Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)
A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
A person's view of himself.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A housing and community arrangement that maximizes independence and self-determination.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Performance of complex motor acts.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.
The ability to generate new ideas or images.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.
A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Differential response to different stimuli.

Frontal cognitive impairments and saccadic deficits in low-dose MPTP-treated monkeys. (1/9619)

There is considerable overlap between the cognitive deficits observed in humans with frontal lobe damage and those described in patients with Parkinson's disease. Similar frontal impairments have been found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) primate model of Parkinsonism. Here we provide quantitative documentation of the cognitive, oculomotor, and skeletomotor dysfunctions of monkeys trained on a frontal task and treated with low-doses (LD) of MPTP. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to perform a spatial delayed-response task with frequent alternations between two behavioral modes (GO and NO-GO). After control recordings, the monkeys were treated with one placebo and successive LD MPTP courses. Monkey C developed motor Parkinsonian signs after a fourth course of medium-dose (MD) MPTP and later was treated with combined dopaminergic therapy (CDoT). There were no gross motor changes after the LD MPTP courses, and the average movement time (MT) did not increase. However, reaction time (RT) increased significantly. Both RT and MT were further increased in the symptomatic state, under CDoT. Self-initiated saccades became hypometric after LD MPTP treatments and their frequency decreased. Visually triggered saccades were affected to a lesser extent by the LD MPTP treatments. All saccadic parameters declined further in the symptomatic state and improved partially during CDoT. The number of GO mode (no-response, location, and early release) errors increased after MPTP treatment. The monkeys made more perseverative errors while switching from the GO to the NO-GO mode. Saccadic eye movement patterns suggest that frontal deficits were involved in most observed errors. CDoT had a differential effect on the behavioral errors. It decreased omission errors but did not improve location errors or perseverative errors. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed moderate ( approximately 70-80%) reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta after MPTP treatment. These results show that cognitive and motor disorders can be dissociated in the LD MPTP model and that cognitive and oculomotor impairments develop before the onset of skeletal motor symptoms. The behavioral and saccadic deficits probably result from the marked reduction of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. We suggest that these behavioral changes result from modified neuronal activity in the frontal cortex.  (+info)

Non-motor associative learning in patients with isolated degenerative cerebellar disease. (2/9619)

In recent decades it has become clear that the cerebellum is involved in associative motor learning, but its exact role in motor learning as such is still controversial. Recently, a contribution of the cerebellum to different cognitive abilities has also been considered, but it remains unclear whether the cerebellum contributes to cognitive associative learning. We compared nine patients with an isolated cerebellar degenerative disease in a cognitive associative learning task with 10 controls. Patients and controls were matched for age, sex, handedness, level of education, intelligence and capabilities of visual memory. The subjects were asked to learn the association between six pairs of colours and numerals by trial and error. Additionally, a simple reaction time and a visual scanning test were conducted in order to control for the influence of motor performance deficits in cerebellar patients. In comparison with the controls, it took the patients significantly longer to learn the correct associations between colours and numerals, and they were impaired in recognizing them later on. Two patients showed no associative learning effect at all. Neither the simple reaction time nor the visual scanning time correlated substantially with the results of associative learning. Therefore, motor-associated disabilities are unlikely to be the reason for the learning deficit in cerebellar patients. Our results suggest that the cerebellum might contribute to motor-independent processes that are generally involved in associative learning.  (+info)

The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. (3/9619)

Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.  (+info)

Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. (4/9619)

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. (5/9619)

OBJECTIVES: Chronic high frequency electrostimulation of the globus pallidus internus mimics pallidotomy and improves clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive consequences of unilateral deep brain stimulation. METHODS: Twenty non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (age range 38-70 years) were neuropsychologically assessed 2 months before and 3 months after unilateral pallidal stimulation. The cognitive assessment included measures of memory, spatial behaviour, and executive and psychomotor function. In addition to group analysis of cognitive change, a cognitive impairment index (CII) was calculated for each individual patient representing the percentage of cognitive measures that fell more than 1 SD below the mean of a corresponding normative sample. RESULTS: Neurological assessment with the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale disclosed a significant postoperative reduction in average clinical Parkinson's disease symptomatology (p<0.001). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (using right/left side of stimulation as a between subjects factor) showed no significant postoperative change in cognitive performance for the total patient group (main effect of operation). The side of stimulation did not show a significant differential effect on cognitive performance (main effect of lateralisation). There was no significant operation by lateralisation interaction effect. Although the patients experienced significant motor symptom relief after pallidal stimulation, they remained mildly depressed after surgery. Analysis of the individual CII changes showed a postoperative cognitive decline in 30% of the patients. These patients were significantly older and took higher preoperative doses of levodopa than patients showing no change or a postoperative cognitive improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Left or right pallidal stimulation for the relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease seems relatively safe, although older patients and patients needing high preoperative doses of levodopa seem to be more vulnerable for cognitive decline after deep brain stimulation.  (+info)

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (6/9619)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses. (7/9619)

Normal sensorimotor states involve integration of intention, action and sensory feedback. An example is the congruence between motor intention and sensory experience (both proprioceptive and visual) when we move a limb through space. Such goal-directed action necessitates a mechanism that monitors sensorimotor inputs to ensure that motor outputs are congruent with current intentions. Monitoring in this sense is usually implicit and automatic but becomes conscious whenever there is a mismatch between expected and realized sensorimotor states. To investigate how the latter type of monitoring is achieved we conducted three fully factorial functional neuroimaging experiments using PET measures of relative regional cerebral blood flow with healthy volunteers. In the first experiment subjects were asked to perform Luria's bimanual co-ordination task which involves either in-phase (conditions 1 and 3) or out-of-phase (conditions 2 and 4) bimanual movements (factor one), while looking towards their left hand. In half of the conditions (conditions 3 and 4) a mirror was used that altered visual feedback (factor two) by replacing their left hand with the mirror image of their right hand. Hence (in the critical condition 4) subjects saw in-phase movements despite performing out-of-phase movements. This mismatch between intention, proprioception and visual feedback engendered cognitive conflict. The main effect of out-of-phase movements was associated with increased neural activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally [Brodmann area (BA) 40, extending into BA 7] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally (BA 9/46). The main effect of the mirror showed increased neural activity in right DLPFC (BA 9/ 46) and right superior PPC (BA 7) only. Analysis of the critical interaction revealed that the mismatch condition led to a specific activation in the right DLPFC alone (BA 9/46). Study 2, using an identical experimental set-up but manipulating visual feedback from the right hand (instead of the left), subsequently demonstrated that this right DLPFC activation was independent of the hand attended. Finally, study 3 removed the motor intentional component by moving the subjects' hand passively, thus engendering a mismatch between proprioception and vision only. Activation in the right lateral prefrontal cortex was now more ventral than in studies 1 or 2 (BA 44/45). A direct comparison of studies 1 and 3 (which both manipulated visual feedback from the left hand) confirmed that a ventral right lateral prefrontal region is primarily activated by discrepancies between signals from sensory systems, while a more dorsal area in right lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when actions must be maintained in the face of a conflict between intention and sensory outcome.  (+info)

Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. (8/9619)

As demonstrated by anatomical and physiological studies, the cerebral cortex consists of groups of cortical modules, each comprising populations of neurons with similar functional properties. This functional modularity exists in both sensory and association neocortices. However, the role of such cortical modules in perceptual and cognitive behavior is unknown. To aid in the examination of this issue we have applied the high spatial resolution optical imaging methodology to the study of awake, behaving animals. In this paper, we report the optical imaging of orientation domains and blob structures, approximately 100-200 micrometer in size, in visual cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. By overcoming the spatial limitations of other existing imaging methods, optical imaging will permit the study of a wide variety of cortical functions at the columnar level, including motor and cognitive functions traditionally studied with positron-emission tomography or functional MRI techniques.  (+info)

The perspectives described in the current thesis are restricted to considerations about the control of voluntary movements at the level of mental representation. The question is which cognitive mechanisms enable humans to execute voluntary movements and how they are accessed. Several scientific theories and models described the cognitive organization of voluntary movements. A promising approach postulates the existence of cognitive representations. Cognitive representations might constitute a plausible connection between the to-be-produced environmental effects and the actual (muscular managed) control of the own body. The current thesis describes research results delivered from experiments, which investigated cognitive representations at three different movement-related complexity levels: manual actions (1), complex actions (2), and interactions (3). The representation structures at all the levels of different complexity revealed similarities regarding the organization of the corresponding ...
In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory (LTM) as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures, and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future
Results Men had better median balance times than women at age 53 [Men: 5 (interquartile range: 3-10); Women: 4 (3-7)], 60-64 [M: 3.7 (2.5-5.6); W: 3.3 (2.3-4.8)], and 69 [M: 3.0 (2.0-5.0); W: 2.9 (1.9-4.3)], but a decline in median balance times with age was observed in both sexes. In sex-adjusted and fully-adjusted models, higher childhood cognitive ability was associated with better balance times, although this association weakened with increasing age. A one standard deviation increase in childhood cognitive ability was associated with fully-adjusted mean differences in log-balance times (ln(s)) of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.08-0.15), 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02-0.09) and 0.04 (95% CI: 0.001-0.08) at ages 53, 60-64 and 69, respectively. ...
Introduction. Question: Outline how one study demonstrates principles of the cognitive level of analysis. (The command term outline requires you to Give a brief account or summary.) Answer: The mind can be conceptualized as a set of mental processes that are carried out by the brain. Cognition is a concept referred to any cognitive processes like memory, perception and attention. One of the fundamental principles that define the Cognitive Level of Analysis (CLOA) is that cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. more. Middle. And in order to find out, he came with a Native American legend and asked the participants to read through the story twice. None of the participants knew the purpose of the experiment. He then asked them to reproduce the story after different time intervals (minutes, days, etc.), and noticed how each participants memory of the story changed with each reproduction. It appeared that the story The War of the Ghosts was difficult for ...
Lower cognitive performance in normal older adult male twins carrying the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele.: The apoE epsilon 4 allele may be associated with d
Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Cognitive functioning was assessed through a neuropsychological test-battery. Based on the well-established relationships between diet and physical functions, it stands to reason that diet and PA also affect cognitive function, or how well a person can learn. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. One such factor may be audiovisual media exposure during early childhood. Likewise, the schools resources, for instance playgrounds and green space, as well as routines and practices, affect the childs lifestyle behaviors. Social factors showed no clear association with different scores, however, being raised in a higher socioeconomic class correlated with higher cognitive function scores. Because cognitive function is affected by various factors and changes over time, it can be concluded that a cohort study to investigate cognitive function and the factors affecting it would be more effective than a ...
The need for cognition (NFC), in psychology, is a personality variable reflecting the extent to which individuals are inclined towards effortful cognitive activities. Need for cognition has been variously defined as a need to structure relevant situations in meaningful, integrated ways and a need to understand and make reasonable the experiential world. Higher NFC is associated with increased appreciation of debate, idea evaluation, and problem solving. Those with a high need for cognition may be inclined towards high elaboration. Those with a lower need for cognition may display opposite tendencies, and may process information more heuristically, often through low elaboration. Need for cognition is closely related to the five factor model domain openness to experience, typical intellectual engagement, and epistemic curiosity (see below). Cohen, Stotland and Wolfe (1955), in their work on individual differences in cognitive motivation, identified a need for cognition which they defined as ...
This study investigated the unexplored hypothesis that people may have cognitive representations of the body s parts and products body schema and that these may be relevant to illness behavior. Factor and MANOVA analyses revealed that body parts are viewed as differing in the Stigma attached to them and in the intent to which they are seen as...
Human cognition and human culture, in their rich diversity and stunning complexity, are now the focus points for scholars representing a broad range of disciplines from neuroscience and evolutionary biology to rhetoric and literary studies. Historically, various cultural and/or scholarly conceptions of cognition - how the human minds come to know and understand - have had profound influence on rhetorical theory, the teaching of rhetoric, and rhetorical practice. Indeed, every practical or pedagogical rhetorical program has relied upon implicit or explicit notions of cognition, or what might be called cultures of cognition. Furthermore, the ups and downs of the art of rhetorics fortune have been more than once tied to theories of cognition, as in the oft-cited disrepute into which rhetoric fell in the Enlightenment due in part to Cartesian theories of cognition. Rhetorics history, therefore, is closely related to the history of conceptions of cognition, and conceptions of cognition are ...
This study examined the effects of a dl-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) containing beverage on cognitive and performance measures during a bout of repeated Wingates. Fifteen healthy, college-aged males (mean ± SD; age: 23.1 ± 2.4 years, height: 165.4 ± 2.0 cm, mass: 81.4 ± 9.2 kg) volunteered for the present study. Trial 1 consisted of baseline measures and familiarization for the protocol. During trials 2 and 3, subjects reported to the laboratory, after a 10-h fast, and ingested 11.38 g of βHB or a placebo (PLA) beverage 30 min before exercise. Participants then completed a cognitive challenge (CC), consisting of a 5-min FitLight response task while cycling. At the cessation of the test, participants then completed four 15-s repeated Wingates with 4 min of rest between, followed by another 5-min CC response task. Blood ketones, glucose, and lactate were measured pre-CC and post-Wingates. βHB levels were significantly higher compared with PLA (0.53 vs. 0.21 mmol/L), respectively. A significant ...
We are always looking for students to get involved with Victoria Infant and Child Cognition Lab! Here is some information to consider before applying: What kind of research are we doing at the VUW Infant and Child Cognition Lab? Student researchers at the VUW Infant and Child Cognition Lab study social cognitive development in infants,…
The Cognition and Brain Science specialty area for the Psychology Ph.D. program trains students to develop a thorough understanding of diverse aspects of cognition and neural mechanisms for neural processing. Students learn about theories of cognitive phenomena and the neurobiological bases of cognition and behavior. Students study the major methods used to measure various components of cognition and neuroscience. These components include attention, sensation and perception, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, language, metacognition, spatial cognition, and problem solving. Please visit the Cognition and Brain Science Research page for more information regarding research conducted in this area.. Students are encouraged to gain a strong background in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience, with exposure to a variety of fundamental areas of general psychology, while also developing a particular research concentration. The program is designed to provide students with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance Secondary data from an RCT. AU - van der Zwaluw, N.L.. AU - Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.. AU - van Wijngaarden, J.P.. AU - Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.. AU - van de Rest, O.. AU - t Veld, P.H.I.. AU - Enneman, A.W.. AU - van Dijk, S.C.. AU - van der Ham, A.C.. AU - Swart, K.M.A.. AU - van der Velde, N.. AU - van Schoor, N.M.. AU - van der Cammen, T.J.M.. AU - Uitterlinden, A. G.. AU - Lips, P.T.A.M.. AU - Kessels, R.P.C.. AU - de Groot, L.C.P.G.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years and older) with Hcy levels between 12 and 50μmol/L. Participants received daily either a tablet with 400 mg folic acid and 500 mg vitamin B12 (B-vitamin group) or ...
This paper addresses the relation between the need for cognition and rationality in decision-making and also reconsiders the relation between need for cognition and the framing effect using modified versions of the Asian disease task. In the first study (N = 205), a significant and positive relationship was obtained between need for cognition and the rationality of decision-makers. Also a negative and significant relationship was obtained between need for cognition and indecisiveness. These findings are consistent with the theoretical propositions hypothesized in the need for cognition theory (Cacioppo et al., 1996). The second study (N = 462) is an in-depth analysis of the relation between the need for cognition and the framing effect, revealing a positive and significant relation between need for cognition and the respondents' preference for the probabilistic framed alternatives in two risky choice framing effect tasks ...
When an individual has a cognitive deficit for any reason, how do you assess them? This lesson discusses the Allen Cognitive levels as to what they...
Dementia is on the rise globally due to an ever increasing aging population. In particular, Alzheimers disease is 43% higher amongst woman. It has been proposed that the reduction in ovarian estrogen production after menopause may contribute to this difference. Memory and mood complaints, including lack of clarity of thought and memory or difficulty finding words, are frequent in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The frequency of objectively measured hot flashes in postmenopausal women has been found to be a predictor of delayed verbal memory, with verbal fluency being significantly correlated with the number of daytime hot flashes ...
Cognition is a term referring to the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension. Sign in. UlricNeisser,the!Susan!Linn!Sage!Professor!emeritus!of!Psychology,diedat! New York: WH Freeman and Company. New articles related to this authors research. In 1998 Neisser gave the commencement address at the New School for Social Research (now the New School), where he received one of his many honorary degrees. cognition and reality by ulric neisser - goodreads cognition and reality presents a systematic, ecologically oriented approach to the cognitive processes, which are treated as skilled and continuing interactions with the environment. Cognition and Reality PDF By:Ulric Neisser Published on 1976-01-01 by W H Freeman & Company. Ulric Neisser was born on December 8, 1928, in Kiel, Germany, and his family moved to the USA when he was 4 years old. 1250. PDF Ebook Cognition and Reality: Principles and Implications of Cognitive PsychologyBy Ulric Neisser. Cognitive psychology ulric ...
A couple of remarks on this excellent paper: Thinking of decision in the light of modularity, highlights one of the least plausible of Fodors criteria of modularity, viz., that the operations of a module are not only automatic (in the sense that no decision need be made for them to take place) but also mandatory (in the sense that, once an input for the module is present, the modular process will start and follow its course). This assumes that there are no energy constraints on the operations of modules, when in fact two kinds of such constraints are likely to be involved. Firstly, as a matter of efficient design, processing costs should be incurred only in proportion to expected cognitive benefit. So a stimulus with no expected relevance should be less likely to be processed. This is indeed the case when a stimulus is repeated with no new relevance and elicit a lower and lower cognitive response (what is called habituation). Secondly, there may be too many inputs fitting the input conditions ...
A couple of remarks on this excellent paper: Thinking of decision in the light of modularity, highlights one of the least plausible of Fodors criteria of modularity, viz., that the operations of a module are not only automatic (in the sense that no decision need be made for them to take place) but also mandatory (in the sense that, once an input for the module is present, the modular process will start and follow its course). This assumes that there are no energy constraints on the operations of modules, when in fact two kinds of such constraints are likely to be involved. Firstly, as a matter of efficient design, processing costs should be incurred only in proportion to expected cognitive benefit. So a stimulus with no expected relevance should be less likely to be processed. This is indeed the case when a stimulus is repeated with no new relevance and elicit a lower and lower cognitive response (what is called habituation). Secondly, there may be too many inputs fitting the input conditions ...
Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospacial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task assessing visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age. Decreasing levels of estrogen in women and sex differences in age-related cortical atrophy do not seem to influence ...
For more information about the symposium and the link for registration, please see the symposium website: Link to the official LLC-2 website: If you have any questions, please contact: [email protected] Continue Reading ...
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The present study investigated the stage of breast cancer screening adoption and the role of some of the cognitive predictors in a sample of Iranian married women. There were a total of 334 married women clients of eight health centers in Kermanshah city, the west of Iran, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily. Women filled out a self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using One-way ANOVA, χ2-test, Fishers exact test, and bivariate correlations statistical tests at 95 significant level. The mean age was 39.75 years SD: 7.73. Nearly 58.4%, 26.9%, 3%, 9.6%, and 2.1% of the respondents were reported pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance of breast cancer screening adoption, respectively. There was a significant association between age (P=0.005), and positive family history of breast cancer (P=0.037), perceived susceptibility (P=0.005), perceived severity (P=0.001) and ...
Cognitive predictors of physical activity behaviors among rural patients with type 2 diabetes: applicability of the Extended Theory of Reasoned Action (ETRA)
Author(s): Schreiber, Stefanie; Vogel, Jacob; Schwimmer, Henry D; Marks, Shawn M; Schreiber, Frank; Jagust, William | Abstract: Single lifestyle factors affect brain biomarkers and cognition. Here, we addressed the covariance of various lifestyle elements and investigated their impact on positron emission tomography-based β-amyloid (Aβ), hippocampal volume, and cognitive function in aged controls. Lower Aβ burden was associated with a lifestyle comprising high cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, particularly in apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers. Although cognitive function was related to high lifetime cognitive engagement and low vascular risk, Aβ load had no relation to current cognitive function. The covariance between high adult socioeconomic status, high education, and low smoking prevalence predicted better cognitive function and this was mediated by larger hippocampal volume. Our data show that lifestyle is a complex construct composed of associated variables, some of which reflect factors
Human Cognition An important foundation for the design of interfaces is a basic theory of human cognition The information processing paradigm (in its most simple form). Human Information Processing The
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association between cognition and dual-tasking among older adults. T2 - the effect of motor function type and cognition task difficulty. AU - Ehsani, Hossein. AU - Mohler, Martha J. AU - OConnor, Kathy. AU - Zamrini, Edward. AU - Tirambulo, Coco. AU - Toosizadeh, Nima. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Background: Dual-task actions challenge cognitive processing. The usefulness of objective methods based on dual-task actions to identify the cognitive status of older adults has been previously demonstrated. However, the properties of select motor and cognitive tasks are still debatable. We investigated the effect of cognitive task difficulty and motor task type (walking versus an upper-extremity function [UEF]) in identifying cognitive impairment in older adults. Methods: Older adults (≥65 years) were recruited, and cognitive ability was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Participants performed repetitive elbow flexion under three conditions: 1) at ...
Objectives. Treatment transitions are frequent in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but little is known about cognitive responses pre- to post-transplantation or after transplant failure. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in illness cognitions across treatment transitions between dialysis and transplantation and their impact on quality of life (QOL). Methods. In this longitudinal study, ESRD patients (N= 262) patients were followed up across treatment transitions over a 7-year observation window using the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the Illness Effects Questionnaire, and measures of QOL. Study sample comprised the patients from this cohort who switched treatment modality (N= 60 post-transplantation; N= 28 transplant failure). Data were collected while on dialysis or transplantation and at 6 months post-treatment change. Results. Significant changes in QOL and illness perceptions were found in treatment transitions with opposite patterns of either improvement or deterioration ...
Most of the items were derived from previously published Once integrated, this information will repres… Because of the increasing exchange of intimacies (secrets) between peer friends (see Rotenberg and Boulton, 2013), reciprocal patterns of emotional trust is shown during middle childhood. The rest of the article will focus on specific topics of social cognition and what developmental scientists currently know about adolescents thinking about those issues. Current evidence demonstrates that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in all four core domains of social cognition, during the pre-first-episode, first-episode, early, and chronic phases of the disease, and that such impairments are important determinants of functional outcome. It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in social interactions. Just as the methods of implicit social cognition have begun to transform moral psychology, they have begun to transform the study of political ideology as well (Nosek, Graham, & ...
Distributed cognition refers to a process in which cognitive resources are shared socially in order to extend individual cognitive resources or to accomplish something that an individual agent could not achieve alone. Human cognitive achievements are based on a process in which an agents cognitive processes and the objects and constraints of the world reciprocally affect each other. Cognitive processes can be distributed between humans and machines (physically distributed cognition, Norman, 1993; Perkins, 1993) or between cognitive agents (socially distributed cognition). Salomon (1993, p. 112) has pointed out that distributed cognition forms systems that consist of an individual agent, his or her peers, teachers, and socio-culturally formed cognitive tools. (Lehtinen et al.). ...
There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability
There is a well-defined relationship between stress and cognition. The intake of phospholipids has the potential to attenuate responses to stress and thus protect cognitive performance. The aims of this thesis were (a) develop suitable methodologies, both in the real-world and laboratory, to examine the effects of stress on cognition; (b) identify characteristics of individuals who may be particularly stress vulnerable; and (c) assess the potential for a phospholipid intervention to attenuate the response to stress and the impact of this stress exposure on cognitive function. These aims were addressed in four studies. Studies 1 - 3 aimed to identify a number of design and methodological conditions suitable for a phospholipid intervention assessing cognitive performance under stress (Study 4). The identification of a naturalistic or laboratory stress context capable of eliciting cortisol responses over repeated exposures, selection of cognitive tests sensitive to stress impairment, and ...
View Notes - Cognition from PSYCH 110 at Northwestern. Cognition o Mental representation o Problem Solving o Decision Making o Intelligence Mental Representation o How understanding of the world is
Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. Cognition refers to all of the mental activities that are involved in learning, remembering, and using knowledge. It encompasses processes such as. Learn more about these processes Selective attention involves filtering out irrelevant information around us and cognition theory and practice revlin focusing on the things that demand our attention. Learn how it works The framing effect is an example of cognitive bias, in which people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on how it is presented; e.g.. PRACTICE COGNITION AND THEORY REVLIN ...
Tinnitus refers to the perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. This can be problematic and can lead to health problems in some sufferers, including effects on cognitive functions such as attention and memory. Although several studies have examined the effectiveness of tinnitus interventions, e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy and sound therapy, it is still unclear as to the overall quality and limitations of these studies and whether their results could be generalized. Clarification is also needed as to whether poor cognitive function will lead to a less favorable intervention outcome in tinnitus patients. The present systematic review was therefore designed to critically appraise and synthesize findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of tinnitus intervention and its effects on cognition. The methodology followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Medline (PubMed), Embase, and PsycINFO were searched. Only RCTs that ...
Glenbergs research for the past two decades has focused on the embodied theory of cognition, the idea that cognitive processes-both conscious and unconscious-are not disconnected from the body, as suggested by the philosopher René Descartes. Instead, the fact that we have legs, arms, eyes, ears, a motor system, and an emotional system underlie both our experiences of the world and our thinking. It makes no sense for a faculty like cognition to have evolved without consideration of the body, says Glenberg. Were not computers, were biological systems. Were not programmed, were evolved. We should consider human cognition as flowing from the cognition of other animals. . ...
The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) detects cognitive impairment in less than five minutes. This simple, economical test is an ideal way for busy clinicians to screen for organic cerebral dysfunction in both children (eight years and older) and adults
This study attempted to replicate the methods of Miles, MacLeod, and Pote (2004) who attempted to extend the application of a theory proposed by Andrew MacLeod and colleagues in the late 1990s. Only the aforementioned study has examined this theory with adolescents ages 14 to 19 year olds enrolled in public schools and 18 to 19 year olds enrolled universities. In the present study 169 students were asked to complete an assessment battery containing measures of depression, anxiety, stress, hope, and demographic information, as well as completing a positive and negative cognition task. It was hypothesized that a strong negative relationship would exist between Positive Future cognition (PFC) and depression, that a positive relationship would exist between Negative Past cognition (NPC) and Stress, and a positive relationship would exist between Negative Future cognition (NFC) and Anxiety. Hope was used in contrast to PFC, NPC, and NFC to determine if each had a unique contribution to the variance above and
Initial studies examined the structure of the brain, particularly the size or volume of specific brain regions, using static images obtained via computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These studies identified the frontal cortex and hippocampus as potentially relevant brain regions in the pathophysiology of depression, hypotheses that were supported by post-mortem studies. Subsequent research looked at regional blood flow or energy metabolism in the brain using functional MRI (fMRI) or positron emission tomography (PET). These studies capture the activity of the brain either in the resting state (i.e., when patients are not focusing on any particular thought or stimulus) or when the brain is actively responding to a task that induces an emotional or cognitive response. More recently, researchers have applied machine learning methods to fMRI data to identify brain networks and connectivity. Other types of neuroimaging for mood disorders include diffusion tensor imaging ...
Many people with MS experience cognitive problems, like memory disturbances or slowing down of information processing speed.. Cognitive functions are harder to measure than clinical disability and MRIs, so they are not routinely evaluated in clinical practice.. The concept of no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) has recently emerged as an important outcome measure for MS in research studies or clinical trials. It means no relapses or disability progression and no new white matter lesions are identified with MRI. However, it is not known if maintaining NEDA has a positive impact on cognition or brain atrophy (shrinkage).. A research team from Italy carried out a study to evaluate the correlation between NEDA status, cognitive functions and brain shrinking.. They followed 42 people with relapsing remitting MS for two years and found that only 30.8% of them achieved NEDA status. About half of those with NEDA status still had deterioration of some cognitive functions.. The recommendation from ...
There is growing concern among patients with early-stage breast cancer about self-perceived or objective cognitive changes following their diagnosis and treatment. Symptoms include difficulties with multi-tasking, short-term memory, attention and concentration and word-finding, which may have a detrimental effect on quality of life. The severity of symptoms varies widely, when assessed objectively, the problems are generally subtle. Early clinical observational studies accumulated evidence that suggested cognitive problems could be attributed to the direct neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However, observations of cognitive deficits before the start of any treatment question the singular role of chemotherapy. Additionally, results from studies examining the effect of endocrine therapies on cognitive function are mixed.. Recent neuroimaging techniques have reported structural and functional neural changes associated with breast cancer treatments. Also, translational research has accumulated ...
The purpose of the past three (or four if you count joint attention) blogs was to look into the earliest forms of social cognition to analyze the beginnings of some of the most studied topics in social cognition. Developmental social cognition is a field that is ever-growing and ever-changing. One of my favourite part of doing the research for the three blogs was reading papers from the 80s and 90s all the way to reading papers that had been published only days earlier. The leaps and bounds that have been made, and all the hours that have been put into this topic make it a subject I could have successfully spoken about for the entire duration of this course.. Early social cognition, joint attention, self-awareness, and the earliest development of language demonstrate many branches of the same tree that is social cognition of child development. It would have been interesting to study memory, children raised in bilingual homes, the early cognition of learned behaviour, and the early cognition of ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Travis, Alice D. - Cognitive Evolution: The Biological Imprint of Applied Intelligence. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9781581129816
VICTOR, N.Y.-A new company, Cognivue, is entering the vision care field, with a cognitive test for Alzheimers, dementia and baseline concussion testing. Cognivue Advanced is the first FDA-approved computerized test of cognitive function. The service supports new research on the connection between cognitive function and the onset of the diseases and the company is seeking to build awareness of the test and its services among optometrists, who are also seeking ways to address new patient services and practice opportunities. Cognivues execs point to recent research which supports the connection between cognitive decline and vision impairment. Cognivue identifies changes in cognitive function that could be indicative of an impairment that can be managedd. The CogniSystem utilizes a patented software algorithm that uses adaptive psychophysics which uniquely calibrates each individuals motor and visual abilities and continuously adapts to the individuals performance providing a customized screening
Bringing together a comprehensive and diverse collection of research, theory, and thought, this volume builds a foundation for the new field of Augmented Cognition research and development. The first section introduces general Augmented Cognition methods and techniques, including physiological and neurophysiological measures such as EEG and fNIR; adaptive techniques; and sensors and algorithms for cognitive state estimation. The second section discusses Augmented Cognition applications such as simulation and training, intent-driven user interfaces, closed-loop command and control systems, then goes on to explore lessons learned to date, and future directions in Augmented Cognition-enabled HCI.
Researchers in human cognition add direct measurement of thinking skills and mindset to gain new insights on the effects of individual differences.
Civil Maps provides a scalable, edge-based HD mapping and localization platform that helps automotive OEMs, map providers, and mobility companies accelerate their autonomous driving programs. With our Edge Mapping™ technology, we are redefining traditional map creation workflows and enabling continental-scale base map crowdsourcing.. We empower self-driving cars with the ability to build, share, and update a mental model of the environment while continuously determining their location.. ...
Today Noah is a very happy 2.5 year old. He attends therapy at Neuroworx twice a week and I am happy to say that he is on his way to big things. He has gained 100% head control and his core strength has improved dramatically. He is able to bear weight through all four limbs which means he is not only standing with assistance but has begun to learn how to take a step here and there. He has gained enough strength and mobility through his shoulders, arms, and hands to be able to bring objects to his mouth and hold and shake a baby rattle which we were not sure he would ever do. He is no longer dead weight when we lift him as he can now crunch his abs and try to help wrap his legs around us for support. Noah has learned how to flip from stomach to back and vice versa and how to help pull himself forward wanting to get into a sitting position, which shows us that he has desire. A cognitive response that, once again, we were never sure we would see. ...
Buy Cultural Origins of Human Cognition by Michael Tomasello - 9780674005822. This work builds a bridge between evolutionary theory and cultural psychology. ...
το κείμενο με τίτλο Theories of Human Cognition: To Better Understand the Co ... - eolss σχετίζετε με Τεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική
The Imhoff groups research is focused on social cognition. We attend to the terms humans use to categorize other humans or groups. We are also interested in the dimensions of stereotypes and how the belief in conspiracy theories affects behavior. Please find more detailed information on the pages of the research unit Relativity in Social Cognition and at Roland Imhoffs current main affiliation at the University of Mainz. ...
Cognition, discrimination, and learning[edit]. Computational modeling of higher cognitive functions has only recently[when?] ... Browne, A. (1997-01-01). Neural Network Perspectives on Cognition and Adaptive Robotics. CRC Press. ISBN 9780750304559.. ... The Computational Representational Understanding of Mind (CRUM) is another attempt at modeling human cognition through ... "Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview". Frontiers in Psychology. 4. doi:10.3389 ...
2.2 Cognition and the Intuitive knowledge *2.2.1 From Vedantic knowledge to different school of Hindu philosophy,thoughts in ... Cognition and the Intuitive knowledge[edit]. Sri Aurobindo finds confining oneself with sensory evidence would lead to ...
Existential cognition[edit]. In his book, Existential Cognition: Minds in the World, McClamrock argued for the extreme ... Existential Cognition: Computational Minds in the World. University of Chicago Press. 1995. ...
Complex cognition[edit]. A series of innovations have been documented by 170-160,000 years ago at the site of Pinnacle Point ... used to haft spears would seem to argue for continuity between modern human cognition and that of humans 70,000 BP at Sibudu ... current archaeological research in Africa has yielded much evidence to suggest that modern human behavior and cognition was ... "Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa" ...
"Animal Cognition. 18 (1): 219-229. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0791-7.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ... Cognition. In amphibians, there is evidence of habituation, associative learning through both classical and instrumental ...
Cognition and AI[edit]. This problem actually defines a field, however its pursuits are specific and easily stated. Firstly, ...
Section "Intelligence and cognition"[edit]. Just to make the list complete: All apes (not just some), orcas and magpies are ...
Quantum cognition modeling[edit]. Main article: Quantum cognition § Gestalt perception. Similarities between Gestalt phenomena ... doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.006. ISSN 0010-0277. PMID 30212653.. *^ Schultz, Duane (2013). A History of Modern Psychology. ... Eysenck, Michael W. (2006). Fundamentals of Cognition. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. pp. 62-64. ISBN 978-1-84169-374-3. .. ... Mayer, R. E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition. Second edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.. ...
Cognition and social behaviour[edit]. In a study of strepsirrhine cognition conducted in 1964, pottos were seen to explore and ...
Justify the behavior or the cognition, by changing the conflicting cognition ("I'm allowed to cheat my diet every once in a ... Justify the behavior or the cognition by adding new behaviors or cognitions ("I'll spend thirty extra minutes at the gymnasium ... "Social Cognition. 25 (5): 657-686. doi:10.1521/soco.2007.25.5.657.. *^ Van Overwalle, F.; Jordens, K. (2002). "An adaptive ... In the study On the Measurement of the Utility of Public Works[65] (1969), Jules Dupuit reported that behaviors and cognitions ...
... : Theory and Practice by Russell Revlin *^ Matlin, Margaret (2009). Cognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p ... "cognition - definition of cognition in English from the Oxford dictionary". Retrieved 2016-02-04.. ... The beginnings of the studies on cognition[edit]. The word cognition dates back to the 15th century, when it meant "thinking ... Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's ...
Effect on cognition[edit]. Chronic pain's impact on cognition is an under-researched area, but several tentative conclusions ...
Quantum cognition modeling[edit]. Main article: Quantum cognition § Gestalt perception. Similarities between Gestalt phenomena ... Eysenck, Michael W. (2006). Fundamentals of Cognition. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. pp. 62-64. ISBN 978-1-84169-374-3. .. ... Mayer, R. E. (1992). Thinking, problem solving, cognition. Second edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.006. ISSN 0010-0277. PMID 30212653. S2CID 52269830.. ...
Cognition[edit]. Verbal memory scores are frequently used as one measure of higher level cognition. These scores vary in direct ... Au A, Feher A, McPhee L, Jessa A, Oh S, Einstein G (January 2016). "Estrogens, inflammation and cognition". Frontiers in ... The protective effects of estrogens on cognition may be mediated by estrogens anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.[44] ... However the effect of estrogens on cognition is not uniformly favorable and is dependent on the timing of the dose and the type ...
β-Carotene and cognition[edit]. A recent report demonstrated that 50 mg of β-carotene every other day prevented cognitive ...
Moral cognition[edit]. Moral cognition refers to cognitive processes that allow a person to act or decide in morally ... Parsing the neural correlates of moral cognition: ALE meta-analysis on morality, theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Struct ... While it's important to mention that there is not a single cognitive faculty dedicated exclusively to moral cognition, ... Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R. Nathan (4 February 2014). "Contextual and Perceptual Brain Processes Underlying Moral Cognition: A ...
... cognition, and behavior. Research topics include pitch perception, representation and expectation, timbre perception, rhythmic ...
Paranoid social cognition[edit]. Social psychological research has proposed a mild form of paranoid cognition, paranoid social ... and dismiss the fact that paranoid cognition may be related with the social context in which such cognitions are embedded. This ... Colby (1981) defined paranoid cognition in terms of persecutory delusions and false beliefs whose propositional content ... a b Kramer, R. M. (1995a). In dubious battle: Heightened accountability, dysphoric cognition, and self-defeating bargaining ...
Tomasello, M. & Call, J. (1997). Primate Cognition. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-510624-4.. ... Research in primate cognition explores problem solving, memory, social interaction, a theory of mind, and numerical, spatial, ... "Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? A metaanalysis of nonhuman primate studies" (PDF). Evolutionary ...
In: Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs 124: Gender in Grammar and Cognition, Barbara Unterbeck & Matti Rissanen (eds ... How gender contrasts can influence cognition[edit]. Although the idea that language can constrain or significantly impact ... "Grammatical Gender and Cognition" (PDF). James Cook University. Retrieved 20 December 2018 ...
Acquisition and cognition[edit]. There is evidence from brain disorders such as aphasia that proper names and common names are ...
Visio-spatial cognition: assessing mental rotation ability[29][30]. Tests of Physiology and Morphology[edit]. *2nd to 4th digit ... Tests of Perception and Cognition[edit]. *Auditory system functioning: assessing otoacoustic emissions[25][26] ... This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology,[1] ... while those testing perception and cognition are typically more consistent.[5] Though supporting evidence exists, whether or ...
Contribution to musical cognition[edit]. Jackendoff, together with Fred Lerdahl, has been interested in the human capacity for ... In his 1983 Semantics and Cognition, he was one of the first linguists to integrate the visual faculty into his account of ... Semantics and Cognition, in Shalom Lappin (1996), "The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory", 539-559. Oxford: Blackwell. ... Jackendoff's research deals with the semantics of natural language, its bearing on the formal structure of cognition, and its ...
The recent field of Assistive Technology for Cognition concerns the development of technologies to augment human cognition. ... Cognition[edit]. Main article: Neuroprosthetics. Unlike neuromotor prostheses, neurocognitive prostheses would sense or ... "Techniques and devices to restore cognition". Behav Brain Res. 192 (2): 149-65. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.007. PMC 3051349 ...
Speculated core systems of cognition[edit]. Empiricists study how these skills may be learned in such a short time. The debate ... In conclusion, since differences were found in both high-level and low-level cognition one can assume that our brain's activity ... His description of the most prominent changes in cognition with age, is generally still accepted today (e.g., how early ... He also published his observational studies of cognition in children, and created a series of simple tests to reveal different ...
"Memory & Cognition. 11 (6): 601-608. doi:10.3758/bf03198284. PMID 6669028.. *^ Braun, J (2001). "It's great but not necessarily ... The cognition debate: early vs. late selection of attention[edit]. One of the most foremost conflicts among researchers of ... "Consciousness and Cognition. 37: 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.08.007. PMID 26320867.. ... 2 The cognition debate: early vs. late selection of attention *2.1 Evidence for late selection ...
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.011. PMID 15037127.. *^ Scott, S. K. & Johnsrude, I. S. "The neuroanatomical and functional ...
Parvizi J, Damasio AR (2001). "Consciousness and the brainstem". Cognition. 79 (1-2): 135-160. doi:10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00127- ... Damasio might believe that emotions play a critical role in high-level cognition-an idea counter to dominant 20th-century views ... As a clinician, he and his collaborators have studied and treated disorders of behaviour and cognition, and movement disorders ... Cognition. 33 (1-2): 25-62. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/0010-0277(89)90005-X. PMID 2691184. S2CID 34115898.. ...
Cognition. 104 (2): 231-253. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2006.05.013. Gillner S, Mallot H (2000). "The role of global and local ... 2003). "The role of the executive system in visuo-spatial memory functioning". Brain and Cognition. 52 (3): 364-381. doi: ... Kalakoski, V.; Saariluoma, P. (2001). "Taxi drivers' exceptional memory of street names". Memory and Cognition. 29 (4): 634-638 ... and Cognition. 21 (4): 1008-1018. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.21.4.1008. Della Sala, S.; Gray, C.; Baddeley, A.; Allamano, N.; Wilson ...
"Cognition. 79 (1-2): 1-37. Check ,doi=. value (help). Retrieved 21 February 2013. ... I added Dehaene's review from Cognition, wherein he explicitly describes empirical consequences of the current model of ...
The Cultural Cognition of Risk: Theory, Evidence, Implications. Cultural Cognition and the Challenge of Science Communication. ... Cultural Cognition and Public Policy. Culture, Cognition, and Consent: Who Perceives What, and Why, in "Acquaintance Rape" ... Neutral Principles, Motivated Cognition, and Some Problems for Constitutional Law Cultural Cognition of Scientific Consensus ... Cultural Cognition of the Risks and Benefits of Nanotechnology Whose Eyes Are You Going to Believe? An Empirical Examination of ...
Cognition: Theory and Practice by Russell Revlin *^ Matlin, Margaret (2009). Cognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p ... "cognition - definition of cognition in English from the Oxford dictionary". Retrieved 2016-02-04.. ... The beginnings of the studies on cognition[edit]. The word cognition dates back to the 15th century, when it meant "thinking ... Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of ones ...
Students with learning difficulties have academic attainments which are significantly below those of their peers due to a slower rate of learning. They will have difficulty acquiring and applying basic literacy, numeracy and language skills. ...
The Sleep and Cognition (SaC) Lab of the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Riverside is soliciting ... The Sleep and Cognition (SaC) Lab is interested in understanding who we are as humans by investigating how we form memories. ...
... closely related to situated cognition, embodied cognition, embodied cognitive science and dynamical systems theory. The theory ... Embodied embedded cognition (EEC) is a philosophical theoretical position in cognitive science, ... There are concerns about whether EEC constitutes a novel and substantive approach to cognition or whether it is merely a ... Is EEC too descriptive, instead of really explaining anything about cognition?. *How can EEC explain linguistic processes and ...
Founding Editor: Tatiana CzeschlikHeidelberg, Germany Editor-in-Chief:Debbie M. KellyDepartment of PsychologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipeg, MB, R3T ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, decision making ... Memory & Cognition covers human memory and learning, conceptual processes, psycholinguistics, problem solving, thinking, ... Get the table of contents of every new issue published in Memory & Cognition. ... Cognition. Adults who listened to short Hungarian phrases and then sang them back performed better than those who spoke the ...
Kenneth A. Dodge, Patrick S. Malone, Jennifer E. Lansford, Emma Sorbring, Ann T. Skinner, Sombat Tapanya, Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado, Arnaldo Zelli, Liane Peña Alampay, Suha M. Al-Hassan, Dario Bacchini, Anna Silvia Bombi, Marc H. Bornstein, Lei Chang, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Laura Di Giunta, Paul Oburu, and Concetta Pastorelli ...
While vitamin D has been shown to boost adult cognition, students school performance doesnt benefit from an extra dose of sun ... Cognition. "Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 With Academic Performance in Childhood: Findings From a ... While vitamin D has been shown to boost adult cognition, students school performance doesnt benefit from an extra dose of sun ...
Within the book, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and ... He is the author of numerous chapters and academic papers in aspects of cognition and addiction and also runs a very successful ... Within the book, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and ... exposure factors Franken function genetic goal Goldman Handbook of implicit heroin implicit and explicit implicit cognition ...
You are here - Welcome to LSE , Calendar , Undergraduate , Course guides , PB301 Cognition and Culture ... This course discusses the relations between cognition and culture using evolutionary perspectives. The course is therefore ... course will offer students an overview of key theoretical approaches and debates concerning the relations between cognition and ...
This transcript documents select parts of discussions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour ... Artificial intelligence Cognitive science Psychology Design cognition and computation Engineering Human behaviour studies ... This transcript documents select parts of discussions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour ... Bhatt in CoDesign 2017-The Bremen Summer of Cognition and Design/CoDesign Roundtable. University of Bremen, Bremen, 2017) at ...
Genes to Cognition presents supporting information for grades 9-12 on cognitive disorders, cognitive processes, and research ... Genes To Cognition. By Phil Nast, retired middle school teacher and freelance writer ... Simple Mapper was used to organize the Genes to Cognition website and the software is available for free. Registration is ... cognition, and environment explaining each factors role in ADHD. Print resources such as Ingredients May Affect Brain Health ...
The RSA is a charity which encourages the release of human potential to address the challenges that society faces. Join us to help shape the future.
Cognition Corporation®, a software company specializing in medical device compliance and ... Cognition offers the Cognition Cockpit® Platform, along with engineering and validation support, and industry expertise. ... Ward is a good friend of Cognition, and what he and Zimmer Biomet have been doing with our products and services is really ... Cognition Corporation®, a software company specializing in medical device compliance and commercialization, is announcing the ...
The second section discusses Augmented Cognition applications such as simulation and training, intent-driven user interfaces, ... The first section introduces general Augmented Cognition methods and techniques, including physiological and neurophysiological ... this volume builds a foundation for the new field of Augmented Cognition research and development. ... and future directions in Augmented Cognition-enabled HCI. ... Cognition.html?id=CEHNQe7vq1cC&utm_source=gb-gplus-share ...
NeuroELT Videos for teaching training! We look at the science, then ask the difficult questions! Add your reply below. Did you notice the background was chos...
animal cognition, animal intelligence, behavior, biology, brains, fmri, intelligence, mind, pigeons, smart animals ... Here are just a few links on the growing evidence of advanced animal cognition. * A bunch of dogs were trained to sit still in ...
An-Investigation-into-the-Cognition-Behind-Spontaneous-String-Pulling-in-New-Caledonian-Crows-pone.0009345.s001.ogv 8.8 s, 320 ... Group-Size-Predicts-Social-but-Not-Nonsocial-Cognition-in-Lemurs-pone.0066359.s002.ogv 50 s, 654 × 480; 8.41 MB. ... Group-Size-Predicts-Social-but-Not-Nonsocial-Cognition-in-Lemurs-pone.0066359.s003.ogv 34 s, 640 × 360; 3.17 MB. ... An-Investigation-into-the-Cognition-Behind-Spontaneous-String-Pulling-in-New-Caledonian-Crows-pone.0009345.s002.ogv 24 s, 320 ...
In contrast, Glass Cognition provides an organizing theme of two major systems in the brain supporting cognition, offering ... Too often, cognition textbooks read as grab-bags of this quirky finding here, that influential theory there, this clinical ... Emphasizes the common neural mechanisms and brain systems at the foundation of all aspects of cognition, rather than treating ... This new textbook is great! Glass writing is outstanding and will make learning about cognition interesting to students, and ...
And here is Walt Whitman, a poet who appreciated embodied cognition way back in the 19th century:. Was somebody asking to see ... "In the embodied view, if youre going to explain cognition its not enough just to look inside the brain. In any particular ... Or, as the motto of the University of Wisconsins Laboratory of Embodied Cognition puts it, "Ago ergo cogito": "I act, ...
Need for Cognition BIBLIOGRAPHY Source for information on Need for Cognition: International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences ... It has been repeatedly found that people higher in need for cognition (as measured by the Need for Cognition Scale) remember ... The Need for Cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (1): 116-131. ... Need for Cognition. BIBLIOGRAPHY. In 1982 the American psychologists John T. Cacioppo and Richard E. Petty proposed that people ...
Culture and Cognition will be essential reading for literary theorists, historians and philosophers of science; semioticians; ... In the authors view, the different perspectives on cognition afforded by Anglo-American cognitive science, Greimassian ... Part III examines in the context of literary studies an interdisciplinary concept of cultural cognition. ...
Our research covers various areas in social psychology to understand social and cultural cognition and its underpinnings at ... Social and Cultural Cognition group members. View the members of our Social and Cultural Cognition (SCC) research group. ... Social and Cultural Cognition group publications. Selected publications from the Social and Cultural Cognition group since 2018 ... Social and Cultural Cognition group projects. A selection of current research projects conducted by the Social and Cultural ...
It covers human and nonhuman cognition and human cognition in all age ranges. Just as the periodic table classifies elements ... The book shows that a more integrated, coherent account of cognition would have many benefits. It would reduce the conceptual ... This book proposes a categorization of cognition based on core properties of constituent processes, recognizing correspondences ... and lead to fruitful hypotheses for the acquisition of higher cognition. ...
Questions about fish consciousness and cognition are receiving increasing attention. In this paper, I explain why one must be ... Allen, C., Grau, J. W., & Meagher, M. W. (2009) The lower bounds of cognition: What do spinal cords reveal? In J. Bickle (Ed ... Kirsch, I., Lynn, S. J., Vigorito, M., & Miller, R. R. (2004). The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning. ... Questions about fish consciousness and cognition are receiving increasing attention. In this paper, I explain why one must be ...
Creative Cognition combines original experiments with existing work in cognitive psychology to provide the first explicit ... It identifies many of these processes as well as general principles of creative cognition that can be applied across a variety ... Unlike traditional approaches, Creative Cognition considers creativity as a product of numerous cognitive processes, each of ... Creative Cognition combines original experiments with existing work in cognitive psychology to provide the first explicit ...
Cannabis use by teens is not independently linked with adverse changes in intelligence quotient or executive functioning, according to longitudinal data published online ahead of print in the journal Addiction. Investigators concluded, "Short-term cannabis use in adolescence does not appear to cause IQ decline or impair executive functions, even when cannabis use reaches the level of dependence.". ...
... An Interdisciplinary Dialogue. Series: * passagem Ana Margarida Abrantes and Peter Hanenberg. Human ... a key concept for cognition and culture - Vera Nünning: Interfaces between the cognitive sciences and the humanities. ... The neurophysiological foundation of human cognition - Peter Hanenberg: Cognitive Culture Studies - Where science meets the ... and studying cognition with culture in mind. ...
  • Selected publications from the Social and Cultural Cognition group since 2018. (
  • Note that submission of new papers for Spatial Cognition 2018 is closed. (
  • Rose, Carol Marguerite, Commons and Cognition (2018). (
  • Animal Cognition stories at Techdirt. (
  • Here are just a few links on the growing evidence of advanced animal cognition. (
  • He is a member of the Cultural Cognition Project, an interdisciplinary team of scholars who use empirical methods to examine the impact of group values on perceptions of risk and related facts. (
  • Part III examines in the context of literary studies an interdisciplinary concept of cultural cognition. (
  • Our research covers various areas in social psychology to understand social and cultural cognition and its underpinnings at both individual and societal levels. (
  • View the members of our Social and Cultural Cognition (SCC) research group. (
  • A selection of current research projects conducted by the Social and Cultural Cognition group. (
  • RT Web Page DB /z-wcorg/ DS ID 1098173636 LA English UL T1 Blended cognition : the robotic challenge A1 Vallverdú, Jordi,, Müller, Vincent C.,, YR 2019 SN 9783030031046 3030031047 9783030031053 3030031055 AB This edited volume is about how unprejudiced approaches to real human cognition can improve the design of AI. (
  • Language and Cognition is a venue for the publication of high quality peer-reviewed research of a theoretical and/or empirical/experimental nature, focusing on the interface between language and cognition. (
  • Research published in the journal adopts an interdisciplinary, comparative, multi-methodological approach to the study of language and cognition and their intersection. (
  • With effect from 2014, Language and Cognition is published by Cambridge University Press. (
  • Language and Cognition Language is considered unique among humans. (
  • Genes to Cognition presents supporting information for grades 9-12 on cognitive disorders, cognitive processes, and research approaches in brain studies. (
  • A proposal for a categorization of cognition based on core properties of the constituent processes that integrates theory and empirical findings across domains. (
  • This book proposes a categorization of cognition based on core properties of constituent processes, recognizing correspondences between cognitive processes with similar underlying structure but different surface properties. (
  • Creative Cognition combines original experiments with existing work in cognitive psychology to provide the first explicit account of the cognitive processes and structures that contribute to creative thinking and discovery. (
  • Unlike traditional approaches, Creative Cognition considers creativity as a product of numerous cognitive processes, each of which helps to set the stage for insight and discovery. (
  • It identifies many of these processes as well as general principles of creative cognition that can be applied across a variety of different domains, with examples in artificial intelligence, engineering design, product development, architecture, education, and the visual arts. (
  • Of particular interest are emerging areas, such as the interaction of sleep or emotion with cognitive or perceptual processes, epigenetics of cognition, computational models of cognition, and cross-modal and multimodal processing. (
  • The development of the cognition in the early years of life (2-6 year olds) is the assembly of the thought processes. (
  • Cognition may be viewed as the product of several interrelated general processes that feed both forward and backward onto downstream and upstream effectors, respectively ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • The first part of the book reviews basic processes in social cognition, including the representation of social concepts, rules of inference, memory, "hot" cognition driven by motivation or affect, and automatic processing. (
  • Within the book, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and addiction, with a particular emphasis on widely investigated substances of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and opiates. (
  • Drawing on a modern neurocognitive framework, this full-color textbook introduces the entire field of cognition through an engaging narrative. (
  • He is the author of numerous chapters and academic papers in aspects of cognition and addiction and also runs a very successful MSc in Addiction Psychology and Counselling at London South Bank University. (
  • It covers a wide variety of subjects concerning all the different aspects of cognition , ranging from biological and experimental studies to formal analysis. (
  • James' most significant contribution to the study and theory of cognition was his textbook Principles of Psychology that preliminarily examines aspects of cognition such as perception, memory, reasoning, and attention. (
  • The Boston University Vision & Cognition Laboratory focuses on perception and cognition in aging and neurological conditions, with a special focus on Parkinson's disease. (
  • Our focus is multisensory perception and cognition, and how scientific insights into neural plasticity can aid rehabilitation of clinical conditions. (
  • Our goal is to find neural correlates of auditory perception and cognition by combining different functional imaging techniques. (
  • In the project 'Behavioural and electrophysiological research of visual cognition', methods based on eye-tracking and event-related potentials (ERPs) are applied. (
  • [5] Two millennia later, as psychology emerged as a burgeoning field of study in Europe and then gained a following in America, other scientists like Wilhelm Wundt, Herman Ebbinghaus, Mary Whiton Calkins, and William James would offer their contributions to the study of human cognition. (
  • The volume lays out theoretical principles for understanding variations in complexity across tasks, highlighting implications for cognitive development, adult human cognition, cognitive neuroscience, comparative psychology, and computational models. (
  • The Third Edition of this much celebrated textbook continues to focus on the four major and influential perspectives in contemporary social psychology - social cognition, social identity, social representations, and discursive psychology. (
  • It remains a key textbook for psychology students, particularly those on courses in social psychology and social cognition. (
  • As psychology emerged as a burgeoning field of study in Europe, whilst also gaining a following in America, scientists such as Wilhelm Wundt, Herman Ebbinghaus, Mary Whiton Calkins, and William James would offer their contributions to the study of human cognition. (
  • Numerous disciplines (such as cognitive psychology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, geographic Information science, cartography, etc.) work together to understand spatial cognition in different species, especially in humans. (
  • Thereby, spatial cognition studies also have helped to link cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (
  • The entry for ADHD is representative and includes brief videos with scientists (transcripts are included), print material, and graphics under subheadings: genes, biochemicals, cells, brain anatomy, cognition, and environment explaining each factor's role in ADHD. (
  • In contrast, Glass' Cognition provides an organizing theme of two major systems in the brain supporting cognition, offering theoretical continuity from beginning to end - a definite strength. (
  • In the embodied view, if you're going to explain cognition it's not enough just to look inside the brain. (
  • Online courses relating to Brain & Cognition Sciences and other similar topics. (
  • The embodied cognition thesis claims that cognitive functions cannot be understood without making reference to the interactions between the brain, the body, and the environment. (
  • Neuroscience and Cognition offers you the opportunity to investigate numerous areas of brain functioning that make the neuroscience and cognition field uniquely intriguing and challenging. (
  • Scientists in both fields work together to figure out what role spatial cognition plays in the brain as well as to determine the surrounding neurobiological infrastructure. (
  • Winner of six 2013 Reader's Choice Aggie Awards, including Game of the Year, this edition of Cognition includes everything in the original game, plus brand new director commentary for all 4 episodes and exclusive content including concept art, storyboards, outtakes and other behind-the-scenes material about the development! (
  • Spatial cognition is concerned with the acquisition, organization, utilization, and revision of knowledge about spatial environments. (
  • Spatial cognition is closely related to how people talk about their environment, find their way in new surroundings and plan routes. (
  • Rhythms for Cognition: Communication through Coherence. (
  • The Interpersonal Perception and Social Cognition (IPSC) laboratory is housed in the Behavioural Sciences Building at York University in Toronto, Ontario. (
  • We are called the Vision and Cognition Lab because these are our traditional areas of research. (
  • - Bringing together a comprehensive and diverse collection of research, theory, and thought, this volume builds a foundation for the new field of Augmented Cognition research and development. (
  • Considerable research attests to the validity of this distinction between individuals high and low in need for cognition. (
  • Research indicates that a higher need for cognition can assist individuals in overcoming the fundamental attribution error - the tendency to attribute another ' s behavior to dispositional causes (i.e., to his or her unique qualities) even when clear situational factors were present that would have caused most people to behave similarly. (
  • Specific areas of research include causal cognition, risk perception, forecasting and decision making. (
  • Learn more about current stress, cognition, affect and neuroimaging research being conducted at our lab. (
  • Cognition occasionally publishes special issues devoted to a research area that has seen rapid recent progress, promising new approaches, and convergence among different disciplines. (
  • Neuroscience and cognition trains you to become a multidisciplinary neuro and/or cognition scientist, fully equipped to face the challenges of modern research in the interdisciplinary field of neuroscience and cognition. (
  • The many questions that arise from this line of research include whether language is a separate faculty apart from cognition or if language is a product of our general cognitive abilities (Harris, n. d. (
  • In this book Ziva Kunda provides a comprehensive and accessible survey of research and theory about social cognition at a level appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers in the field. (
  • [2] These and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the developing field of cognitive science , a progressively autonomous academic discipline . (
  • This course will offer students an overview of key theoretical approaches and debates concerning the relations between cognition and culture as they are related to evolution. (
  • The book is an impressive piece of scholarship because it so clearly ties together classic and contemporary approaches to categorizing cognition. (
  • It covers many aspects of human cognition and across 12 chapters the reader can explore multiple approaches about the complexities of human cognitive skills and reasoning, always guided by experts from different but complimentary academic fields. (
  • This realization encourages an interdisciplinary dialogue, in which scientists and humanists come together to discuss two challenges: studying culture in the age of cognitive science, and studying cognition with culture in mind. (
  • Cognition publishes many of the most important papers in cognitive science and is the premier international and interdisciplinary journal in the field. (
  • Epigenetic mechanisms in cognition. (
  • In conjunction with an SFN2010 symposium, we provided here a brief overview of the molecular mechanisms of cognition, with emphasis on the development of treatments for cognitive disorders. (
  • Or, as the motto of the University of Wisconsin's Laboratory of Embodied Cognition puts it, "Ago ergo cogito": "I act, therefore I think. (
  • Questions about fish consciousness and cognition are receiving increasing attention. (
  • The interview and related events were held as part of the CoDesign 2017 Roundtable (Bhatt in CoDesign 2017-The Bremen Summer of Cognition and Design/CoDesign Roundtable. (
  • Bhatt M (2017) CoDesign 2017 - The Bremen Summer of Cognition and Design / CoDesign Roundtable. (
  • Projektet innebär en ettårig förstärkning i forskningsproduktionen och valideringen av Digemergo i samband med Region Östergötlands förmågeanalys av den katastrofmedicinska beredskapen 2017. (
  • Embodied embedded cognition ( EEC ) is a philosophical theoretical position in cognitive science , closely related to situated cognition , embodied cognition , embodied cognitive science and dynamical systems theory . (
  • Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. (
  • A paper's theoretical relevance to cognition, overall soundness of the argument and degree of empirical motivation, especially from converging sources, are more important than adherence to specific methodological principles. (
  • Because Cognition enjoys a wide readership from many disciplines, authors should explicitly consider the general theoretical issues raised by their work and its relevance to other topics and methods. (
  • He instead chose to focus on the human learning experience in everyday life and its importance to the study of cognition. (
  • This transcript documents select parts of discussions on the confluence of cognition, interaction, design, and human behaviour studies. (
  • We examine social cognition topics including immanent justice reasoning, lay theories and beliefs about society and human nature, creativity and openness, and cognitive underpinnings of social attitudes and behaviours. (
  • It covers human and nonhuman cognition and human cognition in all age ranges. (
  • Contents: Mark Turner: The embodied mind and the origins of human culture - Alexandre Castro-Caldas: The neurophysiological foundation of human cognition - Peter Hanenberg: Cognitive Culture Studies - Where science meets the humanities - Per Aage Brandt: What is culture? (
  • or 3) non-human animals without a clear and direct impact on our understanding of human perception, action, or cognition. (
  • A central concept is explained: blended cognition, the natural skill of human beings for combining constantly different heuristics during their several task-solving activities. (
  • Something that was sometimes observed like a problem as 'bad reasoning', is now the central key for the understanding of the richness, adaptability and creativity of human cognition. (
  • A central debate in cognitive science concerns the nativist hypothesis: the proposal that universal human behaviors are underpinned by strong, domain-specific, innate constraints on cognition. (
  • When a human uses the artifact, both embedded energy and embedded cognition make it possible for that human to accomplish things he or she couldn't have done unaided. (
  • The awesome power of human artifacts used by human minds is a result of both the embedded energy and the embedded cognition contained therein. (
  • Cognition #2 is a 22 page, black & white, single issue comic that follows the exploits of a steam-powered automaton inhabited by a human spirit called Cal and a demonically possessed mouse named Sigma. (
  • Humans are truly unique because of our human cognition, including are language and symbolic thought. (
  • An experienced engineer and manager with Zimmer Biomet for almost 15 years, Mr. Ward will focus his talk about how his organization leverages the Cognition Cockpit® Platform in their remediation projects. (
  • Cognition offers the Cognition Cockpit® Platform, along with engineering and validation support, and industry expertise. (
  • The Cognition Cockpit API allows both Cognition and external customers to programmatically retrieve and modify Cockpit data through a comprehensive interface. (
  • Cognition Cockpit provides a unified architecture for application development. (
  • Cognition Cockpit is a system that provides users with Risk, VOC, Testing, Requirements and Knowledge Management. (
  • Simple Mapper was used to organize the Genes to Cognition website and the software is available for free. (
  • This has been achieved by intensively studying and modeling the cognition that lies behind language and goes far beyond it, but which language reflects in certain ways, and which in turn supports the dynamics of language use, language change, and language organization. (
  • We could assess and reward students for such thinking, and we could evaluate which of our pedagogical strategies most successfully fosters original cognition. (
  • Because they are more disposed to engage in this kind of processing, those high, as compared to low, in need for cognition will make attributions that more appropriately reflect the influence of situational variables. (
  • Neuroscience and Cognition might be a perfect fit! (
  • After the 10-week introductory course Fundamentals of Neuroscience and Cognition, you will determine an individualised study path with the assistance of the track coordinator, consisting of quality internships, electives and a writing assignment. (
  • Mental and linguistic representations, culture(s) and the negotiation of meaning - Maria Clotilde Almeida: More on forbidden fruit blending: prying into the Portuguese mind - Ana Margarida Abrantes: Narrative - a key concept for cognition and culture - Vera Nünning: Interfaces between the cognitive sciences and the humanities. (
  • Too often, cognition textbooks read as grab-bags of this quirky finding here, that influential theory there, this clinical disorder, that cool demonstration, et cetera. (
  • This course discusses the relations between cognition and culture using evolutionary perspectives. (
  • In the authors' view, the different perspectives on cognition afforded by Anglo-American cognitive science, Greimassian semiotics, and Lacanian psychoanalysis help us to redefine our very notion of culture. (
  • Singing in a foreign language can significantly improve learning how to speak it, according to a new study published in Springer's journal Memory & Cognition . (
  • While vitamin D has been shown to boost adult cognition, students' school performance doesn't benefit from an extra dose of sun or a vitamin supplement, according to a study at the University of Bristol, in England. (
  • We study the reaction of financial markets to aggregate liquidity shocks when traders face cognition limits. (
  • Most people who study cognition focus on mammals or birds. (
  • This book is the first edited volume to explore the impact of the embodied cognition thesis on the scientific study of film. (
  • A neuronal activity-dependent molecular tagging system that uses the gene expression program to record memory circuit formation represents one new tool to study cognition. (
  • author = {Mike Scaife and Yvonne Rogers}, title = {External Cognition: How do Graphical Representations Work? (
  • After the wonderful reaction of the set of pin-ups I have commissioned for the previous campaigns, I have once again sourced a set of unique interpretations of the Cognition characters by hugely talented comic artists. (
  • Categorizing Cognition provides an integrative treatment of complexity from the perspective of cognitive science. (
  • Social Cognition: An Integrated Introduction is an integrative, holistic textbook that will enhance the reader's understanding of social cognition and of each of the topical issues considered. (
  • Theories like Distributed Cognition may help us understand user interactions and information flows on social web services. (
  • It's very good news that Martha Augoustinos and her co-authors have brought out a new, revised edition of Social Cognition . (
  • But it is most plausibly justified on cognitive grounds--as a way of counteracting predictable problems in individual and social cognition. (
  • Meta-Cognition and Social Cognition Amy L Walker Grand Canyon University: PSY-354 September 27, 2015 Meta-cognition and social cognition both influence interpersonal behaviors by using knowledge, personal beliefs, and views and beliefs of others around us. (
  • Social cognition researchers look at how we make sense of other people and of ourselves. (
  • The second part reviews three basic topics in social cognition: group stereotypes, knowledge of other individuals, and the self. (
  • The first section introduces general Augmented Cognition methods and techniques, including physiological and neurophysiological. (
  • Creative Cognition presents what is probably the most nearly complete and thoroughly tested of the existing theories of creativity based upon the principles of cognitive science. (
  • Developed by Phoenix Online Studios (makers of the King's Quest spin-off The Silver Lining ), with contributions from veteran game designer Jane Jensen ( Gabriel Knight, Gray Matter ) and comic book artist Romano Molenaar ( Batman, X-Men, The Darkness ), Cognition is a thrilling adventure that grips you and won't let go. (
  • Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound is the first book to provide that coverage, and it does so via a unique and useful approach. (
  • Rather remarkably, all the aspects of backstage cognition just alluded to receive ample justification on non-linguistic grounds from a variety of sources. (
  • Gain an understanding of the user in terms of cognition and the areas which the term covers i.e. attention, memory etc. (
  • We show how deictic bindings enable the solution of natural tasks and argue that one of the central features of cognition, working memory, can be related to moment-by-moment dispositions of body features such as eye movements and hand movements. (
  • Memory & Cognition is a publication of the Psychonomic Society. (