Cofilin 1: Cofilin 1 is a member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in non-muscle CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Cofilin 2: A member of the cofilin family of proteins that is expressed in MUSCLE CELLS. It has ACTIN depolymerization activity that is dependent on HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Ethenoadenosine Triphosphate: 1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Nerve Tissue ProteinsPolymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).CapZ Actin Capping Protein: An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Footprinting: A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.Glia Maturation Factor: A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Organelle Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of ORGANELLES.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Arthrogryposis: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Olfactory Mucosa: That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Myopathies, Structural, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness. Each of these disorders is associated with a specific histologic muscle fiber abnormality.Myopathies, Nemaline: A group of inherited congenital myopathic conditions characterized clinically by weakness, hypotonia, and prominent hypoplasia of proximal muscles including the face. Muscle biopsy reveals large numbers of rod-shaped structures beneath the muscle fiber plasma membrane. This disorder is genetically heterogeneous and may occasionally present in adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1453)Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hemolytic Agents: Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Myopathy, Central Core: An inherited congenital myopathic condition characterized by weakness and hypotonia in infancy and delayed motor development. Muscle biopsy reveals a condensation of myofibrils and myofibrillar material in the central portion of each muscle fiber. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1452)Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Distal Myopathies: A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.SLC4A Proteins: Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.FinlandLibraries, MedicalHelsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)BooksPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Patient Navigation: The process of helping patients to effectively and efficiently use the health care system when faced with one or more of these challenges: (1) choosing, understanding, and using health coverage or applying for assistance when uninsured; (2) choosing, using, and understanding different types of health providers and services; (3) making treatment decisions; and (4) managing care received by multiple providers.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Smooth Muscle Tumor: A tumor composed of smooth muscle tissue, as opposed to leiomyoma, a tumor derived from smooth muscle.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Hexanones: 6-carbon straight-chain or branched ketones.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.GeeseMyofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CChemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.IndazolesChloraminesTaurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Dexrazoxane: The (+)-enantiomorph of razoxane.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Myelin P0 Protein: A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)

Characterization of human muscle type cofilin (CFL2) in normal and regenerating muscle. (1/26)

Cofilins are actin binding proteins and regulate actin assembly in vivo. Numerous cofilin homologues have been characterized in various organisms including mammals. In mice, a ubiquitously expressed cofilin (CFL1) and a skeletal muscle specific cofilin (CFL2) have been described. In the present study, we identified and characterized a human CFL2 gene localized on chromosome 14, with high homology to murine CFL2. Furthermore, we provide evidence for differentially spliced CFL2 transcripts (CFL2a and CFL2b). CFL2b is expressed predominantly in human skeletal muscle and heart, while CFL2a is expressed in various tissues. Genetic defects of CFL2 were excluded for one human muscle disorder, the chromosome 14 linked distal myopathy MPD1, and shown to be only possible to be a rare cause of another, nemaline myopathy. In a mouse model of mechanically induced muscle damage the changes of cofilin expression were monitored during the first 10 days of regeneration, with dephosphorylated CFL2 being the major isoform at later stages of muscle regeneration. A similar predominance of dephosphorylated CFL2 was observed in chronically regenerating dystrophin-deficient muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Therefore, the CFL2 isoform may play an important role in normal muscle function and muscle regeneration.  (+info)

The three mouse actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilins evolved to fulfill cell-type-specific requirements for actin dynamics. (2/26)

Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins are essential regulators of actin filament turnover. Several ADF/cofilin isoforms are found in multicellular organisms, but their biological differences have remained unclear. Herein, we show that three ADF/cofilins exist in mouse and most likely in all other mammalian species. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrate that cofilin-1 is expressed in most cell types of embryos and adult mice. Cofilin-2 is expressed in muscle cells and ADF is restricted to epithelia and endothelia. Although the three mouse ADF/cofilins do not show actin isoform specificity, they all depolymerize platelet actin filaments more efficiently than muscle actin. Furthermore, these ADF/cofilins are biochemically different. The epithelial-specific ADF is the most efficient in turning over actin filaments and promotes a stronger pH-dependent actin filament disassembly than the two other isoforms. The muscle-specific cofilin-2 has a weaker actin filament depolymerization activity and displays a 5-10-fold higher affinity for ATP-actin monomers than cofilin-1 and ADF. In steady-state assays, cofilin-2 also promotes filament assembly rather than disassembly. Taken together, these data suggest that the three biochemically distinct mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms evolved to fulfill specific requirements for actin filament dynamics in different cell types.  (+info)

The ADF/cofilin family: actin-remodeling proteins. (3/26)

The ADF/cofilins are a family of actin-binding proteins expressed in all eukaryotic cells so far examined. Members of this family remodel the actin cytoskeleton, for example during cytokinesis, when the actin-rich contractile ring shrinks as it contracts through the interaction of ADF/cofilins with both monomeric and filamentous actin. The depolymerizing activity is twofold: ADF/cofilins sever actin filaments and also increase the rate at which monomers leave the filament's pointed end. The three-dimensional structure of ADF/cofilins is similar to a fold in members of the gelsolin family of actin-binding proteins in which this fold is typically repeated three or six times; although both families bind polyphosphoinositide lipids and actin in a pH-dependent manner, they share no obvious sequence similarity. Plants and animals have multiple ADF/cofilin genes, belonging in vertebrates to two types, ADF and cofilins. Other eukaryotes (such as yeast, Acanthamoeba and slime moulds) have a single ADF/cofilin gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the ADF/cofilins reveals that, with few exceptions, their relationships reflect conventional views of the relationships between the major groups of organisms.  (+info)

Stretch of the vascular wall induces smooth muscle differentiation by promoting actin polymerization. (4/26)

Stretch of the vascular wall by the intraluminal blood pressure stimulates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of the smooth muscle contractile phenotype. The expression of most smooth muscle specific genes has been shown to be regulated by serum response factor and stimulated by increased actin polymerization. Hence we hypothesized that stretch-induced differentiation is promoted by actin polymerization. Intact mouse portal veins were cultured under longitudinal stress and compared with unstretched controls. In unstretched veins the rates of synthesis of several proteins associated with the contractile/cytoskeletal system (alpha-actin, calponin, SM22alpha, tropomyosin, and desmin) were dramatically lower than in stretched veins, whereas other proteins (beta-actin and heat shock proteins) were synthesized at similar rates. The cytoskeletal proteins gamma-actin and vimentin were weakly stretch-sensitive. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase by culture of stretched veins with Y-27632 produced similar but weaker effects compared with the absence of mechanical stress. Induction of actin polymerization by jasplakinolide increased SM22alpha synthesis in unstretched veins to the level in stretched veins. Stretch stimulated Rho activity and phosphorylation of the actin-severing protein cofilin-2, although both effects were slow in onset (Rho-GTP, >15 min; cofilin-P, >1 h). Cofilin-2 phosphorylation of stretched veins was inhibited by Y-27632. The F/G-actin ratio after 24 h of culture was significantly greater in stretched than in unstretched veins, as shown by both ultracentrifugation and confocal imaging with phalloidin/DNase I labeling. The results show that stretch of the vascular wall stimulates increased actin polymerization, activating synthesis of smooth muscle-specific proteins. The effect is partially, but probably not completely, mediated via Rho-associated kinase and cofilin downstream of Rho.  (+info)

Elevated fluid shear stress enhances postocclusive collateral artery growth and gene expression in the pig hind limb. (5/26)

OBJECTIVE: The role of fluid shear stress (FSS) in collateral vessel growth remains disputed and prospective in vivo experiments to test its morphogenic power are rare. Therefore, we studied the influence of FSS on arteriogenesis in a new model with extremely high levels of collateral flow and FSS in pig and rabbit hind limbs. METHODS AND RESULTS: A side-to-side anastomosis was created between the distal stump of one of the bilaterally occluded femoral arteries with the accompanying vein. This clamps the collateral reentry pressure at venous levels and increases collateral flow, which is directed to a large part into the venous system. This decreases circumferential wall stress and markedly increases FSS. One week after anastomosis, angiographic number and size of collaterals were significantly increased. Maximal collateral flow exceeded by 2.3-fold that obtained in the ligature-only hind limb. Capillary density increased in lower leg muscles. Immunohistochemistry revealed augmented proliferative activity of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were upregulated, and monocyte invasion was markedly increased. In 2-dimensional gels, actin-regulating cofilin1 and cofilin2, destrin, and transgelin2 showed the highest degree of differential regulation. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of FSS cause a strong arteriogenic response, reinstate cellular proliferation, stimulate cytoskeletal rearrangement, and normalize maximal conductance. FSS is the initiating molding force in arteriogenesis. The role of fluid shear stress on the development of a collateral circulation was studied by abruptly increasing collateral blood flow by a distal femoral artery-to-vein anastomosis. This increased number and size of collateral vessels to a hitherto unknown degree. Fluid shear stress is the primary and strongest arteriogenic stimulus.  (+info)

The actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is essential for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration. (6/26)

Cofilin/ADF proteins are a ubiquitously expressed family of F-actin depolymerizing factors found in eukaryotic cells including plants. In vitro, cofilin/ADF activity has been shown to be essential for actin driven motility, by accelerating actin filament turnover. Three actin depolymerizing factors (n-cofilin, m-cofilin, ADF) can be found in mouse and human. Here we show that in mouse the non-muscle-specific gene-n-cofilin-is essential for migration of neural crest cells as well as other cell types in the paraxial mesoderm. The main defects observed in n-cofilin mutant embryos are an impaired delamination and migration of neural crest cells, affecting the development of neural crest derived tissues. Neural crest cells lacking n-cofilin do not polarize, and F-actin bundles or fibers are not detectable. In addition, n-cofilin is required for neuronal precursor cell proliferation and scattering. These defects result in a complete lack of neural tube closure in n-cofilin mutant embryos. Although ADF is overexpressed in mutant embryos, this cannot compensate the lack of n-cofilin, suggesting that they might have a different function in embryonic development. Our data suggest that in mammalian development, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by the F-actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is critical for epithelial-mesenchymal type of cell shape changes as well as cell proliferation.  (+info)

Cofilin, actin and their complex observed in vivo using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. (7/26)

Actin is the principal component of microfilaments. Its assembly/disassembly is essential for cell motility, cytokinesis, and a range of other functions. Recent evidence suggests that actin is present in the nucleus where it may be involved in the regulation of gene expression and that cofilin binds actin and can translocate into the nucleus during times of stress. In this report, we combine fluorescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy to analyze the interactions of cofilin and G-actin within the nucleus and cytoplasm. By measuring the rate of photobleaching of fluorescein-labeled actin in the presence and absence of Cy5-labeled cofilin, we determined that almost all G-actin in the nucleus is bound to cofilin, whereas approximately (1/2) is bound in the cytoplasm. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging techniques we observed that a significant proportion of fluorescein-labeled cofilin in both the nucleus and cytoplasm binds added tetramethylrhodamine-labeled G-actin. Our data suggest there is significantly more cofilin-G-actin complex and less free cofilin in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in cancer cell migration and invasion. (8/26)

Malignant cancer cells utilize their intrinsic migratory ability to invade adjacent tissues and the vasculature, and ultimately to metastasize. Cell migration is the sum of multi-step processes initiated by the formation of membrane protrusions in response to migratory and chemotactic stimuli. The driving force for membrane protrusion is localized polymerization of submembrane actin filaments. Recently, several studies revealed that molecules that link migratory signals to the actin cytoskeleton are upregulated in invasive and metastatic cancer cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress on molecular mechanisms of formation of invasive protrusions used by tumor cells, such as lamellipodia and invadopodia, with regard to the functions of key regulatory proteins of the actin cytoskeleton; WASP family proteins, Arp2/3 complex, LIM-kinase, cofilin, and cortactin.  (+info)

*Cofilin-2

"Mapping of human non-muscle type cofilin (CFL1) to chromosome 11q13 and muscle-type cofilin (CFL2) to chromosome 14". Ann. Hum ... Cofilin 2 (muscle) also known as CFL2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CFL2 gene. Cofilin is a widely distributed ... Cofilin-2 is a member of the AC group of proteins that also includes cofilin-1 (CFL1) and destrin (DSTN), all of which regulate ... 2006). "Cofilin cross-bridges adjacent actin protomers and replaces part of the longitudinal F-actin interface". J. Mol. Biol. ...

*CSRP3

In particular, MLP interacts with proteins at the: Z-line, including telethonin (T-cap), alpha-actinin (ACTN), cofilin-2 (CFL2 ... At the microfilaments, MLP is implicated in actin remodeling (or actin dynamics) through its interaction with cofilin-2 (CFL2 ... "Muscle LIM protein interacts with cofilin 2 and regulates F-actin dynamics in cardiac and skeletal muscle". Molecular and ... 342 (1-2): 251-60. doi:10.1007/s11010-010-0492-8. PMID 20490897. Su Z, Yao A, Zubair I, Sugishita K, Ritter M, Li F, Hunter JJ ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... cofilin 1 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.750 - cofilin 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.875 - destrin MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.500 - actin- ... related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.750 - actin-related protein 3 MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.100 - myosin heavy chains ... iron regulatory protein 2 MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863 - electron transport complex i MeSH D12.776.556.579.374.375.863.500 ... muts homolog 2 protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.148 - myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.167 - proto- ...

*List of MeSH codes (D05)

... cofilin 1 MeSH D05.750.078.730.212.750 --- cofilin 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.212.875 --- destrin MeSH D05.750.078.730.246 --- ... actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 --- actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 --- ...

*LIMK2

Yang N, Higuchi O, Ohashi K, Nagata K, Wada A, Kangawa K, Nishida E, Mizuno K (Jun 1998). "Cofilin phosphorylation by LIM- ... Sumi T, Matsumoto K, Takai Y, Nakamura T (27 Dec 1999). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics regulated by ... Toshima J, Toshima JY, Takeuchi K, Mori R, Mizuno K (Aug 2001). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin reorganization activities of ... phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. It is thought that this pathway contributes to Rho- ...

*Cofilin

... coding for cofilin 1 (non-muscle, or n-cofilin) CFL2, coding for cofilin 2 (found in muscle: m-cofilin) DSTN, coding for ... Cofilin, a member of the ADF/cofilin family is actually a protein with 70% sequence identity to ADF, making it part of the ADF/ ... Cofilin is accommodated in ADP-F actin because of increased flexibility in this form of actin. Binding by both cofilin and ADF( ... Cofilin is a ubiquitous actin-binding factor required for the reorganization of actin filaments. ADF/Cofilin family members ...

*Cofilin 1

... (non-muscle; n-cofilin), also known as CFL1, is a human gene, part of the ADF/cofilin family. Cofilin is a widely ... Lee K, Jung J, Kim M, Guidotti G (2001). "Interaction of the alpha subunit of Na,K-ATPase with cofilin". Biochem. J. 353 (Pt 2 ... Cofilin 1 has been shown to interact with HSPH1 and LIMK1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172757 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Yang N, Higuchi O, Ohashi K, Nagata K, Wada A, Kangawa K, Nishida E, Mizuno K (1998). "Cofilin phosphorylation by LIM-kinase 1 ...

*LIMK1

Yang N, Higuchi O, Ohashi K, Nagata K, Wada A, Kangawa K, Nishida E, Mizuno K (1998). "Cofilin phosphorylation by LIM-kinase 1 ... Birkenfeld J, Betz H, Roth D (January 2003). "Identification of cofilin and LIM-domain-containing protein kinase 1 as novel ... Nebl G, Meuer SC, Samstag Y (1996). "Dephosphorylation of serine 3 regulates nuclear translocation of cofilin". J. Biol. Chem. ... Toshima J, Toshima JY, Takeuchi K, Mori R, Mizuno K (2001). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin reorganization activities of ...

*TESK2

Toshima J, Toshima JY, Takeuchi K, Mori R, Mizuno K (August 2001). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin reorganization activities ... Dual specificity testis-specific protein kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TESK2 gene. This gene product ... "Entrez Gene: TESK2 testis-specific kinase 2". Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, ... of testicular protein kinase 2 and its predominant expression in testicular Sertoli cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...

*TESK1

Toshima J, Toshima JY, Amano T, Yang N, Narumiya S, Mizuno K (2001). "Cofilin phosphorylation by protein kinase testicular ... Toshima J, Toshima JY, Takeuchi K, Mori R, Mizuno K (2001). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin reorganization activities of ... testicular protein kinase 2 and its predominant expression in testicular Sertoli cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (33): 31449-58. doi ...

*Na /K -ATPase

Na+ -K+ pump also interacts with ankyrin, IP3R, PI3K, PLC-gamma and cofilin. The Na+ -K+ pump has been shown to control and set ... Lee K, Jung J, Kim M, Guidotti G (January 2001). "Interaction of the alpha subunit of Na,K-ATPase with cofilin". The ... The pump binds 2 extracellular K+ ions. This causes the dephosphorylation of the pump, reverting it to its previous ... 2 is also known as "alpha(+)" Beta: ATP1B1[5], ATP1B2, ATP1B3[6], ATP1B4 Mechanism of the sodium-potassium exchange pump. ...

*SSH2

ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play ... The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... 2005). "Interplay between components of a novel LIM kinase-slingshot phosphatase complex regulates cofilin". EMBO J. 24 (3): ... 2007). "The slingshot family of phosphatases mediates Rac1 regulation of cofilin phosphorylation, laminin-332 organization, and ...

*SSH3

ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play ... The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ... a family of phosphatases that dephosphorylate ADF/cofilin". Cell. 108 (2): 233-46. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00638-9. PMID ... "Interplay between components of a novel LIM kinase-slingshot phosphatase complex regulates cofilin". The EMBO Journal. 24 (3): ...

*SSH1

2004). "A pathway of neuregulin-induced activation of cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot and cofilin in lamellipodia". J. Cell Biol ... ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play ... 2007). "Coronin 1B coordinates Arp2/3 complex and cofilin activities at the leading edge". Cell. 128 (5): 915-29. doi:10.1016/j ... The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin ...

*Actinin alpha 4

An actin interface distinct from that of gelsolin domain 1 and from ADF/cofilin". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6165-75. doi: ... 53 (2): 282-6. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00828.x. PMID 9461087. Honda K, Yamada T, Endo R, et al. (1998). "Actinin-4, a ... 21 (2): 423-33. PMID 11160423. Echchakir H, Mami-Chouaib F, Vergnon I, et al. (2001). "A point mutation in the alpha-actinin-4 ... Pt 2): 403-14. PMID 1629252. Otey CA, Pavalko FM, Burridge K (1990). "An interaction between alpha-actinin and the beta 1 ...

*PAK6

"MicroRNA-429 inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells by targeting PAK6/cofilin signaling". Oncology Reports. ... 34 (2): 707-14. doi:10.3892/or.2015.4039. PMID 26058485. Cai S, Chen R, Li X, Cai Y, Ye Z, Li S, Li J, Huang H, Peng S, Wang J ... 129 (2): 380-93. doi:10.1242/jcs.177493. PMID 26598554. Liu T, Li Y, Gu H, Zhu G, Li J, Cao L, Li F (February 2013). "p21- ... 2 (1): e51. doi:10.1212/NXG.0000000000000051. PMID 27066588. Civiero L, Cirnaru MD, Beilina A, Rodella U, Russo I, Belluzzi E, ...

*Lim kinase

ADF/cofilin are the only substrates yet identified for the LIM kinases. LIM kinases directly phosphorylate and inactivate ... are actin-binding kinases that phosphorylate members of the ADF/cofilin family of actin binding and filament severing proteins ... members of the cofilin family, resulting in stabilization of filamentous (F)-actin. Lim kinases are activated by signaling ... LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal ...

*Ashish Arora

... like UNC-60A and cofilin like UNC-60B proteins of Caenorhabditis elegans". Biomolecular NMR Assignments. 9 (2): 261-265. doi: ... 23 (2): 202-216. doi:10.1261/rna.057620.116. ISSN 1355-8382. PMID 28096445. Kabra, Ashish; Fatma, Farheen; Shahid, Salman; ...

*CIP/KIP

... proteins have previously been shown to inhibit Rho/ROCK/LIMK/Cofilin signaling. In addition, fibroblasts deficient for ... Gu Y, Turek CW, Morgan DO (1993). "Inhibition of CDK 2 activity in vivo by an associated 20K regulatory subunit". Nature. 366: ... p27 has been shown to bind to and stabilize Neurogenin-2 promoting differentiation of neural progenitor cells. ...

*Dual-specificity phosphatase

In accordance with their proposed rule, proteins like ADF, cofilin and LIMK1 are slingshot substrates. Phosphatases of ... Regenerating Liver (PRLs): Three PRL genes were described in mammals (PRL-1, PRL-2 and PRL-3). They share a high sequence ...

*NRK (gene)

2003). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization by NRK/NESK, a member of the germinal center kinase family". Exp. Cell ... 287 (2): 219-27. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00136-8. PMID 12837278. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete ...

*WDR1

1999). "Aip1p interacts with cofilin to disassemble actin filaments". J. Cell Biol. 145 (6): 1251-64. doi:10.1083/jcb.145.6. ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). " ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Rodal AA, Tetreault JW, Lappalainen P, et al. ( ...

*40S ribosomal protein S18

2005). "Ribosomal protein S18 identified as a cofilin-binding protein by using phage display library". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 262 ... 1-2): 187-93. doi:10.1023/B:MCBI.0000038234.35936.1c. PMID 15532723. Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, et al. (2005). "Nucleolar ...

*PAK4

Spratley SJ, Bastea LI, Döppler H, Mizuno K, Storz P (September 2011). "Protein kinase D regulates cofilin activity through p21 ... "Cytoskeletal changes regulated by the PAK4 serine/threonine kinase are mediated by LIM kinase 1 and cofilin". The Journal of ... 346 (2): 264-72. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.01.001. PMID 24491405. Ryu BJ, Kim S, Min B, Kim KY, Lee JS, Park WJ, Lee H, Kim SH ... 199 (2): 347-63. doi:10.1083/jcb.201203134. PMID 23071155. Qu J, Cammarano MS, Shi Q, Ha KC, de Lanerolle P, Minden A (May 2001 ...

*Actin-binding protein

ADF/cofilins) VASP Vav Verprolin VDAC Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin Villin Vinculin Vitamin D-binding protein WIP WASp Y-box ... ADF/cofilin) Dystonins Diaphanous Dystroglycan DNase I Dystrophin Doliculide Dolastatins EAST Endossin EF-1a (ABP50) Eps15 EF- ... Adducin ADF/Cofilin Adseverin (scinderin) Afadin AFAP-110 Affixin Aginactin AIP1 Aldolase Angiogenin Anilin Annexins Aplyronine ... CapZ/Capping Protein a-Catenin Cofilin CR16 Caldesmon CCT Comitin Calicin Centuarin Coronin DBP40 Drebrin Dematin (Band 4.9) ...

*Coronin

Cai L, Marshall TW, Uetrecht AC, Schafer DA, Bear JE (May 2007). "Coronin 1B coordinates Arp2/3 complex and cofilin activities ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Wick M, Bürger C, Brüsselbach S, et al. (1994). " ... close genetic linkage between coronin-2 and CD45-associated protein". DNA Cell Biol. 17 (9): 779-87. doi:10.1089/dna.1998.17. ...
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This Forum contains Member Profiles. These members have achieved Hall of Fan Status (5000 posts) and as such have demonstrated their commitment to the CFL and 13thman.com. Hall of Fan Members will of course receive respect and admiration from your peers and have the opportunity to place your profile here ...
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A research group has identified specific mutations in a gene on chromosome 15 called KBTBD13 that cause a type of nemaline myopathy (NM), a disease in which thread- or rod-like ("nemaline") material forms clumps in affected muscle. The newly identified mutations cause type 6 NM. A number of mutations in genes associated with other subtypes of the disease already have been identified. ...
Ladies, and gentleman, I would like to present the winner of the Grey Cup, this year... Buffalo! Although the idea of a CFL commissioner making such a statement in the future seems far fetched, ...
EDMONTON — Ricky Ray, who surpassed the 4,000-yard mark in passing yards for the season and the 40,000-yard plateau for his Eskimos career last weekend is Edmonton’s nominee for the CFL’s Most Outstanding Player, the club announced Wednesday.
2-83. Coordinated Fire Line. A coordinated fire line (CFL) is a line beyond which conventional, direct, and indirect surface fire support means may fire at any time within the boundaries of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. The purpose of the CFL is to expedite the surface-to-surface attack of targets beyond the CFL without coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located (JP 3-09). Brigades or divisions usually establish a CFL, although a maneuver battalion may establish one. It is located as close as possible to the establishing unit without interfering with maneuver forces to open up the area beyond to fire support. A higher echelon may consolidate subordinate unit CFLs. If this occurs, any changes to the subordinate CFLs are coordinated with the subordinate headquarters. (See Figure 2-15.). 2-84. Fire Support Coordination Line. The fire support coordination line (FSCL) is a FSCM that is established and adjusted by appropriate land or ...
CALGARY - Canada's Jesse Lumsden has been training for seven hours a day in preparation for the upcoming bobsled season. The former CFL star will be watching as his former team - the Hamilton Tiger-Cats - takes on Saskatchewan in the Grey Cup. Lumsden plans to get together with Johnny Quinn - a
We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joi
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I suppose I should say something about the CFL East all-star selections. Nine Alouettes being selected obviously makes sense. Seven Argos is a bit dubious, but Toronto was strong on defence and special teams and sucked on offense, so some of the defensive and special teams players making does make a certain amount of sense. Strange that the Ticats only had four players, Bruce, Stala, Hage and Knowlton. Especially only one defensive player making the squad, considering the Cats ended up with a decent defence by the end of the season ...
ALL CFL Semi-Auto Closet Project (FirstGrow) (Flower strain seed) **ENDED ABRUPTLY: SEIZED & DESTROYED BY COPS ** Critical Update Date: May 2, 2010 Early this morning, my living plant, only 2 weeks
Former CFL player hopes for quick trial on charges. REGINA - A former CFL Saskatchewan Roughrider player is looking to deal with a domestic violence charge quickly.. On April 18, Justin Cox was charged with assault causing bodily harm after police were called to a Regina home.. Police said a 23-year-old woman was found with injuries consistent with a physical attack.. Cox pleaded not guilty Thursday and his trial was set for May 29.. Cox wasnt in court, but his lawyer, who made the plea on Coxs behalf, says they want to deal with the matter quickly as he is currently "without employment.". The Riders released Cox when the assault charge became public and the CFL also said he would no longer be allowed to play with any team in the league.. ...
The CFL fined the Saskatchewan Roughriders $31,500 for two bylaw violations and head coach/GM Chris Jones $5,000 for meeting with the publicist for former NFL quarterback Johnny Manziel. The Roughriders have also been fined for violating multiple CFL By-Laws after an extensive auditing process.
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Edmonton sucked down the stretch, but managed to get in to the playoffs anyways, while the Argos at least managed to win their last two games including against a desperate Hamilton team. The Argos have Ricky Ray as their quarterback while the Eskimos go with the superannuated Kerry Joseph. Most interesting is that the Eskimos J.C. Sherritt, who had broken the regular season CFL record for tackles in the regular season (formerly held by Ticat Calvin Tiggle) wont be playing. I didnt really like the Esks chances and now I really dont ...
### *Product Features: *: * Spiral compact fluorescent lamp * As Lumen is the unit measuring the rate of emission of light energy, normal incandescent lamp only has a rate of 10-15 Lumen/ W, compared to LED bulb with 50- 80 Lumen/ W * Our 27W CFL bulb can emit over 1510 Lumen light as much as one 151W incandescent lamp * Low consumption with long life span * No flicker with...
This is one of the nerdier posts Ive done, but since Im unabashedly a nerd, and I hope many of you are too, I figured it would work.You see, I love LEDs. I think theyre fascinating in how they work, what they can do, and so on. As youd expect, Im slowly replacing the CFL bulbs in my house with LEDs.The thing is, not all LED bulbs are equal, and one of the biggest drawbacks is that not all offer the warmth in color temperature most of us love in incandescents. So I put a few different LEDs on my test bench, measuring them sort of how I measure TVs, to see how they do.Curious? Well I was, hopefully you will be too.
Cofilin belongs to the actin-binding ADF protein family. It contains one ADF-H domain. Cofilin controls reversible actin polymerization and depolymerization in a pH-sensitive manner. It has the ability to bind G- and F-actin at a 1:1 ratio. It is the major component of both intranuclear and cytop...
A 20-month-old boy - offspring of consanguinous parents, whose mother presumably had subclinical myopathy - presented with clinical signs of congenital non-progressive myopathy, neurogenic-myogenic...
Our goals are to share stories, cultivate strong community, provide the latest medical findings, connect people and pioneer production of patient worthy information. Help us attain these goals by telling us a little bit about yourself!. ...
We need to break this question down into two categories. The first would be manufacturers of CFLs that are dimmable and that screw into a standard socket and have an integral ballast. The other would be manufacturers that make hard-wire CFLs that have dimming ballasts within the housing.
Wondering which light bulbs have been banned and whats available in 2014? Heres a guide to CFLs, LEDs and new halogen incandescent bulbs.
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
After germination planting 5 autos directly into 5 gallon bag. Which is better for Seedlings until i switch to 1000w MH?..LED, T5 or CFL? And what wattage...
The CFL regular season is in full swing, and the countdown is on to the 100th Grey Cup in Toronto. Canadian Gridiron fans have already scored tickets for the big game, held on Sunday, November 25, but...
Update: Ive been playing with the timestep-dependence of this. In the pic below, the black line (solid) is run "a" (std) minus run "b" (small pert); black dashed is a-c, where "c" is a different small pert. Blue is the same but for with all three runs done at 1/2 the timestep. Red also, but for 1/4 the timestep. The std timestep is half hour. There are plenty of caveats here: firstly, that this is really only playing. Secondly, that all I did was change the value marked timestep (actually, the value marked "steps per period" from 48 to 96 to 192) without checking that anything was going hideously wrong elsewhere. Thirdly, that if you compare this to the previous plot youll notice that its spikier: because its 6-h data (instantaneous) not timestep data. Fourthly, that even if nothing is going hideously wrong, changing the timestep does give a different model (is the climatology the same? I dont know. Maybe). For example, the atmos is fourier-filtered at the poles for CFL reasons. A smaller ...
Cofilin 1 (non-muscle; n-cofilin), also known as CFL1, is a human gene, part of the ADF/cofilin family. Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and inhibits the polymerization of monomeric G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. It is involved in the translocation of actin-cofilin complex from cytoplasm to nucleus. One group reports that reelin signaling leads to serine3-phosphorylation of cofilin-1, and this interaction may play a role in the reelin-related regulation of neuronal migration. Cofilin 1 has been shown to interact with HSPH1 and LIMK1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172757 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000056201 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CFL1 cofilin 1 (non-muscle)". Chai X, Förster E, Zhao S, Bock HH, Frotscher M (January 2009). "Reelin stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton of neuronal processes by inducing n-cofilin ...
1997) Homozygosity for a nonsense mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin gene TPM3 in a patient with severe nemaline myopathy. Neuromuscular Disorders, 7 (6-7). pp. 427-428. ...
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This site portrays the most hottest happenings in life such as cine news, techie news, traditional news, automobile updates, photography and all the hot happenings around the world that keeps you interesting. TO BE INTERESTING , BE INTERESTED!!!. ...
The last year or so I found that my sensitivity to light really increased. I was having a lot of trouble in rooms lit with fluorescent and CFL bulbs. The last few visits to eye doctor I was asking for help with this and possibly getting tinted gasses to wear indoors. The treatment for Fuchs is a sodium chloride based ointment in the eyes at night or drops times a day ...
The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family is essential for actin dynamics, cell division, chemotaxis and tumor metastasis. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is a primary non-muscle isoform of the ADF/cofilin protein family accelerating the actin filamental turnover in vitro and in vivo. In response to environmental stimulation, CFL-1 enters the nucleus to regulate the actin dynamics. Although the purpose of this cytoplasm-nucleus transition remains unclear, it is speculated that the interaction between CFL-1 and DNA may influence various biological responses, including DNA damage repair. In this review, we will discuss the possible involvement of CFL-1 in DNA damage responses (DDR) induced by ionizing radiation (IR), and the implications for cancer radiotherapy.
The NEMA Lighting Controls and Solid State Lighting Sections have co-produced a white paper on the subject of dimming screw-base integrated ballast LED lamps. It is designated LSD-49 and is titled Solid State Lighting for Incandescent Replacement-Best Practices for Dimming. NEMA and the SSL industry hope that by issuing guidance as early as possible on this subject, SSL technology can…. Read More Read More ...
Advection is the transport of properties (like heat) along with a fluid flow (wind flow). The advection equation is a square root of the wave equation. There is a problem with solving it numerically however: that CFL condition mentioned above. So the solution has been to introduce the distinction between an explicit solution (using the grid and time-step) and an implicit solution. In an implicit solution the value of a quantity T= N+1 is a function of the solution at N and also N+1. Hence the equation is implicit and might be solvable directly as is possible with advection equations. This sort of bypasses the CFL problem which really only applies to the time step grid approach (where T= N+1 is calculated from T = N), but at the price of a false rendering of fast moving phenomena. So the trick is to do both explicit and implicit in the same calculation hence ...
NFL offseason schedule 2019FEBRUARY Feb. 4: Waiver system begins for 2019. Feb. 12: Beginning at 12:00 noon, New York time, NFL clubs may begin to sign players whose 2019 CFL contracts have expired. Players under contract to a CFL club for the 2019 season or who have an option for the 2019 season are not eligible to be signed. Feb. 19: First day for clubs to designate Franchise or Transition Players. Feb. 26-March 4: NFL Scouting Combine, Lucas Oil Stadium, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Quick & effective treatment of Neonatal hyperbillirubinea. Compact with height adjustment and lamp unit tilting facility mounted on castors.
Cofilin 2 antibody (cofilin 2 (muscle)) for WB. Anti-Cofilin 2 pAb (GTX14133) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Ready to ship from Bulbs.com: The horizontal mounted dimmable lamp from Lunera Lighting is a hybrid LED replacement for CFL downlights that supports both plug and play or ballast bypass operation.
Ideal beside a sofa or reading chair, this versatile lamp positions light where you need it. • Solid metal construction finished in Polished Nickel. • Adjustable pole and a side-to-side shade. • On/off switch is located on socket. • CFL …
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins contribute to cytoskeletal dynamics by promoting rapid actin filament disassembly. In the classical view, ADF/cofilin sever filaments, and capping proteins block filament barbed ends whereas pointed ends depolymerize, at a rate that is still debated. Here, by monitoring the activity of the three mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms on individual skeletal muscle and cytoplasmic actin filaments, we directly quantify the reactions underpinning filament severing and depolymerization from both ends. We find that, in the absence of monomeric actin, soluble ADF/cofilin can associate with bare filament barbed ends to accelerate their depolymerization. Compared to bare filaments, ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments depolymerize faster from their pointed ends and slower from their barbed ends, resulting in similar depolymerization rates at both ends. This effect is isoform specific because depolymerization is faster for ADF- than for cofilin-saturated filaments. We also ...
What is nemaline myopathy (rod body disease)? Nemaline myopathy is an inherited myopathy, a group of diseases that causes problems with the tone and contraction of skeletal muscles. It gets its name from the fact that the muscle cells contain abnormal clumps of threadlike material - probably disorganized filament proteins - called nemaline bodies (nema is Greek for
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cofilin Antibody (1A1) [DyLight 755]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
CALGARY, ALBERTA--(Marketwired - April 28, 2016) - CERF Incorporated (the Company or CERF) (TSX VENTURE:CFL) today announced its financial and operating results for the year ended December 31, 2015 and the three months ended December 31, 2015. YEAR END FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS Amounts in the following tables are presented in thousands...
Heres my attempt at making a blog. Tank: 20 gallon extra-tall Environment: Freshwater/planted Filtration: Eheim Professional 2 2028 (Custom plumbing - see below) Lighting: A couple of 26-watt CFL bulbs for now. (Still looking for some 6000Ks) Substrate: Premium play sand. Heater: Rena Cal Top Light 100w
Stiffness (0.67) and torque (16.0 N/m) did not significantly decrease after sectioning of the ATFL (0.615 and 15.5 N/m, respectively), but decreased significantly (by 37% to 0.49 and 12.2 N/m) after sectioning of the CFL. Peak pressures in the tibiotalar joint decreased significantly following CFL release compared to both the uninjured ankle and ATFL-only release. Mean contact area significantly increased following CFL release compared to both the uninjured ankle and ATFL-only release. There was a concentration of force in the anteromedial ankle joint during weight-bearing inversion. After ATFL release, the center of force (COF) shifted 0.83 mm further anteromedially compared to the uninjured ankle, approaching the medial shoulder of the talar dome. The COF shifted 1.22 mm posteromedially after CFL release relative to an intact ankle. Motion capture showed a significant, sequential increase in inversion angle of both the calcaneus and talus. There was significantly more inversion in the subtalar ...
The severing of filaments by ADF/cofilins was originally proposed for the following reasons: It was first noticed that ADF accelerated actin polymerization and promoted a rapid drop in fluorescence of NBD- or pyrenyl-labeled F-actin (Cooper et al., 1986; Maciver et al., 1991; Moon et al., 1993; Quirk et al., 1993; Maciver and Weeds, 1994), but both properties were interpreted in terms of an increase in filament number due to fragmentation. The fragmentation hypothesis was enticing because it also provided a satisfactory explanation for the rapid drop in viscosity of F-actin solutions after addition of substoichiometric amounts of ADF, similar to the effect of the severing protein gelsolin. Further effort was made to visualize the fragmentation in electron or optical microscopy. In some instances, filaments were observed to be shorter, which was thought to be because of depolymerization (Abe and Obinata, 1989) or severing (Cooper et al., 1986). In other instances, filaments did not appear shorter ...
Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) cause congenital myopathies including nemaline myopathy, actin aggregate myopathy and rod-core disease. The majority of patients with ACTA1 mutations have severe hypotonia and do not survive beyond the age of one. A transgenic mouse model was generated expressing an autosomal dominant mutant (D286G) of ACTA1 (identified in a severe nemaline myopathy patient) fused with EGFP. Nemaline bodies were observed in multiple skeletal muscles, with serial sections showing these correlated to aggregates of the mutant skeletal muscle α-actin-EGFP. Isolated extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles were significantly weaker than wild-type (WT) muscle at 4 weeks of age, coinciding with the peak in structural lesions. These 4 week-old mice were ~30% less active on voluntary running wheels than WT mice. The α-actin-EGFP protein clearly demonstrated that the transgene was expressed equally in all myosin heavy chain (MHC) fibre types during the early postnatal
For the SSH-1 protocol, see Secure Shell#Version 1.x Protein phosphatase Slingshot homolog 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SSH1 gene. The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin dynamics. ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000084112 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000042121 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (Apr 2000). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVI. The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (1): 65-73. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.1.65. PMID 10718198. Niwa ...
Nemaline myopathies are diseases characterized by the presence in muscle fibres of pathognomonic rod bodies. These are composed largely of alpha-actinin and actin. We have identified a missense mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin gene, TPM3, which segregates completely with the disease in a family whose autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy we had previously localized to chromosome 1p13-q25. The mutation substitutes an arginine residue for a highly conserved methionine in a putative actin-binding site near the N terminus of the alpha-tropomyosin. The mutation may strengthen tropomyosin - actin binding, leading to rod body formation, by adding a further basic residue to the postulated actin-binding motif.
The 2013 Annual Meeting of the Asia Pacific Chapter of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS-AP), Shanghai & Wuzhen, China, 23-26 October 2013. In Conference Program, 2013, p. 241, abstract no. S12-O-1 ...
A) PirB interacts with cofilin in vivo in PirB+/− Tg mice (P30, forebrain), assessed by immunoprecipitation for PirB. Other known PirB-proximal signaling and interactions such as tyrosine phosphorylation of PirB and SHP-2 recruitment to PirB are not altered in PirB+/− relative to PirB+/− Tg mice. Representative data are shown (n , 2 ...
Diagnosing and managing concussions have become an increasing priority in sports medicine. The King-Devick test is a screening assessment of neurological functioning detecting impaired eye movements and saccades. During the 2016 Canadian Football League (CFL) season, all players will undergo pre-season (baseline) and post-injury testing with the King-Devick test in addition to the CFL s standardized medical evaluation for concussion. This project will conduct a sensitivity and specificity analysis of the King-Devick test to evaluate its effectiveness in diagnosis concussions.. ...
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Today, I am proud to announce that I am a New England Patriot. I am honored that the Patriots are making me part of their legendary organization, and am grateful for the opportunity Mr. Kraft, Coach Belichick, Nick Caserio and the entire team have given me. I intend to diligently work with the same passion and dedication that I have displayed since coming into the NFL to uphold the great traditions and qualities that are embodied by the Patriots. I would be remiss if I didnt thank the Seattle Seahawks for giving a CFL player the once in-a-lifetime opportunity to return to the NFL, making a young boys dream come true. To Coach Pete Carroll, GM John Schneider, John Idzik, Coach Richard, Rocky Seto, the LOB, my teammates, the training staff, the equipment guys the Seahawks organization as a whole and most importantly the 12th Man, I say thank you for everything you have done for myself and my family. I am a truly blessed person. ...
Avoid overeating and minimize your intake of spicy foods, fried foods, coffee, tea, carbonated drinks, citrus juices, alcohol, whipped cream, milk shakes, peppermint, green and red peppers, and onion, all of which can worsen symptoms. Also avoid eating large meals and then lying down or bending over, and do not drink too much during and after meals. While your condition exists, it is best to eat small meals throughout the day, rather than the typical three-meal plan.. It is important to not add further toxicity to your system so try to adhere to the following:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HUNK suppresses metastasis of basal type breast cancers by disrupting the interaction between PP2A and cofilin-1. AU - Quintela-Fandino, Miguel. AU - Arpaia, Enrico. AU - Brenner, Dirk. AU - Goh, Theo. AU - Yeung, Faith Au. AU - Blaser, Heiko. AU - Alexandrova, Roumiana. AU - Lind, Evan. AU - Tusche, Mike W.. AU - Wakeham, Andrew. AU - Ohashi, Pamela S.. AU - Mak, Tak W.. PY - 2010/2/9. Y1 - 2010/2/9. N2 - Metastasis leads to the death of most cancer patients, and basal breast cancer is the most aggressive breast tumor type. Metastasis involves a complex cell migration process dependent on cytoskeletal remodeling such that targeting such remodeling in tumor cells could be clinically beneficial. Here we show that Hormonally Upregulated Neu-associated Kinase (HUNK) is dramatically down-regulated in tumor samples and cell lines derived from basal breast cancers. Reconstitution of HUNK expression in basal breast cancer cell lines blocked actin polymerization and reduced cell ...
Contact your regional authorities for appropriate disposal.. In the meantime, it may be complimentary to get rid of broken or burnt-out CFL light bulbs at some municipal government, specific post office branches, or at one of this box store.. Thank you for taking your time for this post and if you found interesting or useful information, share them with your family, friends and colleagues, because maybe they will benefit from this information too.We appreciate your support by sharing this free information, it helps development our website and further free sharing of useful information with you.. ...
These fluorescent bulb crusher meet the EPA ... Fluorescent Light Bulb ... 2 S tandard & 2 Premium CFL Bulb Crushers... Industrial Commercial BE 55 VRS-U U-Tube .... ...
OTTAWA â€" University of Regina linebacker Michael Stefanovic had an anti-doping rule violation asserted against him by the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport on Thursday after he tested positive during an out-of-competition doping control.. Stefanovics urine sample, collected at the Canadian Football Leagues Western Regional Combine on March 23, revealed the presence of drostanolone, a prohibited anabolic agent.. He is pursuing a hearing to contest the CCESs assertion of a violation. His case remains open until the conclusion of the hearing and any subsequent appeal. At this point, he does not have an anti-doping rule violation.. Stefanovic is eligible for Sundays CFL draft.. ...
A major football league has imminent plans to announce a groundbreaking labor deal, helping to stave off player unrest and a possible work stoppage. Sorry, NFL fans. Its the Canadian Football League, whose regular season is scheduled to kick off this week, presuming the paperwork is finished on th
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... MAPK 経路 LIMK, subsequent phosphorylation of cofilin, and migration of major human T cells in the three dimen

Distal Arthrogryposis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical TrialsDistal Arthrogryposis disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials

2. muscle MP:0005369. 9.81. ACTA1 ADGRG6 ECEL1 FBN2 MYH6 RAPSN 3. respiratory system MP:0005388. 9.56. ECEL1 FBN2 NALCN RAPSN ... 2. polyhydramnios 56 32 hallmark (90%). Occasional (29-5%). HP:0001561 3. depressed nasal ridge 56 32 hallmark (90%). Very ... 2. TNNI2 NM_003282.3(TNNI2): c.521G, A (p.Arg174Gln) single nucleotide variant. Pathogenic. rs104894311 GRCh37. Chromosome 11, ... 2. arthrogryposis, distal, type 2b 32.5. ADGRG6 MYBPC1 MYH3 NALCN RYR1 TNNI2 ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/distal_arthrogryposis

Cofilin 2 | ALZFORUMCofilin 2 | ALZFORUM

immunogen = synthetic peptide: C-D I K D R S T L G E K, representing the C-terminus of the human protein according to NP_068733.1; NP_619579.1. ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/antibodies/cofilin-2-1

Cofilin-2 - WikipediaCofilin-2 - Wikipedia

"Mapping of human non-muscle type cofilin (CFL1) to chromosome 11q13 and muscle-type cofilin (CFL2) to chromosome 14". Ann. Hum ... Cofilin 2 (muscle) also known as CFL2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CFL2 gene. Cofilin is a widely distributed ... Cofilin-2 is a member of the AC group of proteins that also includes cofilin-1 (CFL1) and destrin (DSTN), all of which regulate ... 2006). "Cofilin cross-bridges adjacent actin protomers and replaces part of the longitudinal F-actin interface". J. Mol. Biol. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cofilin-2

Recombinant Human Cofilin 2 protein (ab114614) | AbcamRecombinant Human Cofilin 2 protein (ab114614) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human Cofilin 2 protein. Ab114614 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in ... It has the ability to bind G- and F-actin in a 1:1 ratio of cofilin to actin. It is the major component of intranuclear and ... Recombinant Human Cofilin 2 protein. See all Cofilin 2 proteins and peptides. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cofilin-2-protein-ab114614.html

anti-Cofilin 2 Primary Antibodiesanti-Cofilin 2 Primary Antibodies

Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Cofilin 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Cofilin 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... cofilin, muscle isoform , cofilin-2 , nemaline myopathy type 7 , cofilin 2 (muscle) , cofilin 2 , LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cofilin- ... study investigated the comparison of the levels of cofilin-1 and cofilin-2 in regressive QR-32 and progressive QRsP-11cells by ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/caspase-kaskade-in-der-apoptose-pathway-19/cofilin-2-antibody-2935/

anti-Cofilin 2 antibody  | GeneTexanti-Cofilin 2 antibody | GeneTex

Anti-Cofilin 2 pAb (GTX14133) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Storage Conditions: Cofilin 2 antibody. Storage Buffer. Preservative: 0.05% Sodium Azide; Constituents: 30% Glycerol, 0.15M ... cofilin 2 (muscle). Background. Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and ...
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Anti-Cofilin 2 antibody (GTX100213) | GeneTexAnti-Cofilin 2 antibody (GTX100213) | GeneTex

Rabbit Polyclonal Cofilin 2 antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P. Tested in Human, Mouse. - professional antibody ... Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and ... Gillett et al., 1996 [PubMed 8800436]). Cofilin-2 is a member of the AC group of proteins that also includes cofilin-1 (CFL1) ... There are currently no reviews for Cofilin 2 antibody (GTX100213). Be the first to share your experience with this product. ...
more infohttps://www.genetex.com/Product/Detail/Cofilin-2-antibody/GTX100213

Cofilin 2 cDNA ORF Clone,Rat | SinoBiologicalCofilin 2 cDNA ORF Clone,Rat | SinoBiological

Cofilin 2 cDNA ORF Clone, Rat in pCMV3-C-FLAG is expression-ready, and confirmed by full-length sequence & expression ... and contains residues conserved among the cofilin family that are responsible for actin-binding. Cofilin 2 (CFL2) is an ... Cofilin 2 Background Information. Cofilin 2 (muscle), also known as CFL2, is a member of cofilin family of the actin-binding ... Purified cofilin 2 depolymerized actin filaments in a dose- and pH-dependent manner and reduced the apparent viscosity of an ...
more infohttp://www.sinobiological.com/Rat-CFL2-Gene-cDNA-Clone-full-length-ORF-Clone-expression-ready-C-FLAG-tagged-p112029.html

Muscle Lim protein interacts with cofilin 2 and regulates F-actin dynamics in cardiac and skeletal muscle<...Muscle Lim protein interacts with cofilin 2 and regulates F-actin dynamics in cardiac and skeletal muscle<...

Muscle Lim protein interacts with cofilin 2 and regulates F-actin dynamics in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In: Molecular and ... Muscle Lim protein interacts with cofilin 2 and regulates F-actin dynamics in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Molecular and ... Muscle Lim protein interacts with cofilin 2 and regulates F-actin dynamics in cardiac and skeletal muscle. / Papalouka, ... N2 - The muscle LIM protein (MLP) and cofilin 2 (CFL2) are important regulators of striated myocyte function. Mutations in the ...
more infohttps://qfrd.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/muscle-lim-protein-interacts-with-cofilin-2-and-regulates-f-actin

Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene...Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene...

"Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene ... cofilin-1 induces cardiac dysfunction. (A) Immunoblots showing cofilin-1, phosphorylated (Thr25) cofilin-1, cofilin-2 and gapdh ... cofilin-1 induces cardiac dysfunction. (A) Immunoblots showing cofilin-1, phosphorylated (Thr25) cofilin-1, cofilin-2 and gapdh ... A) Immunoblots showing cofilin-1, phosphorylated (Thr25) cofilin-1, cofilin-2 and gapdh in protein extracts from hearts of ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/ou_press/cofilin-1-phosphorylation-catalyzed-by-erk1-2-alters-cardiac-actin-B38JvJhLdH

Antibodies Search | ALZFORUMAntibodies Search | ALZFORUM

immunogen = peptide mapping at the N-terminus of human cofilin 1. recognizes Cofilin 1 and Cofilin 2. -. ... immunogen = peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human cofilin. recognizes Cofilin 1 and Cofilin 2. -. ... Cofilin 2. -. Cofilin 2. Novus Biologicals. polyclonal. IgG. Goat. (liquid, azide, affinity purified). ELISA, WB. Human. ... detects cofilin protein phosphorylized at Serine 3. -. Myosin light chain, phos ser19 (MF-20). Cell Signaling. monoclonal. IgG1 ...
more infohttps://www.alzforum.org/antibodies/search?category%5B612%5D=Cytoskelatal%20Proteins&page=1

Curated InformationCurated Information

Cofilin‑1 (human): Y117‑p, Cofilin‑1 (mouse): Y117‑p, Cofilin‑1 (rat): Y117‑p, Cofilin‑1 (pig): Y117‑p ... Cofilin2 (human): Y117‑p, Cofilin2 (mouse): Y117‑p, Cofilin2 (rat): Y117‑p ... tensin 2 (human): Y483‑p, tensin 2 iso2 (human): Y483‑p, tensin 2 iso4 (human): Y493‑p, tensin 2 (mouse): Y483‑p, tensin 2 (rat ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/curatedInfoAction.action?record=11382572

Slit-2 repels the migration of olfactory ensheathing cells by triggering Ca2+-dependent cofilin activation and RhoA inhibition ...Slit-2 repels the migration of olfactory ensheathing cells by triggering Ca2+-dependent cofilin activation and RhoA inhibition ...

GFP-tagged cofilin-WT and cofilin-S3A were constructed by subcloning the full-length cofilin or cofilin-S3A into pEGFP vector ( ... 5B). Furthermore, anti-p-cofilin and anti-cofilin double-staining showed that the p-cofilin signal rapidly decreased at the ... GFP-cofilin-WT) and a non-phosphorylatable and constitutively active mutant of cofilin (GFP-cofilin-S3A) (Arber et al., 1998) ... p-cofilin, the inactive form of cofilin) in a time-dependent manner, without affecting the total cofilin level. ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/124/2/186

PKCα promotes the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition and increases cancer cell invasiveness | BMC Cancer | Full TextPKCα promotes the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition and increases cancer cell invasiveness | BMC Cancer | Full Text

We can speculate that in our case cofilin phosphorylation could be promoted via Rac/PAK1/LIMK2 signaling. In fact we see a mild ... Cofilin phosphorylation is regulated both by kinases (LIMK family) and phosphatases (SSH family). The KINEX microarray, however ... Finally, though it might be contra intuitive others have also shown that Y27632 treatment can induce an increase in cofilin ... The positive effect of Y-27632 on cofilin phosphorylation was observed only in 3D suggesting that specific, and for AMT ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-015-1347-1

Real-imaging cDNA-AFLP transcript profiling of pancreatic cancer patients: Egr-1 as a potential key regulator of muscle...Real-imaging cDNA-AFLP transcript profiling of pancreatic cancer patients: Egr-1 as a potential key regulator of muscle...

2010, 2: 1-10.1186/gm122.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ... Figure 2 cDNA-AFLP Transcript Profiling of pancreatic cancer patients. cDNA-AFLP tag patterns amplified from mRNA of skeletal ... It has been shown that a loss of weight exceeding 10% of the stable pre illness weight is correlated to a worse prognosis [2]. ... Table 2 Characteristics of patients with pancreatic cancer with (N = 10) and without cachexia (N = 13) ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-12-265

Circadian actin dynamics drive rhythmic fibroblast mobilization during wound healing | Science Translational MedicineCircadian actin dynamics drive rhythmic fibroblast mobilization during wound healing | Science Translational Medicine

Validation of cofilin 2 and RCC2 circadian abundance.. * Fig. S3. Circadian clocks are robust against actin-modulating drugs. ... 2. CRY-dependent cell-intrinsic rhythms in actin polymerization.. (A) Schematic depicting rhythms in actin polymerization, ... DAPI, 4,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole. (E) Transverse sections (60 μm) of mouse wounds made during the active and resting phases ... 2Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/415/eaal2774/tab-figures-data

Myopathies, Congenital, 22 Gene Panel - UK Genetic Testing NetworkMyopathies, Congenital, 22 Gene Panel - UK Genetic Testing Network

Sequencing of the entire coding region of gene (s) Note: TTN alone related to Congenital Myopathy only; please contact the laboratory to discuss. ...
more infohttps://ukgtn.nhs.uk/find-a-test/search-by-disorder-gene/myopathies-congenital-22-gene-panel-598/

Page 297 - 30917 ASHG CompletePage 297 - 30917 ASHG Complete

... cofilin-2,i,knockout,mouse,model.,Agrawal,,Savic,,Joshi,,1114F,Anoctamin,5,skeletal,muscle,subcellular,localization,preserved, ... 2.,Z.,Scherrer,,Maurer-Morelli,,F.,Vasconcellos,,Rocha,,Matos,,Steiner.,1101F,Apoptosome,independent,caspase,9,activation, ...
more infohttp://www.ashg.org/2011meeting/program_guide/files/assets/seo/page298.html

CTAWWWATA RSRFC4 Q2CTAWWWATA RSRFC4 Q2

cofilin 2 (muscle). CHN2. 1124. CHN2. chimerin (chimaerin) 2. CKB. 1152. CKB. creatine kinase, brain. ... ONDER_CDH1_TARGETS_2_UP ONDER_CDH1_TARGETS_3_DN ONDER_CDH1_TARGETS_3_UP P53_DN.V1_DN P53_DN.V1_UP PDGF_ERK_DN.V1_DN PDGF_ERK_DN ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/CTAWWWATA_RSRFC4_Q2.html

GTGCCAT MIR183GTGCCAT MIR183

cofilin 2 (muscle). CHRD. 8646. CHRD. chordin. CLCN3. 1182. CLCN3. chloride channel 3. ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/GTGCCAT_MIR183.html

Gene Set - muscle cancerGene Set - muscle cancer

cofilin 2 (muscle) 0.451078 SLITRK4 SLIT and NTRK-like family, member 4 0.446935 ... paired box 2 0.433021 SMARCD2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2 ... Jun dimerization protein 2 0.493885 SRMS src-related kinase lacking C-terminal regulatory tyrosine and N-terminal myristylation ... prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) 0.212271 RASSF1 Ras association (RalGDS/ ...
more infohttps://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/Harmonizome/gene_set/muscle+cancer/DISEASES+Text-mining+Gene-Disease+Assocation+Evidence+Scores

Gene Expression Profile of the Human Trabecular Meshwork: NEIBank Sequence Tag Analysis | IOVS | ARVO JournalsGene Expression Profile of the Human Trabecular Meshwork: NEIBank Sequence Tag Analysis | IOVS | ARVO Journals

Cofilin 2. AF134802. 14q13.2. 1. Suppressor of profilin/p41 of actin-related complex 2/3. BC006445. 7q22.1. 1. ... Prostaglandin D2 synthase is the most prevalent transcript in the corneal cDNA library, and only cDNAs for matrix Gla protein ... 2. Lütjen-Drecoll, E. (2000) Importance of trabecular meshwork changes in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma J ... Liquori, CL, Ricker, K, Moseley, ML, et al (2001) Myotonic dystrophy type 2 caused by a CCTG expansion in intron 1 of ZNF9 ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2163196

Table of contents | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & PsychiatryTable of contents | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

Letter: Novel cofilin-2 (CFL2) four base pair deletion causing nemaline myopathy (7 March, 2014) Royston W Ong, Abdulaziz ... Cortical susceptibility-weighted imaging hypointensity after stroke-like episode in MELAS (2 December, 2013) Dimitri Renard, ...
more infohttps://jnnp.bmj.com/content/85/9

Harvard Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Training Program -- Faculty | Boston Childrens HospitalHarvard Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Training Program -- Faculty | Boston Children's Hospital

He has created a conditional KO and human mutation carrying knockin cofilin-2 mouse models. He is also employing zebrafish ... Understanding the molecular role of cofilin-2, an actin-binding protein, in various organs including muscle, lungs and heart. ... cofilin-2. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2007;80:162-7.. * Pierson CR, Agrawal PB, Blasko J, Beggs AH. Myofiber size ... 2008 Feb;26(2):212-4.. Marie C. McCormick, MD ScD. Dr. McCormicks work focuses on the outcomes of high-risk neonates and ...
more infohttp://www.childrenshospital.org/centers-and-services/departments-and-divisions/division-of-newborn-medicine/harvard-program-in-neonatology/harvard-neonatal-perinatal-medicine-fellowship-training-program/faculty

Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene...Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene...

Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene ... cofilin-1 induces cardiac dysfunction. (A) Immunoblots showing cofilin-1, phosphorylated (Thr25) cofilin-1, cofilin-2 and gapdh ... In vitro kinase assay Recombinant His-tagged cofilin-1, cofilin-1-T25A and cofilin-2 (5 lg) were incubated alone or with 0.5 lg ... We further incubated pERK2 with His-cofilin-1, His- cofilin-1-T25A or His-cofilin-2. pERK2 catalyzed the phosphory- lation of ...
more infohttps://www.readkong.com/page/cofilin-1-phosphorylation-catalyzed-by-erk1-2-alters-9193616
  • These results demonstrate a novel role for cofilin-1 on actin dynamics in cardiac muscle and provide a rationale on how increased ERK1/2 signaling leads to LMNA cardiomyopathy. (deepdyve.com)
  • Results pERK1/2 alters F-actin dynamics in LMNA cardiomyopathy We set out to unravel the consequences of abnormal ERK1/2 signaling in the heart of LmnaH222P/H222P mice, a model for dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutation in LMNA (22). (deepdyve.com)
  • Cofilin2 shows significant homology to the other two members: cofilin 1 and DSTN, through its entire sequence, and contains residues conserved among the cofilin family that are responsible for actin-binding. (sinobiological.com)
  • Cofilin2 is not expressed in vegetative cells, but is transiently induced during the aggregation stage of development, whereas cofilin 1 was predominantly expressed in vegetative cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • We now show in a large array of unique in vitro and in vivo disease models that phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) binds to and activates cofilin-1 in LMNA cardiomyopathy. (deepdyve.com)
  • We now show in a large array of unique in vitro and in vivo disease models that phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) binds to and activates cofilin-1 in LMNA cardiomyopa- thy. (readkong.com)
  • Synthetic peptide: C-QVNGLDDIKDRSTLGEK conjugated to KLH, corresponding to amino acids 136-152 (plus N terminal cysteine) of Human Cofilin 2. (genetex.com)
  • He has created a conditional KO and human mutation carrying knockin cofilin-2 mouse models. (childrenshospital.org)
  • We also previously demonstrated increased pERK1/2 primarily in the nucleus of transiently transfected C2C12 cells over-expressing the lamin A H222P variant (7). (deepdyve.com)
  • In vivo expression of cofilin-1, phosphorylated on Thr25 by endogenous ERK1/2 signaling, leads to alterations in left ventricular function and cardiac actin. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cofilin-1 becomes active and disassembles actin filaments in a large array of cellular and animal models of LMNA cardiomyopathy. (deepdyve.com)
  • Introduction Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) cause an autosomal dominant inherited form of dilated cardiomyopathy (hereafter referred to as LMNA cardiomyopathy), often with concurrent muscular dystrophy (1,2). (deepdyve.com)
  • As in previous studies (7,23), we demonstrated an increase in pERK1/2 in hearts of LmnaH222P/H222P mice compared with wild-type mice (Fig. 1A). (deepdyve.com)
  • Total cellular pERK1/2 was not changed (data not shown), which is consistent with previous results showing that it is only increased after subjecting these cells to stress (24). (deepdyve.com)