Coenzyme ACoenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase: A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.CobamidesHydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mevalonic AcidLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Prenylation: A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Polyisoprenyl Phosphates: Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Corrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.GlutaratesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.MercaptoethanolFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Sparsomycin: An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Ethanolaminephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.EstersAdipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylgalactosamine: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.MalonatesEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Xanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Chloroflexus: A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Hydroxymethyl and Formyl Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzymes and Coenzymes: Biological catalysts and their cofactors.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
"Coenzyme A transferase family I (IPR004165) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-22. Orii KE, Fukao T, Song ... protein and messenger RNA levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):3-ketoacid CoA transferase and mitochondrial and cytosolic ... 3-oxoacid CoA transferase deficiency. This gene encodes a member of the 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase gene family. The encoded ... 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 (OXCT1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the OXCT1 gene. It is also known as succinyl-CoA- ...
This enzyme is also called hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A-quinate transferase. This enzyme participates in phenylpropanoid ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is feruloyl-CoA:quinate O-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase. ... "Purification and characterization of hydroxycinnamoyl D-glucose Quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase in the root of sweet ...
2007). "A mutation in para-hydroxybenzoate-polyprenyl transferase (COQ2) causes primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency". Am. J. Hum. ... "Entrez Gene: COQ2 coenzyme Q2 homolog, prenyltransferase (yeast)". Human COQ2 genome location and COQ2 gene details page in the ... 2006). "Coenzyme Q and the regulation of intracellular steady-state levels of superoxide in HL-60 cells". BioFactors. 25 (1-4 ... 2005). "Coenzyme Q2 induced p53-dependent apoptosis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1724 (1-2): 49-58. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.04. ...
Other names in common use include isobutyryl coenzyme A mutase, and butyryl-CoA:isobutyryl-CoA mutase. It has 2 cofactors: ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular transferases transferring other groups. The ... Willenbrock F; Robinson JA (1988). "The enzymic interconversion of isobutyryl and N-butyrylcarba(dethia)-coenzyme-A - a ... coenzyme-B12-dependent carbon skeleton rearrangement". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 27 (8): 1089-1091. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is sinapoyl-CoA:2-hydroxymalonate O-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase. Other names in ... Strack D, Ruhoff R, Grawe W (1986). "Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme-A-tartronate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in protein preparations ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... common use include tartronate sinapoyltransferase, and hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme-A:tartronate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase. ...
"Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of Oxalyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes ... Oxalate-CoA ligase Formyl-CoA transferase Oxalate CoA-transferase Baetz, A.L. and Allison, M.J. "Purification and ... No FAD binding is observed in oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, but an excess of coenzyme A in the crystal structure has led to the ... characterization of formyl-coenzyme A transferase from Oxalobacter formigenes." J. Bacteriol. 172, 7 (1990). Gasinka, A. and ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Other names in common use include acylglycerol palmitoyltransferase, monoglyceride acyltransferase, acyl coenzyme A- ...
Tobin MB, Fleming MD, Skatrud PL, Miller JR (1990). "Molecular characterization of the acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Other names in common use include acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase, and isopenicillin N:acyl-CoA: ... β-heterodimeric acyl-coenzyme A: isopenicillin N-acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum". FEBS Letters. 319 (1-2): 166-170 ...
KENNEDY EP, WEISS SB (1956). "The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides". J. Biol. Chem. 222: ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups. ... and phosphorylethanolamine-glyceride transferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: aminophosphonate metabolism ...
... coenzyme M-epoxyalkane ligase, epoxyalkyl:CoM transferase, epoxypropane:coenzyme M transferase, epoxypropyl:CoM transferase, ... coenzyme M transferase, epoxyalkane:CoM transferase, epoxyalkane:2-mercaptoethanesulfonate transferase, ... Coleman, N.V.; Spain, J.C. (2003). "Epoxyalkane: coenzyme M transferase in the ethene and vinyl chloride biodegradation ... Allen, J.R.; Clark, D.D.; Krum, J.G.; Ensign, S.A. (1999). "A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a ...
Saylor MH, Mansell RL (1977). "Hydroxycinnamoyl: coenzyme A transferase involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferol-3-(p- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific those acyltransferases transferring groups other than ...
Substrate Specificity and Kinetic Behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes Formyl Coenzyme a Transferase". ... Studies have shown that homocysteine reacts with SDH's PLP coenzyme to create a complex. This complex is devoid of coenzyme ... Two monomers(left and right) are shown and the coenzyme PLP is placed in the crevice between the two domains. Two Dimers: Two ... The main role of SDH is to lower the activation energy of this reaction by binding the coenzyme and substrate in a particular ...
DEHYDROGENASE-PHOSPHOPANTETHEINYL TRANSFERASE IN COMPLEX WITH CYTOSOLIC ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN AND COENZYME A ... transferase activity. • enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, A-specific) activity]. • 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier ...
Somack R, Costilow RN (1973). "Purification and properties of a pyridoxal phosphate and coenzyme B 12 dependent D- -ornithine 5 ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular transferases transferring amino groups. The ... It has 3 cofactors: pyridoxal phosphate, Cobamide coenzyme, and Dithiothreitol. ...
HOAGLAND MB, NOVELLI GD (1954). "Biosynthesis of coenzyme A from phospho-pantetheine and of pantetheine from pantothenate". J. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... Martin DP, Drueckhammer DG (1993). "Separate enzymes catalyze the final two steps of coenzyme A biosynthesis in Brevibacterium ... dephospho-coenzyme A pyrophosphorylase, and 3'-dephospho-CoA pyrophosphorylase. This enzyme participates in pantothenate and ...
Other names in common use include acetyl coenzyme A:taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl, and transferase. This enzyme ... "Partial purification and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl transferase that ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ...
Strain B13: Purification and Characterization of 3-Oxoadipate:Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Transferase and 3-Oxoadipyl-CoA ... Strain B13: Cloning, Characterization, and Analysis of Sequences Encoding 3-Oxoadipate:Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Transferase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ...
KENNEDY EP, WEISS SB (1956). "The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides". J. Biol. Chem. 222 (1 ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... Other names in common use include phosphorylethanolamine transferase, ET, CTP-phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, ...
coenzyme-A comes in and undergoes hydrogen-atom transfer with the Cys419 radical to generate a coenzyme-A radical. The coenzyme ... The reaction occurs as follows: This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases ... Using radical non-redox chemistry, it catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and coenzyme-A into formate and acetyl- ...
CPT-I inhibitors: Etomoxir, Oxfenicine, Perhexiline CPT-I (carnitine palmitoyl transferase) converts fatty acyl-CoA to fatty ... Carnitine biosynthesis inhibitor: Mildronate 3-KAT inhibitors: Trimetazidine 3-KAT (3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase) inhibitors ...
Other names in common use include caffeoyl coenzyme A methyltransferase, caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, and trans-caffeoyl ... This enzyme is classified to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. ...
"Identification of the active site of phosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A transferase and relationship of the enzyme to an ... "Malonate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae catalyses the turnover of acetyl and malonyl thioester residues on a coenzyme-A ...
Methyl- THMPT is the methyl donor to coenzyme M, a conversion mediated by methyl- THMPT:coenzyme M methyl-transferase. THMPT is ... Tetrahydromethanopterin (THMPT, H 4MPT) is a coenzyme in methanogenesis. It is the carrier of the C1 group as it is reduced to ... Methylene- MPT is subsequently converted, using coenzyme F420 as the electron source, to methyl- THMPT, catalyzed by F420- ... tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase in complex with its coenzymes". J. Mol. Biol. 357 (3): 870-9. doi:10.1016/j.jmb. ...
2013). "RpoS and oxidative stress conditions regulate succinyl‐CoA: 3‐ketoacid‐coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) expression in ...
Formyl-CoA transferase (EC 2.8.3.16)mediates the exchange of oxalyl and formyl groups on coenzyme A, interconverting formyl-CoA ... Enzymes in this class include oxalate oxidase, oxalate decarboxylase, oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, and formyl-CoA transferase. ...
Dempski RE, Imperiali B (December 2002). "Oligosaccharyl transferase: gatekeeper to the secretory pathway". Curr Opin Chem Biol ... oligosaccharyl transferase complex) the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior ... "Structure of the mammalian oligosaccharyl-transferase complex in the native ER protein translocon". Nat. Commun. (5): 3072. ... "STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo". EMBO J. 14 (20): 4949-60. ...
coenzyme A. PBS:. phosphate buffered saline. succinyl CoA:. acetoacetate CoA-transferase. TCA:. tricarboxylic acid cycle ... acetoacetate CoA-transferase, a novel prokaryotic member of the CoA-transferase family. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 25659-25667. ... Two other genes within the gene cluster, scoA (HP0691) and scoB (HP0692), encode succinyl CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase ( ... to generate two molecules of acetyl-CoA from acetoacetyl-CoA plus coenzyme A (CoA) [8]. The two remaining genes within this ...
Coenzyme A is necessary in the reaction mechanism of the citric acid cycle. This process is the bodys primary catabolic ... to form dephospho-CoA by the enzyme phosphopantetheine adenylyl transferase ... Leonardi, R; Zhang, Y-M; Rock, CO; Jackowski, S (2005). "Coenzyme A: back in action". Progress in Lipid Research. 44 (2-3): 125 ... It is a starting compound in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), a cofactor for many enzyme processes.[10][11] ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial. A, B, C, D. 481. Sus scrofa. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: OXCT1 ... The high-resolution structure of pig heart succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase.. Coker, S.F., Lloyd, A.J., Mitchell, ... Dynamic domains of Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase from pig heart.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3K6M/pdb ... The enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) participates in the metabolism of ketone bodies in extrahepatic ...
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta (accD), Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha. Neisseria gonorrhoeae NG-k51.05 ...
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta (accD), Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by ... tr,T5CLE2,T5CLE2_HELPX Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha OS=Helicobacter pylori FD506 GN=accA PE ...
What is Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase? Meaning of Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase medical term. What does ... Cholesterol O-Transferase in the Medical Dictionary? Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of Acyl-Coenzyme A: ... Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase. *acyl-malonyl-ACP ... Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase , definition of Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase by Medical dictionary https ...
Recombinant Protein and Probable coenzyme A transferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit alpha. Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit alpha ELISA Kit. Probable coenzyme A ... Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta. Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta ELISA Kit. Probable coenzyme A ... Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta Antibody. Also known as Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta (Probable CoA ...
Monkey 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 ELISA Kit-AIC49324.1 (MBS074178) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... OXCT1 elisa kit :: Monkey 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 ELISA Kit. ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 (OXCT1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological ... 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 (OXCT1), ELISA Kit. Also Known As Monkey 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 ELISA Kit. ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrial. ... Compartment GO Terms for Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrial. ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha MSLNFLDFEQPIAELEAKIDSLTAVSRQDEKLDINIDEEVHRLREKSVELTRKIFADLGA ... Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta MSWIERIKSNITPTRKASIPEGVWTKCDSCGQVLYRAELERNLEVCPKCDHHMRMTARNR ... Li, S. J., Cronan, J. E. Jr (1993). "Growth rate regulation of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which catalyzes ... open reading frame of Escherichia coli encodes a subunit of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase." J Bacteriol 174:5755-5757. Pubmed: ...
Transferases are involved in myriad reactions in the cell. Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A ( ... "Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. The donor is often a coenzyme. Some of ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ... Terminal transferases are transferases that can be used to label DNA or to produce plasmid vectors. It accomplishes both of ...
3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by intermittent ... Coenzyme A-Transferases / deficiency* * Coenzyme A-Transferases / genetics* * Glucose / administration & dosage * Glucose / ... Neonatal hypoglycaemia in severe succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase deficiency J Inherit Metab Dis. 2001 Oct;24(5):587-95. ... Succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by ...
Yeast 01022793307 at Gentaur Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) Yeast ... Order Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA - ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha(accA) is a recombinant protein expressed in Yeast . The ... N terminal acetylation or CH3CO as epigenetic regulation of Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha( ...
Other names in common use include 3-oxoacid coenzyme A-transferase, 3-ketoacid CoA-transferase, 3-ketoacid coenzyme A ... succinyl coenzyme A-acetoacetyl coenzyme A-transferase, and succinyl-CoA transferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... transferase, 3-oxo-CoA transferase, 3-oxoacid CoA dehydrogenase, acetoacetate succinyl-CoA transferase, acetoacetyl coenzyme A- ... Hersh LB, Jencks WP (1967). "Coenzyme A transferase. Kinetics and exchange reactions". J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3468-3480. Lynen F, ...
And then there were acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyl transferase inhibitors. Meuwese, Marijn C; Franssen, Remco; Stroes, Erik ...
... succinyl-CoA acetoacetyl-CoA transferase; Co-A, co-enzyme A; α-KG, α-ketoglutarate; (m), mitochondrial; (c) cytosolic; TCA, ... tricarboxylic acid; AAT, aspartate amino transferase; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; BBB, blood-brain barrier. ...
benzoyl-coenzyme A:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase;. benzoyl-coenzyme A:phenylethanol benzoyltransferase. Class. Transferases ...
AcCoA: acetyl-coenzyme A; ACh: acetylcholine; AChE: acetylcholinesterase; ChAT: acetylcholine transferase; CYP450: Cytochrome ...
KW ATP-binding; Coenzyme A biosynthesis; Cytoplasm; Kinase; KW Nucleotide-binding; Transferase. FT CHAIN 1..206 FT /note=" ... DR GO; GO:0015937; P:coenzyme A biosynthetic process; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule. DR HAMAP; MF_00376; Dephospho_CoA_kinase; 1. DR ... coenzyme A biosynthesis; CoA from (R)- CC pantothenate: step 5/5. {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00376}. CC -!- SUBCELLULAR ... dephosphocoenzyme A to form coenzyme A. {ECO:0000255,HAMAP- CC Rule:MF_00376}. CC -!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: CC Reaction=3- ...
View mouse Acbd3 Chr1:180726043-180754204 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Oxidoreductases and transferases account for about 50 percent of the approximately 1,000 enzymes recognized thus far. The table ... The third number places the enzyme in a subsubclass, which specifies the reaction type more fully; e.g., NAD coenzyme required ... The other four groups of reactions are the transferases-which catalyze reactions in which substances other than hydrogen are ... transferases; 3, hydrolases; 4, lyases; 5, iomerases; and 6, ligases. The second number places the enzyme in a subclass based ...
... carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a; Acox1: acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1); (C) Expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in liver ( ... carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a; Acox1: acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1); (C) Expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in liver ( ... carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (Cpt1a), and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (Acox1), were significantly elevated in mice fed with ...
  • Genes for the putative A and B subunits of H.pylori CoA-transferase were introduced into the bacterial expressionvector pKK223-3 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM105 cells. (embl.de)
  • Thisactivity was consistently observed in different H. pylori strains.Antibodies raised against either recombinant A or B subunits recognizedtwo distinct subunits of Mr approximately 26,000 and 24, 000 that are bothnecessary for H. pylori CoA-transferase function. (embl.de)
  • The CoA transferase consists of two different subunits encoded by the ctfA and ctfB genes, which are part of the sol operon ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolically-engineered cyanobacteria introduced with a heterologous Coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway modified from Clostridium species can convert atmospheric CO 2 into 1-butanol. (springer.com)
  • In this study we describe a gene-targeted approach for 454 pyrotag sequencing andquantitative polymerase chain reaction for the final genes in the two primarybacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase( but ) and butyrate kinase ( buk ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We first described comparable-though milder-metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. (stopumts.nl)