A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC or GTP to GDP (EC and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC
Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A degradation process whereby incorrectly folded proteins are selectively transported out of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and into the CYTOSOL. The misfolded proteins are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the PROTEASOME.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Biological catalysts and their cofactors.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.

Epidermal growth factor regulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism in Caco-2 cells. (1/783)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been reported to stimulate carbohydrate, amino acid, and electrolyte transport in the small intestine, but its effects on lipid transport are poorly documented. This study aimed to investigate EGF effects on fatty acid uptake and esterification in a human enterocyte cell line (Caco-2). EGF inhibited cell uptake of [14C]palmitate and markedly reduced its incorporation into triglycerides. In contrast, the incorporation in phospholipids was enhanced. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, key steps of lipid synthesis were investigated. The amount of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), which is thought to be important for fatty acid absorption, and the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), an enzyme at the branch point of diacylglycerol utilization, were reduced. EGF effects on DGAT and on palmitate esterification occurred at 2-10 ng/ml, whereas effects on I-FABP and palmitate uptake occurred only at 10 ng/ml. This suggests that EGF inhibited palmitate uptake by reducing the I-FABP level and shifted its utilization from triglycerides to phospholipids by inhibiting DGAT. This increase in phospholipid synthesis might play a role in the restoration of enterocyte absorption function after intestinal mucosa injury.  (+info)

The synthesis and hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A thioesters by soluble and microsomal fractions from the brain of the developing rat. (2/783)

1. The specific activities of long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase (EC6.2.1.3) and of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA hydrolase (EC3.1.2.2) were measured in soluble and microsomal fractions from rat brain. 2. In the presence of either palmitic acid or stearic acid, the specific activity of the ligase increased during development; the specific activity of this enzyme with arachidic acid or behenic acid was considerably lower. 3. The specific activities of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction decreased markedly (75%) between 6 and 20 days after birth; by contrast, the corresponding specific activities in the soluble fraction showed no decline. 4. Stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction is inhibited (99%) by bovine serum albumin; this is in contrast with the microsomal fatty acid-chain-elongation system, which is stimulated 3.9-fold by albumin. Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase does not stimulate stearoyl-CoA chain elongation. Therefore it does not appear likely that the decline in the specific activity of hydrolase during myelogenesis is responsible for the increased rate of fatty acid chain elongation. 5. It is suggested that the decline in specific activity of the microsomal hydrolase and to a lesser extent the increase in the specific activity of the ligase is directly related to the increased demand for long-chain acyl-CoA esters during myelogenesis as substrates in the biosynthesis of myelin lipids.  (+info)

Localization of adipocyte long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase at the plasma membrane. (3/783)

Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FACS) catalyzes esterification of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) with coenzyme A (CoA), the first step in fatty acid metabolism. FACS has been shown to play a role in LCFA import into bacteria and implicated to function in mammalian cell LCFA import. In the present study, we demonstrate that FACS overexpression in fibroblasts increases LCFA uptake, and overexpression of both FACS and the fatty acid transport protein (FATP) have synergistic effects on LCFA uptake. To explore how FACS contributes to LCFA import, we examined the subcellular location of this enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes which natively express this protein and which efficiently take up LCFAs. We demonstrate for the first time that FACS is an integral membrane protein. Subcellular fractionation of adipocytes by differential density centrifugation reveals immunoreactive and enzymatically active FACS in several membrane fractions, including the plasma membrane. Immunofluorescence studies on adipocyte plasma membrane lawns confirm that FACS resides at the plasma membrane of adipocytes, where it co-distributes with FATP. Taken together, our data support a model in which imported LCFAs are immediately esterified at the plasma membrane upon uptake, and in which FATP and FACS function coordinately to facilitate LCFA movement across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Development and initial evaluation of a novel method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid utilization in vivo using (R)-2-bromopalmitate tracer. (4/783)

We describe a method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid (FFA) utilization in vivo using a non-beta-oxidizable FFA analog, [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP). Ideally 3H-R-BrP would be transported in plasma, taken up by tissues and activated by the enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) like native FFA, but then 3H-labeled metabolites would be trapped. In vitro we found that 2-bromopalmitate and palmitate compete equivalently for the same ligand binding sites on albumin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and activation by ACS was stereoselective for the R-isomer. In vivo, oxidative and non-oxidative FFA metabolism was assessed in anesthetized Wistar rats by infusing, over 4 min, a mixture of 3H-R-BrP and [U-14C] palmitate (14C-palmitate). Indices of total FFA utilization (R*f) and incorporation into storage products (Rfs') were defined, based on tissue concentrations of 3H and 14C, respectively, 16 min after the start of tracer infusion. R*f, but not Rfs', was substantially increased in contracting (sciatic nerve stimulated) hindlimb muscles compared with contralateral non-contracting muscles. The contraction-induced increases in R*f were completely prevented by blockade of beta-oxidation with etomoxir. These results verify that 3H-R-BrP traces local total FFA utilization, including oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Separate estimates of the rates of loss of 3H activity indicated effective 3H metabolite retention in most tissues over a 16-min period, but appeared less effective in liver and heart. In conclusion, simultaneous use of 3H-R-BrP and [14C]palmitate tracers provides a new useful tool for in vivo studies of tissue-specific FFA transport, utilization and metabolic fate, especially in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, DNA sequence and cloning of a pimeloyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas mendocina 35. (5/783)

A pimeloyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas mendocina 35 was purified and characterized, the DNA sequence determined, and the gene cloned into Escherichia coli to yield an active enzyme. The purified enzyme had a pH optimum of approximately 8.0, Km values of 0.49 mM for pimelic acid, 0.18 mM for CoA and 0.72 mM for ATP, a subunit Mr of approximately 80000 as determined by SDS/PAGE, and was found to be a tetramer by gel-filtration chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 77.3 units/mg of protein. The enzyme was not absolutely specific for pimelic acid. The relative activity for adipic acid (C6) was 72% and for azaleic acid (C9) was 18% of that for pimelic acid (C7). The N-terminal amino acid was blocked to amino acid sequencing, but controlled proteolysis resulted in three peptide fragments for which amino acid sequences were obtained. An oligonucleotide gene probe corresponding to one of the amino acid sequences was synthesized and used to isolate the gene (pauA, pimelic acid-utilizing A) coding for pimeloyl-CoA synthetase. The pauA gene, which codes for a protein with a theoretical Mr of 74643, was then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed similarity to hypothetical proteins from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyrococcus horikoshii, E. coli and Streptomyces coelicolor, and some limited similarity to microbial succinyl-CoA synthetases. The similarity with the protein from A. fulgidus was especially strong, thus indicating a function for this unidentified protein. The pauA gene was cloned into E. coli, where it was expressed and resulted in an active enzyme.  (+info)

Preventing neurodegeneration in the Drosophila mutant bubblegum. (6/783)

The Drosophila melanogaster recessive mutant bubblegum (bgm) exhibits adult neurodegeneration, with marked dilation of photoreceptor axons. The bubblegum mutant shows elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), as seen in the human disease adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In ALD, the excess can be lowered by dietary treatment with "Lorenzo's oil," a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids. Feeding the fly mutant one of the components, glyceryl trioleate oil, blocked the accumulation of excess VLCFAs as well as development of the pathology. Mutant flies thus provide a potential model system for studying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and screening drugs for treatment.  (+info)

The prpE gene of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 encodes propionyl-CoA synthetase. (7/783)

Biochemical and genetic evidence is presented to demonstrate that the prpE gene of Salmonella typhimurium encodes propionyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme required for the catabolism of propionate in this bacterium. While prpE mutants used propionate as carbon and energy source, prpE mutants that lacked acetyl-CoA synthetase (encoded by acs) did not, indicating that Acs can compensate for the lack of PrpE in prpE mutants. Cell-free extracts enriched for PrpE catalysed the formation of propionyl-CoA in a propionate-, ATP-, Mg2+- and HS-CoA dependent manner. Acetate substituted for propionate in the reaction at 48% the rate of propionate; butyrate was not a substrate for PrpE. The propionyl-CoA synthetase activity of PrpE was specific for ATP. GTP, ITP, CTP and TTP were not used as substrates by the enzyme. UV-visible spectrophotometry, HPLC and MS data demonstrated that propionyl-CoA was the product of the reaction catalysed by PrpE.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of 1,2-dieicosapentaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in Caenorhabditis elegans. (8/783)

Previously, we showed that lowering the growth temperature increased the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we investigated the molecular species composition of PtdCho of C. elegans, with an emphasis on EPA-containing species. C. elegans contained a substantial amount of 1,2-dipolyunsaturated fatty acid-containing PtdCho (1,2-diPUFA-PtdCho) species, such as arachidonic acid/EPA and EPA/EPA, which are unusual phospholipids in higher animals. The EPA/EPA-PtdCho content was significantly increased in C. elegans grown at a low temperature. To examine the possibility that the acyltransferase activity involved in the remodeling of phospholipids accounts for the production of 1,2-diPUFA-PtdCho, we investigated the substrate specificity of this enzyme in C. elegans and found that it did not exhibit a preference for saturated fatty acid for acylation to the sn-1 position of PtdCho. The efficacy of the esterification of EPA to the sn-1 position was almost equal to that of stearic acid. The lack of preference for a saturated fatty acid for acylation to the sn-1 position of PtdCho is thought to result in the existence of the unusual 1,2-diEPA-PtdCho in C. elegans.  (+info)

Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (fatty acid: CoA ligase, AMP-forming; (EC catalyzes the formation of fatty acyl-CoA by a two-step process that proceeds through the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate. Fatty acyl-CoA represents bioactive compounds that are involved in protein transport, enzyme activation, protein acylation, cell signaling, and transcriptional control in addition to serving as substrates for beta oxidation and phospholipid biosynthesis. Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase occupies a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, particularly in lipid metabolism. Our interest in fatty acyl-CoA synthetase stems from the identification of this enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (LCFA) by microarray analysis. We found this enzyme to be differentially expressed by |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| amastigotes resistant to antimonial treatment. In the present study, we confirm the presence of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase gene in the genome of clinical isolates of |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| collected from the
In a longitudinal cohort of ∼700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (|25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC) DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5′-CpG island(s) (5′-CGI). Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) exhibited the highest concordance between
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Target genes of hsa-let-7a, hsa-let-7b, and hsa-let7g. Gene Symbol RefSeq Gene Name 2-PDE NM_177966 2-phosphodiesterase ABCB9 NM_019624 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), ABCC10 NM_033450 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 10 ABCC5 NM_005688 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 5 ACSL6 NM_001009185 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 ACTR2 NM_001005386 actin-related protein 2 isoform a ACVR1B NM_004302 activin A type IB receptor isoform a precursor ACVR2A NM_001616 activin A receptor, type IIA precursor ADAM15 NM_207191 a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 15 ADAMTS5 NM_007038 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 ADAMTS8 NM_007037 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 ADCY9 NM_001116 adenylate cyclase 9 ADIPOR2 NM_024551 adiponectin receptor 2 ADRB2 NM_000024 adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface ADRB3 NM_000025 adrenergic, beta-3-, receptor AHCTF1 NM_015446 transcription factor ELYS AKAP6 NM_004274 ...
The elevation of synthesis and export of fatty acids from the chloroplast following N deprivation could indicate that TAG is assembled from fatty acids that are synthesized de novo. This step would require the activation of the fatty acids by a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. In fact, increased abundance of RNA encoding a putative long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase was observed, and the respective protein has been identified in the lipid droplet proteome (Moellering and Benning, 2010). However, another enzyme that could contribute to the changing spectrum of fatty acids is a putative phospholipid/glycerol acyltransferase, for which the transcript level decreased during N deprivation. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases are likely to play a key role in determining the fate of fatty acids in the cell (Shockey et al., 2002). Regulation of the respective genes could be a major factor in controlling the flux of fatty acids toward glycerolipid synthesis and their degradation by β-oxidation.. Major ...
Development of an in vitro Model System for Assessing the Effect of the Adrenoleukodstrophy Protein on Very Long-Chain acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity ...
SLC27A2, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase,bile acyl-CoA synthetase,solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2,solute carrier family 27 member ...
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Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Buy Bubblegum Flavor Glee Gum online at our all-natural candy store. Bubblegum Flavor Glee Gum is in stock and ready to ship same day.
Tuberculosis is a notorious disease responsible for the deaths of 1.4 million people worldwide. A third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium causing the disease. The increase of multi drug-resistant strains worsens the situation, and the World Health Organization has declared tuberculosis to be a global emergency. The bacterium envelopes itself with a unique set of very long-chain lipids that play an important role in virulence and drug resistance. Therefore enzymes involved in lipid metabolism are putative drug targets. To allow entry into different metabolic pathways and transmembrane transport, fatty acids have to be activated. This is done primarily by fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs). We identified an ACS possibly involved in the bacteriums virulence and solved its structure. Structural interpretation combined with previously reported data gives us insights into the details of its function. This enzyme is known to harbor lipid substrates ...
The capacity of foetal and neonatal liver to oxidize short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids was studied in the guinea pig. Liver mitochondria from foetal and newborn animals were unable to synthesize ketone bodies from octanoate, but octanoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine were readily ketogenic. The ketogenic capacity at 24 h after birth was as high as in adult animals. Hepatocytes isolated from term animals were unable to oxidize fatty acids, but at 6 h after birth production of 14CO2, acid-soluble products and acetoacetate from 1-14C-labelled fatty acids was 40-50% of the rates at 24 h. At 12 h of age these rates had already reached the 24 h values and did not change during suckling in the first week of life. The activities of hepatic fatty acyl-CoA synthetases, which were minimal in the foetus or at term, increased to maximal values in 12-24 h. The data show that the capacity for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis develops maximally in this species during the first 6-12 h after birth, and ...
by: Elizabeth Kolar. To start, let me introduce myself as I am a new writer for HBN! I am a Ph.D. candidate in the Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology graduate program at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. I work on the fourth floor of the Kennedy Krieger Institute for Paul Watkins, M.D., Ph.D. As a lab, we study the role of fatty acid metabolism and the associated enzymes in different neurological diseases. My thesis research focuses on one enzyme that belongs to the acyl-CoA synthetase family of enyzmes known as ACSVL3.. Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) are a family of proteins that activate fatty acids that have been synthesized de novo by the cell or those that have been brought into the cell. This occurs by adding a Coenzyme A via a thioester bond. After this step, the fatty acid can be metabolized in a number of different pathways. These activated fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids, used in beta-oxidation to create energy, or be used for post-translational ...
An extensive heterogeneous kinetic study was carried out for acid catalysed propionylation of cotton cellulose. In this study a series of metal chlorides and sulphuric acid as catalysts were used, and the effect of temperature, solvent medium, propionylation solution composition, and catalyst concentration on propionylation were investigated. The degree of propionylation was determined by a saponification method and, where necessary, confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and microanalysis. The reaction process was described on the basis of an initial, first, and second stage. Up to 15% of the completed reaction appeared to take place in the initial stage which is suggested to be diffusion controlled. Whereas the first and second stages were shown to be nondiffusion ones since they obeyed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to the reacting hydroxyl groups. A mechanism and transition state complex were proposed for the propionylation reaction. Acid catalysed propionylation conditions (catalyst, ...
See, I had my own info day last month when my MRI showed that the bubblegum dustbunny has been cultivating itself again, albeit only by a miniscule amount and without any increase in aggressiveness. Growing, more or less, according to plan. It is consistent, displaying extraordinary obedience and an enviable sense of decorum, precisely the sort of goody-goody that is bound to rebel in the most hideous way as soon as puberty sets in and the glories of sex, drugs, and rock n roll descend upon it. It cant be killed, of course - it will always grow back, a perpetual zombie. But it can be somewhat sterilized, so to speak, mutilated before it reaches the age of reproduction and goes out and gets itself knocked up and squeezes out further versions of itself, polluting our planet with inferior beings. My inner eugenicist leapt out as I made the decision to subject the thing to a second surgery in several months time. Sure, I could keep watching and waiting, but Id rather be cut open and get another ...
250ml. Ingredients: Purified aqua, Lauryl Glucoside, Cocamido Propyl Betaine, Citric Acid, Hydroxymethylglycinate, Grape Bubblegum Fragrance Oil and Colour. How to use: Squeeze a small amount onto a cloth or bath sponge. Rinse thoroughly. If irritation occurs discontinue use. ...
People who struggle to distinguish between the smell of bubblegum and petrol could be at risk of developing dementia, a new study suggests.
Acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 2B (ACSM2B), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, 20 µg.
Acsm2 (untagged) - Mouse acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 2 (Acsm2), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 3, (10ug), 10 µg.
Complete information for ALS2CL gene (Protein Coding), ALS2 C-Terminal Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Buy our Recombinant Human FACL4 protein. Ab152375 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
http://i266.photobucket.com/albums/ii253/infrasonic-recordings/INFRA059_Banner.jpg After supplying one of our hottest releases to date last year with All Day Long, Adam Kancerski joins us with his eagerly anticipated follow up and it has been well worth the wait. Trading in the soft, delicate pads and strings that made All Day Long so memorable for a darker and more sinister style, Adam supplies another standout track packed to the brim with energy and a sawing bassline which will quite
I made this card with the NEW MFT PI Read All About It Stamp set. I used pretty BasicGrey Lucile 6X6 Paper pad. I also used MFTs gorgeous Replenishments Heavyweight Card Stock in, Paver Red, Blue Raspberry, Bubblegum for Matting. I used several NEW MFT Die-namics...the NEW Mini Hybrid Heirloom Rose, the Layered Heart Border, and the Leaf-filled Flourish. I cut the Mini Hybrid Heriloom Roses from MFT Felt in Bubblegum and Paver Red. All the details can be found on my blog...http://inkingontheedge.blogspot.ca/2013/01/NPTPIReadallaboutit.html TFL! Hugs,t
The boy says And the teacher has TWO BOXES of Hubba Bubba bubblegum behind her desk and she never gives us any. And as you know - its the RAREST of all bubblegum ...
Complete information for ACSBG1 gene (Protein Coding), Acyl-CoA Synthetase Bubblegum Family Member 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Direct comparison of standard propionylation (Prop-x2) labeling and the hybrid (Prop-PIC) labeling method via LC-MS using a 1:1 mixture of labeled histone sampl
1FC4: Three-dimensional structure of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase from Escherichia coli complexed with a PLP-substrate intermediate: inferred reaction mechanism.
Revision: 10766 http://supertuxkart.svn.sourceforge.net/supertuxkart/?rev=10766&view=rev Author: hikerstk Date: 2012-01-30 22:20:31 +0000 (Mon, 30 Jan 2012) Log Message: ----------- Moved terrain particle effectrs from kart into kart_gfx. Modified Paths: -------------- main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart.hpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart_gfx.cpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart_gfx.hpp Modified: main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp =================================================================== --- main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp 2012-01-30 22:14:34 UTC (rev 10765) +++ main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp 2012-01-30 22:20:31 UTC (rev 10766) @@ -93,14 +93,12 @@ m_race_position = position; m_collected_energy = 0; m_finished_race = false; - m_wheel_toggle = 1; m_finish_time = 0.0f; m_bubblegum_time = 0.0f; m_invulnerable_time = 0.0f; m_squash_time = 0.0f; m_shadow_enabled = false; m_shadow = NULL; - m_terrain_particles = NULL; m_collision_particles = NULL; m_slipstream = NULL; m_skidmarks = NULL; @@ ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Human fatty acid transport protein 2a/very long chain Acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2a/Acsvl1) has a preference in mediating the channeling of exogenous n-3 fatty acids into phosphatidylinositol. AU - Melton, Elaina M.. AU - Cerny, Ronald L.. AU - Watkins, Paul A.. AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.. AU - Black, Paul N.. PY - 2011/9/2. Y1 - 2011/9/2. N2 - The trafficking of fatty acids across the membrane and into downstream metabolic pathways requires their activation to CoA thioesters. Members of the fatty acid transport protein/ very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FATP/Acsvl) family are emerging as key players in the trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into the cell and in intracellular fatty acid homeostasis.We have expressed two naturally occurring splice variants of human FATP2 (Acsvl1) in yeast and 293T-REx cells and addressed their roles in fatty acid transport, activation, and intracellular trafficking. Although both forms (FATP2a (M r 70,000) and FATP2b (M r 65,000 and lacking ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases. AU - Narita, Tomomi. AU - Naganuma, Tatsuro. AU - Sase, Yurie. AU - Kihara, Akio. PY - 2016/5/3. Y1 - 2016/5/3. N2 - Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for ...
Monarda Bubblegum Blast PP 27497 aka Bubblegum Blast Bee Balm. Grows in Sun. Flower Color is Pink and blooms in Spring, Summer. Hardiness zone 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. Characteristics: Fragrant Foliage Plants, Butterfly Attracting Plants, Cut flower plants, Deer Resistant Plants, Drought Tolerant Plants, Hummingbird Plants, Insect Attracting Plants, North American Native Plants, Plants Named After Animals, Rabbit Resistant Plants, , Cottage Garden Plants, Fairy Garden Plants, Gnome Gardens, Living Wall --- Monarda Bubblegum Blast, buy Monarda Bubblegum Blast for sale from Plant Delights Nursery, award-winning mail order perennial plants on-line; buy , Bee Balm for sale, buy Monarda for sale, buy perennial plants for sale, sun garden perennials
Bubblegum Fragrance Room Sprays (Paraben Free) - Sweet berry bubblegum with candied notes of peach, strawberry, orange and vanilla.
Is the fair coming to town? No, its Hydrangea Candybelle Bubblegum! Admire the candy floss-like blooms of this show-stopping hydrangea. It produces large umbels of bubblegum pink flowers to contrast with its healthy green foliage. With sturdy stems and compact growth, this plant is ideal for those who want all the beauty of a hydrangea in an area with limited space. It can grow to 80cm in height with a 90cm spread when positioned in the sun in a moist but well-drained soil. To get the best out of the July-September flowering period, prune in spring. Height 80-90cm (32-36
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Activation of fatty acid import requires polio protein 2A.A. Schematic representation of poliovirus genome and truncated constructs used for expression of polio
Crazy Color Bubblegum Blue Hair Dye bottles are approx 100ml. Beeunique sell several other brands of alternative hair dyes and ship worldwide.
Crazy Color Bubblegum Pastel Spray bottles are approx 250ml. Beeunique sell several other brands of alternative hair dyes and ship worldwide.
In enzymology, a 2-coumarate reductase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-coumarate + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 2-coumarate, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-CH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called melilotate dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine metabolism. Levy CC; Weinstein GD (1964). The metabolism of coumarin by a microorganism. II. The reduction of o-coumaric acid to melilotic acid. Biochemistry. 3 (12): 1944-1947. doi:10.1021/bi00900a027. PMID 14269315. Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
border=1 cellspacing=0 !Gene!!Start!!End!!HK Gene!!Expression Breadth!!Description!!GO Term!!GO Function ,- ,ABHD12,,25223378,,25319477,,N,,17,,abhydrolase domain containing 12,,0016021,,integral to membrane ,- ,ACOT8,,43903767,,43919442,,N,,17,,acyl-CoA thioesterase 8,,0005515,,protein binding ,- ,ACSS1,,24934872,,24987616,,N,,16,,acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1,,0000166,,nucleotide binding ,- ,ACSS2,,32926405,,32979423,,Y,,18,,acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2,,0008610,,lipid biosynthetic process ,- ,ACTR5,,36810510,,36834503,,N,,12,,ARP5 actin-related protein 5 homolog (yeast),,0045449,,regulation of transcription ,- ,ADA,,42681576,,42713790,,N,,15,,adenosine deaminase,,0005515,,protein binding ,- ,ADAM33,,3596619,,3610738,,N,,10,,ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33,,0016020,,membrane ,- ,ADIG,,36643251,,36650518,,N,,1,,adipogenin,,0050873,,brown fat cell differentiation ,- ,ADNP,,48940289,,48980934,,Y,,18,,activity-dependent neuroprotector ...
Fatty acid activation occurs in the _______. Beta oxidation occurs in the ____________. Explain the transport system that shuttles fatty acids between these two cellular locations ...
Fine Art Conservation Laboratories (FACL, Inc.)Historic Murals Removed, Restored, Reinstalled - Minerva Teicherthttp://www.fineartconservationlab.com Fine art conservation, painting conservation, art restoration Fri, 27 Mar 2015 19:05:08 +0000 http://backend.userland.com/rss092 en
In other words, just when I thought the environment of the hamster wheel was sucking my soul out, I discover that the intense boredom of running round n round n round n round the track may be the end of me. Not only do I have to carry my full body weight without mechanical intervention, and I have to actually propel myself forwards using only my own strength, I now get bored and cant always come up with enough angry thoughts to motivate my scurrying. Could it be that I need television to make me angry, which in turn fuels the running? A rotten carrot to chase? I cant think about politics because I would end up shredding the metal fence, thus rendering my entire physical being useless. And I cant think about skool or Ill sit down and cry. And thinking about my brain is not a reliable option either, for the track is not the place for metacognitive speculations. That would lead me into a mysterious metaphysical mist and transport me into a distant dimension. ...
My body was given one month to recover from the first round of treatment. Happy birthday to me. And now, I have just completed my first five days of adjuvant chemotherapy, which was meant to begin a week before but had to be delayed due to low white blood cell count. I took that glorious month of rest time to do not much resting, lose a bit more hair and most of my eyebrows (I never really associated you with eyebrows, a friend commented when I expressed concern over the loss of that which was historically quite faint but had definitely gone) (But I now have five oclock shadow over my eyes: them brows be coming back again!). And thennnnn, I got the chemo rash, and then continued to procrastinate on correspondence, and finally, I did something I rarely do: watch television. I did not last long with that, except for the fairly uninformative national news. Well, barring the in-depth coverage of heartbreaking fires consuming the everything of people in the north of my province. Those images which ...
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This site has features Features include this sites Hover Navigation; Carousel; Gallery; Cart; and Checkout. that require Javascript Javascript is a web browser technology that adds advanced behaviour to websites in order to make them more rich and interactive. Please note Java is different and is not required. . Please follow these instructions to enable it in your browser ...
Recombinant protein of human acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), transcript variant 1, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Sunday morning coming up. Music for the revolution in my head: choogling punks; power pop, both skinny-tied and long-haired; soul shouters and girl groups; bubblegum and acid rock; global fuzz; weirdos and outsiders, and the Weirdos and the Outsiders; Archie Shepp and J. Geils. Plus, live bands. ...
Sunday morning coming up. Music for the revolution in my head: choogling punks; power pop, both skinny-tied and long-haired; soul shouters and girl groups; bubblegum and acid rock; global fuzz; weirdos and outsiders, and the Weirdos and the Outsiders; Archie Shepp and J. Geils. Plus, live bands. ...
Wow! Now THAT really scared me. The imaginary HIV boogeyman muppet you showed us is undoubtedly sure to be found in your head, Erv, even though it has never been found in the blood of even a single of those diagnosed as poz. The HIV-Muppet-Monster you shared with us foolish followers of false beliefs, is obviously made out of Russian carpet, pre-chewed multi-colored bubblegum, and is all mixed with clumps of silly string. How absolutely terrifying!!! Amazing that after 350 billion has been given to researchers such as Erv, that we still have no cure for stopping those who continue to project these imaginary Muppet Monsters that keep on sprouting up in the heads of those on the $$HIV-research-bandwagon$$. Nonetheless, I look forward to the day when there is a cure for illusionary monster muppets, or at least earmuffs given out for protection from those such as Erv, who continue projecting and spouting and promoting illusions of killer sex muppets into the minds of those naive and ignorant enough ...
Out of all the offerings I ended up purchasing only one item but its changed my mind and made me want to indulge further because it was actually very good. I ended up purchasing NP Set Lipgloss in Nisi for $12 USD. This particular shade quite reminded me of the pink shade released with Diors Spring Collection which could account for why I liked it. Its a bright, bubblegum pink that could prove difficult to pull off on some tones but I think it ended up looking pretty good on me which I was surprised about because I was fearful all that pink would definately look horrid! But it ended up looking smashing with a bit of pink shadow and blushing pink cheeks ...
Before you buy Glee 20497 Triple Berry Chewing Gum, check out 4 Influenster reviews. Yesenia R. said I have tried the bubblegum and spearmint flavors....
The Altered Destinies is a fanfiction author that has written 63 stories for Ranma, X-overs, X-Files, Highlander, Fate/stay night, Dragon Ball Z, Evangelion, Bubblegum Crisis, Star Wars, Anime X-overs, Nuku Nuku, Oh My Goddess!, Tenchi Muyo, X-Men: The Movie, Conan the Barbarian/Destroyer, Greek Mythology, King Arthur, Frankenstein, and Urusei Yatsura.
From house to hip-hop, college rock to techno, bubblegum pop to post-punk, heavy metal to hardcore-here are our favorite tracks of the 1980s.
sp:ACSA_RALSO] acsA; probable acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acetate--coa ligase) (acyl-activating enzyme) protein; K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:] ...
Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... Abbreviations: ACP - Acyl carrier protein, CoA - Coenzyme A, NADP - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Note that ... combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of ... broken down to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate) to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give ...
The color scheme is as follows: enzyme, coenzymes, substrate names, metal ions, phosphate, and carbonate ... Ligases: carbon-carbon ligases (EC 6.4). Biotin dependent carboxylation. *Pyruvate carboxylase. *Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ... Tong L (August 2005). "Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery". ...
Organic cofactors are sometimes further divided into coenzymes and prosthetic groups. The term coenzyme refers specifically to ... "coenzymes and cofactors". Retrieved 2007-11-17.. *^ "Enzyme Cofactors". Archived from the original on 2003-05-05. Retrieved ... Coenzyme Q [46]. Electrons. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes Cytidine triphosphate [47]. Diacylglycerols and lipid head groups ... Coenzyme A [35]. Pantothenic acid (B5). ADP. Acetyl group and other acyl groups. Bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... Stage two involves four key Mur ubiquitin ligase enzymes: MurC (EC),[1] MurD (EC),[2] MurE (EC) [3] and MurF (EC).[4] These ... 6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE), and UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-tripeptide-D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase (MurF). This entry also includes ... All four Mur ligases are topologically similar to one another, even though they display low sequence identity. They are each ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... The common names of ligases often include the word "ligase", such as DNA ligase, an enzyme commonly used in molecular biology ... DNA ligase. References[edit]. *^ "Synthases and ligases". chem.qmul.ac.uk. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. ... This article is about general ligases. For DNA specific ligases, see DNA ligase. ...
... catalyzed by phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase (GAR synthetase). Due to the chemical lability of PRA, which has a half-life of ... which are transferred from the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate as 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and a carbon atom from bicarbonate (1). ...
Ligases: join two large molecules: Ab + C -, A-C + b. The individual enzymes are given a four-figure number which classifies ... Cofactors, or coenzymes, are helper molecules which are needed to make an enzyme work. They are not proteins, and may be ...
Ligases: join two large molecules: Ab + C -, A-C + b. The individual enzymes are given a four-figure number which classifies ... Cofactors, or coenzymes, are helper molecules which are needed to make an enzyme work. They are not proteins, and may be ... An introduction to enzyme and coenzyme chemistry. Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-86542-793-8 ...
There were several potential targets, with 30 steps in the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-coenzyme A.[140] ... "The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx mediates statin-induced muscle toxicity". The Journal of Clinical ... Tan, JT; Barry, AR (June 2017). "Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in the management of statin-associated myalgia". American Journal ... Potgieter M, Pretorius E, Pepper MS (March 2013). "Primary and secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency: the role of therapeutic ...
CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. Proton pumping pyrophosphatase (also ... It catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and, in eukaryotes, it is located in the inner ... Complex III (EC (also referred to as cytochrome bc1 or the coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase) is a proton ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], NADPH, and H+.. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl thioester reductase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH-specific 3-oxoacyl-[acylcarrier protein]reductase, and 3-oxoacyl-[ACP]reductase. This enzyme participates in fatty acid biosynthesis and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.. ...
Here they can be oxidized and combined with coenzyme A to form CO2, acetyl-CoA, and NADH, as in the normal cycle.[35] ... Most organisms utilize EC, succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) (despite its name, the enzyme operates in the pathway in ... Structural diagram of acetyl-CoA: The portion in blue, on the left, is the acetyl group; the portion in black is coenzyme A. ... FADH2, therefore, facilitates transfer of electrons to coenzyme Q, which is the final electron acceptor of the reaction ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... L-glutamine amido-ligase, (ADP-forming), 2-N-formyl-1-N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine, and amido-ligase (ADP- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds carbon-nitrogen ligases with ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide:L-glutamine amido-ligase (ADP-forming ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... E3 ligase activity[edit]. The E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. MDM2 binds ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • NEDD8 ligase activity. • disordered domain specific binding. • protein domain specific ... The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ...
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase. *Acetyl-CoA synthetase. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase ... L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming).[1][2][3][4][5][6] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
UBR4: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase component n-recognin 4. *UROD: uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (the gene for porphyria cutanea ... ACADM: acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain ... MUL1: Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1. *MUTYH (1p34 ... HMGCL: 3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A lyase (hydroxymethylglutaricaciduria). *HAO2 encoding protein Hydroxyacid ...
The coenzyme NAD+ was first discovered by the British biochemists Arthur Harden and William John Young in 1906.[91] They ... Other NAD-dependent enzymes include bacterial DNA ligases, which join two DNA ends by using NAD+ as a substrate to donate an ... Bugg T (2004). Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-4051-1452-5.. ... It acts as a coenzyme in redox reactions, as a donor of ADP-ribose moieties in ADP-ribosylation reactions, as a precursor of ...
ACADVL: acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long chain (17p13.1). *SHBG: Sex hormone binding globulin (17p13.1) ... RFFL: encoding enzyme E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase rififylin. *RNMTL1: encoding enzyme RNA methyltransferase-like protein 1 ...
UBE3A: ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (human papilloma virus E6-associated protein, Angelman syndrome) ... IVD: isovaleryl Coenzyme A dehydrogenase. *KATNBL1: encoding protein KATNBL1. *LARP6 encoding protein La-related protein 6 also ...
HACE1: HECT domain and Ankyrin repeat containing, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (6q21) ... MUT: methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase. *MYO6: myosin VI. *PARK2: Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin ...
... catalyzes the condensation reaction of the two-carbon acetate residue from acetyl coenzyme A and a molecule of ... These experiments have revealed that this single site alternates between two forms, which participate in ligase and hydrolase ... Two binding sites can be found therein: one reserved for citrate or oxaloacetate and the other for Coenzyme A. The active site ... Only when this citroyl-CoA has formed will another conformational change cause thioester hydrolysis and release coenzyme A. ...
"Entrez Gene: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase (trifunctional ... in which 3-ketoacyl CoA is cleaved by the thiol group of another molecule of Coenzyme A. The thiol is inserted between C-2 and ... "Deposition of Alzheimer's vascular amyloid-beta is associated with decreased expression of brain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A ...
Complex III/Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase. *Cytochrome c. *Complex IV/Cytochrome c oxidase ...
... is regulated by both allosteric control and by phosphorylation.. Hormones such as epinephrine, insulin and glucagon regulate glycogen phosphorylase using second messenger amplification systems that are linked to G proteins. Glucagon activates adenylate cyclase through a seven transmembrane receptor coupled to Gs which, in turn, activates adenylate cyclase to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP. cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). Next, PKA phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase, which, in turn, phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase b, transforming it into the active glycogen phosphorylase a. This phosphorylation is added onto the glycogen phosphorylase b serine 14. In the liver, glucagon activates another G-protein-linked receptor that triggers a different cascade, resulting in the activation of Phospholipase C (PLC). PLC indirectly causes the release of calcium from the hepatocytes' endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. The ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GTP and H2O, whereas its 3 products are formate, 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine, and diphosphate.. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in cyclic amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (diphosphate-forming). Other names in common use include guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase II, and GTP-8-formylhydrolase. This enzyme participates in riboflavin metabolism.. ...
Crystal structure of Tetrahymena Gcn5 with bound coenzyme A and histone H3 peptide (PDB 1QSN). The central core (green), ... flanking N- and C-terminal segments (blue), coenzyme A (orange), and histone peptide (red) are shown. ...
LDH in humans uses His(193) as the proton acceptor, and works in unison with the coenzyme (Arg99 and Asn138), and substrate ( ...
OST is a component of the translocon in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase complex.[3] The active site of OST is located about 4 nm from the lumenal face of the ER membrane.[4] It usually acts during translation as the nascent protein is entering the ER, but this cotranslational glycosylation is nevertheless called a posttranslational modification. A few examples have been found of OST activity after translation is complete.[5][6] Current opinion is that post-translational activity may occur if the protein is poorly folded or folds slowly.[6] ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate, whereas its two products are pyruvate and beta-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase. Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: alanine and aspartate metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, beta-alanine metabolism, and propanoate metabolism. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. ...
The 3 substrates of this enzyme are n-alkanal, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are alk-2-enal, NADH, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-CH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is n-alkanal:NAD(P)+ 2-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase, and NADPH:2-alkenal alpha,beta-hydrogenase. ...
Mutations in the MT-TI gene may also cause cardiomyopathy, a disorder of the heart characterized by the thickening of the heart, usually in the interventricular septum, which results in a weakened heart muscle that is unable to pump blood effectively. It is unclear why such mutations result in the symptoms of isolated cardiomyopathy.[5] Mutations of 4300A,G, 4295A,G, 4269A,G, and 4317A,G in the MT-TI gene have been found in patients with cardiomyopathy in varying severities and onset.[6][7][8][9] ...
There are three well-known and -studied classes of SOD metallic coenzymes that exist in plants. First, Fe SODs consist of two ...
EC6 Ligases (list). *. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. This EC 1.1.1 enzyme-related article is a stub. You can help ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16INK4a. This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb).[5] Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G1/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complexes and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G1 phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G1 phase. ...
EC6 Ligases (list). *. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. This EC 3.2 enzyme-related article is a stub. You can help ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and NAD+, whereas its 4 products are 2-oxoadipate, CO2, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). Other names in common use include 2-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate dehydrogenase, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase, homoisocitric dehydrogenase, (−)-1-hydroxy-1,2,4-butanetricarboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, (decarboxylating), 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), and HICDH. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis. ...
Under diabetic conditions AR converts glucose into sorbitol, which is then converted to fructose. 20466987 It has been found to play an important role in many diabetes complications such as diabetes retinopathy and renopathy.[10][11][12] It is also involved in many oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process including cardiovascular disorders, sepsis, and cancer.[13] It has been reported that he action of AR contributes to the activation of retinal microglia, suggesting that inhibition of AR may be of a therapeutic importance to reduce inflammation associated with activation of RMG.[14] Adapting AR inhibitors could as well prevent sepsis complications, prevent angiogenesis, ameliorate mild or asymptomatic diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and may be a promising strategy for the treatment of endotoxemia and other ROS-induced inflammatory diseases.[12] ...
Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 6-phospho-D-gluconate, and two products, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 6-phospho-D-gluconate hydro-lyase (2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate-forming). Other names in common use include 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrase, gluconate-6-phosphate dehydratase, gluconate 6-phosphate dehydratase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrase, and 6-phospho-D-gluconate hydro-lyase. This enzyme participates in Entner-Doudoroff pathway. ...
... a is the activated form of the coagulation factor thrombokinase, known eponymously as Stuart-Prower factor. Factor X is an enzyme, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role at several stages of the coagulation system. Factor X is synthesized in the liver. The most commonly used anticoagulants in clinical practice, warfarin and the heparin series of anticoagulants and fondaparinux, act to inhibit the action of Factor Xa in various degrees. Traditional models of coagulation developed in the 1960s envisaged two separate cascades, the extrinsic (tissue factor (TF)) pathway and the intrinsic pathway. These pathways converge to a common point, the formation of the Factor Xa/Va complex which together with calcium and bound on a phospholipids surface generate thrombin (Factor IIa) from prothrombin (Factor II). A new model, the cell-based model of anticoagulation appears to explain more fully the steps in coagulation. This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and H2O, whereas its two products are succinate and LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate amidohydrolase. This enzyme is also called N-succinyl-L-alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelic acid deacylase. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis. ...
GAD67 and GAD65 are also regulated differently post-translationally. Both GAD65 and GAD67 are regulated via phosphorylation of a dynamic catalytic loop,[10][11] but the regulation of these isoforms differs; GAD65 is activated by phosphorylation while GAD67 is inhibited by phosphorylation. GAD67 is predominantly found activated (~92%), whereas GAD65 is predominantly found inactivated (~72%).[12] GAD67 is phosphorylated at threonine 91 by protein kinase A (PKA), while GAD65 is phosphorylated, and therefore regulated by, protein kinase C (PKC). Both GAD67 and GAD65 are also regulated post-translationally by Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); GAD is activated when bound to PLP and inactive when not bound to PLP.[12] Majority of GAD67 is bound to PLP at any given time, whereas GAD65 binds PLP when GABA is needed for neurotransmission.[12] This reflects the functional properties of the two isoforms; GAD67 must be active at all times for normal cellular functioning, and is therefore constantly activated by ...
Main article: Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase. Complex III ((EC (also referred to as cytochrome bc1 or the ... CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. ... It catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and, in eukaryotes, it is located in the inner ... coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase) is a proton pump driven by electron transport. Complex III is a multisubunit ...
EC6 Ligases (list). *. Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. This article on a gene on human chromosome 12 is a stub. You can ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)) is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2.[7] The involvement of p110α in human cancer has been hypothesized since 1995. Support for this hypothesis came from genetic and functional studies, including the discovery of common activating PIK3CA missense mutations in common human tumors.[8] It has been found to be oncogenic and is implicated in cervical cancers.[9] PIK3CA mutations are present in over one-third of breast cancers, with enrichment in the luminal and in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive subtypes (HER2 +). The three hotspot mutation positions (GLU542, GLU545, and HIS1047) have been widely reported till date.[10] While substantial preclinical data show an association with robust ...
... s are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their peptide substrates. In general, they have two highly conserved aspartates in the active site and are optimally active at acidic pH. Nearly all known aspartyl proteases are inhibited by pepstatin. Aspartic endopeptidases EC 3.4.23. of vertebrate, fungal and retroviral origin have been characterised.[1] More recently, aspartic endopeptidases associated with the processing of bacterial type 4 prepilin[2] and archaean preflagellin have been described.[3][4] Eukaryotic aspartic proteases include pepsins, cathepsins, and renins. They have a two-domain structure, arising from ancestral duplication. Retroviral and retrotransposon proteases (retroviral aspartyl proteases) are much smaller and appear to be homologous to a single domain of the eukaryotic aspartyl proteases. Each domain contributes a catalytic Asp residue, with an extended active ...
... are a subgroup of the enzyme family, phosphoinositide 3-kinase that share a common protein domain structure, substrate specificity and method of activation. Class II PI 3-kinases were the most recently identified class of PI 3-kinases and little is currently known about these enzymes. There are three class II PI 3-kinase isoforms expressed in mammalian cells; ...
Negative allosteric modulation (also known as allosteric inhibition) occurs when the binding of one ligand decreases the affinity for substrate at other active sites. For example, when 2,3-BPG binds to an allosteric site on hemoglobin, the affinity for oxygen of all subunits decreases. This is when a regulator is absent from the binding site.. Direct thrombin inhibitors provides an excellent example of negative allosteric modulation. Allosteric inhibitors of thrombin have been discovered which could potentially be used as anticoagulants.. Another example is strychnine, a convulsant poison, which acts as an allosteric inhibitor of the glycine receptor. Glycine is a major post-synaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian spinal cord and brain stem. Strychnine acts at a separate binding site on the glycine receptor in an allosteric manner; i.e., its binding lowers the affinity of the glycine receptor for glycine. Thus, strychnine inhibits the action of an inhibitory transmitter, leading to ...
Sucrose intolerance (also known as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), genetic sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (GSID), or sucrase-isomaltase deficiency) occurs when sucrase is not being secreted in the small intestine. With sucrose intolerance, the result of consuming sucrose is excess gas production and often diarrhea and malabsorption. Lactose intolerance is a related disorder that reflects an individual's inability to hydrolyze the disaccharide lactose. Sucrase is secreted by the tips of the villi of the epithelium in the small intestine. Its levels are reduced in response to villi-blunting events such as celiac sprue and the inflammation associated with the disorder. The levels increase in pregnancy, lactation, and diabetes as the villi hypertrophy. ...
A deficiency of tyrosine hydroxylase leads to impaired synthesis of dopamine as well as epinephrine and norepinephrine. It is represented by a progressive encephalopathy and poor prognosis. Clinical features include dystonia that is minimally or nonresponsive to levodopa, extrapyramidal symptoms, ptosis, miosis, and postural hypotension. This is a progressive and often lethal disorder, which can be improved but not cured by levodopa.[39] Response to treatment is variable and the long-term and functional outcome is unknown. To provide a basis for improving the understanding of the epidemiology, genotype/phenotype correlation and outcome of these diseases their impact on the quality of life of patients, and for evaluating diagnostic and therapeutic strategies a patient registry was established by the noncommercial International Working Group on Neurotransmitter Related Disorders (iNTD).[40] Additionally alterations in the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity may be involved in disorders such as ...
4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar. Sandra M. Allina, Aviva Pri-Hadash, David A. Theilmann, Brian E. Ellis, Carl J. ... 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar. Sandra M. Allina, Aviva Pri-Hadash, David A. Theilmann, Brian E. Ellis, Carl J. ... 1996) Two divergent members of a tobacco 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) gene family. Plant Physiol 112:193-205. ... 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar. Properties of Native Enzymes, cDNA Cloning, and Analysis of Recombinant Enzymes ...
... to form coenzyme F420-0-glutamyl-glutamate (F420-2) or polyglutamated F420 derivatives. ... coenzyme F420-0 gamma-glutamyl ligase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase activity Source ... IPR008225 F420-0_g-glutamyl_ligase. IPR002847 F420-0_gamma-glut_ligase-dom. IPR023659 F420_ligase_CofE_arc. ... IPR008225 F420-0_g-glutamyl_ligase. IPR002847 F420-0_gamma-glut_ligase-dom. IPR023659 F420_ligase_CofE_arc. ...
... coenzyme A ligase differed in molecular characteristics from a previously described benzoate-coenzyme A ligase from R. ... A coenzyme A ligase that reacts with 4-hydroxybenzoate was purified from 4-hydroxybenzoate-grown cells of R. palustris. This ... 4-Hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris: purification, gene sequence, and role in anaerobic ... 4-Hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris: purification, gene sequence, and role in anaerobic ...
... to form coenzyme F420-0-glutamyl-glutamate (F420-2), with a gamma-linkage between the two glutamates. Cannot use F420-2 as ... coenzyme F420-0 gamma-glutamyl ligase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase activity Source ... IPR008225, F420-0_g-glutamyl_ligase. IPR002847, F420-0_gamma-glut_ligase-dom. IPR023659, F420_ligase_CofE_arc. ... IPR008225, F420-0_g-glutamyl_ligase. IPR002847, F420-0_gamma-glut_ligase-dom. IPR023659, F420_ligase_CofE_arc. ...
4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyzes the formation of hydroxycinnamates CoA esters, and plays an essential role at the ... 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyzes the formation of hydroxycinnamates CoA esters, and plays an essential role at the ... Coenzyme A ligases in Populus trichocarpa: novel specificity, metabolic regulation, and simulation of Coenzyme A ligation ... Allina, S. M., Pri-Hadash, A., Theilmann, D. A., Ellis, B. E., and Douglas, C. J. (1998). 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme A ligase in ...
4-Coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (4CL) mediates activation of hydroxycinnamic acids 4-(p)-coumaric acid (PA), caffeic acid ( ... 1976) Phenolic metabolism in petunia tissues: properties of p-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase isoenzymes. Biochimie 58:1255-1262. ... 1997) Molecular cloning of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase in loblolly pine and the roles of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of ... 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) activates hydroxycinnamates for entry into phenylpropanoid branchways that support various ...
Jung, J.H., Kannan, B., Dermawan, H. et al. Precision breeding for RNAi suppression of a major 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase ... 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites, such as lignin and ... Ehlting J, Büttner D, Wang Q, Douglas CJ, Somssich IE, Kombrink E (1999) Three 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases in Arabidopsis ... Lee D, Meyer K, Chapple C, Douglas CJ (1997) Antisense suppression of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase activity in Arabidopsis ...
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... and the pqsA gene encodes a predicted protein with homology to acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligases. In order to elucidate the ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase. Journal of Bacteriology, 190(4), 1247- 1255. Retrieved from ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase. Journal of Bacteriology. February 2008; 190(4): 1247-1255. ... "Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase". Journal of Bacteriology. 190:4. (1247-1255), February 2008. ...
coenzyme binding ISO Inferred from Sequence Orthology. more info. glutamate binding ISO Inferred from Sequence Orthology. more ... Gclc glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit [Mus musculus] Gclc glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit [Mus ... glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunitprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:104990 See related. Ensembl: ... glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Names. GCS heavy chain. gamma GCS-HS. gamma-ECS. gamma-glutamylcysteine ...
FadD19 of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM43269, a Steroid-Coenzyme A Ligase Essential for Degradation of C-24 Branched Sterol Side ...
The third number places the enzyme in a subsubclass, which specifies the reaction type more fully; e.g., NAD coenzyme required ... ligases. The second number places the enzyme in a subclass based on substrate type or reaction type; e.g., the enzyme may act ... and the ligases. Oxidoreductases and transferases account for about 50 percent of the approximately 1,000 enzymes recognized ...
Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the early development of the brain and other body systems ... Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA ... Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency results from mutations in the SUCLA2 or SUCLG1 gene. SUCLG1 gene mutations can cause fatal ... Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the early development of the brain and other body systems ...
Coenzyme A Ligases / genetics * Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism * Epithelial Cells / metabolism* * Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins ...
Classification: LIGASE. *Organism(s): Saccharomyces cerevisiae. *Expression System: Escherichia coli. *Mutation(s): No ... ACETYL-COENZYME A CARBOXYLASE. A, B, C. 554. Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation(s): 0 EC: (PDB Primary Data), ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism. Soraphen A, a macrocyclic polyketide natural ... Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism. Soraphen A, a macrocyclic polyketide natural ...
CoA recycling by a benzoate coenzyme A ligase in cascade reactions with aroyltransferases to biocatalyze paclitaxel analogs * ...
GO:0016874 ligase activity Cellular Component. GO:0009317 acetyl-CoA carboxylase complex ...
View mouse Acbd3 Chr1:180726043-180754204 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The reaction product, benzoyl-CoA, was an effective inhibitor of the ligase reaction. The kinetic properties of the enzyme ... ligase was purified from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Synthesis of the enzyme was induced when cells ... match the kinetics of substrate uptake by whole cells and confirm a role for benzoate-CoA ligase in maintaining entry of ... A soluble benzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase was purified from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Synthesis ...
... coenzyme A ligase 1 gene affects lignin biosynthesis and increases the cell wall digestibility in maize brown midrib5 mutants ... Maize brown midrib Cell wall digestibility Lignin 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase ... MOESM15 of Mutation of 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase 1 gene affects lignin biosynthesis and increases the cell wall ...
Phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase. Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039) ... Phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase UniProtKBInterProSTRINGInteractive Modelling. 445 aa; Sequence (Fasta) Identical sequences: ...
3-Hydroxybenzoate:Coenzyme A Ligase from Cell Cultures of Centaurium erythraea: Isolation and Characterization. Barillas, ... Structural mechanisms of HECT-type ubiquitin ligases by Lorenz, Sonja. *Ancestral protein reconstruction: techniques and ...
The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... We found previously that long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 (FACL3), a critical enzyme for activation of long-chain fatty acids ... long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity - long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process - mitochondrial outer membrane - ... Expression and vitamin D3 regulation of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in human prostate cancer cells.. Prostaglandins ...
Coenzyme A Ligases / chemistry* * Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism* * Molecular Sequence Data * Sequence Alignment ...
Coenzyme F420:L-glutamate ligase, Actinobacteria (IPR023661). *NADH dehydrogenase/NAD(P)H nitroreductase, putative, RutE ( ...
... methyl-coenzyme M reductase; Mtr, coenzyme M methyltransferase; Mer, methylene-H4MPT reductase; Mch, methenyl-H4MPT ... The remaining fraction of the formyl moiety is transferred to H4F by the enzyme formyl-H4F-ligase and from there on is re- ... Beating the acetyl coenzyme A-pathway to the origin of life Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Beating the acetyl coenzyme A-pathway to the origin of life. Wolfgang Nitschke, Michael J. Russell ...
AFEX, ammonia fiber expansion; 4CL: 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; C3′ H, p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3′-hydroxylase; C4H, ... 2011). Silencing of 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase in switchgrass leads to reduced lignin content and improved fermentable ... 2012). Downregulation of maize cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase via RNA interference technology causes brown midrib and improves ... cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; CCR, cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O- ...
... acetate-coenzyme A ligase, SE2161; and conserved hypothetical protein, SE0692) on different days (table S5) (30). ...
cholate---CoA ligase;. BAL;. bile acid CoA ligase;. bile acid coenzyme A ligase;. choloyl-CoA synthetase;. choloyl coenzyme A ... cholic acid:CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A synthetase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha- ... Purification and characterization of a rat liver bile acid coenzyme A ligase from rat liver microsomes. ... THCA-CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate---CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta- ...
fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase;. butyrate---CoA ligase;. butyryl-coenzyme A synthetase;. L-(+)-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase;. ... medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase;. fadK (gene name);. lvaE (gene name);. butyryl-CoA synthetase;. fatty acid thiokinase (medium ... THE PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A BACTERIAL FATTY ACYL COENZYME A SYNTHETASE. ... PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A BUTYRYL COENZYME A SYNTHETASE FROM BOVINE HEART MITOCHONDRIA. ...
  • 2. Massaro, E.J. and Lennarz, W.J. The partial purification and characterization of a bacterial fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Our interest in fatty acyl-CoA synthetase stems from the identification of this enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (LCFA) by microarray analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • 8] "A new type of peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana has the catalytic capacity to activate biosynthetic precursors of jasmonic acid. (tcdb.org)
  • MBS7217563 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Acyl coenzyme A synthetase ACSM4, mitochondrial (ACSM4) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is broken down to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate) to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • One interesting target which emerged from our microarray experiments [ 4 ] was long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase (EC (GenBank Accession No. XM_001681734), a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids in all organisms [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 4-Hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris: purification, gene sequence, and role in anaerobic degradation. (asm.org)
  • The deduced gene product showed about 20% amino acid identity with bacterial coenzyme A ligases involved in aerobic degradation of aromatic acids. (asm.org)
  • An R. palustris mutant carrying a disrupted 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase gene was unable to grow with 4-hydroxybenzoate under anaerobic conditions, indicating that the enzyme is essential for anaerobic degradation of this compound. (asm.org)
  • The pqsABCDE operon has been identified as being necessary for PQS production, and the pqsA gene encodes a predicted protein with homology to acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligases. (ecu.edu)
  • Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency results from mutations in the SUCLA2 or SUCLG1 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in either the SUCLA2 or SUCLG1 gene disrupt the normal function of succinate-CoA ligase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. (cancerindex.org)
  • In the present study, we confirm the presence of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase gene in the genome of clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani collected from the disease endemic area in India. (hindawi.com)
  • This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric enzyme succinate coenzyme A ligase. (genecards.org)
  • SUCLG1 (Succinate-CoA Ligase GDP/ADP-Forming Subunit Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B 5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. (portlandpress.com)
  • 1] "The Arabidopsis thaliana 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) gene: stress and developmentally regulated expression and nucleotide sequence of its cDNA. (tcdb.org)
  • The 4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase differed in molecular characteristics from a previously described benzoate-coenzyme A ligase from R. palustris, and the two ligases did not cross-react immunologically. (asm.org)
  • Purification and properties of benzoate-coenzyme A ligase, a Rhodopseudomonas palustris enzyme involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzoate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alterations in glutamate cysteine ligase content in the retina of two retinitis pigmentosa animal models. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Alteration of Nrf2 and Glutamate Cysteine Ligase expression contribute to lesions growth and fibrogenesis in ectopic endometriosis. (nih.gov)
  • Data show that the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc)-derived glutathione buffers reactive oxygen species (ROS), and regulates metabolic reprogramming. (nih.gov)
  • Catalyzes the GTP-dependent successive addition of two or more gamma-linked L-glutamates to the L-lactyl phosphodiester of 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin (F420-0) to form coenzyme F420-0-glutamyl-glutamate (F420-2) or polyglutamated F420 derivatives. (uniprot.org)
  • Coenzyme F420:L-glutamate ligase (FbiB) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (C-terminal domain). (expasy.org)
  • The enzyme 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is important in providing activated thioester substrates for phenylpropanoid natural product biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) activates hydroxycinnamates for entry into phenylpropanoid branchways that support various metabolic activities, including lignification and flavonoid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites, such as lignin and flavonoids. (springer.com)
  • De novo sphingolipid biosynthesis starts with the condensation of serine and the product of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase. (hindawi.com)
  • D-4'-Phosphopantothenate is an intermediate in coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • Succinate-CoA ligase is involved in producing and maintaining the building blocks of mitochondrial DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Electrons (e − ) from carbon oxidations are transferred via NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into OXPHOS complex I, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM), then transported to coenzyme Q (Q). Some electrons from organic‐acid oxidations are transferred, via other flavin‐containing enzyme complexes directly to CoQ. (els.net)
  • The SUCLA2 and SUCLG1 genes each provide instructions for making one part (subunit) of an enzyme called succinate-CoA ligase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Transgenic events had different levels of down-regulation of two genes encoding 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase ( 4CL ). (usda.gov)
  • Accumulation of sterols in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to the accelerated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids. (pnas.org)
  • Sterol-induced ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase is one of several mechanisms through which mammalian cells modulate synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • This partial effect, coupled with the inefficiency of gp78-Insig-2 binding, led us to consider the possible existence of another ubiquitin ligase that contributes to reductase degradation. (pnas.org)
  • TRB3 directly interacts with ACC to promote its degradation via the E3 ubiquitin ligase constitutive photomorphogenic protein 1. (sciencemag.org)
  • The ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2 marks p53 and itself for degradation and is thus a critical regulatory node controlling cell death and survival. (sciencemag.org)
  • The product of the reaction, benzylsuccinate, is converted to phenylitaconyl coenzyme A (phenylitaconyl-CoA) by CoA transfer with succinyl-CoA and further metabolized through a series of β oxidation-like reactions to benzoyl-CoA. (asm.org)
  • It also works as a substrate for DNA ligases in posttranslational modification, where the reaction removes acetyl groups from proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • A coenzyme is a small, nonpolypeptide molecule tightly associated with an enzyme that participates in the reaction that the enzyme catalyzes, often by forming a covalent bond to the substrate. (brainscape.com)
  • The ligase (pink), dehydratase (yellow), and reductase (blue) domains of propionyl-CoA synthase are arranged around a shared reaction chamber. (acs.org)
  • Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism. (rcsb.org)
  • EC irreversibly catalyzes the conversion of acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A through an enzyme-bound acetyladenylate intermediate ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • This effect appears to be the result of decreased activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and consequent decreased synthesis of fatty acids. (sciencemag.org)
  • The PqsA protein was purified as a recombinant His-tagged polypeptide, and this protein was shown to have anthranilate-CoA ligase activity. (ecu.edu)
  • Anaerobic metabolism of most aromatic acids is initiated by coenzyme A thioester formation. (asm.org)
  • 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyzes the formation of hydroxycinnamates CoA esters, and plays an essential role at the divergence point from general phenylpropanoid metabolism to major branch pathway of coumarin. (frontiersin.org)
  • In metabolism, coenzymes play a role in group-transfer reactions, such as ATP and coenzyme A, and oxidation-reduction reactions, such as NAD+ and coenzyme Q10. (wikibooks.org)
  • Benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase (dearomatizing), a key enzyme of anaerobic aromatic metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structure guided design of biotin protein ligase inhibitors for antibiotic discovery. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Biotin protein ligase (BPL) represents a promising target for the discovery of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • A coenzyme A ligase that reacts with 4-hydroxybenzoate was purified from 4-hydroxybenzoate-grown cells of R. palustris. (asm.org)
  • The compound then reacts with Coenzyme A (CoA), CoA ligase, and ATP to attach CoA to the carboxylic acid group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex interplay of these two ubiquitin ligases, together with the two Insigs have important implications for variations in cell and/or tissue-specific regulation of reductase activity. (pnas.org)
  • Prosthetic groups refer to tightly bound coenzymes, while cosubstrates refer to loosely bound coenzymes that are released in the same way as substrates and products. (wikibooks.org)
  • The alpha subunit of the enzyme binds the substrates coenzyme A and phosphate, while succinate binding and specificity for either ATP or GTP is provided by different beta subunits. (genecards.org)
  • A cofactor is an inorganic ion or coenzyme required for an enzyme's activity. (brainscape.com)
  • Coenzyme A is a cofactor of ubiquitous occurrence in plants, bacteria, and animals. (hmdb.ca)
  • T4 DNA Ligase catalyzes the formation of phosphodiester bonds between juxtaposed 5' phosphate and 3' hydroxyl termini in double-stranded DNA using ATP as a coenzyme. (clontech.com)
  • the binding of the enzyme to a coenzyme forms a holoenzyme. (wikibooks.org)
  • We investigated the regulation of MDM2 substrate specificity and found that acetyltransferase p300-mediated acetylation and stabilization of MDM2 are molecular switches that block self-ubiquitination, thereby shifting its E3 ligase activity toward p53. (sciencemag.org)