory, language and reasoning over three years," said lead author P. Murali Doraiswamy, M.D., professor of psychiatry and director of the neurocognitive disorders program at Duke.. Alzheimers disease - which currently has no cure - afflicts an ...
Evidence suggests that diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. But how does it affect those who already have AD? The results of a large, prospective French study, released in todays Neurology, may seem counterintuitive. Writing for the REAL.FR study group, Caroline Sanz, Inserm U558, Toulouse, France, and colleagues report slower cognitive decline over a four-year period in AD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to AD patients without diabetes. The difference was apparent even after adjusting for confounding variables, such as prescription diabetes medication, and the results confirm similar findings reported in smaller studies (see Mielke et al., 2007).. Before the study, the researchers hypothesized that diabetes would accelerate cognitive decline, and they suggest several plausible explanations for the unexpected results. DM patients receive more medications, such as anti-hypertension drugs, for example, that might protect against cardiovascular risks for cognitive ...
Asthenia, Bicarbonate Decreased, Cognitive Defect Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Hyponatremia, Chronic Kidney Insufficiency, Diabetic Ketotic Coma. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
People with cognitive impairment are significantly more likely to have a stroke, with a 39% increased risk, than individuals with normal cognitive function.
Currently, 5 million Americans age 65 and up are actively suffering from dementia, a syndrome characterized by significant cognitive impairment - at a cost of $203 billion per year, which doesnt include the 17.5 billion hours of unpaid care from caregivers. Dementia (the original Latin word for madness) encompasses both short and long-term memory loss but also includes dramatic changes in personality as well as behaviors that are difficult to handle. This often surprises people given that they dont expect their well-mannered elderly relatives to act petulantly or unreasonably. Furthermore, caregivers bear a large burden because basic life-sustaining skills, such as eating and going to the bathroom, are no longer routine for the affected people. In addition to the living-assistance these patients require, the cost of taking care of a demented patient can reach exorbitant sums which are unaffordable for many families. Dementia is not a curable disease so its exigent conditions demand that we ...
To characterize cognitive function over time, while minimizing potential redundancy in the cognitive measures, a factor analysis was performed on the 14 cognitive test scores from baseline. We chose a five-factor solution, which represents 5 cognitive domains: structured verbal memory, unstructured verbal memory, executive function, visual memory and attention/concentration. To quantify overall cognitive function, a baseline cognitive index was first calculated as the mean of the 5 preoperative domain scores. The cognitive index score has a mean of zero, thus any positive score is above the mean, any negative score is below the mean. A continuous change score was then calculated by subtracting the baseline from the 6-week cognitive index. The resulting outcome measure is unbounded with standard deviation of 0.35. A negative change score indicating decline and a positive score indicating improvement ...
Memory problems in those with mild cognitive impairment may begin with problems in visual discrimination and vulnerability to interference - a hopeful discovery in that interventions to improve discriminability and reduce interference may have a flow-on effect to cognition.. The study compared the performance on a complex object discrimination task of 7 patients diagnosed with amnestic MCI, 10 older adults considered to be at risk for MCI (because of their scores on a cognitive test), and 19 age-matched controls. The task involved the side-by-side comparison of images of objects, with participants required to say, within 15 seconds, whether the two objects were the same or different.. In the high-interference condition, the objects were blob-like and presented as black and white line-drawings, with some comparison pairs identical, while others only varied slightly in either shape or fill pattern. Objects were rotated to discourage a simple feature-matching strategy. In the low-interference ...
Results Of 205 articles identified in the search, 17 studies on 2725 patients (grand mean age 67 years; mean age range 61-71 years) with follow-up periods of 1 day to 4 years (median 7 days; IQR 1-68 days) were included. Studies focused almost exclusively on hypercholesterolaemia as a measure of dyslipidaemia and on statins as lipid-lowering treatment. Across 12 studies on hypercholesterolaemia, we found no association with POCD risk (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.08; P=0.34). Statin use before surgery was associated with a reduced POCD risk across eight studies (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.98; P=0.03), but data on treatment duration were lacking. ...
Memory problems in those with mild cognitive impairment may begin with problems in visual discrimination and vulnerability to interference - a hopeful discovery in that interventions to improve discriminability and reduce interference may have a flow-on effect to cognition.. The study compared the performance on a complex object discrimination task of 7 patients diagnosed with amnestic MCI, 10 older adults considered to be at risk for MCI (because of their scores on a cognitive test), and 19 age-matched controls. The task involved the side-by-side comparison of images of objects, with participants required to say, within 15 seconds, whether the two objects were the same or different.. In the high-interference condition, the objects were blob-like and presented as black and white line-drawings, with some comparison pairs identical, while others only varied slightly in either shape or fill pattern. Objects were rotated to discourage a simple feature-matching strategy. In the low-interference ...
Definition of Cognitive dysfunction in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Cognitive dysfunction? Meaning of Cognitive dysfunction as a legal term. What does Cognitive dysfunction mean in law?
3. Physical illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and atherosclerosis are risk factors for SCI; early detection and adequate treatment of these illnesses might help reduce the risk of SCI development in older people ...
Normal aging is associated with declines in several cognitive domains, most notably episodic memory and executive functions (for reviews, see [1-4]). These cognitive deficits are associated with myriad brain changes, including structural and functional deterioration of prefrontal, basal ganglia, and medial temporal areas and their interconnections. However, establishing a link between these changes and cognitive decline in normal aging has proven surprisingly difficult [2, 5].. Alterations in two classic neurotransmitter systems have drawn considerable attention in cognitive aging: dopamine [6] and acetylcholine. For decades, acetylcholine (ACh) was thought of primarily as a memory-related neurotransmitter, but this view has recently been revised, with ACh now thought to play an equally if not more crucial role in executive functions (for reviews, see [7-9]). The integrity of cortical cholinergic inputs appears to be critical for modulating attention, by enhancing responsiveness to sensory ...
The numbers of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), as well as those with severe cognitive impairment caused by traumatic brain injury and stroke, are continuing to increase. This article includes some nonconventional treatment approaches for which the evidence is limited.
Its a myth that marijuana is safe. It has benefits for certain ailments, but its effect on teens, specifically, can lead to long-term cognitive impairment.
The degeneration of a small, wishbone-shaped structure deep inside the brain may provide the earliest clues to future cognitive decline, long before healthy older people exhibit clinical symptoms of memory loss or dementia, a study by researchers at the UC Davis Alzheimers Disease Center has found.
This study will assess the effects of each of the two therapies given separately, both targeting amyloid, on cognition, global clinical status, and underlying pathology in participants at risk for the onset of clinical symptoms of Alzheimers disease (AD). Cognitively unimpaired individuals with two APOE4 genes and age 60 to 75 years, inclusive, are selected as they represent a population at particularly high risk of progression to Mild Cognitive Impairment and/or dementia due to Alzheimers disease.. The study follows a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-cohort, parallel group design in which participants receive one of the investigational treatments or their matching placebo for at least 60 months up to a maximum of 96 months and no longer than when the target number of events for the TTE endpoint has been observed and confirmed in either cohort.. An unbalanced randomization (active: placebo) of 5:3 ratio in Cohort I (430 CAD106 :260 Placebo) and 3:2 ratio in Cohort II (390 ...
Researchers have discovered a key protein linked to Alzheimers, inhibition of which could prevent the neuronal damage and subsequent cognitive decline associated with the disease.
Following a brain injury (e.g. a stroke), people often experience a range of cognitive problems in addition to any difficulties in motor function. These cognitive problems may include change in language ability, in memory, in the ability to respond to the environment (through words or action), or to think through problems, including problems with maths and money handling.. Cognitive problems strongly influence how well people functionally recover after a stroke. Currently patients are not routinely screened to detect these cognitive problems. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS™) is a new test instrument developed to enable the comprehensive and efficient screening of post-stroke cognitive function by health professionals. Within the hour test the examiner gains an overview of a range of cognitive processes in the stroke survivor. BCoS™ has been designed to be aphasic and neglect friendly, i.e. to overcome the difficulties in assessing individuals with speech and/or visuo-spatial ...
A five-year study by the National Institutes of Health found omega-3 supplements had no effect on cognitive decline, contrary to long-held beliefs.
This public workshop will bring together key stakeholders to provide input to the Committee on Decreasing the Risk of Developing Alzheimers-Type Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Age-Related Cognitive Impairment on the draft AHRQ systematic review of the evidence on interventions associated with decreasing the risk of developing clinical Alzheimers-type dementia and MCI, and delaying or slowing ARCD ...
Oxygen deprivation is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. Cortical gray matter loss and cognitive disability improve over time i...
Table 2: Predictors of Cognitive Decline in the Early Stages of Parkinsons Disease: A Brief Cognitive Assessment Longitudinal Study
The treatment of pain begins with the assessment of what instigated the pain, how it can be terminated, and what management modalities are most effective for a particular patient. However, assessment is rarely that simple. Clinical manifestations of persistent pain are often complex and multifactorial in the older population. Even the perception of pain may differ from that perceived by those of less advanced years. Issues of physical accessibility to treatment, cost of drugs, the presence of coexisting illness, the use of concomitant medication, and the ability to understand the complaints of the patient who has cognitive impairment are only some of the factors that contribute to the complexity of the situation. Furthermore, the elderly patients condition is often complicated by depression, psychosocial concerns, denial, poor health, and poor memory. Without a thorough assessment, pain that is causing severe impairment may not be revealed for an array of personal, cultural, or psychological ...
Results: 59. Alphabet Track Alphabet Track is a pre-reading tutorial program designed for use by children with learning, vision, or cognitive disabilities. Students move through eight activities at their own pace. All the activities are switch-accessible and fully configurable to meet each students individual needs. For example, students may decide to replace the programs built-in audio with their own voice reciting the alphabet and pronouncing each letter. The alphabet arc format used in each activity serves as a visual. Animal Habitats Animal Habitats is a fully inclusive academic tutorial program designed to enhance language, reading, writing, speech, and cognitive skills for children in primary grades with developmental and physical disabilities. This collection of educational activities features a range of integrated support materials to effectively use the computer as a whole language tool in the classroom. This program uses an original story to introduce users to five habitats: the ...
People who develop diabetes or prediabetes in middle-age are more likely to have memory and cognitive problems over the next 20 years compared to people without diabetes in midlife, according to a study in the December 2 Annals of Internal Medicine.
The video has four sections: MCI, Early, Moderate and Severe Cognitive Disability. Physical changes in the brain, cognitive capabilities and behavioral manifestations are covered. The program includes real family profiles, actors portraying common dementi
The groups viral load averaged 2.3 log (200 copies), 59% had a blood plasma load above 50 copies, and 34% had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) load over 50. CD4 count averaged 420 and lowest-ever CD4 count 174. Fourteen of 1205 people (0.9%) with an undetectable load in blood plasma had detectable virus in CSF. But 122 of 300 CSF samples (41%) with a sub-50-copy load had detectable virus when the investigators used a more sensitive assay. And detectable CSF virus correlated with worse antiretroviral penetration of the central nervous system (CNS), as determined by CNS penetration-effectiveness scores (P = 0.03) [2]. And detectable sub-50-copy load was also associated with cognitive impairment. While 47% of the 1555 cohort members had normal neurocognitive performance scores, 21% had mild impairment, 30% moderate impairment, and 2% severe impairment. Comparing three studies that measured neurocognitive impairment--one in 1987 just before the antiretroviral era, one in 1995 just before HAART arrived, ...
The focus of our community programs for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities is helping children and adults on the autism spectrum, with a traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, or other cognitive disabilities achieve their own meaningful goals.
Companies are good at accommodating physical disabilities, but what about cognitive disabilities? Now, that is a different story. In this edition of Attention Talk Radio, ADHD coach and host Jeff Copper interviews part-time ADHD coach Jay Carter, whose day job has included being the chair of a disability advisory committee for a Fortune 100 company. At present, he is on the corporate advisory board of U.S. Business Leadership Network which is an employer-led group who exists to help companies hire, train, and retain employees with disabilities. The interview will focus on the key things you need to attend to before addressing workplace accommodation, including disclosure, costs of accommodation, chain of influence, and why you need to understand your specific needs. If you have ADHD and struggle at work, this is the show for you ...
We offer programming for students with moderate to severe cognitive disabilities and/or complex learning, medical and emotional needs. This program is for students 12-19 years old. It helps students develop skills and attitudes necessary to become successful members of the community ...
Sometimes kids take to reading like birds to the air. But other times difficulties in learning to read make it hard for them to spread their reading wings. In early childhood, those who are not ready developmentally to settle down and read often have what is called "strong motor drive" and want to be active instead. Lack of early literacy experiences, second language acquisition, vision impairment, cognitive disabilities such as incorrect perception of print and hearing difficulties may hold children back.
DISCONTINUED. (Verified 9/2012) RETAINED IN DATABASE FOR REFERENCE. The Smart Living Suite is a cognitive aid and prompter designed for use by individuals with cognitive disabilities. This software system allows individuals who live independently to effectively manage their schedule and respond to custom instructions on their computer. Caregivers can set up the various daily, weekly and monthly tasks and time cues with audio and custom pictures.. ...
Grouping elements and providing contextual information about the relationships between elements can be useful for all users. Complex relationships between parts of a page may be difficult for people with cognitive disabilities and people with visual disabilities to interpret. ...
hixie: Mention audio descriptions explicitly. (whatwg r4460) http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/html5/spec/Overview.html?r1=1.3559&r2=1.3560&f=h http://html5.org/tools/web-apps-tracker?from=4459&to=4460 =================================================================== RCS file: /sources/public/html5/spec/Overview.html,v retrieving revision 1.3559 retrieving revision 1.3560 diff -u -d -r1.3559 -r1.3560 --- Overview.html 5 Jan 2010 00:16:43 -0000 1.3559 +++ Overview.html 5 Jan 2010 00:27:13 -0000 1.3560 @@ -18507,7 +18507,8 @@ the blind, deaf, and those with other physical or cognitive disabilities, authors are expected to provide alternative media streams and/or to embed accessibility aids (such as caption or - subtitle tracks) into their media streams.,p,The ,code,,a href=#video,video,/a,,/code, element is a ,a href=#media-element,media element,/a, + subtitle tracks, audio description tracks, or sign-language + overlays) into their media streams.,p,The ,code,,a href=#video,video,/a,,/code, element ...
Lumos Labs, the makers of Lumosity, today announced the publication regarding its NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT), a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform.
In a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults, visual impairment was associated with worse cognitive function, according to a study published by JAMA Ophthalmology. Read & Research Alzheimers More. ...
A group of doctors in Pittsburgh have developed the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI) to identify cognitive difficulties easily and reliably.
A loss of volume in the area of the brain known as the fornix was associated with cognitive decline in healthy older individuals, MRI studies found.
As we get older, most of us experience what psychologists refer to as age-related cognitive decline. Certain mental abilities, such as memory, processing speed, and visual perception begin to deteriorate steadily as early as the third decade of life, and then more rapidly from around 50 years of age, and this is associated with a gradual reduction of brain size [See: Big Data in Healthy Brain Aging and Cognitive Skills and the Aging Brain: What to Expect].. There are, however, significant differences between individuals. Although age-related cognitive decline is considered a normal part of the aging process, it happens quickly for some people, whereas others are far more resilient to it. Why do some peoples brains and thinking skills age better than others? Ian Deary of the University of Edinburgh addressed this question at the Royal Society in London this past week, in a lecture organized by the European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) and the University of the Third Age (U3A), an ...
This lesson defines cognitive dysfunction, as well as its causes, symptoms, and treatment. Examples of cognitive dysfunction and how it may be...
Existing studies predominantly consider the association of late-life lipid levels and subsequent cognitive change. However, midlife rather than late-life risk factors are often most relevant to cognitive health. Read & Research Alzheimers More. ...
Number Four: Understand your system. Understanding your system sounds complicated and derives from Demings "System of Profound Knowledge," but essentially this means there are four interacting components of the system that you need to consider: psychology, understanding the system, understanding the variation, and a theory of knowledge. First is the psychology of the people-why will people want to help you to change the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction? Doctors in training may wish to participate in a project that they can present or write up; surgeons may be interested in the fact that improvements will make their patients and families happier and reduce length of stay; and anesthesiologists will wish to improve their patients experience and reduce the number of times they are called to the PACU to deal with a delirious patient. Second is understanding the system. How do the system components the patient will pass through interact? How can these interactions help and hinder ...
Sequence Health Ageless System Cognitive Health - Innovative, clinically proven nutrients that enhance cognitive function & memory. IMPROVE: Ptero
This 3278 word essay is about Cognitive disorders, Psychiatric diagnosis, Learning disabilities, RTT, Dementia, Alzheimers disease. Read the full essay now!
Chronic pot smokers beware. A new study found that regularly smoking marijuana may lower cognitive function, especially if the person starts smoking before 16 years of age.
Not all fat tissues are created equal. Theres the canonical white fat, which we associate with jiggle-ly belly aesthetics, long-term immflamation and Type 2 diabetes. Too much white fat accumulation in the internal organs has even been linked to lower cognitive function in young adults. While these fat cells provide insulation, theyve always been regarded…
Even in patients who receive long-term anti-retroviral treatment, cells containing HIV remain in the cerebrospinal fluid of half of those treated for the disease, and those individuals are more likely to experience cognitive deficits
Canine cognitive dysfunction, or CCD, is caused by chemical and physical changes that affect the brain function of older dogs. Like people with Alzheimers, CCD usually comes on slowly and gradually gets worse.
I am sorry to hear about your daughters difficulty but glad to hear that she is making some progress towards recovery. Cognitive problems are very common in pediatric onset MS and require a management approach that differs from adults for two reasons; first, children like your daughter are at an age when the brain is potentially very adaptable and can recover from injury to an extent not possible in older adults. This makes it worthwhile to get expert assessment and individual learning plans and cognitive rehabilitation started as soon as possible. At the same time their brains are uniquely vulnerable to a variety of stressors and injuries; for this reason it is important to treat them aggressively and be attuned to the development of psychiatric issues (anxiety and depression) that may hinder their recovery. It is also important to solidify the final diagnosis as soon as possible ...
Factors which influence the development of POCD, with recommendations for prevention and management. From a CME lecture by Anthony Miller MD 2014
We sought to develop and validate a risk index for prospective cognitive decline in older adults based on blood-derived markers....
When Alzheimer s disease actually starts is often not clear, but it now appears that it may be preceded by rapid cognitive decline for up to six years before it
New research in the journal Sleep and Breathing found that primary snoring (PS) is associated with neurocognitive impairments in children. The study found that children with primary snoring show more hyperactive and inattentive behavior.
Low levels of vitamin B12 may contribute to cognitive problems for older adults in more than one way, according to a cross-sectional study.
Perceptual Speed - The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. ...
Perceptual Speed - The ability to quickly and accurately compare similarities and differences among sets of letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object. ...
New study argues that the greatest defining feature of our species is not symbolism or dramatic cognitive change but rather its unique ecological position as a global general specialist.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). T2 - Normative Data for Older Adults. AU - Olaithe, Michelle. AU - Weinborn, Michael. AU - Lowndes, Talitha. AU - Ng, Amanda. AU - Hodgson, Erica. AU - Fine, Lara Aishling. AU - Parker, Denise. AU - Pushpanathan, Maria. AU - Bayliss, Donna. AU - Anderson, Michael. AU - Bucks, Romola. PY - 2019/12. Y1 - 2019/12. N2 - ObjectiveProvide updated older adult (ages 60+) normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Form A, using regression techniques, and corrected for education, age, and gender.MethodParticipants (aged 60-93 years; N = 415) were recruited through the Healthy Ageing Research Program (HARP), University of Western Australia, and completed Form A of the RBANS as part of a wider neuropsychological test battery. Regression-based techniques were used to generate normative data rather than means-based methods. This methodology allows for the control ...
que es el Alzheimer? Alzheimers Disease Research Center at University of California, Los Angles (UCLA) also enrolls patients and subjects in clinical and pre-clinical research program. Alzheimers Disease NeuroImaging Initiative (ADNI) is a brain imaging and biomarkers, and longitudinal studies. We have bilingual staff that speaks Spanish and English. UCLA Alzheimers Disease Research Center is located in Los Angeles, California.
The effect of seasons and seasonal variation on neuropsychological test performance in patients with bipolar I disorder and their first-degree ...
SynCogDis - Synaptic Role In Cognitive Disabilities Scientific Network informs that it has implemented security measures of a technical and organizational measures to ensure the security of their personal data and avoid its alteration , loss , treatment and / or unauthorized access , given the state of technology, nature of the data stored and the risks they are exposed, whether from human action or physical or natural means. All in accordance with the provisions of Article 9 LOPD and Royal Decree 994/1999 of June 11 , approving the Regulation of security measures for automated files containing data of a personal nature. ...
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Objective: Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATS) are often used as a screening tool to identify cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, differing methodology across studies renders it difficult to identify a consensus regarding the validity of NCATs. Thus, studies where multiple NCATs are administered in the same sample using the same methodology are warranted. Method: We investigated the validity of four NCATs: the ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT. Two NCATs were randomly assigned and a battery of traditional neuropsychological (NP) tests administered to healthy control active duty service members (n = 272) and to service members within 7 days of an mTBI (n = 231). Analyses included correlations between NCAT and the NP test scores to investigate convergent and discriminant validity, and regression analyses to identify the unique variance in NCAT and NP scores attributed to group status. Effect sizes (Cohens f2) were calculated to guide ...
Introduction/objective. It is widely accepted that researchers must have normative data that has been duly validated and culturally adapted in order to ensure that assessments of cognitive performance contain the lowest amount of contamination from other factors.1 This objective was clearly outlined for the Neuronorma Project, an extensive Spanish study that was published recently.2. Neuropsychological evaluation (NPE) for dementia may be more or less extensive and detailed depending on the complexity of the evaluation tools in use: brief scales, functional scales, simple test batteries, complex test batteries, and ideographic studies.3 The most recommendable method for performing NPE for dementia is to use a multidimensional test battery with psychometric properties including sensitive tests for each cognitive area.4 NPE is a key procedure in diagnosing, classifying, and monitoring the course of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimers disease, and other types of dementia.5,6 The RBANS battery7 ...
"Anosognosia/anosognosic - Eating Disorders Glossary". glossary.feast-ed.org. Retrieved 2015-06-23.. ... Cognition. 15 (1-3): 111-44. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(83)90036-7. PMID 6686505.. ... Anosognosia may occur as part of receptive aphasia, a language disorder that causes poor comprehension of speech and the ... This phenomenon of double dissociation can be an indicator of domain-specific disorders of awareness modules, meaning that in ...
Neuropsychiatric disorders (ADHD, anxiety, depression) and cognition. *Depression, anxiety, substance use, abuse, and ... pediatric bipolar disorder, and depression. This work has been reported in over 1000 published papers and one book and has led ...
Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J. (2009-02-17). Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. John Wiley & ... DAMP is diagnosed on the basis of concomitant attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder ... this would be a hyperkinetic disorder combined with a developmental disorder of motor function.) About half of children with ... There is a strong link with autism spectrum disorders in severe DAMP. Familial factors and pre- and perinatal risk factors ...
This includes disorders of cognition, mood, behavior, and thought.[29] Cognitive disturbances can occur in the early stages of ... Lee MS, Ernst E (January 2009). "Qigong for movement disorders: A systematic review". Movement Disorders. 24 (2): 301-3. doi: ... Schrag A (2007). "Epidemiology of movement disorders". In Tolosa E, Jankovic JJ. Parkinson's disease and movement disorders. ... Dickson DV (2007). "Neuropathology of movement disorders". In Tolosa E, Jankovic JJ. Parkinson's disease and movement disorders ...
Cognitions in bipolar disorder versus unipolar depression: Imagining suicide. Bipolar Disorders, Vol. 13, Nos. 7-8, pp651-661. ... Cognitions in bipolar disorder versus unipolar depression: Imagining suicide. Bipolar Disorders, Vol. 13, Nos. 7-8, 2011, pp651 ... Cognitions in bipolar disorder versus unipolar depression: Imagining suicide. Bipolar Disorders, Vol. 13, Nos. 7-8, 2011, pp651 ... Posttraumatic stress disorder Social anxiety Depression Bipolar disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder often proceeds from ...
"Nicotinic receptor mechanisms and cognition in normal states and neuropsychiatric disorders". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 18 ... Data from multiple studies suggest that anxiety disorders and depression play a role in cigarette smoking.[134] A history of ... Studies have shown an association between prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and conduct disorder in children.[ ... Recent studies have linked smoking to anxiety disorders, suggesting the correlation (and possibly mechanism) may be related to ...
"Superior fluid intelligence in children with Asperger's disorder". Brain and Cognition. 66 (3): 306-10. doi:10.1016/j.bandc. ... Geary, D. C. (2005). The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence. Washington, DC: American ... fluid intelligence and enhanced performance on others are found on some measures in individuals with autism spectrum disorders ... "Failure of Working Memory Training to Enhance Cognition or Intelligence". PLoS ONE ...
Wells, Adrian; Matthews, Gerald (November 1996). "Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: The S-REF model". Behaviour ... generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), health anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... Meta-cognitions questionnaire. References[edit]. *^ a b Wells, Adrian (2011). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression ... In clinical practice, MCT is most commonly used for treating anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder, ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder which severely affects social and communicative development, ... An Exploration of Cognition and Consciousness. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-9107-3. Chadwick-Jones, John K. ( ... A 2007 study found that young children with autism spectrum disorders do not increase their yawning frequency after seeing ... Excessive yawning in multiple sclerosis and brain stem ischaemic stroke may link these different disorders because of common ...
Butterworth, B. (1992). "Disorders of phonological encoding". Cognition. 42 (1-3): 261-286. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(92)90045-j. ... Cognition. 93 (2): 99-125. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2003.11.004. PMID 15147931. PDF Gelman, R.; Butterworth, B. (2005). "Number ... Over 18,000 people took part-the largest number ever to take part in a mathematical cognition experiment. He announced his ... Butterworth, B. (1994). "Disorders of Sentence Production". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a comprehensive neural developmental disorder that produces many deficits including social, ... doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.02.010. PMID 26896901.. *^ Jeffery, L.; Rhodes, G. (2011). "Insights into the development of face ... Mutation from the wild type allele at these loci has also been found to result in other disorders in which social and facial ... Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi (2012). "Face recognition in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder". Brain and Nerve. 64 (7): ...
Ledley, Deborah Roth (2006). Cognitive phenomena in social anxiety disorder. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 251-283.. ... Mansell, W.; Clark, D. M.; Ehlers, A.; Chen, Y.P (1999). "Social anxiety and attention away from emotional faces". Cognition ... Alloy, L.; Riskind, J. (2005). Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders. Psychology Press. ...
"Tool use disorders after left brain damage". Cognition. 5: 473. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00473. PMC 4033127 . PMID 24904487 ... other neurological disorder), and poisoning from heavy metals including mercury and its compounds of lead. Vascular disorders ... Narcolepsy and sleep disorders are common misdiagnoses.[citation needed]. Moderate/severe brain injuriesEdit. Cognitive ... from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder.[1] ... Vascular disorders of the brain include thrombosis, embolisms, ...
Cognition, 116(1), 130-135. {IF=3.481} Grüter, T., & Carbon, C. C. (2010). Escaping attention. Some cognitive disorders can be ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a comprehensive neural developmental disorder that produces many deficits including social, ... Cognition. 150: 163-169. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.02.010. PMID 26896901. Jeffery, L.; Rhodes, G. (2011). "Insights into the ... Mutation from the wild type allele at these loci has also been found to result in other disorders in which social and facial ... Nader-Grosbois, N.; Day, J.M. (2011). "Emotional cognition: theory of mind and face recognition". In Matson, J.L; Sturmey, R. ...
Brain, Behaviour and Cognition Series. Hove, UK Hillsdale, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ISBN 9780863773037. David, ... in schizophrenia and other disorders. Professor David is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, the Royal College of ... Anthony S.; Ron, Maria A. (1999). Disorders of brain and mind: volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... awareness of illness in schizophrenia and related disorders (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781417599912. ...
... from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder. Symptoms of brain injuries vary based on the severity of the injury or ... Cognition. 5: 473. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00473. PMC 4033127 . PMID 24904487. "Emotional Problems After Traumatic Brain Injury ... other neurological disorder), and poisoning from heavy metals including mercury and its compounds of lead. Vascular disorders ... Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain, and may be more common in those who have been left brain damaged, ...
Lists of language disorders "Definition of paragrammatism". Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English). Butterworth, Brian; ... Howard, David (1987). "Paragrammatisms". Cognition. 26 (1): 1-37. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(87)90012-6. ISSN 0010-0277. PMID ... Since Kleist introduced the term in 1916, paragrammatism denotes a disordered mode of expressing oneself that is characterized ...
Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Snowling, Margaret J., and ... Dyslexia: Biology, Cognition, and Intervention. San Diego, Calif: Singular Pub. Group, 1997. Hulme, Charles, and Susie ... Also published in Spanish, Hulme, Charles, and R. Malatesha Joshi,co-editors Reading and Spelling: Development and Disorders. ...
De Renzi, E. (2000). "Disorder of Visual Recognition". Seminars in Neurology. 20 (4): 479-485. doi:10.1055/s-2000-13181. PMID ... Brain and Cognition. 33 (3): 306-342. doi:10.1006/brcg.1997.0876. PMID 9126398. Retrieved 8 March 2012. Duffy CJ (January 1999 ... De Renzi, E. (2000). "Disorder of Visual Recognition". Seminars in Neurology. 20 (4): 479-485. doi:10.1055/s-2000-13181. PMID ... De Renzi, E. (2000). "Disorder of Visual Recognition". Seminars in Neurology. 20 (4): 479-485. doi:10.1055/s-2000-13181. PMID ...
Journal of Communication Disorder. 34: 87-113. Shigaki CL, Frey SH, Barrett AM (2014). "Rehabilitation of poststroke cognition ... Patients with this form of aphasia may present with a contiguity disorder in which they have difficulty combining linguistic ... Transcortical sensory aphasia Brookshire, R. H. (2007). Introduction to Neurogenic Communication Disorders. St. Louis, MO: ... or progressive neurological disorders. TMoA is diagnosed by the referring physician and speech-language pathologist (SLP). The ...
The scientific study of the biological mechanisms that underlie the disorders and diseases of the nervous system. ... Cognitive neuroscience is the study of the biological mechanisms underlying cognition. Computational neuroscience Computational ... Neurogastronomy is the study of flavor and how it affects sensation, cognition, and memory.[32] ... Psychiatry focuses on affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual disorders. Anesthesiology focuses on perception of pain ...
Davidson, R. J. (1998). "Affective Style and Affective Disorders: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience". Cognition and ... "Brain and Cognition. 72 (1): 101-113. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.08.005. PMC 2815087. PMID 19765880.. ... being a common feature of anxiety disorders, particularly generalized anxiety disorder.[28] ... Borkovec, T. D.; Inz, J. (1990). "The nature of worry in generalized anxiety disorder: A predominance of thought activity". ...
Consciousness and Cognition》 22 (2): 430-41. 2013. PMID 23454432. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.01.009.. ... American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. American Psychiatric ... Simeon D (2004). "Depersonalisation Disorder: A Contemporary Overview". 》CNS Drugs》 18 (6): 343-54. PMID 15089102. doi:10.2165/ ... "Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder". 1999년 3월 15일.. ...
"Executive functions in children with autism spectrum disorders". Brain and Cognition. 71 (3): 362-8. doi:10.1016/j.bandc. ... gene in personality and related psychopathological disorders". CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. 11 (3): 236-50. doi: ... Risk of liver toxicity and related digestive disorders restricts the use of tolcapone. Dopamine Schizophrenia O- ... Tunbridge EM, Harrison PJ, Weinberger DR (July 2006). "Catechol-o-methyltransferase, cognition, and psychosis: Val158Met and ...
Cognition, discrimination, and learning[edit]. Computational modeling of higher cognitive functions has only recently[when?] ... Browne, A. (1997-01-01). Neural Network Perspectives on Cognition and Adaptive Robotics. CRC Press. ISBN 9780750304559.. ... The Computational Representational Understanding of Mind (CRUM) is another attempt at modeling human cognition through ... "Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview". Frontiers in Psychology. 4. doi:10.3389 ...
... the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist memantine may improve the cognitive deficits of bipolar disorder. ... Cite this: Memantine May Improve Cognition in Bipolar Disorder - Medscape - Jun 19, 2013. ... Fifty-five percent of the patients had type I bipolar disorder, and 45% had bipolar II disorder. All had reported subjective ... "So we saw that people did better on tests of cognition, and also saw biological changes occurring at the same time in the brain ...
Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.. Jackson ML1, Howard ME, Barnes M. ... Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result ... Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have ... Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in ...
Lethargy with lower body temperature, cognition? Ephedra I recently barely finished a very low dose, 6 month course of ... You will kill yourself a lot quicker than the disorder will... Please get back to me ASAP...my husband was just diagnosed and ... You will kill yourself a lot quicker than the disorder will... Please get back to me ASAP...my husband was just diagnosed and ... I have some excellent research and information on HHC and as well as other iron loading disorders, and links to sites where you ...
In several neurodevelopmental disorders, cognitive difficulty is reported as ... in the brain that regulates normal cognitive abilities but is also implicated with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, ... Normal Cognition, Neurodevelopmental Disorders Share the Same Brain Space. By Traci Pedersen. ~ 1 min read ... Pedersen, T. (2016). Normal Cognition, Neurodevelopmental Disorders Share the Same Brain Space. Psych Central. Retrieved on ...
Modern diagnostic schemes differentiate between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorders, but there is much overlap ... Cognitive impairment in patients with mood disorders is being recognised as a significant factor that can have an impact on ... The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes cognitive symptoms as one of ... Indeed, patients may think they have attention-deficit disorder or, if older, Alzheimers disease. Such cognitive symptoms may ...
Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition. Charles Hulme, Margaret J. Snowling ... This important new text is a comprehensive survey of current thinking and research on a wide range of developmental disorders. ... He has conducted research on a wide range of developmental disorders. His current research focuses particularly on ... A comprehensive survey of current thinking and research on a wide range of developmental disorders. ...
Cognition and Language Disorders Projekt group leader. Per Östberg. Neurological diseases often affect brain regions that are ... Syntactic complexity and cognition. *Central auditory dysfunction in primary hearing assessment (with Esma Idrizbegovic, ... Projects that we participate in focus on aphasia and the broader category of cognitive-communication disorders. ...
Glutamate and Disorders of Cognition and Motivation. Edited by Edited by Bita Moghaddam (Yale University School of Medicine, ... About 10-15 years ago, a few scientists began studying the possible role of glutamate in these disorders, led by awareness of ... Although glutamate-mediated neurotransmission has long been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, the major focus of ... research on cognitive, affective, and addictive disorders has been on monoamine (dopamine, serotonin, norephinephrine) systems ...
EXCELLENT Condition.Aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury, TBI, stroke, cognitive disorders, communication disorders, right ... Neurogenic Disorders of Language and Cognition: Evidence-based Clinical Practice by Pro Ed at Translate This Website. Hurry! ... Neurogenic Disorders of Language and Cognition: Evidence-based Clinical Practice. Neurogenic Disorders of Language and ... Neurogenic Disorders of Language and Cognition: Evidence-based Clinical Practice. 4.5 out of 5 stars with 95 reviews ...
The ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders explores theories of cognition, diagnostic and treatment models in ... ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders ... Delivering treatments and outcomes for people with cognitive disorders.. The ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its ... is a collaborative hub for the study of the cognitive sciences and the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive disorders. ...
Copyright CCD - ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders , Privacy Statement , Accessibility Information. Site ... The mission of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders (CCD) is to coordinate and conduct research in five ... ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders. The ARC Centre of Excellence offers unique opportunities for ... Dr Nan Xu Rattanasone, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders (CCD) explains. ...
... bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder, or post-traumatic stress disorder. ... The article is "Early life experiences and social cognition in major psychiatric disorders: A systematic review," by Karolina I ... Childhood trauma linked to impaired social cognition later in life for patients with major psychiatric disorders. ... The purpose of the EPA is to improve the lives of patients with psychiatric disorders and to promote professional excellence ...
Buy Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition by Charles Hulme, Margaret J. Snowling from Waterstones today! ... Developmental Disorders of Language Learning and Cognition (Paperback). Charles Hulme (author), Margaret J. Snowling (author) ... This important new text is a comprehensive survey of current thinking and research on a wide range of developmental disorders. ... Politics, Society & Education > Psychology > Cognition & cognitive psychology Science, Technology & Medicine > Medicine > ...
It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, ... These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly ... Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks ( ... The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and ...
Underlying Nonpharmacological Interventions for Cognition and Behavior in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Call for ... New nonpharmacological interventions in patients with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders have shown important ... or remediation of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders (acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative, ... neurodevelopmental, or neuropsychiatry disorders) measured with neuroimaging methods. *Cortex plasticity changes in ...
Bipolar Disorder. Psychotic Disorders. Mental Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Bipolar and Related Disorders. Schizophrenia ... Treatment to Enhance Cognition in Bipolar Disorder (TREC-BD). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Treatment to Enhance Cognition in Bipolar Disorder (TREC-BD): Efficacy of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive ... 13 programs targeting cognition in 4 separate domains: Auditory processing, visual processing, social cognition, and executive ...
In support of improving patient care, Audio Digest Foundation is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team. The Audio Digest Foundation designates this enduring material for a maximum of {{CurrentLecture.Lecture.Credits , number:2}} AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to {{CurrentLecture.Lecture.Credits}} MOC points [and patient safety MOC credit] in the American Board of Internal Medicines (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the ...
... the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. ... Both disorders were associated with hypoactivation within the Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS) during ToM tasks, but activation ... Conclusions Reduced frontolimbic and STS engagement emerged as a shared feature of social cognition deficits in SZ and ASD. ... Objective To identify regions most robustly implicated in social cognition processing in SZ and ASD. Data Sources Systematic ...
You are here: Managing stress and cognition in stress-related disorders: A digital coach for a sustainable life ... Managing stress and cognition in stress-related disorders: A digital coach for a sustainable life ... Research project In order to provide individuals instruments for managing stress and cognition in stress-related disorders, an ...
Language and communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: Contribution of cognition, severity of ... We have in a number of studies investigated medical decision-making capacity and cognition in dementia, and also if it is ... One main project concerns how persons with acquired cognitive impairment with language and communication disorders are able to ... A second research area concerns language and communication development in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders and ...
... bipolar disorder, language disorders, stuttering, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, ... Psychiatric disorders. A wide range of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, chronic depression, bipolar disorder, ... White matter in cognition and mental illness. A surprisingly diverse range of psychiatric and nervous system disorders are ... suggest that white matter is a contributing cause of many disorders affecting mood or cognition. Moreover, as will be described ...
Buy the Paperback Book Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders by Richard K. Peach at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore ... Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders: An Information Processing Approach. byRichard K. Peach, Lewis P. ShapiroEditor ... Title:Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders: An Information Processing ApproachFormat:PaperbackDimensions:368 pages, 9.25 ... Section 3: Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders 8. Language and Communication Disordersr Associated with Attentional ...
... the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii) the clinical ... the different domains of social cognition and a possible relationship with major depressive disorder, (ii) the clinical ... Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder ... Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical studies investigating social cognition in a major depressive disorder ...
A category of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by a deficit in cognition or memory. ... Cognition Disorders Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0009241 MSH: Disturbances in the mental process related ...
Interest in social cognition in bipolar disorder (BD) has increased considerably over the past decade, with studies ... bipolar disorder: Is there a connection?". Interest in social cognition in bipolar disorder (BD) has increased considerably ... Functional Remediation for Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Disorder is a major mood disorder with periodic mood episodes that may be ... Bipolar disorder (BD) patients also have cognitive, social, and.... Early life experiences and social cognition in major ...
  • Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and emotional functioning. (uva.nl)
  • Disturbances in the sense of minimal self, as measured by the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), aggregate in the schizophrenia spectrum disorders, to include schizotypal personality disorder, and distinguish them from other conditions such as psychotic bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some people with borderline personality disorder (sometimes referred to as BPD) can be markedly impulsive, seductive, and extremely sexual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal self-directed violence (SDV). (ovid.com)
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating trauma- and stressor-related disorder that can occur after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. (healthline.com)
  • Once known as "shell shock" or "battle fatigue," PTSD has received public attention because of the high number of war veterans with the disorder. (healthline.com)
  • Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. (frontiersin.org)
  • For the treatment of patients with a chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) several effective psychological treatments are available, of which Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) have been investigated most extensively ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The term social cognition refers to a complex set of processes subserving adaptive social interaction which depend on "theory of mind", or in other words, the ability to make correct attributions of the mental states of others - . (plos.org)
  • The term social cognition refers to how social information is processed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • bipolar disorder (BD) has increased considerably over the past decade, with studies highlighting major impairments, especially in mental state reasoning, even during euthymia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Eating disorders are biologically based mental illness and fully treatable with a combination of nutritional, medical, and therapeutic supports. (feast-ed.org)
  • In-depth specialist assessment is vital, as ADHD is often misdiagnosed, and is frequently comorbid with other mental (and physical health) disorders. (cambridgecognition.com)
  • In a review of 155 data articles, OCD was associated with significant functional disability, and worse symptom severity than several other mental disorders 4 . (cambridgecognition.com)
  • In addition to considering OCD, it is important for healthcare professionals to screen for other mental disorders and to treat comorbidities as well. (cambridgecognition.com)
  • In regard to mental health, individuals with eating disorders appear to have memory impairments in executive functioning, visual-spatial ability, divided and sustained attention, verbal functioning, learning, and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heightened attention to disorder-related stimuli leads to higher levels of encoding, consolidation and retrieval of this information, acting as a potential cause for the mental maintenance of the disorder(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antisocial personality disorder is the name of the disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). (wikipedia.org)
  • While antisocial personality disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed in adulthood, it has its precedent in childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be seen with this example that implicit cognition is involved with many of the different mental activities and everyday situations of people's daily lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Five factor approaches can also predict future mental disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The involuntary and spontaneous generation of mental images is integral to ordinary sensory perception, and cognition, and occurs without volitional intent. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is to say that in some cases, the severity of an individual's mental and physical disability, disorder, or illness is partially determined by his or her images, including their content, vividness or intensity, clarity, and frequency with which they are experienced as intrusive and unbidden. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metacognition [Greek for "after" (meta), "thought" (cognition)] refers to the human capacity to be aware of and control one's own thoughts and internal mental processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, the disorder is not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or major medical associations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, individuals with opioid use disorder may benefit from twelve-step programs, other peer support, and support from mental health professionals such as individual or group therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schopler showed that most autistic children did not suffer from mental disorders, as was believed by many at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, AS, as a separate diagnosis, was eliminated and folded into autism spectrum disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mind-blindness is a cognitive disorder where an individual is unable to attribute mental states to others. (wikipedia.org)
  • A online video and writing samples to illustrate some of the different neurogenic disorders and assessment and treatment procedures. (proedaust.com.au)
  • Inherited disorders affecting structural genes in myelin are the cause of such diseases as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Dejerine-Sottas syndrome and Pelizaeus-Marzbacher disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There is no singular 'genetic cause', but rather multiple genes are likely to confer risk or vulnerability towards developing the condition, especially genes involved in the regulation of cognition and fronto-striatal brain circuitry, such as those relating to the dopamine and noradrenaline/norepinephrine neurochemical pathways 7 . (cambridgecognition.com)
  • Nevertheless, it has proved difficult for researchers to identify genes that would explain substantial amounts of variance in cognitive traits or disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Several genes have been linked to dyslexia, including DCDC2 and KIAA0319 on chromosome 6, DYX1C1 on chromosome 15, ROBO1, DYX3, the language-disorder candidate gene CMIP, and several others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activities of the Genes to Cognition Project encompass a wide range of scientific specialisms, reflecting the diversity of information that must be integrated to advance understanding of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as sharing findings through open access articles in the scientific literature, Genes to Cognition maintains a database, G2Cdb and an educational web site, G2Conline. (wikipedia.org)
  • G2Cdb integrates information curated from the scientific literature and numerous online databases about genes and diseases of interest to Genes to Cognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature Neuroscience 3, 661-669 (2000) doi:10.1038/76615 Synapse proteomics of multiprotein complexes: en route from genes to nervous system diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature Neuroscience 11, 799 - 806 (2008) doi:10.1038/nn.2135 G2Cdb: the Genes to Cognition database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contributions can be either reviews of recent, relevant literature or experimental studies exploring the contribution of environmental, genetic and other biological factors associated with cognition and schizotypy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The child likely has been stricken with an inborn error of metabolism, a recessive genetic disorder that interferes with the normal digestion of food. (genome.gov)
  • Such a model can also explain why genetic influences on cognition have not vanished in the course of human evolution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside source, and the term acquired brain injury (ABI) is used in appropriate circles to differentiate brain injuries occurring after birth from injury, from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple complex developmental disorder is likely to be caused by a number of different various genetic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is particularly important to determine factors that may protect some people with high levels of schizotypy from developing a psychotic disorder. (frontiersin.org)
  • Criteria are met for a psychotic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies investigating resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder may help to inform neurobiological models of illness. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The investigators previously completed a single-blind pilot study of individuals with HIV-related mild neurocognitive disorder using a high-interest car racing game with or without tDCS. (centerwatch.com)
  • Affected individuals should be offered a multidisciplinary approach, by a team specialising in the disorder. (cambridgecognition.com)
  • The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (hindawi.com)
  • Elevated rates of such disorders were noted in siblings of individuals with ASD [ 45 , 46 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared to healthy individuals, individuals suffering from sleep loss, sleep disorders, or both are less productive, have an increased health care utilization, and an increased likelihood of accidents. (nih.gov)
  • So, if individuals experience frequent, recurrent, unexpected panic attacks combined with concern about such attacks and worry about the implications of such attacks, then they are considered to be suffering from a panic disorder. (mitchmedical.us)
  • In industrialized nations, thiamine deficiency is a clinically significant problem in individuals with chronic alcoholism or other disorders that interfere with normal ingestion of food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eating Disorders (ED) are characterized by abnormal and disturbed eating patterns that affect the lives of the individuals who worry about their weight to the extreme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with eating disorders show increased tendencies to direct their attention towards irregular eating-related thought processing and attentional bias, compared to non-ED individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with eating disorders display several memory and attentional biases to food, shape, weight and size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific memory biases include: Directed-forgetting: individuals with eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, display more difficulty in forgetting information or cues related to body, shape and food than those without eating disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with this personality disorder will typically have no compunction in exploiting others in harmful ways for their own gain or pleasure and frequently manipulate and deceive other people, achieving this through wit and a facade of superficial charm or through intimidation and violence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assistive devices Technical tools and devices such as alphabet boards, text telephones, or text-to-speech conversion software used to aid individuals who have communication disorders perform actions, tasks, and activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Audiologist Health care professional who is trained to evaluate hearing loss and related disorders, including balance (vestibular) disorders and tinnitus, and to rehabilitate individuals with hearing loss and related disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balance disorder Disruption in the labyrinth, the inner ear organ that controls the balance system, which allows individuals to know where their bodies are in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particular interests of the Center are the neurobiologic bases of intellectual disability, autism in intellectual disability, and social avoidance and other aberrant behaviors in these disorders. (kennedykrieger.org)
  • The Centre brought together 21 Chief investigators, along with 13 Partner Investigators, 218 Associate Investigators to further understand cognitive processes and their associated disorders. (edu.au)
  • Insufficient intake of selected vitamins, or certain metabolic disorders, may affect cognitive processes by disrupting the nutrient-dependent processes within the body that are associated with the management of energy in neurons, which can subsequently affect synaptic plasticity, or the ability to encode new memories. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are, however, some studies that suggest that some of the newer atypical antipsychotics e.g. aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone, may provide minimal benefits in certain specific areas of cognition. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Given the preferential role of COMT in prefrontal dopamine degradation, the Val158Met polymorphism is thought to exert its effects on cognition by modulating dopamine signaling in the frontal lobes. (wikipedia.org)