Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Biological catalysts and their cofactors.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.

A functional 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway gene cluster is linked to the initial dibenzo-p-dioxin pathway genes in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (1/146)

The bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 is able to use dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and several hydroxylated derivatives as sole sources of carbon and energy. We have determined and analyzed the nucleic acid sequence of a 9,997-bp HindIII fragment downstream of cistrons dxnA1A2, which encode the dioxygenase component of the initial dioxygenase system of the corresponding catabolic pathways. This fragment contains 10 colinear open reading frames (ORFs), apparently organized in one compact operon. The enzymatic activities of some proteins encoded by these genes were analyzed in the strain RW1 and, after hyperexpression, in Escherichia coli. The first three ORFs of the locus, designated dxnC, ORF2, and fdx3, specify a protein with a low homology to bacterial siderophore receptors, a polypeptide representing no significant homology to known proteins, and a putative ferredoxin, respectively. dxnD encodes a 69-kDa phenol monooxygenase-like protein with activity for the turnover of 4-hydroxysalicylate, and dxnE codes for a 37-kDa protein whose sequence and activity are similar to those of known maleylacetate reductases. The following gene, dxnF, encodes a 33-kDa intradiol dioxygenase which efficiently cleaves hydroxyquinol, yielding maleylacetate, the ketoform of 3-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate. The heteromeric protein encoded by dxnGH is a 3-oxoadipate succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) transferase, whereas dxnI specifies a protein exhibiting marked homology to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases (thiolases). The last ORF of the sequenced fragment codes for a putative transposase. DxnD, DxnF, DxnE, DxnGH, and DxnI (the activities of most of them have also been detected in strain RW1) thus form a complete 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway. A route for the mineralization of the growth substrates 3-hydroxydibenzofuran and 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 thus suggests itself.  (+info)

Oxygen exchange between acetate and the catalytic glutamate residue in glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans. Implications for the mechanism of CoA-ester hydrolysis. (2/146)

The exchange of oxygen atoms between acetate, glutaryl-CoA, and the catalytic glutamate residue in glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans was analyzed using [(18)O(2)]acetate together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry of an appropriate undecapeptide. The exchange reaction was shown to be site-specific, reversible, and required both glutaryl-CoA and [(18)O(2)]acetate. The observed exchange is in agreement with the formation of a mixed anhydride intermediate between the enzyme and acetate. In contrast, with a mutant enzyme, which was converted to a thiol ester hydrolyase by replacement of the catalytic glutamate residue by aspartate, no (18)O uptake from H(2)(18)O into the carboxylate was detectable. This result is in accord with a mechanism in which the carboxylate of aspartate acts as a general base in activating a water molecule for hydrolysis of the thiol ester intermediate. This mechanism is further supported by the finding of a significant hydrolyase activity of the wild-type enzyme using acetyl-CoA as substrate, whereas glutaryl-CoA is not hydrolyzed. The small acetate molecule in the substrate binding pocket may activate a water molecule for hydrolysis of the nearby enzyme-CoA thiol ester.  (+info)

Regulation and adaptation of glucose metabolism of the parasitic protist Leishmania donovani at the enzyme and mRNA levels. (3/146)

Adaptation of the glucose metabolism of Leishmania donovani promastigotes (insect stage) was investigated by simultaneously measuring metabolic rates, enzyme activities, message levels, and cellular parameters under various conditions. Chemostats were used to adapt cells to different growth rates with growth rate-limiting or excess glucose concentrations. L. donovani catabolized glucose to CO(2), succinate, acetate, and pyruvate in ratios that depended on growth rate and glucose availability. Rates of glucose consumption were a linear function of growth rate and were twice as high in excess glucose-grown cells as in glucose-limited organisms. The major end product was CO(2), but organic end products were also formed in ratios that varied strongly with growth conditions. The specific activities of the 14 metabolic enzymes measured varied by factors of 3 to 17. Two groups of enzymes adapted specific activities in parallel, but there was no correlation between the groups. The activities of only one group correlated with specific rates of glucose metabolism. Total RNA content per cellular protein varied by a factor of 6 and showed a linear relationship with the rate of glucose consumption. There was no correlation between steady-state message levels and activities of the corresponding enzymes, suggesting regulation at the posttranscriptional level. A comparison of the adaptation of energy metabolism in L. donovani and other species suggests that the energy metabolism of L. donovani is inefficient but is well suited to the environmental challenges that it encounters during residence in the sandfly, its insect vector.  (+info)

Protection of mice against brucellosis by vaccination with Brucella melitensis WR201(16MDeltapurEK). (4/146)

Human brucellosis can be acquired from infected animal tissues by ingestion, inhalation, or contamination of the conjunctiva or traumatized skin by infected animal products. A vaccine to protect humans from occupational exposure or from zoonotic infection in areas where the disease is endemic would reduce an important cause of morbidity worldwide. Vaccines currently used in animals are unsuitable for human use. We tested a live, attenuated, purine-auxotrophic mutant strain of Brucella melitensis, WR201, for its ability to elicit cellular and humoral immune responses and to protect mice against intranasal challenge with B. melitensis 16M. Mice inoculated intraperitoneally with WR201 made serum antibody to lipopolysaccharide and non-O-polysaccharide antigens. Splenocytes from immunized animals released interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon, and IL-10 when cultured with Brucella antigens. Immunization led to protection from disseminated infection but had only a slight effect on clearance of the challenge inoculum from the lungs. These studies suggest that WR201 should be further investigated as a vaccine to prevent human brucellosis.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a haploid germ cell-specific novel complementary deoxyribonucleic acid; testis-specific homologue of succinyl CoA:3-Oxo acid CoA transferase. (5/146)

We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a mouse haploid germ cell-specific protein from a subtracted cDNA library. Sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed high homology with pig and human heart succinyl CoA:3-oxo acid CoA transferase (EC 2.8.3.5), which is a key enzyme for energy metabolism of ketone bodies. The deduced protein consists of 520 amino acid residues, including glutamate 344, known to be the catalytic residue in the active site of pig heart CoA transferase and the expected mitochondrial targeting sequence enriched with Arg, Leu, and Ser in the N-terminal region. Thus, we termed this gene scot-t (testis-specific succinyl CoA:3-oxo acid CoA transferase). Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and Western blot analysis demonstrated a unique expression pattern of the mRNA with rapid translation exclusively in late spermatids. The scot-t protein was detected first in elongated spermatids at step 8 or 9 as faint signals and gradually accumulated during spermiogenesis. It was also detected in the midpiece of spermatozoa by immunohistochemistry. The results suggest that the scot-t protein plays important roles in the energy metabolism of spermatozoa.  (+info)

Nitration of succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA-transferase in rats after endotoxin administration. (6/146)

The tyrosine nitration of proteins has been observed in diverse inflammatory conditions and has been linked to the presence of reactive nitrogen species. From many in vitro experiments, it is apparent that tyrosine nitration may alter the function of proteins. A limited number of experiments under in vivo conditions also demonstrate that protein nitration is associated with altered cellular processes. To understand the association of protein nitration with the pathogenic mechanism of the disease, it is essential to identify specific protein targets of nitration with in vivo or intact tissue models. Using anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies, we demonstrated the accumulation of nitrotyrosine in a 52-kDa protein in rat kidney after lipopolysaccharide treatment. The 52-kDa protein was purified and identified with partial sequence as succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT; EC ). Western blot analysis revealed that the nitration of this mitochondrial enzyme increased in the kidneys and hearts of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats, whereas its catalytic activity decreased. These data suggest that tyrosine nitration may be a mechanism for the inhibition of SCOT activity in inflammatory conditions. SCOT is a key enzyme for ketone body utilization. Thus, tyrosine nitration of the enzyme with sepsis or inflammation may explain the altered metabolism of ketone bodies present in these disorders.  (+info)

Succinyl-CoA:(R)-benzylsuccinate CoA-transferase: an enzyme of the anaerobic toluene catabolic pathway in denitrifying bacteria. (7/146)

Anaerobic microbial toluene catabolism is initiated by addition of fumarate to the methyl group of toluene, yielding (R)-benzylsuccinate as first intermediate, which is further metabolized via beta-oxidation to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and succinyl-CoA. A specific succinyl-CoA:(R)-benzylsuccinate CoA-transferase activating (R)-benzylsuccinate to the CoA-thioester was purified and characterized from Thauera aromatica. The enzyme is fully reversible and forms exclusively the 2-(R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA isomer. Only some close chemical analogs of the substrates are accepted by the enzyme: succinate was partially replaced by maleate or methylsuccinate, and (R)-benzylsuccinate was replaced by methylsuccinate, benzylmalonate, or phenylsuccinate. In contrast to all other known CoA-transferases, the enzyme consists of two subunits of similar amino acid sequences and similar sizes (44 and 45 kDa) in an alpha(2)beta(2) conformation. Identity of the subunits with the products of the previously identified toluene-induced bbsEF genes was confirmed by determination of the exact masses via electrospray-mass spectrometry. The deduced amino acid sequences resemble those of only two other characterized CoA-transferases, oxalyl-CoA:formate CoA-transferase and (E)-cinnamoyl-CoA:(R)-phenyllactate CoA-transferase, which represent a new family of CoA-transferases. As suggested by kinetic analysis, the reaction mechanism of enzymes of this family apparently involves formation of a ternary complex between the enzyme and the two substrates.  (+info)

Diabetes-associated nitration of tyrosine and inactivation of succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA-transferase. (8/146)

High levels of reactive species of nitrogen and oxygen in diabetes may cause modifications of proteins. Recently, an increase in protein tyrosine nitration was found in several diabetic tissues. To understand whether protein tyrosine nitration is the cause or the result of the associated diabetic complications, it is essential to identify specific proteins vulnerable to nitration with in vivo models of diabetes. In the present study, we have demonstrated that succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT; EC 2.8.3.5) is susceptible to tyrosine nitration in hearts from streptozotocin-treated rats. After 4 and 8 wk of streptozotocin administration and diabetes progression, SCOT from rat hearts had a 24% and 39% decrease in catalytic activity, respectively. The decrease in SCOT catalytic activity is accompanied by an accumulation of nitrotyrosine in SCOT protein. SCOT is a mitochondrial matrix protein responsible for ketone body utilization. Ketone bodies provide an alternative source of energy during periods of glucose deficiency. Because diabetes results in profound derangements in myocardial substrate utilization, we suggest that SCOT tyrosine nitration is a contributing factor to this impairment in the diabetic heart.  (+info)

Succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by intermittent ketoacidotic crises and persistent ketosis. The diagnosis was suspected in a patient who presented with hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis and coma at 4 days of age. The hy …
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase gene family. The encoded protein is a homodimeric mitochondrial matrix enzyme that plays a central role in extrahepatic ketone body catabolism by catalyzing the reversible transfer of coenzyme A from succinyl-CoA to acetoacetate. Mutations in this gene are associated with succinyl CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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1POI: Glutaconate CoA-transferase from Acidaminococcus fermentans: the crystal structure reveals homology with other CoA-transferases.
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
4EUB: Crystal Structures of Acetobacter aceti Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate CoA-Transferase Reveal Specificity Determinants and Illustrate the Mechanism Used by Class I CoA-Transferases.
Charrier , C , Duncan , G J , Reid , M D , Rucklidge , G J , Henderson , D , Young , P , Russell , V J , Aminov , R I , Flint , H J & Louis , P 2006 , A novel class of CoA-transferase involved in short-chain fatty acid metabolism in butyrate-producing human colonic bacteria Microbiology , vol 152 , no. 1 , pp. 179-185 . DOI: 10.1099/MIC.0.28412- ...
4eu8: Crystal structures of Acetobacter aceti succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) reveal specificity determinants and illustrate the mechanism used by class I CoA-transferases.
Oxct1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN312697G1|/strong|, Oxct1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
Microorganisms for the production of 1,4-butanediol and related methods | Process for butanol production | Integrated process for producing biofuels | Continuous process for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass | Methods for making and using modified oocytes |
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Today in the Western world, the normal individual is exposed to a variety of natural toxins, pesticides, artificial ingredients, and chemical substances of all sorts. While the human body has its own methods for detoxifying itself from heavy metals and other poisonous exposures, it regularly struggles to keep up when flooded with a mind-boggling amount of chemicals. Bone broth is viewed as a ground-breaking detoxification specialist since it enables the digestive system to oust waste and promote the livers capacity to eliminate poisons. It additionally helps maintain tissue integrity and improves the bodys utilization of antioxidants. Bone broth contains potassium and glycine, which supports both cell and liver detoxification. A portion of the manners by which bone broth supports detoxification is by providing sulfur (particularly when you include veggies, garlic, and spices to your broth) and glutathione, which is a stage II detoxification agent that brings down oxidative stress. A review ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/AXXXX/A-1102-5.pdf]Immobilized Succinyl Con A Lectin
FARIA, Mário Henrique Girão; MUNIZ, Luis Roberto Franklin and VASCONCELOS, Paulo Roberto Leitão de. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats. Acta Cir. Bras. [online]. 2007, vol.22, n.2, pp.125-129. ISSN 0102-8650. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502007000200009.. PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs) in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test) and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT) and beta-hydroxybutyrate ...
The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of humans has been studied extensively because of the role played by gut bacteria both in disease and in the maintenance of gut health (7, 17, 27). One important activity of the large intestinal microbiota is to break down substrates, such as resistant starch and plant cell wall polysaccharides. The main fermentation products are the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Of these, butyrate is known to play an important role in the metabolic welfare of colonocytes (19, 20) and is also implicated in providing protection against cancer and ulcerative colitis (3-5). Despite this prominent role, the taxonomy, population structure, and dynamics of predominant butyrate-producing bacteria in the human intestinal tract are poorly understood.. There is no simple way to selectively isolate butyrate-producing bacteria, and the majority of those recovered from nonselective isolation have proved to be highly oxygen sensitive (2). The purpose of ...
In the mitochondrion, pyruvate is oxidized by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to acetyl CoA, which is fully oxidized to carbon dioxide by the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs Cycle). Every turn of the citric acid cycle produces two molecules of carbon dioxide, one molecule of the ATP equivalent guanosine triphosphate (GTP) through substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl CoA synthetase, three molecules of the reduced coenzyme NADH, and one molecule of the reduced coenzyme FADH2. Both of these latter molecules are recycled to their oxidized states (NAD+ and FAD, respectively) via the electron transport chain, which generates additional ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. The oxidation of an NADH molecule results in the synthesis of about 3 ATP molecules, and the oxidation of one FADH2 yields about 2 ATP molecules.[14] The majority of cellular ATP is generated by this process. Although the citric acid cycle itself does not involve molecular oxygen, it is an obligately ...
Compare succinyl-CoA:glutarate-CoA transferase Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
wain·scot·ing /ˈweɪnskoʊtɪŋ, -skɒtɪŋ, -skətɪŋ/ -noun 1. paneling or woodwork with which rooms, hallways, etc., are wainscoted. 2. wainscots collectively. Also, especially British , wain·scot·ting /ˈweɪnskətɪŋ, -skɒtɪŋ/ Origin: 1570-80; wainscot + -ing wain·scot /ˈweɪnskət, -skɒt, -skoʊt/ noun, verb, -scot·ed, -scot·ing or ( especially British ) -scot·ted, -scot·ting. -noun 1. wood, esp. oak and usually in the form of paneling,…
Warnings that the number of Scots with sight loss could potentially double by 2030 have been voiced at the end of a national awareness week to highlight the importance of eye-health.
Your metabolism dictates how many calories you burn each day. And yes, you can increase it. Find out why you should care about your bodys metabolism.
Open letter to Scottish local authorities to work with a key agency team to support planning related initiatives for a green recovery.
DJ / Producer / Reviewer / Promoter / Уже успев заручится поддержкой от таких мега монстров хард сцены как: YOJI (Biomehanika), Scot Project,...
Regulation of the mammalian branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKAD) occurs under a variety of stressful conditions associated with changes in circulating glucocorticoids. Multiple levels of regulation in hepatocytes, including alteration of the levels of the structural subunits available for assembly (E1, α-ketoacid decarboxylase ; E2, dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase ; and E3, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), as well as BCKAD kinase, which serves to phosphorylate the E1α subunit and inactivate complex activity, have been proposed. The direct role of glucocorticoids in regulating the expression of the murine gene encoding the major BCKAD subunit E2, upon which the other BCKAD subunits assemble, was therefore examined. Deletion analysis of the 5« proximal 7.0 kb of the murine E2 promoter sequence, using E2 promoter}luciferase expression minigene plasmids introduced into the hepatic H4IIEC3 cell line, suggested a promoter proximal region responsive to glucocorticoid regulation. Linker
What happens when myocardium are exposed to chronic states of ketosis? In part two of our podcast on the Review article by Cotter et al, Associate Editor Christine Des Rosiers continues the discussion with lead author Peter Crawford (Washington University in St. Louis) and renowned metabolism expert Heinrich Taegtmeyer (University of Texas Medical School) about the adaptation of the myocardium to chronic ketosis. We explore how the heart protects itself from an overabundance of ketone bodies by down regulating key regulatory enzymes in ketone body metabolism. What new experimental models are being developed to study the targeted inactivation of the SCOT enzyme, which may help us understand how the heart protects against fuel toxicity? Listen now.. David G. Cotter, Rebecca C. Schugar, and Peter A. Crawford Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, published online February 8, 2013, doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00646.2012.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Purification of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex from rat liver. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Youve probably seen antioxidant labels on foods and supplements, but what does it mean exactly and what is the best antioxidant to choose? Antioxidant means it prevents oxidation, a process that happens to all cells in nature, including those in the human body. Oxidation happens when oxygen interacts with cells and its what makes an apple turn brown, metal rust, or food go rotten. In the body oxidation is a normal part of cell turnover. However, a small minority of oxidized cells become problematic free radicals that set off a chain reaction of damage, causing cells to mutate and behave abnormally. Free radicals reach us through pesticides, air pollution, cigarette smoke, excess alcohol, sunburn, junk foods, etc.. The defense? Antioxidants. And our most powerful antioxidant is one the body makes called glutathione. To stay a step ahead of modern civilization we need to avoid free radicals as much as possible, eat an antioxidant-rich diet, and make sure our body is sufficient in ...
The _____ system regulates the bodys metabolism, growth, and functions of the sexual organs. a.endocrine b.respiratory c.circulatory
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/BAXXXX/BA-2102-2.pdf]Biotin Conjugated Succinyl Trit
8 Ѕtrаtеgіеs То Неlр Yоu Вurn Воdу Fаt Νо оnе wаnts tо bе tеrmеd оbеsе. Еvеrуоnе іs kееn tо lооk fіt аnd hеаlthу - аnd оnе оf thе рrіmе аrеаs іn thе bоdу whеrе thеу wаnt tо bе slіm аnd іn shаре іs thе bеllу. Νоnеthеlеss bеllу fаt іs а .... Read More » ...
UDPgalactosamine-galactose acetylgalactosaminyltransferase: transfers sugars from UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to terminal galactose of H substance, producing A antigen; consider also FUCOSYL GALACTOSE ALPHA-N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINYLTRANSFERASE which is called A-transferase
Aging affects our body in several ways, most of which are completely irreversible. Know how aging impacts the bodys metabolism and how you can increase metabolism as you age.
New Delhi: The bodys metabolism can be increased by indulging in vegetables to give an edge to the weight control regime, says an expert.
The key to losing weight and building lean muscle is to have your bodys metabolism working at its best. Therefore, Im a huge advocate of these kinds
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the kidney over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The kidney is an organ that filters the blood and/or excretes the end products of body metabolism in the form of urine.
Bio-Slender is newly formulated diet supplement which will help you loose more weight then dieting alone. Bio-Slender will increase your bodys metabolism and burn more fat. With our 60 day money back risk free guarantee Bio-Slender eliminates the risk.
Cleansing the body of toxins and supplying it high quality essential nutrients will strengthen the immune system. In fact, studies reveal that a healthy intake of absorbable protein will boost the immune systems strength up to 500% percent. Moreover, when the liver is cleansed, the bodys metabolism is enhanced and will burn fat efficiently, which of course would result to healthy weight loss. Also, with the organs functioning in top shape, the body can effectively absorb and digest fats and proteins. And with the maximized ability of the body to absorb nutrients, the organs are steady supplied with the proper fuel to continually function efficiently ...
Aging strikes all, and some suffer premature ageing. While some age gracefully, some find it difficult to handle the ageing process. Keep a check on the changes in your body metabolism and prevent early ageing with natural food, Keep your body and mind young and strong even as you age.
This summary publication presents analysis on the labour market, education and training. Results are presented here at Scotland and sub-Scotland levels.
Doctors say Allan will not be able to talk again and are not sure how much more of a recovery he will make. Dr Naratapong Sangtong said: He has got better. Some patients continue improving, others level off. ...
கொழுப்பு அமிலங்கள், அல்லது கொழுப்பு அமிலத்தின் மீதங்கள் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் அசிட்டைல்- CoA உடன் மெலோனைல்-CoA அல்லது மெதில்மெலோனைல்-CoA தொகுதிகளை முன்தொடராகக் கொண்ட சங்கிலித் தொடர் நீட்சியாக்கத்தினால் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட வேறுபட்ட மூலக்கூறுகளின் தொகுதியாகும்.[6][7] இவை ஐதரோகார்பன் சங்கிலி யால் ...
Other B-complex vitamins like folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B2 are also essential for the One-carbon pathway.. 2. Vitamin B12 acts as a coenzyme in another important reaction that is needed for myelin synthesis and stabilization. Another biochemical reaction, the conversion of methylmelonyl-CoA into succinyl CoA, also requires the coenzyme cobalamin. If this reaction does not occur, methylmalonyl-CoA gets converted to methylmalonic acid (MMA), which is a myelin destabilizer. Excess MMA leads to the synthesis of abnormal fatty acids instead of myelin. These abnormal fatty acids are incorporated into neuronal lipids leading to the formation of a fragile myelin sheath. Subsequently, abnormal myelination or demyelination occurs. The result is severe central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction.. Vitamin B12 deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric problems ranging from neuropathy to dementia in the elderly. Vitamin B12 deficiency is found to cause neurological and psychiatric problems in ...
The structural organization and regulation of the genes involved in short-chain fatty acid degradation in Escherichia coli, referred to as the ato system, have been studied by a combination of classic genetic and recombinant DNA techniques. A plasmid containing a 6.2-kilobase region of the E. coli chromosome was able to complement mutations in the ato structural genes, atoA (acetyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acetoacetyl [AA]-CoA transferase) and atoB (thiolase II), as well as mutations in the ato regulatory locus, atoC. Complementation studies performed with mutants defective in acetyl-CoA:AA-CoA transferase suggest that two loci, atoD and atoA, are required for the expression of functional AA-CoA transferase. The ato gene products were identified by in vitro transcription and translation and maxicell analysis as proteins of 48, 26.5, 26, and 42 kilodaltons for atoC, atoD, atoA, and atoB, respectively. In vitro and insertional mutagenesis of the ato hybrid plasmid indicated that the ato structural genes ...
Heart disease is directly associated with the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular systems. One of the primary signs of heart and lung diseases include becoming winded with mild exertion. Individuals with heart or lung disease often become fatigued when performing day to day tasks that most of us take for granted. Aerobic exercise can help increase the bodys utilization of oxygenated blood pumping throughout the body, thus making our bodies stronger and more efficient performing everyday activities.. Im often asked what are the most important tips I can give for aerobic conditioning. I find myself continuously telling clients and friends three very important factors that will help to improve ones cardiovascular health. These factors include: know your target heart rate zone, know your intensity level, and be consistent.. 1. Know your target heart rate zone.. Your target heart rate zone is the number of beats per minute (bpm) at which your heart should be beating during aerobic exercise in ...
Heart disease is directly associated with the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular systems. One of the primary signs of heart and lung diseases include becoming winded with mild exertion. Individuals with heart or lung disease often become fatigued when performing day to day tasks that most of us take for granted. Aerobic exercise can help increase the bodys utilization of oxygenated blood pumping throughout the body, thus making our bodies stronger and more efficient performing everyday activities.. Im often asked what are the most important tips I can give for aerobic conditioning. I find myself continuously telling clients and friends three very important factors that will help to improve ones cardiovascular health. These factors include: know your target heart rate zone, know your intensity level, and be consistent.. 1. Know your target heart rate zone.. Your target heart rate zone is the number of beats per minute (bpm) at which your heart should be beating during aerobic exercise in ...
The mineral zinc promotes eczema in babies treat and heightens the functioning of the immune system; its also necessary for the bodys utilization of essential fatty acids. Days 4-5: Two to three wraps per day: one at the clinic, and one or two back in the hotel before bed- time. Apart from taking the necessary dietary precautions like limiting chocolates, sugar and spice intake, using colloidal silver for acne can also clear out frequent breakouts and keep the skin clear. Care Nature Remedies Psoriasis Remedies Coconut Oil Nature Skin Young Living Oil Skin Remedies.
For multiple reasons, the SCOT investigators and the sponsor of the SCOT trial, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), determined that it is important to track the course of a matched group of patients, who are not exposed to these treatments but receive currently available therapy in the community. First, such a group will provide information to determine if the SCOT entry criteria do indeed identify these high-risk individuals. More importantly, such a group of patients is likely to be treated with a variety of medical regimens, including some immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide or other immunosuppressive agents that may modify the natural history of the disease. In evaluating the relative efficacy of the two treatment regimens, it will be important to assess whether outcomes in the subjects treated under the SCOT protocol have outcome profiles that differ from those associated with the ...
The glutaconic acids are substances possessing a highly mobile three carbon tautomeric system. They also exhibit geometrical isomerism and, in the case of the symmetrically di-substituted acids, optical isomerism as well. Glutaconic acid has the trans configuration, but readily yields an anhydride which on careful hydration forms the unstable cis-acid (Malachowski, Ber., 1929, 62, (B) 1323). This is explained by the high mobility of the system which results in isomerisation from the trans to the cis form as a preliminary step in anhydride formation. ...
Breakfast is essential. Your body has been deprived of food throughout the night, therefore your metabolism has slowed. If the cells do not receive sufficient nutrients they will begin to function less efficiently on smaller amounts, and they will actually store more fat to use during these times of nutritional deprivation. Eat five to six small meals a day to keep your bodys fuel supply consistent and keep your metabolism trusting in you. Consistency is important because your body metabolism adapts to your current weight. If you have been dieting or skipping meals your bodys metabolism slows down to compensate for the lack of nutrients. When lean people overeat their metabolism speeds up and when people diet their metabolism slows down. The key is a balance of exercise and diet, not a boot camp that restricts calories and forces exercise at insane levels ...
Complete information for BDH2P1 gene (Pseudogene), 3-Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase 2, Pseudogene 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
BDH2 antibody [2G1] (3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2) for FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-BDH2 mAb (GTX84831) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
View Notes - FM5002-HW8-3.28.12 from MATH 5002 at Minnesota. Financial Mathem atics 5002 : Hom ework 8 (0047 0048) Due on 28 March 2012 Scot Adams S olutions 0047 . Suppose Pr[A | B] = 0.6, Pr[A] =
Mary, Queen of Scots is an ambitious re-imagining of the Mary Stuart and Elizabeth I saga with modern flourishes and bold performances from Saoirse Ronan and Margot Robbie.
Boosting metabolism is what we need to pump our weight loss regime. Slow body metabolism can be the culprit in a rigorous diet and exercise program.
Coffee has been linked to various health benefits and issues. Theres a small study which suggest your daily intake of coffee could affect your bodys metabolism in very few ways that you thought.
The bodys frequent osmotic strain, and that is isotonic, enables a steady servicing of overall body tissues. in order for a material being absorbed and used in your bodys metabolism, it has to be transported within an isotonic point out. Isootnix dietary dietary supplements are delivered in an isotonic Option. Which means that your body has less perform to try and do to acquire nutrient absorption. The isotonic point out with the suspension makes it possible for nutrients to pass straight in to the little intestine and become rapidlly absorbed in the bloodstream. With Isotonix items, very little nutritive price is shed, producing the absorption of nutrients very efficient whilst delivering utmost success ...
Lipo shots are injections of vitamins and amino acids that supposedly encourage the body to burn fat. Proponents claim that they work by speeding up the bodys metabolism and making people feel more...
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A medical condition where your body experiences a buildup of lactate (lactic acid). Typically the acid build up is due to a problem with the bodys metabolism which can be a result of a medical condition, medication or poisoning. The symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, general weakness and deep rapid breathing.. ...
Laura Muir says she was the guinea pig for coach Andy Young in developing a training programme that has allowed Jemma Reekie to flourish.
Changes to the Scottish climate could soon see the rise of a new species of ‘supermidge’ with the potential to transmit disease to humans, according to industry experts.
More than two-thirds of Scottish business chiefs want the country to remain in the European Union after next month’s referendum, it has emerged.
Scot Forge offers copper forging services for a variety of components. Forged copper offers a better all-around performance & part reliability for forged bars, discs, rings, shafts, and complex shapes. Contact Scot Forge to learn more about our copper forging capabilities.
Planning Advice Note (PAN) 79 provides advice for planning authorities about setting the direction of development to inform the planning and delivery of new water infrastructure.
ATOC agreed a five year, £13 million deal with Fujitsu to refresh, enhance and streamline the hardware and applications technology used by RJIS, so that it could be supported until at least 2014. It also had to have the capacity to handle an increase in workload, largely driven by a massive growth in online sales (25% year-on-year) and greater use of Ticket-on-Departure vending-style machines used to collect ticket.
"Transcriptional and functional analysis of oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase and formyl-CoA transferase genes from ... Oxalate-CoA ligase Formyl-CoA transferase Oxalate CoA-transferase Baetz AL, Allison MJ (July 1990). "Purification and ... No FAD binding is observed in oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, but an excess of coenzyme A in the crystal structure has led to the ... characterization of formyl-coenzyme A transferase from Oxalobacter formigenes". Journal of Bacteriology. 172 (7): 3537-40. doi: ...
"Coenzyme A transferase family I (IPR004165) < InterPro < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-22. Orii KE, Fukao T, Song ... protein and messenger RNA levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):3-ketoacid CoA transferase and mitochondrial and cytosolic ... 3-oxoacid CoA transferase deficiency. This gene encodes a member of the 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase gene family. The encoded ... 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 (OXCT1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the OXCT1 gene. It is also known as succinyl-CoA- ...
This enzyme is also called hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A-quinate transferase. This enzyme participates in phenylpropanoid ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is feruloyl-CoA:quinate O-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase. ... "Purification and characterization of hydroxycinnamoyl D-glucose Quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase in the root of sweet ...
2007). "A mutation in para-hydroxybenzoate-polyprenyl transferase (COQ2) causes primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency". Am. J. Hum. ... "Entrez Gene: COQ2 coenzyme Q2 homolog, prenyltransferase (yeast)". Human COQ2 genome location and COQ2 gene details page in the ... 2006). "Coenzyme Q and the regulation of intracellular steady-state levels of superoxide in HL-60 cells". BioFactors. 25 (1-4 ... 2005). "Coenzyme Q2 induced p53-dependent apoptosis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1724 (1-2): 49-58. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.04. ...
Other names in common use include isobutyryl coenzyme A mutase, and butyryl-CoA:isobutyryl-CoA mutase. It has 2 cofactors: ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular transferases transferring other groups. The ... Willenbrock F, Robinson JA (1988). "The enzymic interconversion of isobutyryl and N-butyrylcarba(dethia)-coenzyme-A - a ... coenzyme-B12-dependent carbon skeleton rearrangement". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 27 (8): 1089-1091. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is sinapoyl-CoA:2-hydroxymalonate O-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase. Other names in ... Strack D, Ruhoff R, Grawe W (1986). "Hydroxycinnamoyl-Coenzyme-A-tartronate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in protein preparations ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... common use include tartronate sinapoyltransferase, and hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme-A:tartronate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Other names in common use include acylglycerol palmitoyltransferase, monoglyceride acyltransferase, acyl coenzyme A- ...
Tobin MB, Fleming MD, Skatrud PL, Miller JR (1990). "Molecular characterization of the acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Other names in common use include acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase, and isopenicillin N:acyl-CoA: ... β-heterodimeric acyl-coenzyme A: isopenicillin N-acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum". FEBS Letters. 319 (1-2): 166-170 ...
KENNEDY EP, WEISS SB (1956). "The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides". J. Biol. Chem. 222: ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups. ... and phosphorylethanolamine-glyceride transferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: aminophosphonate metabolism ...
... coenzyme M-epoxyalkane ligase, epoxyalkyl:CoM transferase, epoxypropane:coenzyme M transferase, epoxypropyl:CoM transferase, ... coenzyme M transferase, epoxyalkane:CoM transferase, epoxyalkane:2-mercaptoethanesulfonate transferase, ... Coleman NV, Spain JC (September 2003). "Epoxyalkane: coenzyme M transferase in the ethene and vinyl chloride biodegradation ... Allen JR, Clark DD, Krum JG, Ensign SA (July 1999). "A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial ...
Saylor MH, Mansell RL (1977). "Hydroxycinnamoyl: coenzyme A transferase involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferol-3-(p- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific those acyltransferases transferring groups other than ...
... substrate specificity and kinetic behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase". ... Studies have shown that homocysteine reacts with SDH's PLP coenzyme to create a complex. This complex is devoid of coenzyme ... Two monomers(left and right) are shown and the coenzyme PLP is placed in the crevice between the two domains. Two Dimers: Two ... The main role of SDH is to lower the activation energy of this reaction by binding the coenzyme and substrate in a particular ...
HOAGLAND MB, NOVELLI GD (1954). "Biosynthesis of coenzyme A from phospho-pantetheine and of pantetheine from pantothenate". J. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... Martin DP, Drueckhammer DG (1993). "Separate enzymes catalyze the final two steps of coenzyme A biosynthesis in Brevibacterium ... dephospho-coenzyme A pyrophosphorylase, and 3'-dephospho-CoA pyrophosphorylase. This enzyme participates in pantothenate and ...
Other names in common use include acetyl coenzyme A:taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl, and transferase. Walker K, ... "Partial purification and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl transferase that ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ...
Strain B13: Purification and Characterization of 3-Oxoadipate:Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Transferase and 3-Oxoadipyl-CoA ... Strain B13: Cloning, Characterization, and Analysis of Sequences Encoding 3-Oxoadipate:Succinyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) Transferase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ...
KENNEDY EP, WEISS SB (1956). "The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides". J. Biol. Chem. 222 (1 ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing nucleotide groups ( ... Other names in common use include phosphorylethanolamine transferase, ET, CTP-phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, ...
CPT-I inhibitors: Etomoxir, Oxfenicine, Perhexiline CPT-I (carnitine palmitoyl transferase) converts fatty acyl-CoA to fatty ... Carnitine biosynthesis inhibitor: Mildronate 3-KAT inhibitors: Trimetazidine 3-KAT (3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase) inhibitors ...
Other names in common use include caffeoyl coenzyme A methyltransferase, caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, and trans-caffeoyl ... This enzyme is classified to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. ...
coenzyme-A comes in and undergoes hydrogen-atom transfer with the Cys419 radical to generate a coenzyme-A radical. The coenzyme ... The reaction occurs as follows: This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases ... Using radical non-redox chemistry, it catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate and coenzyme-A into formate and acetyl- ...
"Identification of the active site of phosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A transferase and relationship of the enzyme to an ... "Malonate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae catalyses the turnover of acetyl and malonyl thioester residues on a coenzyme-A ...
Methyl- THMPT is the methyl donor to coenzyme M, a conversion mediated by methyl- THMPT:coenzyme M methyl-transferase. THMPT is ... Tetrahydromethanopterin (THMPT, H 4MPT) is a coenzyme in methanogenesis. It is the carrier of the C1 group as it is reduced to ... Methylene- MPT is subsequently converted, using coenzyme F420 as the electron source, to methyl- THMPT, catalyzed by F420- ... tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase in complex with its coenzymes". J. Mol. Biol. 357 (3): 870-9. doi:10.1016/j.jmb. ...
Somack R, Costilow RN (1973). "Purification and properties of a pyridoxal phosphate and coenzyme B 12 dependent D- -ornithine 5 ... This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically those intramolecular transferases transferring amino groups. The ... It has 3 cofactors: pyridoxal phosphate, Cobamide coenzyme, and Dithiothreitol. ...
Formyl-CoA transferase (EC 2.8.3.16)mediates the exchange of oxalyl and formyl groups on coenzyme A, interconverting formyl-CoA ... Enzymes in this class include oxalate oxidase, oxalate decarboxylase, oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, and formyl-CoA transferase. ...
... acetoacetate CoA-transferase, a novel prokaryotic member of the CoA-transferase family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Here they can be oxidized and combined with coenzyme A to form CO2, acetyl-CoA, and NADH, as in the normal cycle. However, it ... Mullins EA, Francois JA, Kappock TJ (July 2008). "A specialized citric acid cycle requiring succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate ... FADH2, therefore, facilitates transfer of electrons to coenzyme Q, which is the final electron acceptor of the reaction ...
Hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) then converts p-coumaroyl CoA to 4-coumaroyl shikimate/quinate. This subsequently undergoes ... Then, in the proposed ferulate pathway, 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA ligase (4CL) attaches p-coumaric acid to coenzyme A (CoA) to ...
... and lecithin retinol acyl transferase. Higa HH, Varki A (1988). "Acetyl-coenzyme A:polysialic acid O-acetyltransferase from K1- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ...
ChAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from the coenzyme acetyl-CoA to choline, yielding acetylcholine (ACh). ChAT is ... Nachmanson & Machado, 1943 The acetyl transferase mode of action was unknown at the time of this discovery, however Nachmansohn ... Nachmansohn D, Berman M (1946). "Studies on choline acetylase; on the preparation of the coenzyme and its effect on the enzyme ... Jones DH, Nelson WL (1968). "A method for isolation of coenzyme A products". Anal. Biochem. 26 (3): 350-7. doi:10.1016/0003- ...
Other names in common use include flavonol 3-O-glucoside malonyltransferase, MAT-3, and malonyl-coenzyme A:flavonol-3-O- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Matern U, Feser C, Hammer D (1983). "Further characterization and regulation of malonyl-coenzyme A: flavonoid glucoside ...
Preparation and general properties of acetyl coenzyme A and malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylases". J. Biol. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl ... Other names in common use include acetyl coenzyme A-acyl-carrier-protein transacylase, Acetyl CoA:ACP transacylase, [acyl- ...
"Identification of the active site of phosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A transferase and relationship of the enzyme to an ... dephospho-CoA-transferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 2'-(5-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA + ... dephospho-CoA transferase, MdcG, 2'-(5-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA:apo-malonate-decarboxylase adenylyltransferase, holo ... "Biosynthesis of triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-coenzyme A, the precursor of the prosthetic group of malonate decarboxylase". ...
Dempski RE, Imperiali B (December 2002). "Oligosaccharyl transferase: gatekeeper to the secretory pathway". Curr Opin Chem Biol ... oligosaccharyl transferase complex) the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior ... "Structure of the mammalian oligosaccharyl-transferase complex in the native ER protein translocon". Nat. Commun. (5): 3072. ... "STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo". EMBO J. 14 (20): 4949-60. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ...
It is structurally similar to the coenzyme, folate, which binds to the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase.[3] This enzyme is part ... Transferase (EC 2). *2.1 COMT. *Thymidylate synthase. *2.4 PARP. *2.5 Dihydropteroate synthetase ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... "Entrez Gene: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional ... transferase activity. • transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups. • 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. • RNA binding. • acetyl-CoA C- ...
In addition, the enzyme transferase shifts a block of 3 glucosyl residues from the outer branch to the other end, and then a α1 ...
There are three well-known and -studied classes of SOD metallic coenzymes that exist in plants. First, Fe SODs consist of two ... EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
White HB (Mar 1976). "Coenzymes as fossils of an earlier metabolic state". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 7 (2): 101-4. ... Noller HF, Hoffarth V, Zimniak L (Jun 1992). "Unusual resistance of peptidyl transferase to protein extraction procedures". ... Ribonucleotide moieties in many coenzymes, such as Acetyl-CoA, NADH, FADH and F420, may be surviving remnants of covalently ... contains 23s rRNA which act as a peptide bond forming enzyme called peptidal transferase and helps in protein synthesis. Many ...
The transferase UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase removes a UMP and glucuronokinase, with the cofactor ADP, removes the final ...
transferase activity. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
Cofactors, or coenzymes, are helper molecules which are needed to make an enzyme work. They are not proteins, and may be ... Transferases: move functional group from one molecule to another. *Hydrolases: add -OH (hydroxyl) group ...
Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) Lipid 5[84] 200 (human)[85] Uric acid[edit]. Uric acid is by far the highest concentration antioxidant ... Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR (2005). "Glutathione transferases". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 45: 51-88. ... "Serum coenzyme Q10 concentrations in healthy men supplemented with 30 mg or 100 mg coenzyme Q10 for two months in a randomised ... Turunen M, Olsson J, Dallner G (January 2004). "Metabolism and function of coenzyme Q". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1660 (1- ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
transferase activity. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase ...
The thiol from coenzyme A serves as a good leaving group when attacked by a general base to give N-acetylserotonin.[58] ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ... Crystal structure of Tetrahymena Gcn5 with bound coenzyme A and histone H3 peptide (PDB 1QSN). The central core (green), ... flanking N- and C-terminal segments (blue), coenzyme A (orange), and histone peptide (red) are shown. ... "Lessons from genome-wide studies: an integrated definition of the coactivator function of histone acetyl transferases" ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
LDH in humans uses His(193) as the proton acceptor, and works in unison with the coenzyme (Arg99 and Asn138), and substrate ( ... EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
DNA nucleotidylexotransferase/Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. RNA nucleotidyltransferase. RNA polymerase/DNA-directed ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
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The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial. A, D [auth B], C, B [auth D]. 481. Sus scrofa. Mutation(s): 0 ... The high-resolution structure of pig heart succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase.. Coker, S.F., Lloyd, A.J., Mitchell, ... Dynamic domains of Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase from pig heart.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3K6M/pdb ... The enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) participates in the metabolism of ketone bodies in extrahepatic ...
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta (accD), Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha. Neisseria gonorrhoeae NG-k51.05 ...
Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta (accD), Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by ... tr,T5CLE2,T5CLE2_HELPX Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha OS=Helicobacter pylori FD506 GN=accA PE ...
Burkholderia mallei Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Burkholderia mallei Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA. Burkholderia mallei Acetyl coenzyme ... Gene targetBurkholderia mallei coenzyme carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA Baculovirus ... GEN1237410.E.coli , Burkholderia mallei Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) -E. coli size: ...
Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit. Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl coenzyme A ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) Alternative name Burkholderia phymatum Acetyl-coenzyme ... Gene targetBurkholderia phymatum coenzyme carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA Mammalian ...
Recombinant Protein and Probable coenzyme A transferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit alpha. Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit alpha ELISA Kit. Probable coenzyme A ... Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta. Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta ELISA Kit. Probable coenzyme A ... Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta Antibody. Also known as Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit beta (Probable CoA ...
Monkey 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 ELISA Kit-AIC49324.1 (MBS074178) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... OXCT1 elisa kit :: Monkey 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 ELISA Kit. ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 (OXCT1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological ... 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 (OXCT1), ELISA Kit. Also Known As Monkey 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 ELISA Kit. ...
What is Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase? Meaning of Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase medical term. What does ... Cholesterol O-Transferase in the Medical Dictionary? Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of Acyl-Coenzyme A: ... Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase. *acyl-malonyl-ACP ... Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase , definition of Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol O-Transferase by Medical dictionary https ...
BLAST of Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase vs. TrEMBL. *BLAST of Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase vs ... Coenzyme A transferase family I. PANTHER. PTHR13707. KETOACID-COENZYME A TRANSFERASE. coord: 2..125. ... 3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase OS=... [more]. A0A1U7S2D6. 8.280e-49. 64.80. succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1 ... 3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1, ... [more]. oxct1a. 3.357e-44. 61.60. succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1 ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrial. ... Compartment GO Terms for Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrial. ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha MSLNFLDFEQPIAELEAKIDSLTAVSRQDEKLDINIDEEVHRLREKSVELTRKIFADLGA ... Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. First, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of biotin ...
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit beta MSWIERIKSNITPTRKASIPEGVWTKCDSCGQVLYRAELERNLEVCPKCDHHMRMTARNR ... Li, S. J., Cronan, J. E. Jr (1993). "Growth rate regulation of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which catalyzes ... open reading frame of Escherichia coli encodes a subunit of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase." J Bacteriol 174:5755-5757. Pubmed: ...
Yeast 01022793307 at Gentaur Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) Yeast ... Order Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha accA - ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha(accA) is a recombinant protein expressed in Yeast . The ... N terminal acetylation or CH3CO as epigenetic regulation of Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha( ...
Transferases are involved in myriad reactions in the cell. Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A ( ... "Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. The donor is often a coenzyme. Some of ... Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ... Terminal transferases are transferases that can be used to label DNA or to produce plasmid vectors. It accomplishes both of ...
Other names in common use include 3-oxoacid coenzyme A-transferase, 3-ketoacid CoA-transferase, 3-ketoacid coenzyme A ... succinyl coenzyme A-acetoacetyl coenzyme A-transferase, and succinyl-CoA transferase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... transferase, 3-oxo-CoA transferase, 3-oxoacid CoA dehydrogenase, acetoacetate succinyl-CoA transferase, acetoacetyl coenzyme A- ... Preparation and properties of coenzyme A transferase". J. Biol. Chem. 221 (1): 15-31. PMID 13345795. Biology portal v t e. ...
3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by intermittent ... Coenzyme A-Transferases / deficiency* * Coenzyme A-Transferases / genetics* * Glucose / administration & dosage * Glucose / ... Neonatal hypoglycaemia in severe succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase deficiency J Inherit Metab Dis. 2001 Oct;24(5):587-95. ... Succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by ...
And then there were acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyl transferase inhibitors. Meuwese, Marijn C; Franssen, Remco; Stroes, Erik ...
... succinyl-CoA acetoacetyl-CoA transferase; Co-A, co-enzyme A; α-KG, α-ketoglutarate; (m), mitochondrial; (c) cytosolic; TCA, ... tricarboxylic acid; AAT, aspartate amino transferase; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; BBB, blood-brain barrier. ...
AcCoA: acetyl-coenzyme A; ACh: acetylcholine; AChE: acetylcholinesterase; ChAT: acetylcholine transferase; CYP450: Cytochrome ...
KW ATP-binding; Coenzyme A biosynthesis; Cytoplasm; Kinase; KW Nucleotide-binding; Transferase. FT CHAIN 1..206 FT /note=" ... DR GO; GO:0015937; P:coenzyme A biosynthetic process; IEA:UniProtKB-UniRule. DR HAMAP; MF_00376; Dephospho_CoA_kinase; 1. DR ... coenzyme A biosynthesis; CoA from (R)- CC pantothenate: step 5/5. {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00376}. CC -!- SUBCELLULAR ... dephosphocoenzyme A to form coenzyme A. {ECO:0000255,HAMAP- CC Rule:MF_00376}. CC -!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: CC Reaction=3- ...
View mouse Acbd3 Chr1:180726043-180754204 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
... carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a; Acox1: acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1); (C) Expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in liver ( ... carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a; Acox1: acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1); (C) Expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in liver ( ... carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (Cpt1a), and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (Acox1), were significantly elevated in mice fed with ...
T1 - Acetate utilization and butyryl coenzyme A (CoA). T2 - acetate-CoA transferase in butyrate-producing bacteria from the ... Acetate utilization and butyryl coenzyme A (CoA): acetate-CoA transferase in butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large ... Acetate utilization and butyryl coenzyme A (CoA): acetate-CoA transferase in butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large ... Acetate utilization and butyryl coenzyme A (CoA) : acetate-CoA transferase in butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large ...
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase. Increase. Temporal cortex. 2DE-MS. 156. ... 3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1. Increase. Frontal cortex. LC-MS (iTRAQ). 177. ...
acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 58. -. Vitis coignetiae Pulliat leaves (yama-budo). Rats on HFD choline deficient diet. liver enzymes ... chol: cholesterol; FFAs: free fatty acids; CPT-1: carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1; HMG-CoA red: 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl- ... AMPK: adenosine monophosphate protein kinase; Srebp1c: sterol regulated element binding protein 1c; ACC: acetyl-coenzyme A ... acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; FOXO1: forkhead box O1.. ...
... aceyl coenzyme A long chain; Acadm, FAO-acetyl CoenzymeA dehydrogenase. Transporters: Cpt1b, carnatine palmitoyl transferase; ... mRNA levels of A) Fatty acid oxidation genes (Enzymes: Acate3, acyl coenzyme A thioesterase 3, mitochondrial; Acadv1, ... Cpt2, carnatine palmitoyl transferase 2. B) Glycolysis genes (Hk2, hexokinase 2; Pdk4, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; Pfk, ...
Coenzyme A transferase family I (IPR004165) Pfam signature: PF01144 Band 7 domain (IPR001107) Pfam signature: PF01145 ... Glycosyl transferase, family 35 (IPR000811) Pfam signature: PF00343 SecY/SEC61-alpha family (IPR002208) Pfam signature: PF00344 ... Glycosyl transferase, family 3 (IPR000312) Pfam signature: PF00591 TonB-dependent receptor-like, beta-barrel (IPR000531) Pfam ... Glycosyl transferase, family 4 (IPR000715) Pfam signature: PF00953 S-locus glycoprotein domain (IPR000858) Pfam signature: ...
317-66-8/propionyl-coenzyme A; EC 2.1.3.-/Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases; EC 2.1.3.1/Methylmalonyl-CoA carboxytransferase ... 0/Acyl Coenzyme A; 0/Bacterial Proteins; 0/Oxaloacetate; 0/Peptides; 1264-45-5/methylmalonyl-coenzyme A; 127-17-3/Pyruvic Acid ... Acyl Coenzyme A / chemistry. Bacteria / enzymology. Bacterial Proteins / chemistry. Biophysics / methods*. Carboxyl and ... Carbamoyl Transferases / metabolism, physiology*. Catalysis. Crystallography, X-Ray. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. ...
  • The enzyme succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) participates in the metabolism of ketone bodies in extrahepatic tissues. (rcsb.org)
  • Enzymic synthesis and metabolism of malonyl coenzyme A and glutaryl coenzyme A". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three key enzymes of the Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 metabolism, namely thiolase, phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB), and CoA transferase, were purified to homogeneity. (rice.edu)
  • Acetobacter aceti'' is an obligatory aerobic bacterium that can fix nitrogen during its metabolic processes and is known for producing [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol alcohol] as a byproduct of its metabolism. (kenyon.edu)
  • Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) produced during β-oxidation is transported via the cytosol into mitochondria for further metabolism. (apsnet.org)
  • Getting a handle on the role of coenzyme M in alkene metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Distribution of the coenzyme M pathway of epoxide metabolism among ethene- and vinyl chloride-degrading Mycobacterium strains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As constituents of neutral and polar lipids, as side chains in some coenzymes and secondary metabolites, as covalent attachments to distinct eucaryotic proteins, and as parts of eucaryotic second-messenger molecules, they fulfill central roles not only in biological energy storage or in the integrity and dynamics of biological membranes but also in the control of cellular metabolism and cell physiology. (asm.org)
  • Component of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) complex. (uniprot.org)
  • Description N terminal acetylation or CH3CO as epigenetic regulation of Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) by NATs.The Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in blood. (gentaur.com)
  • Description N terminal acetylation or CH3CO as epigenetic regulation of Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) by NATs.The Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alpha (accA) is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in blood.For cells, cell lines and tissues in culture till half confluency. (gentaur.com)
  • A multisubunit form of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) from soybean ( Glycine max ) was characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Addition of BES to cell extracts resulted in an irreversible loss of epoxide carboxylase activity that was restored by addition of purified 2-ketopropyl-CoM carboxylase/oxidoreductase (2-KPCC), the terminal enzyme of epoxide carboxylation, but not by addition of epoxyalkane:CoM transferase or 2-hydroxypropyl-CoM dehydrogenase, the enzymes which catalyze the first two reactions of epoxide carboxylation. (asm.org)
  • Mechanistic implications of the structure of the mixed-disulfide intermediate of the disulfide oxidoreductase, 2-ketopropyl-coenzyme M oxidoreductase/carboxylase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • strain L2-50 is a net producer of acetate and possessed detectable butyrate kinase, acetate kinase, and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase activities. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study we describe a gene-targeted approach for 454 pyrotag sequencing andquantitative polymerase chain reaction for the final genes in the two primarybacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase( but ) and butyrate kinase ( buk ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyl-transferase activity by cholesterol is not due to altered mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by intermittent ketoacidotic crises and persistent ketosis. (nih.gov)
  • 3-ketoacid CoA transferase ( SCOT ) deficiency causes episodic ketoacidotic crises and no apparent symptoms between them. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Other names in common use include 3-oxoacid coenzyme A-transferase, 3-ketoacid CoA-transferase, 3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase, 3-oxo-CoA transferase, 3-oxoacid CoA dehydrogenase, acetoacetate succinyl-CoA transferase, acetoacetyl coenzyme A-succinic thiophorase, succinyl coenzyme A-acetoacetyl coenzyme A-transferase, and succinyl-CoA transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible pathway for phaselic acid biosynthesis predicts a hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) capable of forming caffeoyl and/or p -coumaroyl esters with malate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Together, these results indicate that HCT1 is involved in monolignol biosynthesis and HCT2 is a novel transferase likely involved in phaselic acid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The sequence similarity of RhlA to transacylases, such as PhaG ( 26 ), which is involved in poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis, led to the proposal that RhlA is a transacylase that catalyzes the transfer of β-hydroxydecanoyl moieties from acyl carrier protein (ACP) to coenzyme A (CoA) ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Also known as Probable coenzyme A transferase subunit alpha (Probable CoA-transferase subunit alpha). (mybiosource.com)
  • Probably it is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. (cbd.int)
  • MBS074178 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the 3-Oxoacid Coenzyme A Transferase 1 (OXCT1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 57 3-Oxoacid CoA Transferase 1 (OXCT1) Antikörper von 16 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Systematic names of transferases are constructed in the form of "donor:acceptor grouptransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The names of transferases are formed according to the sequence dononacceptor-transferred group-transferase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), the central intermediate in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, can potentially serve as a precursor for the enzymatic production of a wide diversity of organic compounds ( 4 , 13 , 17 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Metabolically-engineered cyanobacteria introduced with a heterologous Coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway modified from Clostridium species can convert atmospheric CO 2 into 1-butanol. (springer.com)
  • A peroxisomal-specific pathway for acetyl-CoA transport requiring peroxisomal carnitine acetyl transferase (CAT) activity has been identified in Magnaporthe grisea peroxisomes. (apsnet.org)
  • The epoxypropane enantiomers are subsequently metabolized by a three-step linear pathway that uses four enzymes and the atypical cofactor coenzyme M (CoM) (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) to catalyze the net carboxylation of epoxypropane to form the central metabolite acetoacetate, as shown in Fig. 1 ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 20 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Transcriptional and functional analysis of oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase and formyl-CoA transferase genes from Lactobacillus acidophilus . (springer.com)
  • Lactose-inducible expression of the four heterologous genes necessary to convert acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to acetone diverted ca. 60% of carbon flow to acetone production during growth on fructose, and 25% of carbon flow went to acetone when carbon monoxide was the electron donor. (asm.org)
  • Genes for the putative A and B subunits of H.pylori CoA-transferase were introduced into the bacterial expressionvector pKK223-3 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM105 cells. (embl.de)
  • 3050, or ninety seven percent of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genes genes] all code for proteins, meaning that a large portion of ''Acetobacter aceti'' is to produce protein. (kenyon.edu)
  • It catalyses the transfer of coenzyme A (CoA) from succinyl-CoA to acetoacetate with a classical ping-pong mechanism. (rcsb.org)
  • Cloning and characterization of Helicobacter pylori succinylCoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase, a novel prokaryotic member of theCoA-transferase family. (embl.de)
  • Amino acidsequence comparisons, combined with measurements of enzyme activitiesusing different CoA donors and acceptors, identified the H. pyloriCoA-transferase as a succinyl CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase. (embl.de)
  • ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase (ACAT) enzymes convert vitamin B12 to coenzyme B12. (nih.gov)
  • In enzymology, a 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (EC 2.8.3.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction succinyl-CoA + a 3-oxo acid ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } succinate + a 3-oxoacyl-CoA Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are succinyl-CoA and 3-oxo acid, whereas its two products are succinate and 3-oxoacyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidoreductases and transferases account for about 50 percent of the approximately 1,000 enzymes recognized thus far. (britannica.com)
  • V. The oxidoreductases, the transferases and the hydrolases of the pineal gland. (springer.com)
  • The midway gene encodes a protein similar to mammalian acyl coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which converts diacylglycerol (DAG) into triacylglycerol (TAG). (genetics.org)
  • OXCT2 (3-Oxoacid CoA-Transferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen 3-Oxoacid CoA Transferase 1 Proteine (9) und 3-Oxoacid CoA Transferase 1 Kits (4) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • For these strains, epoxyalkane:CoM transferase (EaCoMT) forms hydroxyethylthioether conjugates which are believed to undergo subsequent dehydrogenation and conversion to acetyl-CoA rather than carboxylation ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Association of missense mutations in epoxyalkane coenzyme M transferase with adaptation of Mycobacterium sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The stereoselectivity and catalytic properties of Xanthobacter autotrophicus 2-[(R)-2-Hydroxypropylthio]ethanesulfonate dehydrogenase are controlled by interactions between C-terminal arginine residues and the sulfonate of coenzyme M. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mechanism of the catalytic action of the transferases studied to date includes the formation of an intermediate made up of the enzyme and group being transferred. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and F. prausnitzii possessed butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase and acetate kinase activities, but butyrate kinase activity was not detectable either in growing or in stationary-phase cultures. (elsevier.com)
  • A relative lack of endogenous coenzyme Q, as well as a circadian rhythm of this coenzyme, highly influenced the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. (springer.com)
  • It is concluded that succinate dehydrogenase activity in the pineal gland of the rat is regulated by changing the concentration of the active enzyme itself as well as the level of the endogenous coenzyme Q. Whether this is caused by a circadian rhythm in the synthesis or in the catabolism of the enzyme and the coenzyme was not revealed by the present study. (springer.com)
  • Succinyl-CoA is an important intermediate in the citric acid cycle, where it is synthesized from α-Ketoglutarate by α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) through decarboxylation, and is converted into succinate through the hydrolytic release of coenzyme A by succinyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.5). (hmdb.ca)
  • Transferases are involved in myriad reactions in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other four groups of reactions are the transferases -which catalyze reactions in which substances other than hydrogen are transferred-the lyases , the isomerases , and the ligases . (britannica.com)
  • They catalyse reversible transfer reactions of coenzyme A groups from CoA-thioesters to free acids. (embl.de)
  • 3K6M: Dynamic domains of Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase from pig heart. (rcsb.org)
  • Violin plots show distribution of expression levels for Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase (SMED30015906) in cells (dots) of each of the 12 neoblast clusters. (stowers.org)
  • Expression of Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase (SMED30015906) in the t-SNE clustered sub-lethally irradiated X1 and X2 cells. (stowers.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is succinyl-CoA:3-oxo-acid CoA-transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary molecule ''Acetobacter aceti'' produces is [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetic_acid acetic acid]. (kenyon.edu)
  • A closer analysis revealed that while both rhlA and rhlB mutants fail to produce rhamnolipids, rhlA mutants did produce HAA, indicating that RhlA is required for the formation of the HAA portion of the molecule and assigning RhlB a role as the rhamnosyl transferase ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Another example of historical significance relating to transferase is the discovery of the mechanism of catecholamine breakdown by catechol-O-methyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methylamine:L-glutamate N-methyltransferase would be the standard naming convention for the transferase methylamine-glutamate N-methyltransferase, where methylamine is the donor, L-glutamate is the acceptor, and methyltransferase is the EC category grouping. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a DNA methyltransferase is a transferase that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to a DNA acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbionts appear to be auxotrophic for some vitamins, but have the potential to produce most amino acids as well as rare cofactors like coenzyme F 420 . (pnas.org)
  • Family I consists of CoA-transferases for 3-oxoacids ( EC 2.8.3.5 , EC 2.8.3.6 ), short-chain fatty acids ( EC 2.8.3.8 , EC 2.8.3.9 ) and glutaconate ( EC 2.8.3.12 ). (embl.de)
  • Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the CoA esters of various lipids to the free acids and coenzyme A, thereby regulating levels of these compounds. (hmdb.ca)
  • De novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids, mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, acylation of certain secondary metabolites and coenzymes, fatty acid elongation, and the vast diversity of mycobacterial lipids each result from specific FAS activities. (asm.org)
  • Purification and characterization of oxalyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase from Oxalobacter formigenes . (springer.com)
  • Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Glycine max sterol methyl transferase 2. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mechanistically, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction would be a transferase: X g r o u p + Y → t r a n s f e r a s e X + Y g r o u p {\displaystyle Xgroup+Y{\xrightarrow[{transferase}]{}}X+Ygroup} In the above reaction, X would be the donor, and Y would be the acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This same action by the transferase can be illustrated as follows: methylamine + L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } NH3 + N-methyl-L-glutamate However, other accepted names are more frequently used for transferases, and are often formed as "acceptor grouptransferase" or "donor grouptransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poplar vascular tissue showing feruloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) monolignol transferase (FMT) expression. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The researchers identified an enzyme (coniferyl ferulate feruloyl-CoA monolignol transferase) in other plants that contain more digestible lignin monomers, then expressed it in poplar. (greencarcongress.com)
  • In this case, an amino acid chain is the functional group transferred by a peptidyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earliest discoveries of transferase activity occurred in other classifications of enzymes, including Beta-galactosidase, protease, and acid/base phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase activity and CoA-transferase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Activity assays of HCT1 and HCT2 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli indicate that HCT1 transfers caffeoyl or p -coumaroyl moieties from a coenzyme A-thiolester to shikimate but not malate, whereas HCT2 transfers caffeoyl or p -coumaroyl moieties from a coenzyme A-thiolester to malate but not shikimate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast, many other enzyme molecules require coenzymes for their activity. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • For example, alanine aminotransferase, which transfers the α-amino group from alanine to α-ketoglutarate, contains the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate within its active site. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The transferase class includes more than 450 enzymes, divided by the chemical nature of the group being transferred into subclasses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The histochemical use of PMS and exogenous coenzyme Q 10 as intermediate carriers. (springer.com)
  • Transferases are common in plant and animal tissues, as well as in microorganisms. (thefreedictionary.com)