Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Independent Living: A housing and community arrangement that maximizes independence and self-determination.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.ReadingCultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Repression-Sensitization: Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases: Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

Frontal cognitive impairments and saccadic deficits in low-dose MPTP-treated monkeys. (1/9619)

There is considerable overlap between the cognitive deficits observed in humans with frontal lobe damage and those described in patients with Parkinson's disease. Similar frontal impairments have been found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) primate model of Parkinsonism. Here we provide quantitative documentation of the cognitive, oculomotor, and skeletomotor dysfunctions of monkeys trained on a frontal task and treated with low-doses (LD) of MPTP. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to perform a spatial delayed-response task with frequent alternations between two behavioral modes (GO and NO-GO). After control recordings, the monkeys were treated with one placebo and successive LD MPTP courses. Monkey C developed motor Parkinsonian signs after a fourth course of medium-dose (MD) MPTP and later was treated with combined dopaminergic therapy (CDoT). There were no gross motor changes after the LD MPTP courses, and the average movement time (MT) did not increase. However, reaction time (RT) increased significantly. Both RT and MT were further increased in the symptomatic state, under CDoT. Self-initiated saccades became hypometric after LD MPTP treatments and their frequency decreased. Visually triggered saccades were affected to a lesser extent by the LD MPTP treatments. All saccadic parameters declined further in the symptomatic state and improved partially during CDoT. The number of GO mode (no-response, location, and early release) errors increased after MPTP treatment. The monkeys made more perseverative errors while switching from the GO to the NO-GO mode. Saccadic eye movement patterns suggest that frontal deficits were involved in most observed errors. CDoT had a differential effect on the behavioral errors. It decreased omission errors but did not improve location errors or perseverative errors. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed moderate ( approximately 70-80%) reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta after MPTP treatment. These results show that cognitive and motor disorders can be dissociated in the LD MPTP model and that cognitive and oculomotor impairments develop before the onset of skeletal motor symptoms. The behavioral and saccadic deficits probably result from the marked reduction of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. We suggest that these behavioral changes result from modified neuronal activity in the frontal cortex.  (+info)

Non-motor associative learning in patients with isolated degenerative cerebellar disease. (2/9619)

In recent decades it has become clear that the cerebellum is involved in associative motor learning, but its exact role in motor learning as such is still controversial. Recently, a contribution of the cerebellum to different cognitive abilities has also been considered, but it remains unclear whether the cerebellum contributes to cognitive associative learning. We compared nine patients with an isolated cerebellar degenerative disease in a cognitive associative learning task with 10 controls. Patients and controls were matched for age, sex, handedness, level of education, intelligence and capabilities of visual memory. The subjects were asked to learn the association between six pairs of colours and numerals by trial and error. Additionally, a simple reaction time and a visual scanning test were conducted in order to control for the influence of motor performance deficits in cerebellar patients. In comparison with the controls, it took the patients significantly longer to learn the correct associations between colours and numerals, and they were impaired in recognizing them later on. Two patients showed no associative learning effect at all. Neither the simple reaction time nor the visual scanning time correlated substantially with the results of associative learning. Therefore, motor-associated disabilities are unlikely to be the reason for the learning deficit in cerebellar patients. Our results suggest that the cerebellum might contribute to motor-independent processes that are generally involved in associative learning.  (+info)

The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. (3/9619)

Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.  (+info)

Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. (4/9619)

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. (5/9619)

OBJECTIVES: Chronic high frequency electrostimulation of the globus pallidus internus mimics pallidotomy and improves clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive consequences of unilateral deep brain stimulation. METHODS: Twenty non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (age range 38-70 years) were neuropsychologically assessed 2 months before and 3 months after unilateral pallidal stimulation. The cognitive assessment included measures of memory, spatial behaviour, and executive and psychomotor function. In addition to group analysis of cognitive change, a cognitive impairment index (CII) was calculated for each individual patient representing the percentage of cognitive measures that fell more than 1 SD below the mean of a corresponding normative sample. RESULTS: Neurological assessment with the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale disclosed a significant postoperative reduction in average clinical Parkinson's disease symptomatology (p<0.001). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (using right/left side of stimulation as a between subjects factor) showed no significant postoperative change in cognitive performance for the total patient group (main effect of operation). The side of stimulation did not show a significant differential effect on cognitive performance (main effect of lateralisation). There was no significant operation by lateralisation interaction effect. Although the patients experienced significant motor symptom relief after pallidal stimulation, they remained mildly depressed after surgery. Analysis of the individual CII changes showed a postoperative cognitive decline in 30% of the patients. These patients were significantly older and took higher preoperative doses of levodopa than patients showing no change or a postoperative cognitive improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Left or right pallidal stimulation for the relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease seems relatively safe, although older patients and patients needing high preoperative doses of levodopa seem to be more vulnerable for cognitive decline after deep brain stimulation.  (+info)

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (6/9619)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses. (7/9619)

Normal sensorimotor states involve integration of intention, action and sensory feedback. An example is the congruence between motor intention and sensory experience (both proprioceptive and visual) when we move a limb through space. Such goal-directed action necessitates a mechanism that monitors sensorimotor inputs to ensure that motor outputs are congruent with current intentions. Monitoring in this sense is usually implicit and automatic but becomes conscious whenever there is a mismatch between expected and realized sensorimotor states. To investigate how the latter type of monitoring is achieved we conducted three fully factorial functional neuroimaging experiments using PET measures of relative regional cerebral blood flow with healthy volunteers. In the first experiment subjects were asked to perform Luria's bimanual co-ordination task which involves either in-phase (conditions 1 and 3) or out-of-phase (conditions 2 and 4) bimanual movements (factor one), while looking towards their left hand. In half of the conditions (conditions 3 and 4) a mirror was used that altered visual feedback (factor two) by replacing their left hand with the mirror image of their right hand. Hence (in the critical condition 4) subjects saw in-phase movements despite performing out-of-phase movements. This mismatch between intention, proprioception and visual feedback engendered cognitive conflict. The main effect of out-of-phase movements was associated with increased neural activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally [Brodmann area (BA) 40, extending into BA 7] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally (BA 9/46). The main effect of the mirror showed increased neural activity in right DLPFC (BA 9/ 46) and right superior PPC (BA 7) only. Analysis of the critical interaction revealed that the mismatch condition led to a specific activation in the right DLPFC alone (BA 9/46). Study 2, using an identical experimental set-up but manipulating visual feedback from the right hand (instead of the left), subsequently demonstrated that this right DLPFC activation was independent of the hand attended. Finally, study 3 removed the motor intentional component by moving the subjects' hand passively, thus engendering a mismatch between proprioception and vision only. Activation in the right lateral prefrontal cortex was now more ventral than in studies 1 or 2 (BA 44/45). A direct comparison of studies 1 and 3 (which both manipulated visual feedback from the left hand) confirmed that a ventral right lateral prefrontal region is primarily activated by discrepancies between signals from sensory systems, while a more dorsal area in right lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when actions must be maintained in the face of a conflict between intention and sensory outcome.  (+info)

Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. (8/9619)

As demonstrated by anatomical and physiological studies, the cerebral cortex consists of groups of cortical modules, each comprising populations of neurons with similar functional properties. This functional modularity exists in both sensory and association neocortices. However, the role of such cortical modules in perceptual and cognitive behavior is unknown. To aid in the examination of this issue we have applied the high spatial resolution optical imaging methodology to the study of awake, behaving animals. In this paper, we report the optical imaging of orientation domains and blob structures, approximately 100-200 micrometer in size, in visual cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. By overcoming the spatial limitations of other existing imaging methods, optical imaging will permit the study of a wide variety of cortical functions at the columnar level, including motor and cognitive functions traditionally studied with positron-emission tomography or functional MRI techniques.  (+info)

In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory (LTM) as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures, and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future
Results Men had better median balance times than women at age 53 [Men: 5 (interquartile range: 3-10); Women: 4 (3-7)], 60-64 [M: 3.7 (2.5-5.6); W: 3.3 (2.3-4.8)], and 69 [M: 3.0 (2.0-5.0); W: 2.9 (1.9-4.3)], but a decline in median balance times with age was observed in both sexes. In sex-adjusted and fully-adjusted models, higher childhood cognitive ability was associated with better balance times, although this association weakened with increasing age. A one standard deviation increase in childhood cognitive ability was associated with fully-adjusted mean differences in log-balance times (ln(s)) of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.08-0.15), 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02-0.09) and 0.04 (95% CI: 0.001-0.08) at ages 53, 60-64 and 69, respectively. ...
Introduction. Question: Outline how one study demonstrates principles of the cognitive level of analysis. (The command term outline requires you to Give a brief account or summary.) Answer: The mind can be conceptualized as a set of mental processes that are carried out by the brain. Cognition is a concept referred to any cognitive processes like memory, perception and attention. One of the fundamental principles that define the Cognitive Level of Analysis (CLOA) is that cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. ...read more. Middle. And in order to find out, he came with a Native American legend and asked the participants to read through the story twice. None of the participants knew the purpose of the experiment. He then asked them to reproduce the story after different time intervals (minutes, days, etc.), and noticed how each participants memory of the story changed with each reproduction. It appeared that the story The War of the Ghosts was difficult for ...
Lower cognitive performance in normal older adult male twins carrying the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele.: The apoE epsilon 4 allele may be associated with d
The need for cognition (NFC), in psychology, is a personality variable reflecting the extent to which individuals are inclined towards effortful cognitive activities. Need for cognition has been variously defined as "a need to structure relevant situations in meaningful, integrated ways" and "a need to understand and make reasonable the experiential world". Higher NFC is associated with increased appreciation of debate, idea evaluation, and problem solving. Those with a high need for cognition may be inclined towards high elaboration. Those with a lower need for cognition may display opposite tendencies, and may process information more heuristically, often through low elaboration. Need for cognition is closely related to the five factor model domain openness to experience, typical intellectual engagement, and epistemic curiosity (see below). Cohen, Stotland and Wolfe (1955), in their work on individual differences in cognitive motivation, identified a "need for cognition" which they defined as ...
This study investigated the unexplored hypothesis that people may have cognitive representations of the body s parts and products body schema and that these may be relevant to illness behavior. Factor and MANOVA analyses revealed that body parts are viewed as differing in the Stigma attached to them and in the intent to which they are seen as...
Human cognition and human culture, in their rich diversity and stunning complexity, are now the focus points for scholars representing a broad range of disciplines from neuroscience and evolutionary biology to rhetoric and literary studies. Historically, various cultural and/or scholarly conceptions of cognition - how the human minds come to know and understand - have had profound influence on rhetorical theory, the teaching of rhetoric, and rhetorical practice. Indeed, every practical or pedagogical rhetorical program has relied upon implicit or explicit notions of cognition, or what might be called "cultures of cognition." Furthermore, the ups and downs of the art of rhetorics fortune have been more than once tied to theories of cognition, as in the oft-cited disrepute into which rhetoric fell in the Enlightenment due in part to Cartesian theories of cognition. Rhetorics history, therefore, is closely related to the history of conceptions of cognition, and conceptions of cognition are ...
This study examined the effects of a dl-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) containing beverage on cognitive and performance measures during a bout of repeated Wingates. Fifteen healthy, college-aged males (mean ± SD; age: 23.1 ± 2.4 years, height: 165.4 ± 2.0 cm, mass: 81.4 ± 9.2 kg) volunteered for the present study. Trial 1 consisted of baseline measures and familiarization for the protocol. During trials 2 and 3, subjects reported to the laboratory, after a 10-h fast, and ingested 11.38 g of βHB or a placebo (PLA) beverage 30 min before exercise. Participants then completed a cognitive challenge (CC), consisting of a 5-min FitLight response task while cycling. At the cessation of the test, participants then completed four 15-s repeated Wingates with 4 min of rest between, followed by another 5-min CC response task. Blood ketones, glucose, and lactate were measured pre-CC and post-Wingates. βHB levels were significantly higher compared with PLA (0.53 vs. 0.21 mmol/L), respectively. A significant ...
We are always looking for students to get involved with Victoria Infant and Child Cognition Lab! Here is some information to consider before applying: What kind of research are we doing at the VUW Infant and Child Cognition Lab? Student researchers at the VUW Infant and Child Cognition Lab study social cognitive development in infants,…
The Cognition and Brain Science specialty area for the Psychology Ph.D. program trains students to develop a thorough understanding of diverse aspects of cognition and neural mechanisms for neural processing. Students learn about theories of cognitive phenomena and the neurobiological bases of cognition and behavior. Students study the major methods used to measure various components of cognition and neuroscience. These components include attention, sensation and perception, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, language, metacognition, spatial cognition, and problem solving. Please visit the Cognition and Brain Science Research page for more information regarding research conducted in this area.. Students are encouraged to gain a strong background in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience, with exposure to a variety of fundamental areas of general psychology, while also developing a particular research concentration. The program is designed to provide students with ...
This paper addresses the relation between the need for cognition and rationality in decision-making and also reconsiders the relation between need for cognition and the framing effect using modified versions of the Asian disease task. In the first study (N = 205), a significant and positive relationship was obtained between need for cognition and the rationality of decision-makers. Also a negative and significant relationship was obtained between need for cognition and indecisiveness. These findings are consistent with the theoretical propositions hypothesized in the need for cognition theory (Cacioppo et al., 1996). The second study (N = 462) is an in-depth analysis of the relation between the need for cognition and the framing effect, revealing a positive and significant relation between need for cognition and the respondents' preference for the probabilistic framed alternatives in two risky choice framing effect tasks ...
When an individual has a cognitive deficit for any reason, how do you assess them? This lesson discusses the Allen Cognitive levels as to what they...
Dementia is on the rise globally due to an ever increasing aging population. In particular, Alzheimers disease is 43% higher amongst woman. It has been proposed that the reduction in ovarian estrogen production after menopause may contribute to this difference. Memory and mood complaints, including lack of clarity of thought and memory or difficulty finding words, are frequent in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The frequency of objectively measured hot flashes in postmenopausal women has been found to be a predictor of delayed verbal memory, with verbal fluency being significantly correlated with the number of daytime hot flashes ...
A couple of remarks on this excellent paper: Thinking of decision in the light of modularity, highlights one of the least plausible of Fodors criteria of modularity, viz., that the operations of a module are not only automatic (in the sense that no decision need be made for them to take place) but also mandatory (in the sense that, once an input for the module is present, the modular process will start and follow its course). This assumes that there are no energy constraints on the operations of modules, when in fact two kinds of such constraints are likely to be involved. Firstly, as a matter of efficient design, processing costs should be incurred only in proportion to expected cognitive benefit. So a stimulus with no expected relevance should be less likely to be processed. This is indeed the case when a stimulus is repeated with no new relevance and elicit a lower and lower cognitive response (what is called habituation). Secondly, there may be too many inputs fitting the input conditions ...
Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospacial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task assessing visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age. Decreasing levels of estrogen in women and sex differences in age-related cortical atrophy do not seem to influence ...
For more information about the symposium and the link for registration, please see the symposium website: https://www.sol.lu.se/en/subjects/engelska/llc2/international-symposium-spoken-language-across-time/ Link to the official LLC-2 website: https://www.sol.lu.se/en/subjects/engelska/llc2/ If you have any questions, please contact: [email protected] Continue Reading ...
Human Cognition An important foundation for the design of interfaces is a basic theory of human cognition The information processing paradigm (in its most simple form). Human Information Processing The
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association between cognition and dual-tasking among older adults. T2 - the effect of motor function type and cognition task difficulty. AU - Ehsani, Hossein. AU - Mohler, Martha J. AU - OConnor, Kathy. AU - Zamrini, Edward. AU - Tirambulo, Coco. AU - Toosizadeh, Nima. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: Dual-task actions challenge cognitive processing. The usefulness of objective methods based on dual-task actions to identify the cognitive status of older adults has been previously demonstrated. However, the properties of select motor and cognitive tasks are still debatable. We investigated the effect of cognitive task difficulty and motor task type (walking versus an upper-extremity function [UEF]) in identifying cognitive impairment in older adults. Methods: Older adults (≥65 years) were recruited, and cognitive ability was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Participants performed repetitive elbow flexion under three conditions: 1) at ...
Objectives. Treatment transitions are frequent in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but little is known about cognitive responses pre- to post-transplantation or after transplant failure. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in illness cognitions across treatment transitions between dialysis and transplantation and their impact on quality of life (QOL). Methods. In this longitudinal study, ESRD patients (N= 262) patients were followed up across treatment transitions over a 7-year observation window using the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the Illness Effects Questionnaire, and measures of QOL. Study sample comprised the patients from this cohort who switched treatment modality (N= 60 post-transplantation; N= 28 transplant failure). Data were collected while on dialysis or transplantation and at 6 months post-treatment change. Results. Significant changes in QOL and illness perceptions were found in treatment transitions with opposite patterns of either improvement or deterioration ...
Distributed cognition refers to a process in which cognitive resources are shared socially in order to extend individual cognitive resources or to accomplish something that an individual agent could not achieve alone. Human cognitive achievements are based on a process in which an agents cognitive processes and the objects and constraints of the world reciprocally affect each other. Cognitive processes can be distributed between humans and machines (physically distributed cognition, Norman, 1993; Perkins, 1993) or between cognitive agents (socially distributed cognition). Salomon (1993, p. 112) has pointed out that distributed cognition forms systems that consist of an individual agent, his or her peers, teachers, and socio-culturally formed cognitive tools. (Lehtinen et al.). ...
There is a well-defined relationship between stress and cognition. The intake of phospholipids has the potential to attenuate responses to stress and thus protect cognitive performance. The aims of this thesis were (a) develop suitable methodologies, both in the real-world and laboratory, to examine the effects of stress on cognition; (b) identify characteristics of individuals who may be particularly stress vulnerable; and (c) assess the potential for a phospholipid intervention to attenuate the response to stress and the impact of this stress exposure on cognitive function. These aims were addressed in four studies. Studies 1 - 3 aimed to identify a number of design and methodological conditions suitable for a phospholipid intervention assessing cognitive performance under stress (Study 4). The identification of a naturalistic or laboratory stress context capable of eliciting cortisol responses over repeated exposures, selection of cognitive tests sensitive to stress impairment, and ...
View Notes - Cognition from PSYCH 110 at Northwestern. Cognition o Mental representation o Problem Solving o Decision Making o Intelligence Mental Representation o How understanding of the world is
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". Cognition refers to all of the mental activities that are involved in learning, remembering, and using knowledge. It encompasses processes such as. Learn more about these processes Selective attention involves filtering out irrelevant information around us and cognition theory and practice revlin focusing on the things that demand our attention. Learn how it works The framing effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented; e.g.. PRACTICE COGNITION AND THEORY REVLIN ...
Glenbergs research for the past two decades has focused on the embodied theory of cognition, the idea that cognitive processes-both conscious and unconscious-are not disconnected from the body, as suggested by the philosopher René Descartes. Instead, the fact that we have legs, arms, eyes, ears, a motor system, and an emotional system underlie both our experiences of the world and our thinking. "It makes no sense for a faculty like cognition to have evolved without consideration of the body," says Glenberg. "Were not computers, were biological systems. Were not programmed, were evolved. We should consider human cognition as flowing from the cognition of other animals." ". ...
The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) detects cognitive impairment in less than five minutes. This simple, economical test is an ideal way for busy clinicians to screen for organic cerebral dysfunction in both children (eight years and older) and adults
Initial studies examined the structure of the brain, particularly the size or volume of specific brain regions, using static images obtained via computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These studies identified the frontal cortex and hippocampus as potentially relevant brain regions in the pathophysiology of depression, hypotheses that were supported by post-mortem studies. Subsequent research looked at regional blood flow or energy metabolism in the brain using functional MRI (fMRI) or positron emission tomography (PET). These studies capture the activity of the brain either in the "resting state" (i.e., when patients are not focusing on any particular thought or stimulus) or when the brain is actively responding to a task that induces an emotional or cognitive response. More recently, researchers have applied machine learning methods to fMRI data to identify brain networks and connectivity. Other types of neuroimaging for mood disorders include diffusion tensor imaging ...
Many people with MS experience cognitive problems, like memory disturbances or slowing down of information processing speed.. Cognitive functions are harder to measure than clinical disability and MRIs, so they are not routinely evaluated in clinical practice.. The concept of no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) has recently emerged as an important outcome measure for MS in research studies or clinical trials. It means no relapses or disability progression and no new white matter lesions are identified with MRI. However, it is not known if maintaining NEDA has a positive impact on cognition or brain atrophy (shrinkage).. A research team from Italy carried out a study to evaluate the correlation between NEDA status, cognitive functions and brain shrinking.. They followed 42 people with relapsing remitting MS for two years and found that only 30.8% of them achieved NEDA status. About half of those with NEDA status still had deterioration of some cognitive functions.. The recommendation from ...
There is growing concern among patients with early-stage breast cancer about self-perceived or objective cognitive changes following their diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms include difficulties with multi-tasking, short-term memory, attention and concentration and word-finding, which may have a detrimental effect on quality of life. The severity of symptoms varies widely, when assessed objectively, the problems are generally subtle. Early clinical observational studies accumulated evidence that suggested cognitive problems could be attributed to the direct neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However, observations of cognitive deficits before the start of any treatment question the singular role of chemotherapy. Additionally, results from studies examining the effect of endocrine therapies on cognitive function are mixed.. Recent neuroimaging techniques have reported structural and functional neural changes associated with breast cancer treatments. Also, translational research has accumulated ...
The purpose of the past three (or four if you count joint attention) blogs was to look into the earliest forms of social cognition to analyze the beginnings of some of the most studied topics in social cognition. Developmental social cognition is a field that is ever-growing and ever-changing. One of my favourite part of doing the research for the three blogs was reading papers from the 80s and 90s all the way to reading papers that had been published only days earlier. The leaps and bounds that have been made, and all the hours that have been put into this topic make it a subject I could have successfully spoken about for the entire duration of this course.. Early social cognition, joint attention, self-awareness, and the earliest development of language demonstrate many branches of the same tree that is social cognition of child development. It would have been interesting to study memory, children raised in bilingual homes, the early cognition of learned behaviour, and the early cognition of ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Travis, Alice D. - Cognitive Evolution: The Biological Imprint of Applied Intelligence. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781581129816
Bringing together a comprehensive and diverse collection of research, theory, and thought, this volume builds a foundation for the new field of Augmented Cognition research and development. The first section introduces general Augmented Cognition methods and techniques, including physiological and neurophysiological measures such as EEG and fNIR; adaptive techniques; and sensors and algorithms for cognitive state estimation. The second section discusses Augmented Cognition applications such as simulation and training, intent-driven user interfaces, closed-loop command and control systems, then goes on to explore lessons learned to date, and future directions in Augmented Cognition-enabled HCI.
Researchers in human cognition add direct measurement of thinking skills and mindset to gain new insights on the effects of individual differences.
Civil Maps provides a scalable, edge-based HD mapping and localization platform that helps automotive OEMs, map providers, and mobility companies accelerate their autonomous driving programs. With our Edge Mapping™ technology, we are redefining traditional map creation workflows and enabling continental-scale base map crowdsourcing.. We empower self-driving cars with the ability to build, share, and update a mental model of the environment while continuously determining their location.. ...
Buy Cultural Origins of Human Cognition by Michael Tomasello - 9780674005822. This work builds a bridge between evolutionary theory and cultural psychology. ...
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To test this hypothesis, the Sobel laboratory had study participants perform non-emotional cognitive tasks while the scientists measured nasal airflow and recorded brain activity via electroencephalography (EEG). The scientists found that participants unconsciously tended to time the onset of their cognitive efforts to coincide with nasal inhalation. When the pattern-matching task-the simplest task-was covertly timed to coincide specifically with participant inhalation or exhalation, the results were even stronger: Inhalation at task onset was associated with improved performance.. The study was published in Nature Human Behaviour in March.. "Our results show that its not only the olfactory system that is sensitive to inhalation and exhalation-the entire brain is," says Prof. Sobel. "We could generalize to say that the brain works better with inhalation." Moreover, the nose truly knows, as synchronized inhalation through the mouth had no impact on cognitive performance.. While the benefit of ...
In this cohort of Scots born in 1921 survival beyond 76 years related to gender, cognition and physical health measures. The very narrow age range meant that chronological age, itself, did not predict survival. Furthermore, early-life influences, such as childhood IQ, did not have any significant effect in contrast to younger cohorts [2, 3]. Neither did variables relevant to earlier adult life such as education and occupation. Lower scores on several of the Wave 1 mental ability variables were associated with poorer survival: in a multivariate model UCO, a measure of executive function, was the best cognitive predictor. Amongst health variables, multivariate models showed that conventional measures of health status, such as diagnosed disease and medication use, were poor predictors of survival. Key health status predictors were respiratory function, mood score and smoking habit. The survival of participants who had given up smoking was no worse than those who had never smoked. Those who ...
www.MOLUNA.de Cognitive Strategy Research [4188846] - For some time now, the study of cognitive development has been far and away the most active discipline within developmental psychology. Although there would be much disagreement as to the exact proportion of papers published in develop mental journals that could be considered cognitive, 50% seems like a conservative estimate.
A study of older adults at risk of late-onset Alzheimers disease found that those who consumed more omega-3 fatty acids did better than their peers on tests of cognitive flexibility - the ability to efficiently switch between tasks - and had a bigger anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region known to contribute to cognitive flexibility.. ...
TEHRAN (Tasnim) - In generally healthy older men, slightly lower sodium levels in the blood were related to both cognitive impairment and declines in cognitive function over time.
Virtually all cognitive activity resembles problem solving (Simon, 1981). Moment by moment, and over longer time spans, we face problems that need solutions. Problem solving can be described in abstract terms as the task of moving a system from its current State A to a goal State B. Any successful cognitive act (retrieving a memory, perceiving a scene, understanding a passage) can be seen as such a process.. In what sense is all cognition problem solving?. This definition of cognition as problem solving encompasses an incredibly wide range of situations. In visual perception, the problem is to come up with a construction that accurately describes the sensory world. In language comprehension, the problem is to reconstruct the authors intended meaning. In motor activity, the problem is to achieve a goal by executing an action. Any time there is a goal or purpose to an activity, there must be problem-solving within the system to determine how to reach that goal.. In what respects are getting a ...
The organism-in-its-environment is recognized as the basic unit of analysis when dealing with living beings. This paper seeks to define the fundamental implications of the concept of the organism-in-its-environment in terms of the biosemiotics concept of human distributed cognition. Human distributed cognition in a biosemiotics context is defined as the ability of a self-referencing organism-in-its-environment to interact with its environment to satisfy its physiological (internal and external) and social needs to survive and sustain itself. The ontogenetic development of the organism-in-its-environment serves as the backdrop to discover the implications of distributed cognition that have general applicability in organisms, but in this paper, are made relevant to human beings.. ...
How is Everyday Indicators of Impaired Cognition abbreviated? EIIC stands for Everyday Indicators of Impaired Cognition. EIIC is defined as Everyday Indicators of Impaired Cognition very rarely.
Newborns and infants who receive Gillespie Approach-Craniosacral Fascial Therapy may experience heightened cognitive abilities, Dr. Barry Gillespie writes.
A recent study published in Neurology and also reported by the BBC found that greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 20 years later. The study group consisted of…... ...
The global market size of Cognitive System Spending is $XX million in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2024 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2024. Global Cognitive System Spending Market Repor...
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Pharmacological cognition enhancement aims at an improvement of cognitive activity and performance in healthy people by means of appropriate drugs. Ethical implications of this kind of cognition enhan
Synonyms for pre cognitions at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Although the theoretical framework of cognitive load theory has acknowledged a role for the learning environment, the specific characteristics of the physical learning environment that could affect...
Download the Book:Fish Cognition And Behavior PDF For Free, Preface: The study of animal cognition has been largely confined to birds and mammals; a hist...
An important collection of studies providing a fresh and original perspective on the nature of mind, including thoughtful and detailed arguments that explain why the prevailing paradigm - the computational conception of language and mentality - can no longer be sustained. An alternative approach is advanced, inspired by the work of Charles S. Peirce, according to which minds are sign-using (or semiotic) systems, which in turn generates distinctions between different kinds of minds and overcomes problems that burden more familiar alternatives. Unlike conceptions of minds as machines, this novel approach has obvious evolutionary implications, where differences in semiotic abilities tend to distinguish the species. From this point of view, the scope and limits of computer and AI systems can be more adequately appraised and alternative accounts of consciousness and cognition can be more thoroughly criticised. Readership: Intermediate and advanced students of computer science, AI, cognitive ...
Pearson correlations were used to assess the bivariate associations of kidney and cognitive function with other covariates. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare men and women. We used a series of linear mixed-effects models to examine whether kidney function was related to the rate of change in cognition during the study period.19 The initial model included a term for both linear cognitive change (time in years since baseline) as well as a quadratic term for quadratic change in global cognition (time x time) as well as terms for baseline eGFR, age, sex, and education and their interactions with time and time x time. Because there were no significant interactions between time x time with the terms for eGFR, age, and education, we did not retain these quadratic interaction terms in subsequent models. However, terms for sex x time x time were included in those models in which there were significant interactions (global cognition, episodic memory, and semantic memory). The term for eGFR ...
Video created by Wesleyan University for the course Schizophrenia. In the fourth module we discuss common cognitive deficits, disruptions in social cognition and cognitive models of the disorder. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and ...
Abstract (1) What is a cognitive system? (2) Why do we want to engineer such systems? (3) Why do we need a scientific foundation for engineering cognitive systems and what would be required of it? (4) What are its building blocks and what is the glue that holds them together? (5) How can we achieve it? We propose answers to each of these questions. Answers to (5) also refer to projects currently being funded under the Cognitive Systems ``Strategic Objective of the European IST programme ...
Aging, also in the absence of pathological conditions, is associated with cognitivedecline, especially in so called fluid abilities, such as episodic memory andexecutive functions. Due to an ongoing demographic shift, a larger part of thepopulation will reach higher ages, and more people will be affected by age-relatedcognitive decline. Finding ways of counteracting this development have the potentialof having large benefits for both individuals and society. It has long beenknown that living in environments that are rich in terms of cognitive challengescan affect cognitive ability in old age. In this regard, intervention studies in whichthe amount of cognitive stimulation is manipulated can therefore generate insightsto the causality of such effects in specific cognitive functions. Cognitive trainingas means to counteract negative effects of aging on cognition has received a lot ofscientific interest in the last decades.This focus of this thesis is cognitive training interventions, which is ...
The cognitive may, therefore, be assumed to be like other natural domains, namely, the cognitive must be discriminated on the basis of underlying causal processes. The point we have been driving at here might be approached in another way, namely, we believe there is more to cognition than merely passing the Turing test. Some of the mechanisms that might be used to pass the Turing test will count as cognitive mechanisms for doing this, while other mechanisms that might suffice will not count as cognitive mechanisms. A computer program might pass the Turing test by having a listing of all possible sensible conversations stored in memory. Such a program, however, would not constitute a cognitive mechanism for passing the test. This is presumably because we have sufficient ground for saying that the look-up table process is not of a kind with the complex of processes that go into enabling a normal human to carry out the same sort of conversation. The look-up table may, for example, answer questions ...
Often a student may have strengths in many areas but may have weaknesses relative to his or her strengths in one or more of the processing areas shown in the diagram above. In evaluating a students work, the types of errors you see might suggest where s/he is experiencing difficulty. It helps to understand students have a wide range of processing abilities when you interpret student errors. While you are not in a position of diagnosing specific cognitive abilities, you can see patterns such as those that involve language misinterpretations (i.e. consistent difficulties understanding directions or word usage) and suspect that something in the language area may need attention. Another example is if you see a student frequently misinterprets signs and symbols on a math test or homework, but seems able to understand on a conceptual level, that is a clue that s/he may be experiencing visual perceptual problems, but s/he is doing fine in higher reasoning abilities. If specific problems such as these ...
In a recent news report, I talked about a study of older adults that found that their sense of control over their lives fluctuates significantly over the course of a day, and that this impacts on their cognitive abilities, including reasoning and memory. Sense of control - a persons feeling that they are (or are not) in control of their life - is an attribute that includes perceived competence, as well as locus of control (you can take a Locus of Control Test here, if youre interested), and in general it tends to decline in older adults. But obviously it is an attribute that, across the board, varies dramatically between individuals.. In older adults, a stronger sense of control is associated with more successful aging, and among people in general, with better cognitive performance. This isnt surprising, as it is entirely consistent with related associations we have found: between strategy use and cognitive performance; between the belief that intelligence is malleable rather than fixed and ...
Childhood obesity has more than tripled in the last 30 years, with a prevalence of 8.4% among children ages 2 to 5 [1]. In addition, obesity disproportionately affects children of low socioeconomic status, with a rate of nearly 15% for children under the age of 5 [1] in this group. Children who are obese have a greater chance of being obese during adulthood, increasing the likelihood of serious health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and various forms of cancer [2]. It is well established that obesity is a result of complex interactions between genetic, environmental, and social factors [3, 4]. One current model proposes six levels of contributors: cellular, child, clan, community, country and culture [5]. For young children, the clan or family level may be of particular importance as young children spend most of their time at home [6].. Within the clan/family level, one intriguing factor-parental stimulation of the childs cognitive development (e.g. opportunities for ...
RT Web Page DB /z-wcorg/ DS http://worldcat.org ID 849899304 LA English. UL http://site.ebrary.com/id/10720620 T1 Cognition beyond the brain : computation, interactivity and human artifice A1 Cowley, Stephen J., Vallee-Tourangeau, Frederic,, PB Springer PP London; New York YR 2013 SN 9781447151258 1447151259 1447161645 9781447161646 1447151240 9781447151241 AB Cognition Beyond the Brain challenges neurocentrism by advocating a systemic view of cognition based on investigating how action shapes the experience of thinking. The systemic view steers between extended functionalism and enactivism by stressing how living beings connect bodies, technologies, language and culture. Since human thinking depends on a cultural ecology, people connect biologically-based powers with extended systems and, by so doing, they constitute cognitive systems that reach across the skin. Biological interpretation exploits extended functional systems. Illustrating distributed cognition, one set of chapters focus on ...
in Canada. Our estimates indicate that non-cognitive skills play a role in determining income at age 25 that is on par with that of cognitive skills. Our analysis demonstrates that it is crucial to account for the dynamics in decision making since this demonstrates that the effect of cognitive skills on adult incomes arises by one increasing the likelihood of obtaining further education. Conditioning on the choice to complete a university degree, cognitive skills are found to play no additional role in determining earnings at age 25. In contrast, non-cognitive skills not only indirectly influence adult income through the channel of educational choice, but they are directly rewarded in the labour market. Last, evidence from policy simulations suggest that equal attention should be given to policies that cultivate different dimensions of non-cognitive skills as those that focus solely on cognitive skills.. "Estimating Context-Independent Treatment Effects in Education Experiments". Weili Ding - ...
Primarily the kidneys function is to remove toxins from the body and maintain the bodys chemical balance. Many medical conditions can be caused if this functioning diminishes-blood pressure and hypertension being the most commonly known. However, a unique study conducted by Temple University suggests, decreased kidney function is associated with decreased cognitive functioning in areas such as global cognitive ability, abstract reasoning and verbal memory.. This is the first study describing change in cognitive functioning in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function.. These researchers examined longitudinal data, five years apart, of 590 people to see how much kidney function had changed during that time period, and to what level their cognitive functioning had changed. They were not only interested in the overall change but also in specific abilities such as abstract reasoning and verbal memory.. Greater a persons decrease in ...
This texts success has come in large part from its up-to-date coverage of important research and theories and offers the latest and most comprehensive overview of cognition on the
A summary of Decision-Making in s Language and Cognition. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Language and Cognition and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Hmmm, whats this, a controvertial statement? ;-) Its not too far fetched to suppose that perceptual processes at the lowest levels are actively modulated by attentional absorption such as in your example. However, this modulation is probably not as severe as that experienced at the cognitive level; I get your point. Claire_Pich wrote: Like a microphone, the ear reacts to the incoming acoustic stimuli without discrimination. ...
This volume has the rare potential to capture the interest of theoretical psychologists, researchers, practitioners, and students alike. Those with passing interest will be captivated by intrguing argument, and experts will be drawn into a rigorous debate around previously commonly held understandings. At issue are relationships between reality, cognition, and language.... Edwards combines scholarship, expertise, and originality, with a tangible enthusiasm for his topic.... a valuable addition to the library of readers committed to exploring new ideas and investigating alternative research and practice approaches.... The value of this volume rests in the writers ability to respect the traditional and the contemporary while simultaneously demonstrating the greater contribution that may be made by both in the light of suggested new understandings about discourse and cognition. Minimally, the invitation is a tantalizing one; maximally, Edwards discursive psychology may prove an exciting idea that ...
In the last consciousness post, which discussed issues with panpsychism and simple definitions of consciousness, I laid out five functional layers of cognition which I find helpful when trying to think about systems that are more or less conscious. Just to recap, those layers are: Reflexes, primal reactions to stimuli. Perception, sensory models of the…
Articles on learning, memory, perception, thinking, mental health, and applications of psychology. Cognition Today is about all things cognition.
Cognition Through Understanding presents a selection of Tyler Burges essays that use epistemology to illumine powers of mind. The essays focus on epistemic warrants that differ from those warrants commonly discussed in epistemology--those for ordinary empirical beliefs and for logical and mathematical beliefs. The essays center on four types of cognition warranted through understanding--self-knowledge, interlocution, reasoning, and reflection.
The |i|Journal of Cognition and Culture|/i| is a peer-reviewed journal that provides an interdisciplinary forum for exploring the mental foundations of culture and the culture foundations of mental life. The primary focus of the journal is on explanations of cultural phenomena in terms of acquisition, representation and transmission involving cognitive capacities without excluding the study of cultural differences.
The |i|Journal of Cognition and Culture|/i| is a peer-reviewed journal that provides an interdisciplinary forum for exploring the mental foundations of culture and the culture foundations of mental life. The primary focus of the journal is on explanations of cultural phenomena in terms of acquisition, representation and transmission involving cognitive capacities without excluding the study of cultural differences.
Cognition Beyond the Brain challenges neurocentrism by advocating a systemic view of cognition based on investigating how action shapes the experience of thinking. The systemic view steers between ext
see sems see shes pa In its utimate aspect cognition is limitless due to its being synonymous with pure awareness, nonconceived and without particulars of concepts or, discursive thinking. As such, this unlimited aspect as cognition is still not changed as a result of discursive thought, conceptuality or its particulars, suffering/not-suffering, samsara and nirvana notwithstanding as is recognized by their actual inseparability (dbyer med). This pure cognizance, then, comes to be termed re-cognition as it becomes reflective of its own innate purity, and re-cognizes - of its own inherent potentiality as particulars, or - all things. Nonetheless, all things...each and every single thing whatsoever...are as spontaneous and nameless within and as themselves as they are even in their recognition as particulars, each with an infinite array of attributes or aspects which come to be defined as a direct result of such re-cognition and reflections. RWB ...
Social COGNITION. Structure of Attitudes. Affective Gatsby feels that Daisy will want to be with him if he is financially successful Behavioural Gatsby starts his own business and creates a large fortune and builds castle-like house to demonstrate his wealth and success Cognitive...
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Insightful Analysis to Drive Document Cognition SmartLabTest Evaluation. NelsonHall has developed the Document Cognition Platforms Program as a dedicated service for organizations evaluating technology for the use of intelligent document processing platforms.
I wish I been keeping up when the funding time for Cognition started. I feel a bit the way I do when I forget about public radio membership. I will, however, be buying Cognition ...
I wish I been keeping up when the funding time for Cognition started. I feel a bit the way I do when I forget about public radio membership. I will, however, be buying Cognition ...
Numéro 1 : Espace et cognition - Mai 2012 Sommaire : Édito Formations professionnelles : Le Congrès National de Neuropsychologie Clinique Psychométrie : Hooper Visual Organization Test Pathologies et expressions cliniques : Latrophie corticale postérieure : synthèse Théories et concepts : Lesti...
Applying Social Cognition to Consumer-Focused Strategy by Frank R. Kardes, 9781138875951, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
definition of TELANCO, what does TELANCO mean?, meaning of TELANCO, Textualisation, Langage, Cognition, TELANCO stands for Textualisation, Langage, Cognition
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Were all familiar with the checkered history of the Whorf Hypothesis; the idea that a persons worldview and cognition are limited by their language
Here is the best resource for homework help with PSYCHOLOGY 1 : Cognition at University Of Texas. Find PSYCHOLOGY1 study guides, notes, and practice tests
This second edition of The Child as Thinker has been thoroughly revised and updated to provide an informed and accessible overview of the varied and extensive literature on childrens cognition. Both theory and research data are critically examined…
The tools and resources in this section will assist in determining whether a full diagnostic work-up is warranted once impairment has been identified.
Patients will be followed every 6 months for a total of 5 visits (Month 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24). The first visit is the screening and entry visit which can occur at any time after the subject finishes SEARCH 001 study but preferably it should occur approximately 6 months after SEARCH 001 study completion.. At each visit, patients will undergo the following. ...
Patients will be followed every 6 months for a total of 5 visits (Month 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24). The first visit is the screening and entry visit which can occur at any time after the subject finishes SEARCH 001 study but preferably it should occur approximately 6 months after SEARCH 001 study completion.. At each visit, patients will undergo the following. ...
This article explores the differences between learning and cognition in young children and how the two go hand in hand. It also touches on the four stages of Piaget's cognitive development theory, and how they relate to early childhood learning.
KeyStudy3:Gudjohnsson and Bownes-The attribution of blame and type of crime committed.. Is it true that criminals explain their behaviour in a different way?. Attributions:. Fundamental attribution:we tend to over-estimate the internal and under-estimate the external factors when explaining the behaviour of others.. Self-Serving bias:we tend to equate our successes to internal attributes and our failures to external attributes.. Aim:to examine the relationship between the type of offence and the attributions offenders make about their…. ...
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How do legal actors know what the relevant facts and law are in any given case? The answer, we argue, is that they know in the same way that ordinary citizens know. When deliberating about what dangers are real and which are specious, and about which policies are efficacious and which are futile or even self-defeating, ordinary folk will rarely have direct access to the answers themselves. Instead, they must make decisions about what information and which sources warrant their trust. They must judge whether the stories in which the information is embedded are plausible and consistent with one another. They must consider which norms are relevant, given the facts as they know them. And all the empirical evidence we have suggests they will do all of this through interlocking social and cognitive mechanisms that cause them to rely on a culturally contingent situation sense, an implicit knowledge of how the material and social world works and who can be trusted to report it accurately.. Click to read ...
This is certainly not what the marketing people at Apple had in mind when they came up with their slogan. Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Kunming have found that while the prefrontal cortex of humans express the type II splice form of neuropsin - a protein involved in learning and memory -…
Most adults have had their fair share of IQ tests, but how far are they in terms of cognition? What are the differences between IQ & Cognitive Functions?
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If , ,,cognitive functions are modular, then each subsystem, and consequently each , ,,function, may be subject to independent genetic control. If so, studying , ,,the heritability of IQ (a unitary measure of cognitive ability) makes no , ,,sense. , , ,By this line of reasoning, it would make no sense to measure the , ,heritability of grain yield in maize or stem volume growth in trees, , ,since these are the cumulative result of subsystem activity -- , ,nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic efficiency, carbon partitioning , ,among organs, resistance to pests and disease, etc. It remains the , ,case that yield parameters have their heritabilities measured , ,all the time as a guide for plant breeding. The complexity of the , ,whole system is really irrelevant for calculation of heritability. , ,All that matters is that there is genetic variation for at least , ,one component of the system. The more components that have genetic , ,variation, the more complex the analysis becomes (potentially). ...
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Cognition, discrimination, and learning[edit]. Computational modeling of higher cognitive functions has only recently[when?] ... Browne, A. (1997-01-01). Neural Network Perspectives on Cognition and Adaptive Robotics. CRC Press. ISBN 9780750304559.. ... The Computational Representational Understanding of Mind (CRUM) is another attempt at modeling human cognition through ... "Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview". Frontiers in Psychology. 4. doi:10.3389 ...
2.2 Cognition and the Intuitive knowledge *2.2.1 From Vedantic knowledge to different school of Hindu philosophy,thoughts in ... Cognition and the Intuitive knowledge[edit]. Sri Aurobindo finds confining oneself with sensory evidence would lead to ...
Existential cognition[edit]. In his book, Existential Cognition: Minds in the World, McClamrock argued for the extreme ... Existential Cognition: Computational Minds in the World. University of Chicago Press. 1995. ...
Complex cognition[edit]. A series of innovations have been documented by 170-160,000 years ago at the site of Pinnacle Point ... used to haft spears would seem to argue for continuity between modern human cognition and that of humans 70,000 BP at Sibudu ... current archaeological research in Africa has yielded much evidence to suggest that modern human behavior and cognition was ... "Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa" ...
"Animal Cognition. 18 (1): 219-229. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0791-7.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ... Cognition. In amphibians, there is evidence of habituation, associative learning through both classical and instrumental ...
Cognition and AI[edit]. This problem actually defines a field, however its pursuits are specific and easily stated. Firstly, ...
Quantum cognition modeling[edit]. Main article: Quantum cognition § Gestalt perception. Similarities between Gestalt phenomena ... doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.006. ISSN 0010-0277. PMID 30212653.. *^ Schultz, Duane (2013). A History of Modern Psychology. ... Eysenck, Michael W. (2006). Fundamentals of Cognition. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. pp. 62-64. ISBN 978-1-84169-374-3. .. ... Mayer, R. E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition. Second edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.. ...
Cognition and social behaviour[edit]. In a study of strepsirrhine cognition conducted in 1964, pottos were seen to explore and ...
Justify the behavior or the cognition, by changing the conflicting cognition ("I'm allowed to cheat my diet every once in a ... Justify the behavior or the cognition by adding new behaviors or cognitions ("I'll spend thirty extra minutes at the gymnasium ... "Social Cognition. 25 (5): 657-686. doi:10.1521/soco.2007.25.5.657.. *^ Van Overwalle, F.; Jordens, K. (2002). "An adaptive ... In the study On the Measurement of the Utility of Public Works[65] (1969), Jules Dupuit reported that behaviors and cognitions ...
... : Theory and Practice by Russell Revlin *^ Matlin, Margaret (2009). Cognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p ... "cognition - definition of cognition in English from the Oxford dictionary". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-02-04.. ... The beginnings of the studies on cognition[edit]. The word cognition dates back to the 15th century, when it meant "thinking ... Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's ...
Effect on cognition[edit]. Chronic pain's impact on cognition is an under-researched area, but several tentative conclusions ...
Cognition[edit]. Verbal memory scores are frequently used as one measure of higher level cognition. These scores vary in direct ... Au A, Feher A, McPhee L, Jessa A, Oh S, Einstein G (January 2016). "Estrogens, inflammation and cognition". Frontiers in ... The protective effects of estrogens on cognition may be mediated by estrogens anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.[44] ... However the effect of estrogens on cognition is not uniformly favorable and is dependent on the timing of the dose and the type ...
β-Carotene and cognition[edit]. A recent report demonstrated that 50 mg of β-carotene every other day prevented cognitive ...
Moral cognition[edit]. Moral cognition refers to cognitive processes that allow a person to act or decide in morally ... Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Struct ... While it's important to mention that there is not a single cognitive faculty dedicated exclusively to moral cognition, ... Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R. Nathan (4 February 2014). "Contextual and Perceptual Brain Processes Underlying Moral Cognition: A ...
... cognition, and behavior. Research topics include pitch perception, representation and expectation, timbre perception, rhythmic ...
Paranoid social cognition[edit]. Social psychological research has proposed a mild form of paranoid cognition, paranoid social ... and dismiss the fact that paranoid cognition may be related with the social context in which such cognitions are embedded. This ... Colby (1981) defined paranoid cognition in terms of persecutory delusions and false beliefs whose propositional content ... a b Kramer, R. M. (1995a). In dubious battle: Heightened accountability, dysphoric cognition, and self-defeating bargaining ...
Tomasello, M. & Call, J. (1997). Primate Cognition. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-510624-4.. ... Research in primate cognition explores problem solving, memory, social interaction, a theory of mind, and numerical, spatial, ... "Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? A metaanalysis of nonhuman primate studies" (PDF). Evolutionary ...
Acquisition and cognition[edit]. There is evidence from brain disorders such as aphasia that proper names and common names are ...
Visio-spatial cognition: assessing mental rotation ability[29][30]. Tests of Physiology and Morphology[edit]. *2nd to 4th digit ... Tests of Perception and Cognition[edit]. *Auditory system functioning: assessing otoacoustic emissions[25][26] ... This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology,[1] ... while those testing perception and cognition are typically more consistent.[5] Though supporting evidence exists, whether or ...
Contribution to musical cognition[edit]. Jackendoff, together with Fred Lerdahl, has been interested in the human capacity for ... In his 1983 Semantics and Cognition, he was one of the first linguists to integrate the visual faculty into his account of ... Semantics and Cognition, in Shalom Lappin (1996), "The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory", 539-559. Oxford: Blackwell. ... Jackendoff's research deals with the semantics of natural language, its bearing on the formal structure of cognition, and its ...
"Memory & Cognition. 11 (6): 601-608. doi:10.3758/bf03198284. PMID 6669028.. *^ Braun, J (2001). "It's great but not necessarily ... The cognition debate: early vs. late selection of attention[edit]. One of the most foremost conflicts among researchers of ... "Consciousness and Cognition. 37: 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.08.007. PMID 26320867.. ... 2 The cognition debate: early vs. late selection of attention *2.1 Evidence for late selection ...
Speculated core systems of cognition[edit]. Empiricists study how these skills may be learned in such a short time. The debate ... In conclusion, since differences were found in both high-level and low-level cognition one can assume that our brain's activity ... His description of the most prominent changes in cognition with age, is generally still accepted today (e.g., how early ... He also published his observational studies of cognition in children, and created a series of simple tests to reveal different ...
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.011. PMID 15037127.. *^ Scott, S. K. & Johnsrude, I. S. "The neuroanatomical and functional ...
Cognition. 104 (2): 231-253. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2006.05.013. Gillner S, Mallot H (2000). "The role of global and local ... 2003). "The role of the executive system in visuo-spatial memory functioning". Brain and Cognition. 52 (3): 364-381. doi: ... Kalakoski, V.; Saariluoma, P. (2001). "Taxi drivers' exceptional memory of street names". Memory and Cognition. 29 (4): 634-638 ... and Cognition. 21 (4): 1008-1018. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.21.4.1008. Della Sala, S.; Gray, C.; Baddeley, A.; Allamano, N.; Wilson ...
"Cognition. 79 (1-2): 1-37. doi:dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00123-2 Check ,doi=. value (help). Retrieved 21 February 2013. ... I added Dehaene's review from Cognition, wherein he explicitly describes empirical consequences of the current model of ...
He says, Over the years, I have developed an interest in the relationship between language and human cognition. Because ... is closely linked to the properties and evolution of human cognition in general. Other characteristically human capabilities, ...
A benefit of exercise that you may not have considered is strengthening your mind, more specifically, your cognition. Join ... HomeYour Mind is a Muscle, Too: The Relationship Between Exercise and Cognition ... Your Mind is a Muscle, Too: The Relationship Between Exercise and Cognition. ...
The Cultural Cognition of Risk: Theory, Evidence, Implications. Cultural Cognition and the Challenge of Science Communication. ... Cultural Cognition and Public Policy. Culture, Cognition, and Consent: Who Perceives What, and Why, in "Acquaintance Rape" ... Neutral Principles, Motivated Cognition, and Some Problems for Constitutional Law Cultural Cognition of Scientific Consensus ... Cultural Cognition of the Risks and Benefits of Nanotechnology Whose Eyes Are You Going to Believe? An Empirical Examination of ...
Cognition: Theory and Practice by Russell Revlin *^ Matlin, Margaret (2009). Cognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p ... "cognition - definition of cognition in English from the Oxford dictionary". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-02-04.. ... The beginnings of the studies on cognition[edit]. The word cognition dates back to the 15th century, when it meant "thinking ... Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of ones ...
Students with learning difficulties have academic attainments which are significantly below those of their peers due to a slower rate of learning. They will have difficulty acquiring and applying basic literacy, numeracy and language skills. ...
The Sleep and Cognition (SaC) Lab of the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Riverside is soliciting ... The Sleep and Cognition (SaC) Lab is interested in understanding who we are as humans by investigating how we form memories. ...
... www.wordle.net/thumb/wrdl/2207357/cognition" alt="Wordle: cognition" style="padding:4px;border:1px solid #ddd",,/a,. ... a href="http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/2207357/cognition" title="Wordle: cognition",,img src="http:// ...
... closely related to situated cognition, embodied cognition, embodied cognitive science and dynamical systems theory. The theory ... Embodied embedded cognition (EEC) is a philosophical theoretical position in cognitive science, ... There are concerns about whether EEC constitutes a novel and substantive approach to cognition or whether it is merely a ... Is EEC too descriptive, instead of really explaining anything about cognition?. *How can EEC explain linguistic processes and ...
The Sleep and Cognition Lab is interested in studying how we form memories. Dr. Sara Mednick is an Associate Professor and ...
Mission Cognitions goal is to educate young Muslims on the Abrahamic religions (Judaism and Christianity and Islam) by ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Secrets of Neandertal Cognition Revealed. Analyses of anatomy, DNA and cultural remains have yielded tantalizing insights into ...
Colleen has a wide variety of interests in animal learning and cognition, including the effect of emotion on behavior; social ...
Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, decision making ... Memory & Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, ... Get the table of contents of every new issue published in Memory & Cognition. ... Cognition. Adults who listened to short Hungarian phrases and then sang them back performed better than those who spoke the ...
... Alice Cronin-Golomb, Director The Boston University Vision & Cognition Laboratory focuses on ... We are called the Vision and Cognition Lab because these are our traditional areas of research. The broader heading of what we ... perception and cognition in aging and neurological conditions, with a special focus on Parkinsons disease. Our research has ...
While vitamin D has been shown to boost adult cognition, students school performance doesnt benefit from an extra dose of sun ... Cognition. "Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 With Academic Performance in Childhood: Findings From a ... While vitamin D has been shown to boost adult cognition, students school performance doesnt benefit from an extra dose of sun ...
Kenneth A. Dodge, Patrick S. Malone, Jennifer E. Lansford, Emma Sorbring, Ann T. Skinner, Sombat Tapanya, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Arnaldo Zelli, Liane Peña Alampay, Suha M. Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini, Anna Silvia Bombi, Marc H. Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Paul Oburu, and Concetta Pastorelli ...
"Traveling" Brain Waves May Be Critical for Cognition. Physical motion of neural signals may play a more important role in brain ...
... We are interested in the study of cognitive aspects of public policy. These include the ...
Within the book, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and ... He is the author of numerous chapters and academic papers in aspects of cognition and addiction and also runs a very successful ... Within the book, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and ... exposure factors Franken function genetic goal Goldman Handbook of implicit heroin implicit and explicit implicit cognition ...
You are here - Welcome to LSE , Calendar , Undergraduate , Course guides , PB301 Cognition and Culture ... This course discusses the relations between cognition and culture using evolutionary perspectives. The course is therefore ... course will offer students an overview of key theoretical approaches and debates concerning the relations between cognition and ...
This transcript documents select parts of discussions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour ... Artificial intelligence Cognitive science Psychology Design cognition and computation Engineering Human behaviour studies ... This transcript documents select parts of discussions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour ... Bhatt in CoDesign 2017-The Bremen Summer of Cognition and Design/CoDesign Roundtable. University of Bremen, Bremen, 2017) at ...
Genes to Cognition presents supporting information for grades 9-12 on cognitive disorders, cognitive processes, and research ... Genes To Cognition. By Phil Nast, retired middle school teacher and freelance writer ... Simple Mapper was used to organize the Genes to Cognition website and the software is available for free. Registration is ... cognition, and environment explaining each factors role in ADHD. Print resources such as Ingredients May Affect Brain Health ...
Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, decision making ... Memory & Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, ... Get the table of contents of every new issue published in Memory & Cognition. ...
Award-winning news and culture, features breaking news, in-depth reporting and criticism on politics, business, entertainment and technology.
  • Welcome to the Center for Applied Social Cognition Research (CASCR) website. (washington.edu)
  • Among the objectives of ISCON are to advance the understanding of social cognition by encouraging research and the preparation of papers and reports, holding meetings for the presentation of scientific papers, sponsoring or issuing publications containing scientific papers and other relevant material, establishing professional honors and awards to recognize excellence in social cognition research, and cooperating with other scientific and professional societies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, Glass' Cognition provides an organizing theme of two major systems in the brain supporting cognition, offering theoretical continuity from beginning to end - a definite strength. (cambridge.org)
  • Simple Mapper was used to organize the Genes to Cognition website and the software is available for free. (nea.org)
  • The activities of the Genes to Cognition Project encompass a wide range of scientific specialisms, reflecting the diversity of information that must be integrated to advance understanding of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as sharing findings through open access articles in the scientific literature, Genes to Cognition maintains a database, G2Cdb and an educational web site, G2Conline. (wikipedia.org)
  • G2Cdb integrates information curated from the scientific literature and numerous online databases about genes and diseases of interest to Genes to Cognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marcin Miłkowski: Explaining the Computational Mind, p. 4 The separation of embodied cognition from extended cognition and situated cognition can be based upon the embodiment thesis, a narrower view of embodiment than that of Varela et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCog" is a specific approach to distributed cognition (distinct from other meanings) which takes a computational perspective towards goal-based activity systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational cognition (sometimes referred to as computational cognition science) is the study of the computational basis of learning and inference by mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and behavioral experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the book, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and addiction, with a particular emphasis on widely investigated substances of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and opiates. (google.com)
  • Drawing on a modern neurocognitive framework, this full-color textbook introduces the entire field of cognition through an engaging narrative. (cambridge.org)
  • his book Computation and Cognition (MIT Press, 1984) is a foundational presentation of the relationship between cognition and computation. (mit.edu)
  • Scholars at LCHC pursue research focused on understanding the complex relationship between cognition and culture in individual and social development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key Readings in Cognition aims to address this need by providing comprehensive volumes, each one of which will be edited by a senior and active researcher in the field. (routledge.com)
  • According to Zhang & Norman (1994), the distributed cognition approach has three key components: Embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interaction Coordination of enaction among embodied agents Ecological contributions to a cognitive ecosystem 'Dcog' studies the "propagation of representational states across media" (Rogers and Ellis, ibid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (SARMAC) is an international scholarly society founded in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Springer, Animal Cognition had a 2016 impact factor of 2.209. (wikipedia.org)