Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Coenzyme ACoenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Cullin Proteins: A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.RING Finger Domains: A zinc-binding domain defined by the sequence Cysteine-X2-Cysteine-X(9-39)-Cysteine-X(l-3)-His-X(2-3)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine -X(4-48)-Cysteine-X2-Cysteine, where X is any amino acid. The RING finger motif binds two atoms of zinc, with each zinc atom ligated tetrahedrally by either four cysteines or three cysteines and a histidine. The motif also forms into a unitary structure with a central cross-brace region and is found in many proteins that are involved in protein-protein interactions. The acronym RING stands for Really Interesting New Gene.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.CobamidesCoenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport: A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Polyubiquitin: An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of a thioester bond between itself and UBIQUITIN. It then transfers the activated ubiquitin to one of the UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Mevalonic AcidHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins: A family of structurally-related proteins that were originally identified by their ability to complex with cyclin proteins (CYCLINS). They share a common domain that binds specifically to F-BOX MOTIFS. They take part in SKP CULLIN F-BOX PROTEIN LIGASES, where they can bind to a variety of F-BOX PROTEINS.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Protein Inhibitors of Activated STAT: A family of structurally related proteins that are constitutively expressed and that negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. PIAS proteins inhibit the activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins: A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sumoylation: A type of POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION by SMALL UBIQUITIN-RELATED MODIFIER PROTEINS (also known as SUMO proteins).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Corrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Receptors, Autocrine Motility Factor: Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases: Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.EstersMercaptoethanolGlutaratesArabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Xanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2: An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation: A degradation process whereby incorrectly folded proteins are selectively transported out of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and into the CYTOSOL. The misfolded proteins are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the PROTEASOME.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Enzymes and Coenzymes: Biological catalysts and their cofactors.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.DimethylaminesProtein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Choanoflagellata: An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.

Epidermal growth factor regulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism in Caco-2 cells. (1/783)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been reported to stimulate carbohydrate, amino acid, and electrolyte transport in the small intestine, but its effects on lipid transport are poorly documented. This study aimed to investigate EGF effects on fatty acid uptake and esterification in a human enterocyte cell line (Caco-2). EGF inhibited cell uptake of [14C]palmitate and markedly reduced its incorporation into triglycerides. In contrast, the incorporation in phospholipids was enhanced. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, key steps of lipid synthesis were investigated. The amount of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), which is thought to be important for fatty acid absorption, and the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), an enzyme at the branch point of diacylglycerol utilization, were reduced. EGF effects on DGAT and on palmitate esterification occurred at 2-10 ng/ml, whereas effects on I-FABP and palmitate uptake occurred only at 10 ng/ml. This suggests that EGF inhibited palmitate uptake by reducing the I-FABP level and shifted its utilization from triglycerides to phospholipids by inhibiting DGAT. This increase in phospholipid synthesis might play a role in the restoration of enterocyte absorption function after intestinal mucosa injury.  (+info)

The synthesis and hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A thioesters by soluble and microsomal fractions from the brain of the developing rat. (2/783)

1. The specific activities of long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase (EC6.2.1.3) and of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA hydrolase (EC3.1.2.2) were measured in soluble and microsomal fractions from rat brain. 2. In the presence of either palmitic acid or stearic acid, the specific activity of the ligase increased during development; the specific activity of this enzyme with arachidic acid or behenic acid was considerably lower. 3. The specific activities of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction decreased markedly (75%) between 6 and 20 days after birth; by contrast, the corresponding specific activities in the soluble fraction showed no decline. 4. Stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction is inhibited (99%) by bovine serum albumin; this is in contrast with the microsomal fatty acid-chain-elongation system, which is stimulated 3.9-fold by albumin. Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase does not stimulate stearoyl-CoA chain elongation. Therefore it does not appear likely that the decline in the specific activity of hydrolase during myelogenesis is responsible for the increased rate of fatty acid chain elongation. 5. It is suggested that the decline in specific activity of the microsomal hydrolase and to a lesser extent the increase in the specific activity of the ligase is directly related to the increased demand for long-chain acyl-CoA esters during myelogenesis as substrates in the biosynthesis of myelin lipids.  (+info)

Localization of adipocyte long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase at the plasma membrane. (3/783)

Long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FACS) catalyzes esterification of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) with coenzyme A (CoA), the first step in fatty acid metabolism. FACS has been shown to play a role in LCFA import into bacteria and implicated to function in mammalian cell LCFA import. In the present study, we demonstrate that FACS overexpression in fibroblasts increases LCFA uptake, and overexpression of both FACS and the fatty acid transport protein (FATP) have synergistic effects on LCFA uptake. To explore how FACS contributes to LCFA import, we examined the subcellular location of this enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes which natively express this protein and which efficiently take up LCFAs. We demonstrate for the first time that FACS is an integral membrane protein. Subcellular fractionation of adipocytes by differential density centrifugation reveals immunoreactive and enzymatically active FACS in several membrane fractions, including the plasma membrane. Immunofluorescence studies on adipocyte plasma membrane lawns confirm that FACS resides at the plasma membrane of adipocytes, where it co-distributes with FATP. Taken together, our data support a model in which imported LCFAs are immediately esterified at the plasma membrane upon uptake, and in which FATP and FACS function coordinately to facilitate LCFA movement across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Development and initial evaluation of a novel method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid utilization in vivo using (R)-2-bromopalmitate tracer. (4/783)

We describe a method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid (FFA) utilization in vivo using a non-beta-oxidizable FFA analog, [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP). Ideally 3H-R-BrP would be transported in plasma, taken up by tissues and activated by the enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) like native FFA, but then 3H-labeled metabolites would be trapped. In vitro we found that 2-bromopalmitate and palmitate compete equivalently for the same ligand binding sites on albumin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and activation by ACS was stereoselective for the R-isomer. In vivo, oxidative and non-oxidative FFA metabolism was assessed in anesthetized Wistar rats by infusing, over 4 min, a mixture of 3H-R-BrP and [U-14C] palmitate (14C-palmitate). Indices of total FFA utilization (R*f) and incorporation into storage products (Rfs') were defined, based on tissue concentrations of 3H and 14C, respectively, 16 min after the start of tracer infusion. R*f, but not Rfs', was substantially increased in contracting (sciatic nerve stimulated) hindlimb muscles compared with contralateral non-contracting muscles. The contraction-induced increases in R*f were completely prevented by blockade of beta-oxidation with etomoxir. These results verify that 3H-R-BrP traces local total FFA utilization, including oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Separate estimates of the rates of loss of 3H activity indicated effective 3H metabolite retention in most tissues over a 16-min period, but appeared less effective in liver and heart. In conclusion, simultaneous use of 3H-R-BrP and [14C]palmitate tracers provides a new useful tool for in vivo studies of tissue-specific FFA transport, utilization and metabolic fate, especially in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, DNA sequence and cloning of a pimeloyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas mendocina 35. (5/783)

A pimeloyl-CoA synthetase from Pseudomonas mendocina 35 was purified and characterized, the DNA sequence determined, and the gene cloned into Escherichia coli to yield an active enzyme. The purified enzyme had a pH optimum of approximately 8.0, Km values of 0.49 mM for pimelic acid, 0.18 mM for CoA and 0.72 mM for ATP, a subunit Mr of approximately 80000 as determined by SDS/PAGE, and was found to be a tetramer by gel-filtration chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 77.3 units/mg of protein. The enzyme was not absolutely specific for pimelic acid. The relative activity for adipic acid (C6) was 72% and for azaleic acid (C9) was 18% of that for pimelic acid (C7). The N-terminal amino acid was blocked to amino acid sequencing, but controlled proteolysis resulted in three peptide fragments for which amino acid sequences were obtained. An oligonucleotide gene probe corresponding to one of the amino acid sequences was synthesized and used to isolate the gene (pauA, pimelic acid-utilizing A) coding for pimeloyl-CoA synthetase. The pauA gene, which codes for a protein with a theoretical Mr of 74643, was then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed similarity to hypothetical proteins from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyrococcus horikoshii, E. coli and Streptomyces coelicolor, and some limited similarity to microbial succinyl-CoA synthetases. The similarity with the protein from A. fulgidus was especially strong, thus indicating a function for this unidentified protein. The pauA gene was cloned into E. coli, where it was expressed and resulted in an active enzyme.  (+info)

Preventing neurodegeneration in the Drosophila mutant bubblegum. (6/783)

The Drosophila melanogaster recessive mutant bubblegum (bgm) exhibits adult neurodegeneration, with marked dilation of photoreceptor axons. The bubblegum mutant shows elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), as seen in the human disease adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In ALD, the excess can be lowered by dietary treatment with "Lorenzo's oil," a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids. Feeding the fly mutant one of the components, glyceryl trioleate oil, blocked the accumulation of excess VLCFAs as well as development of the pathology. Mutant flies thus provide a potential model system for studying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and screening drugs for treatment.  (+info)

The prpE gene of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 encodes propionyl-CoA synthetase. (7/783)

Biochemical and genetic evidence is presented to demonstrate that the prpE gene of Salmonella typhimurium encodes propionyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme required for the catabolism of propionate in this bacterium. While prpE mutants used propionate as carbon and energy source, prpE mutants that lacked acetyl-CoA synthetase (encoded by acs) did not, indicating that Acs can compensate for the lack of PrpE in prpE mutants. Cell-free extracts enriched for PrpE catalysed the formation of propionyl-CoA in a propionate-, ATP-, Mg2+- and HS-CoA dependent manner. Acetate substituted for propionate in the reaction at 48% the rate of propionate; butyrate was not a substrate for PrpE. The propionyl-CoA synthetase activity of PrpE was specific for ATP. GTP, ITP, CTP and TTP were not used as substrates by the enzyme. UV-visible spectrophotometry, HPLC and MS data demonstrated that propionyl-CoA was the product of the reaction catalysed by PrpE.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of 1,2-dieicosapentaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in Caenorhabditis elegans. (8/783)

Previously, we showed that lowering the growth temperature increased the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we investigated the molecular species composition of PtdCho of C. elegans, with an emphasis on EPA-containing species. C. elegans contained a substantial amount of 1,2-dipolyunsaturated fatty acid-containing PtdCho (1,2-diPUFA-PtdCho) species, such as arachidonic acid/EPA and EPA/EPA, which are unusual phospholipids in higher animals. The EPA/EPA-PtdCho content was significantly increased in C. elegans grown at a low temperature. To examine the possibility that the acyltransferase activity involved in the remodeling of phospholipids accounts for the production of 1,2-diPUFA-PtdCho, we investigated the substrate specificity of this enzyme in C. elegans and found that it did not exhibit a preference for saturated fatty acid for acylation to the sn-1 position of PtdCho. The efficacy of the esterification of EPA to the sn-1 position was almost equal to that of stearic acid. The lack of preference for a saturated fatty acid for acylation to the sn-1 position of PtdCho is thought to result in the existence of the unusual 1,2-diEPA-PtdCho in C. elegans.  (+info)

*Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase

... (EC 6.3.2.31, CofE-AF, MJ0768, CofE) is an enzyme with systematic name L-glutamate:coenzyme ... Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... coenzyme F420-0 + L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } GDP + phosphate + coenzyme F420-1 This protein catalyses ... Li, H.; Graupner, M.; Xu, H.; White, R.H. (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme ...

*Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase

... (EC 6.3.2.34, F420:gamma-glutamyl ligase, CofE-AF, MJ0768, CofE) is an enzyme with ... coenzyme F420-1 ligase (GDP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction GTP + coenzyme F420-1 + L-glutamate ... Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... I Li, H.; Graupner, M.; Xu, H.; White, R.H. (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme ...

*Coenzyme gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase

... (EC 6.3.2.32, MJ1001, CofF protein, gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase) is an ... Coenzyme gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular ... coenzyme alpha-F420-3 The enzyme caps the gamma-glutamyl tail of the hydride carrier coenzyme F420. Li, H.; Xu, H.; Graham, D.E ... White, R.H. (2003). "Glutathione synthetase homologs encode α-L-glutamate ligases for methanogenic coenzyme F420 and ...

*4-chlorobenzoate-CoA ligase

Loffler F, Muller R, Lingens F (1992). "Purification and properties of 4-halobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Pseudomonas sp. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a 4-chlorobenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4-chlorobenzoate ... systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-chlorobenzoate:CoA ligase. This enzyme participates in 2,4-dichlorobenzoate ...

*SUCLG1

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric enzyme succinate coenzyme A ligase. This enzyme is targeted to the ... "Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA ... Succinyl-CoA ligase [GDP-forming] subunit alpha, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SUCLG1 gene. The ... Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is responsible for encephalomyopathy with mitochondrial DNA depletion and mild methylmalonic ...

*Cholate-CoA ligase

... (EC 6.2.1.7, BAL, bile acid CoA ligase, bile acid coenzyme A ligase, choloyl-CoA synthetase, choloyl ... Wheeler, J.B.; Shaw, D.R.; Barnes, S. (1997). "Purification and characterization of a rat liver bile acid coenzyme A ligase ... strain VPI 12708 encodes a bile acid-coenzyme A ligase". J. Bacteriol. 174 (7): 2065-2071. PMC 205821 . PMID 1551828. ... CoA ligase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A synthetase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta- ...

*Thauera aromatica

Schuhle, K.; Gescher, J.; Feil, U.; Paul, M.; Jahn, M.; Schagger, H.; Fuchs, G. (2003). "Benzoate-Coenzyme A Ligase from ...

*GCAT

Edgar AJ, Polak JM (Mar 2000). "Molecular cloning of the human and murine 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase cDNAs". ... of a two-step biochemical pathway involving the enzymes L-threonine dehydrogenase and 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase ... which then catalyzes the reaction between 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate and coenzyme A to form glycine and acetyl-CoA. The encoded ...

*O-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase

CoA ligase; synthetase, and o-succinylbenzoyle coenzyme A. The EC number is 6.2.1.26. MenE belongs to the ligase enzyme family ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Sieweke, Leistner (August 1991). "o-Succinylbenzoate: coenzyme A ligase, an ... O-succinylbenzoate CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.26), encoded from the menE gene in Escherichia coli, catalyzes the fifth reaction in ... The molecular weight of o-succinylbenzoate CoA ligase is 185000 Da or 185 kDa. This enzyme is a tetramer, meaning it has four ...

*SLC27A2

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... "Assignment of human fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase, very long-chain 1 gene (FACVL1) to human chromosome band 15q21.2 by ... Steinberg SJ, Wang SJ, McGuinness MC, Watkins PA (1999). "Human liver-specific very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase: cDNA ...

*ACSL4

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... Fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4), the protein encoded by the ACSL4 gene, is an acyl-CoA synthetase, which is an essential class ... Hu, C; Chen, L; Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Wang, S (January 2008). "The effect of fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 on the growth of hepatic cancer ... 2003). "A third MRX family (MRX68) is the result of mutation in the long chain fatty acid-CoA ligase 4 (FACL4) gene: proposal ...

*ACSL5

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACSL5 gene. ...

*Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase

... (SCS, also known as succinyl-CoA synthetase or succinate thiokinase or succinate-CoA ligase) is ... Citric acid cycle Succinate dehydrogenase Succinate-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) Succinate-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) Fraser ME, ... "Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA ... Succinyl Coenzyme A Synthetases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ...

*ACSL3

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... Minekura H, Fujino T, Kang MJ, Fujita T, Endo Y, Yamamoto TT (May 1997). "Human acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 cDNA and ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACSL3 gene. ... "Vitamin D3 inhibits fatty acid synthase expression by stimulating the expression of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in ...

*ACSL1

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACSL1 gene. The ACSL4 gene is located on the ... Cantú ES, Sprinkle TJ, Ghosh B, Singh I (Aug 1995). "The human palmitoyl-CoA ligase (FACL2) gene maps to the chromosome 4q34- ...

*X-linked intellectual disability

ACSL4: Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase 4 is an enzyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. It converts free ...

*Benzoate-CoA ligase

Other names in common use include benzoate-coenzyme A ligase, benzoyl-coenzyme A synthetase, and benzoyl CoA synthetase (AMP ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a benzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + benzoate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... Hutber GN; Ribbons DW (1983). "Involvement of coenzyme-A esters in the metabolism of benzoate and cyclohexanecarboxylate by ...

*Glutathione synthetase

"Glutathione synthetase homologs encode alpha-L-glutamate ligases for methanogenic coenzyme F420 and tetrahydrosarcinapterin ... "Synthases and Ligases". IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), and Nomenclature Commission of IUB (NC- ... Galperin MY, Koonin EV (1997). "A diverse superfamily of enzymes with ATP-dependent carboxylate-amine/thiol ligase activity". ... "A pseudo-michaelis quaternary complex in the reverse reaction of a ligase: structure of Escherichia coli B glutathione ...

*Tetrahydrosarcinapterin synthase

"Glutathione synthetase homologs encode α-L-glutamate ligases for methanogenic coenzyme F420 and tetrahydrosarcinapterin ... Tetrahydrosarcinapterin synthase (EC 6.3.2.33, H4MPT:alpha-L-glutamate ligase, MJ0620, MptN protein) is an enzyme with ... systematic name tetrahydromethanopterin:alpha-L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical ...

*3-alpha,7-alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate-CoA ligase

12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver". Journal of Lipid Research. 29 (8): 997-1004. PMID ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... 7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A synthetase, DHCA-CoA ligase, and 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate:CoA ... In enzymology, a 3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ...

*4-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase

4-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (AMP-forming), 4-hydroxybenzoyl coenzyme A synthetase, and 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA ligase. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, a 4-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 4- ... Merkel SM, Eberhard AE, Gibson J, Harwood CS (1989). "Involvement of coenzyme A thioesters in anaerobic metabolism of 4- ...

*Glycine C-acetyltransferase

Other names in common use include 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase, 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, 2-amino-3- ... ketobutyrate-CoA ligase, glycine acetyltransferase, and aminoacetone synthase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and ...

*3-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase

3-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (AMP-forming), 3-hydroxybenzoyl coenzyme A synthetase, 3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA ligase) is an ... 3-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... 3-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.37, 3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA synthetase, ... enzyme with systematic name 3-hydroxybenzoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... tyrosine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.950 --- valine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.267.500 --- coenzyme a ligases MeSH ... acetyl coenzyme a MeSH D08.211.211.300.500 --- malonyl coenzyme a MeSH D08.211.211.300.700 --- palmitoyl coenzyme a MeSH ... succinate-coa ligases MeSH D08.811.464.754.600 --- dna ligases MeSH D08.811.464.754.720 --- rna ligase (atp) MeSH D08.811. ... isoleucine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.500 --- leucine-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.550 --- lysine-trna ligase ...

*Anthranilate-CoA ligase

2-aminobenzoate-CoA ligase, 2-aminobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase, and 2-aminobenzoate coenzyme A ligase. This enzyme participates ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. The ... In enzymology, an anthranilate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.32) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + anthranilate + ... Other names in common use include anthraniloyl coenzyme A synthetase, ...

*SLC27A6

2000). "The human liver-specific homolog of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is cholate:CoA ligase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (21 ... Steinberg SJ, Wang SJ, McGuinness MC, Watkins PA (Oct 1999). "Human liver-specific very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase: ...
Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (fatty acid: CoA ligase, AMP-forming; (EC 6.2.1.3)) catalyzes the formation of fatty acyl-CoA by a two-step process that proceeds through the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate. Fatty acyl-CoA represents bioactive compounds that are involved in protein transport, enzyme activation, protein acylation, cell signaling, and transcriptional control in addition to serving as substrates for beta oxidation and phospholipid biosynthesis. Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase occupies a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, particularly in lipid metabolism. Our interest in fatty acyl-CoA synthetase stems from the identification of this enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (LCFA) by microarray analysis. We found this enzyme to be differentially expressed by |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| amastigotes resistant to antimonial treatment. In the present study, we confirm the presence of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase gene in the genome of clinical isolates of |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| collected from the
In a longitudinal cohort of ∼700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (|25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC) DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5′-CpG island(s) (5′-CGI). Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) exhibited the highest concordance between
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Target genes of hsa-let-7a, hsa-let-7b, and hsa-let7g. Gene Symbol RefSeq Gene Name 2-PDE NM_177966 2-phosphodiesterase ABCB9 NM_019624 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), ABCC10 NM_033450 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 10 ABCC5 NM_005688 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 5 ACSL6 NM_001009185 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 ACTR2 NM_001005386 actin-related protein 2 isoform a ACVR1B NM_004302 activin A type IB receptor isoform a precursor ACVR2A NM_001616 activin A receptor, type IIA precursor ADAM15 NM_207191 a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 15 ADAMTS5 NM_007038 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 ADAMTS8 NM_007037 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 ADCY9 NM_001116 adenylate cyclase 9 ADIPOR2 NM_024551 adiponectin receptor 2 ADRB2 NM_000024 adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface ADRB3 NM_000025 adrenergic, beta-3-, receptor AHCTF1 NM_015446 transcription factor ELYS AKAP6 NM_004274 ...
The elevation of synthesis and export of fatty acids from the chloroplast following N deprivation could indicate that TAG is assembled from fatty acids that are synthesized de novo. This step would require the activation of the fatty acids by a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. In fact, increased abundance of RNA encoding a putative long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase was observed, and the respective protein has been identified in the lipid droplet proteome (Moellering and Benning, 2010). However, another enzyme that could contribute to the changing spectrum of fatty acids is a putative phospholipid/glycerol acyltransferase, for which the transcript level decreased during N deprivation. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases are likely to play a key role in determining the fate of fatty acids in the cell (Shockey et al., 2002). Regulation of the respective genes could be a major factor in controlling the flux of fatty acids toward glycerolipid synthesis and their degradation by β-oxidation.. Major ...
Development of an in vitro Model System for Assessing the Effect of the Adrenoleukodstrophy Protein on Very Long-Chain acyl-CoA Synthetase Activity ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
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Tuberculosis is a notorious disease responsible for the deaths of 1.4 million people worldwide. A third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium causing the disease. The increase of multi drug-resistant strains worsens the situation, and the World Health Organization has declared tuberculosis to be a global emergency. The bacterium envelopes itself with a unique set of very long-chain lipids that play an important role in virulence and drug resistance. Therefore enzymes involved in lipid metabolism are putative drug targets. To allow entry into different metabolic pathways and transmembrane transport, fatty acids have to be activated. This is done primarily by fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs). We identified an ACS possibly involved in the bacteriums virulence and solved its structure. Structural interpretation combined with previously reported data gives us insights into the details of its function. This enzyme is known to harbor lipid substrates ...
The capacity of foetal and neonatal liver to oxidize short-, medium- and long-chain fatty acids was studied in the guinea pig. Liver mitochondria from foetal and newborn animals were unable to synthesize ketone bodies from octanoate, but octanoylcarnitine and palmitoylcarnitine were readily ketogenic. The ketogenic capacity at 24 h after birth was as high as in adult animals. Hepatocytes isolated from term animals were unable to oxidize fatty acids, but at 6 h after birth production of 14CO2, acid-soluble products and acetoacetate from 1-14C-labelled fatty acids was 40-50% of the rates at 24 h. At 12 h of age these rates had already reached the 24 h values and did not change during suckling in the first week of life. The activities of hepatic fatty acyl-CoA synthetases, which were minimal in the foetus or at term, increased to maximal values in 12-24 h. The data show that the capacity for beta-oxidation and ketogenesis develops maximally in this species during the first 6-12 h after birth, and ...
by: Elizabeth Kolar. To start, let me introduce myself as I am a new writer for HBN! I am a Ph.D. candidate in the Biochemistry, Cell, and Molecular Biology graduate program at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. I work on the fourth floor of the Kennedy Krieger Institute for Paul Watkins, M.D., Ph.D. As a lab, we study the role of fatty acid metabolism and the associated enzymes in different neurological diseases. My thesis research focuses on one enzyme that belongs to the acyl-CoA synthetase family of enyzmes known as ACSVL3.. Acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) are a family of proteins that "activate" fatty acids that have been synthesized de novo by the cell or those that have been brought into the cell. This occurs by adding a Coenzyme A via a thioester bond. After this step, the fatty acid can be metabolized in a number of different pathways. These activated fatty acids can be incorporated into phospholipids, used in beta-oxidation to create energy, or be used for post-translational ...
An extensive heterogeneous kinetic study was carried out for acid catalysed propionylation of cotton cellulose. In this study a series of metal chlorides and sulphuric acid as catalysts were used, and the effect of temperature, solvent medium, propionylation solution composition, and catalyst concentration on propionylation were investigated. The degree of propionylation was determined by a saponification method and, where necessary, confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and microanalysis. The reaction process was described on the basis of an initial, first, and second stage. Up to 15% of the completed reaction appeared to take place in the initial stage which is suggested to be diffusion controlled. Whereas the first and second stages were shown to be nondiffusion ones since they obeyed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to the reacting hydroxyl groups. A mechanism and transition state complex were proposed for the propionylation reaction. Acid catalysed propionylation conditions (catalyst, ...
See, I had my own info day last month when my MRI showed that the bubblegum dustbunny has been cultivating itself again, albeit only by a miniscule amount and without any increase in aggressiveness. Growing, more or less, according to plan. It is consistent, displaying extraordinary obedience and an enviable sense of decorum, precisely the sort of goody-goody that is bound to rebel in the most hideous way as soon as puberty sets in and the glories of sex, drugs, and rock n roll descend upon it. It cant be killed, of course - it will always grow back, a perpetual zombie. But it can be somewhat sterilized, so to speak, mutilated before it reaches the age of reproduction and goes out and gets itself knocked up and squeezes out further versions of itself, polluting our planet with inferior beings. My inner eugenicist leapt out as I made the decision to subject the thing to a second surgery in several months time. Sure, I could keep watching and waiting, but Id rather be cut open and get another ...
People who struggle to distinguish between the smell of bubblegum and petrol could be at risk of developing dementia, a new study suggests.
Complete information for ALS2CL gene (Protein Coding), ALS2 C-Terminal Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Buy our Recombinant Human FACL4 protein. Ab152375 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
I made this card with the NEW MFT PI Read All About It Stamp set. I used pretty BasicGrey Lucile 6X6 Paper pad. I also used MFTs gorgeous Replenishments Heavyweight Card Stock in, Paver Red, Blue Raspberry, Bubblegum for Matting. I used several NEW MFT Die-namics...the NEW Mini Hybrid Heirloom Rose, the Layered Heart Border, and the Leaf-filled Flourish. I cut the Mini Hybrid Heriloom Roses from MFT Felt in Bubblegum and Paver Red. All the details can be found on my blog...http://inkingontheedge.blogspot.ca/2013/01/NPTPIReadallaboutit.html TFL! Hugs,t
The boy says "And the teacher has TWO BOXES of Hubba Bubba bubblegum behind her desk and she never gives us any. And as you know - its the RAREST of all bubblegum ...
Complete information for ACSBG1 gene (Protein Coding), Acyl-CoA Synthetase Bubblegum Family Member 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Direct comparison of standard propionylation (Prop-x2) labeling and the hybrid (Prop-PIC) labeling method via LC-MS using a 1:1 mixture of labeled histone sampl
1FC4: Three-dimensional structure of 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase from Escherichia coli complexed with a PLP-substrate intermediate: inferred reaction mechanism.
Revision: 10766 http://supertuxkart.svn.sourceforge.net/supertuxkart/?rev=10766&view=rev Author: hikerstk Date: 2012-01-30 22:20:31 +0000 (Mon, 30 Jan 2012) Log Message: ----------- Moved terrain particle effectrs from kart into kart_gfx. Modified Paths: -------------- main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart.hpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart_gfx.cpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart_gfx.hpp Modified: main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp =================================================================== --- main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp 2012-01-30 22:14:34 UTC (rev 10765) +++ main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp 2012-01-30 22:20:31 UTC (rev 10766) @@ -93,14 +93,12 @@ m_race_position = position; m_collected_energy = 0; m_finished_race = false; - m_wheel_toggle = 1; m_finish_time = 0.0f; m_bubblegum_time = 0.0f; m_invulnerable_time = 0.0f; m_squash_time = 0.0f; m_shadow_enabled = false; m_shadow = NULL; - m_terrain_particles = NULL; m_collision_particles = NULL; m_slipstream = NULL; m_skidmarks = NULL; @@ ...
ACSL3兔多克隆抗体(ab78229)可与人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-chain bases of sphingolipids are transported into cells via the acyl-CoA synthetases. AU - Narita, Tomomi. AU - Naganuma, Tatsuro. AU - Sase, Yurie. AU - Kihara, Akio. PY - 2016/5/3. Y1 - 2016/5/3. N2 - Transport of dietary lipids into small-intestinal epithelial cells is pathologically and nutritionally important. However, lipid uptake remains an almost unexplored research area. Although we know that long-chain bases (LCBs), constituents of sphingolipids, can enter into cells efficiently, the molecular mechanism of LCB uptake is completely unclear. Here, we found that the yeast acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) Faa1 and Faa4 are redundantly involved in LCB uptake. In addition to fatty acid-activating activity, transporter activity toward long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) has been suggested for ACSs. Both LCB and LCFA transports were largely impaired in faa1Δ faa4Δ cells. Furthermore, LCB and LCFA uptakes were mutually competitive. However, the energy dependency was different for ...
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Activation of fatty acid import requires polio protein 2A.A. Schematic representation of poliovirus genome and truncated constructs used for expression of polio
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In enzymology, a 2-coumarate reductase (EC 1.3.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-coumarate + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 2-coumarate, NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-CH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called melilotate dehydrogenase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine metabolism. Levy CC; Weinstein GD (1964). "The metabolism of coumarin by a microorganism. II. The reduction of o-coumaric acid to melilotic acid". Biochemistry. 3 (12): 1944-1947. doi:10.1021/bi00900a027. PMID 14269315. Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
Fatty acid activation occurs in the _______. Beta oxidation occurs in the ____________. Explain the transport system that shuttles fatty acids between these two cellular locations ...
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In other words, just when I thought the environment of the hamster wheel was sucking my soul out, I discover that the intense boredom of running round n round n round n round the track may be the end of me. Not only do I have to carry my full body weight without mechanical intervention, and I have to actually propel myself forwards using only my own strength, I now get bored and cant always come up with enough angry thoughts to motivate my scurrying. Could it be that I need television to make me angry, which in turn fuels the running? A rotten carrot to chase? I cant think about politics because I would end up shredding the metal fence, thus rendering my entire physical being useless. And I cant think about skool or Ill sit down and cry. And thinking about my brain is not a reliable option either, for the track is not the place for metacognitive speculations. That would lead me into a mysterious metaphysical mist and transport me into a distant dimension. ...
My body was given one month to recover from the first round of treatment. Happy birthday to me. And now, I have just completed my first five days of adjuvant chemotherapy, which was meant to begin a week before but had to be delayed due to low white blood cell count. I took that glorious month of rest time to do not much resting, lose a bit more hair and most of my eyebrows ("I never really associated you with eyebrows," a friend commented when I expressed concern over the loss of that which was historically quite faint but had definitely gone) (But I now have five oclock shadow over my eyes: them brows be coming back again!). And thennnnn, I got the chemo rash, and then continued to procrastinate on correspondence, and finally, I did something I rarely do: watch television. I did not last long with that, except for the fairly uninformative national news. Well, barring the in-depth coverage of heartbreaking fires consuming the everything of people in the north of my province. Those images which ...
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Recombinant protein of human acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2), transcript variant 1, 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
psd:DSC_00690 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (GenBank) acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MSDLYPVDPAFARQARVDAATYARDYKASIEQPEAFWKQVAQRLDWIKAPTRIKDVSFDV DDFHIQWFADGELNASVNCLDRQLEARGDKIALLFEPDSPDSESYGVTYRQLHARVCRLA NALRSLGVAKGDRVTIYLPMIPDAAVAMLACARIGAVHSVVFGGFAPNSIADRVADCASK LIITADEGLRGSRKIPLKANVDAALKLPGTSSVETVLVVRHTGGPVDMQAPRDRWFHDVV DSQPDTCEPERMNAEDPLFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLLWAAYTHELVFDLKEDDIY WCTADVGWVTGHSYIVYGPLANGATSLVFEGVPSYPDNSRFWQVVDKHRVSLFYTAPTAI RALMREGDGPVRKTSRKTLRVLGTVGEPINPEAWRWYYEVVGDSRCPIVDTWWQTETGGH MITPLPGATALKPGSATVPFFGVQPAVVDANGVELEGQAEGNLVIKDSWPGQMRTVYGDH QRFIDTYFRTYPGTYFTGDGCRRDADGYYWITGRVDDVINVSGHRIGTAEVESALVSHPK VAEAAVVGFPHDLKGQGIYAYVTLVAGEQPTEELRKELIAHVRKEIGPIASPDHLQWAPG LPKTRSGKIMRRILRKIAENAPDQLGDTSTLADPSVVDSLVSERKVR ...
Sunday morning coming up. Music for the revolution in my head: choogling punks; power pop, both skinny-tied and long-haired; soul shouters and girl groups; bubblegum and acid rock; global fuzz; weirdos and outsiders, and the Weirdos and the Outsiders; Archie Shepp and J. Geils. Plus, live bands. ...
Sunday morning coming up. Music for the revolution in my head: choogling punks; power pop, both skinny-tied and long-haired; soul shouters and girl groups; bubblegum and acid rock; global fuzz; weirdos and outsiders, and the Weirdos and the Outsiders; Archie Shepp and J. Geils. Plus, live bands. ...
Wow! Now THAT really scared me. The imaginary HIV boogeyman muppet you showed us is undoubtedly sure to be found in your head, Erv, even though it has never been found in the blood of even a single of those diagnosed as poz. The HIV-Muppet-Monster you shared with us foolish followers of false beliefs, is obviously made out of Russian carpet, pre-chewed multi-colored bubblegum, and is all mixed with clumps of silly string. How absolutely terrifying!!! Amazing that after 350 billion has been given to researchers such as Erv, that we still have no cure for stopping those who continue to project these imaginary Muppet Monsters that keep on sprouting up in the heads of those on the $$HIV-research-bandwagon$$. Nonetheless, I look forward to the day when there is a cure for illusionary monster muppets, or at least earmuffs given out for protection from those such as Erv, who continue projecting and spouting and promoting illusions of killer sex muppets into the minds of those naive and ignorant enough ...
Out of all the offerings I ended up purchasing only one item but its changed my mind and made me want to indulge further because it was actually very good. I ended up purchasing NP Set Lipgloss in Nisi for $12 USD. This particular shade quite reminded me of the pink shade released with Diors Spring Collection which could account for why I liked it. Its a bright, bubblegum pink that could prove difficult to pull off on some tones but I think it ended up looking pretty good on me which I was surprised about because I was fearful all that pink would definately look horrid! But it ended up looking smashing with a bit of pink shadow and blushing pink cheeks ...
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From house to hip-hop, college rock to techno, bubblegum pop to post-punk, heavy metal to hardcore-here are our favorite tracks of the 1980s.
sp:ACSA_RALSO] acsA; probable acetyl-coenzyme a synthetase (acetate--coa ligase) (acyl-activating enzyme) protein; K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] ...
Looking for online definition of fatty acid thiokinase in the Medical Dictionary? fatty acid thiokinase explanation free. What is fatty acid thiokinase? Meaning of fatty acid thiokinase medical term. What does fatty acid thiokinase mean?
Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood. Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo. Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial morphological changes and elevated ROS generation are also observed in palmitate-treated neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs). Palmitate exposure ...
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Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression ...
LAB NAME: ENERGY METABOLISM The mission of the Obesity and Energetics Laboratory is to understand the effects of lifestyle factors on energy metabolism and weight regulation. Our research examines dietary and behavioral variables that influence both energy intake and metabolism throughout the adult lifecycle, and our focus is to develop and test effective lifestyle interventions for implementing sustainable, healthy weight control at all ages. Studies in our laboratory include in-depth biological examinations of the impact of different dietary factors on biochemical and neurological factors involved in energy regulation and body composition, chemical studies of food composition, and randomized controlled trials testing practical interventions that can be scaled for population-wide benefits. LAB NAME: OBESITY AND METABOLISM To address the role of acyl CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) and perilipin 2 (plin2) in intestinal enterocytes and hepatocytes we have generated conditional lines of knockout of ACSL5 ...
Acetyl-CoA synthetase or Acetate-CoA ligase is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.1) involved in metabolism of acetate. It is in the ligase class of enzymes, meaning that it catalyzes t
Happy Diwali Images Hope that this Diwali brings in Good Fortune & Abounding Happiness for you! HAPPY DIWALI Do not let the shadows of yesterday spoil the sun of tomorrow. Live for today. Sending this Message contains a Diwali wish, That is composed by words from my heart Decorated with my love for you Spreads my blessings !!! Happy Diwali 2018! Let this diwali burn off all of your bad times and enter you in good times. Happy Deepavali. May that diwali Light up new fantasies, new expects, undiscovered avenues, distinct perspectives, everythin bright & beautifulfil and fulfill ur days with pleasant surprises and minutes ...
One thing we found out about the disorder is that kids with this disorder can appear completely normal and healthy, as in Owens case, until they get an illness such as the flu and cannot or will not eat for extended periods of time. When this happens if they are not properly cared for things can get bad really quick.. The geneticist also explained the disorder in more detail. The problem with this disorder is in the mitochondria where fatty acids are broken down. Very long chain fatty acids are in just about everything and are abundant in breast milk. In normal functioning mitochondria the fatty acids enter and move around in the mitochondria and are broken down into shorter chains. Once the fatty acids are broken down they can leave the mitochondria, enter the blood and are harmless. In Owens case the very long chain fatty acids cannot be broken down due to a missing enzyme, therefore they are released right back into the blood and these long chains can be toxic when they build-up. Because of ...
Expression of ACSL1 (ACS1, FACL1, FACL2, LACS, LACS1, LACS2) in thyroid gland tissue. Antibody staining with HPA011316 and HPA011964 in immunohistochemistry.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
ppu:PP_4487 K01895 acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1] , (RefSeq) acsA-I; acetyl-CoA synthetase (A) MPAPERFAGTGVPNYYQRRMAFVALVQLQTVPYKNNYYTEVTQMSAAPLYPVRPEVAATT LTDEATYKAMYQQSVINPDGFWREQAQRIDWIKPFTKVKQTSFDDHHVDIKWFADGTLNV SSNCLDRHLEERGDQLAIIWEGDDPSEHRNITYRELHEQVCKFANALRGQDVHRGDVVTI YMPMIPEAVVAMLACARIGAIHSVVFGGFSPEALAGRIIDCKSKVVITADEGVRGGRRTP LKANVDLALTNPETSSVQKIIVCKRTGGDIAWHQHRDIWYEDLMKVASSHCAPKEMGAEE ALFILYTSGSTGKPKGVLHTTGGYLVYAALTHERVFDYRPGEVYWCTADVGWVTGHSYIV YGPLANGATTLLFEGVPNYPDITRVSKIVDKHKVNILYTAPTAIRAMMAEGQAAVEGADG SSLRLLGSVGEPINPEAWNWYYKTVGKERCPIVDTWWQTETGGILISPLPGATGLKPGSA TRPFFGVVPALVDNLGNLIDGAAEGNLVILDSWPGQSRSLYGDHDRFVDTYFKTFRGMYF TGDGARRDEDGYYWITGRVDDVLNVSGHRMGTAEIESAMVAHSKVAEAAVVGVPHDIKGQ GIYVYVTLNAGIEASEQLRLELKNWVRKEIGPIASPDVIQWAPGLPKTRSGKIMRRILRK IATGEYDALGDISTLADPGVVQHLIDTHKAMNLASA ...
The Indy Acetate Earrings by Kitsense are part of the Acetate Collection 0.3. The Indy earrings are available in three colourways and are a delicate hoop style featuring an ombre colour change Details Available in Bubblegum/Mist, Milk/Coffee and Tortoiseshell/Midnight colour ways Acrylic Resin Designed for pierced ear
Doodlebug Under The Sea Paper Pack includes 11 double-sided cardstock sheets, some sides printed with journaling cards that can be cut apart and used separately. Also includes over 90 This & That stickers with shapes of tags, banners, pennants, a ticket, along with other shapes and captions she leaves a little sparkle wherever she goes, little princess, our little mermaid and more. Colors are Cupcake, Bubblegum, Coral, Bumblebee, Citrus Green, Swimming Pool, Lilac, and White. Acid-free, lignin-free. 12 x 12 inch.
What else does one have to say? Key quote: "And, of course, the human uterus is not normally bubblegum pink." (Too bad-- pink, this blog recalls being informed, does more than you think, even if, in this particular case, it seems to be able to play the piano and swing from trees ...
Download Bens software projects. for free. Homepages for my projects: userinfo, pwmd, libpwmd, cboard, ncast, ezxradio and bubblegum. There are also code snippets, both VIM and EPIC scripts and more.
Como si fuera un reverso de King Tuff más escorado al pop, es capaz de construir melodías con la fuerza rítmica para hacerlas permanentes. Y con guiños sonoros y espirituales a T-Rex, Rault se lanza a masticar bubblegum pegajoso, All alone (On my own), versionar añejos valses para orquesta americanos, Dancing with tears in my eyes, o incluso crear saltarines cánticos emparentados con Mungo Jerry, I wanna love you ...
Dublin five-piece September Girls might be named after a Big Star song (give or take the odd U here and there) and revel in luscious harmonies and bubblegum choruses, but scratch away at the surface and theres a pugnacious undercurrent...
The CoA derivatives of a number of aliphatic and aromatic acids, but not phenylacetyl-CoA or (indol-3-yl)acetyl-CoA, can act as donor. Not identical with EC 2.3.1.68 glut
Human ACSL4 full-length ORF ( NP_004449.1, 1 a.a. - 670 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00002182-P01) - Products - Abnova
Definition of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay? Meaning of plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay as a legal term. What does plasma very long-chain fatty acid assay mean in law?
The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL
A novel location of the bile-acid-conjugating enzyme bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAT) has been discovered in the cytosolic fraction of rat kidney. Both taurine and glycine were utilized as substrates. Formation of bile acid N-acyl amidates was verified by h.p.l.c. by comparison with authentic standards and by specific hydrolysis using cholylglycine hydrolase. Immunoblot analysis using a human liver anti-BAT polyclonal antibody indicated that rat kidney BAT has the same molecular mass as rat liver BAT. These findings suggest that the kidney has a role in bile acid metabolism and physiology.. ...
Compare elongation of very long chain fatty acids (FEN1/Elo2, SUR4/Elo3, yeast)-like 3 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Expression of ACSL1 (ACS1, FACL1, FACL2, LACS, LACS1, LACS2) in urinary bladder tissue. Antibody staining with HPA011316 and HPA011964 in immunohistochemistry.
Dysphagia is a common complication following ACSS. While several instruments are available for assessing dysphagia, none are particularly well designed for the ACSS population.3,16 A standardized tool that allows quantifiable assessment of dysphagia is needed to allow evaluation of dysphagia rates between studies. Although validated, the SWAL-QOL is lengthy and cumbersome to complete, particularly for patients undergoing ACSS with relatively minor swallowing impairment. As such, the purpose of this paper was to develop a concise, yet clinically relevant survey for use in patients undergoing ACSS.. The results of this study suggest that the SWAL-QOL survey in its full form is not necessary to detect swallowing changes in the ACSS population. Several sections and individual questions demonstrated little to no change from preoperative to postoperative values, indicating the severity of dysphagia following ACSS is not as extreme as the dysphagia in the population for which the SWAL-QOL was ...
OXPHOS protein levels were especially abundant in 2A fibers, in accordance with the greatest content of mitochondria among the subtypes (Supplementary Fig S6) [26]. However, when we normalized for mitochondrial content (using cytochrome c or succinate dehydrogenase as indicators of mitochondrial quantity [31]), other protein subsets significantly deviated from this simple trend, therefore reflecting functional mitochondrial heterogeneity. Type 1 fibers had highest protein levels in enzymes responsible for beta‐oxidation, located in the mitochondrial matrix, including Acadl, Hadha, Etfa and Etfb complex and Etfdh. After this normalization, the differences in proteins involved in beta‐oxidation were statistically significant between subtypes (P , 0.05) (Supplementary Table S3). Proteins involved in the conversion of fatty acids to fatty acyl‐CoA esters via Acsl1, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and proteins involved in fatty acid import at the inner mitochondrial membrane such ...
In this tutorial, well compare positive and negative condition for the count and total area of lipid droplets by adding the oleic acid or Triacsin C. | Yokogawa Electric Corporation
The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme preferentially utilizes arachidonate as substrate. The absence of this enzyme may contribute to the mental retardation or Alport syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
I have seen this Absolute lip balm in store before, only in the Absolute Love Duo version which comes with both Strawberry and Bubblegum tins. I received half of the Your the Balm set, subscribers either got Green Apple like I did or Grape. Ive seen some mixed reviews from subscribers who got this, but I happen to really like the apple scent and the very sheer bit of color it gives. When I saw the other lip products ipsy was sending out this month I was really glad I was getting this one and I had my fingers crossed it would be the apple so Im really happy I got this ...
Ford Gum & Machine Company is a leading manufacturer of Big League Chew® Bubblegum, Smarties® licensed confections, and Carousel® gumball machines. Additionally, the company is a leading manufacturer of gum for private label and bulk vending sales.. ...
alternaVites Kids contains 17 essential vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, including vitamins A, C, E, D and B Complex as well as minerals including Calcium and Magnesium. Available in two yummy flavors, Strawberry Bubblegum & Raspberry Cotton Candy, alternaVites Kids is a fun and easy way to get a potent multi formula ...
They say "write what you know" and as an out, proud gay man I purposely based Psyches mannerisms, his speech pattern, and his sarcastic nature off of myself. Just amped up a little for story effect. Everyone loves a colorful gay character, I figured. Right? No. In fact, some people absolutely hate gay people who "act gay." Funny enough, the majority of these anti-So Super Duper-ers got their panties in a twist solely from gazing upon the ad for the recently released trade paperback collection of So Super Duper. An ad alone caused such a strong emotional reaction? Seriously?. To be fair, said "offensive" ad, with its bubblegum pink background, Psyches hand sassily placed on hip and the tagline boldly declaring "Quite possibly the gayest superhero in the universe" was a smidge in-your-face with its embracing of the effeminate side of the gay spectrum. But thats what I loved about it. I never fathomed any of this would be viewed as a bad thing. Without even reading a single panel, page, or word ...
801 T.T.S.AirBats, Angelic Layer, Ayane High Kick, Azumanga Diaoh, Battle Athlettes, Blue Seed, Bubblegum Crisis Tokyo 2040, Burn Up Excess W, Candy Candy, Captain Tsubasa, Card Captor, Chics Academy
AS you guys might know..I lost my dear sweet Bubblegum and this is what she had. They also treated her for Myascinia Gravis ( which......
The Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons is the official magazine of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). The Bulletin provides monthly coverage on ACS activities and members, as well as topics of broad appeal to surgeons in general. The Bulletin offers in-depth feature stories that address all aspects of surgery, including practice, training, education, payment, ethics, legislation, advocacy, and more; regular columns; news on the College and the surgical field; and information on ACS scholarships.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Carboxylic Acid Imports Data of India | Major Indian ports Importing Carboxylic Acid, Indian Importers of Carboxylic Acid in India, Indian Import of Carboxylic Acid, Carboxylic Acid Buyers, Carboxylic Acid Shipment Data, Major Countries exporting Carboxylic Acid, Monthly Trends, Major Ports.
72-89-9:C23H38N7O17P3S, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, Acetyl CoA, Acetyl coenzyme A, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, S-acetilcoenzima A, S-Acetyl coenzyme A, S-Acetylcoenzym A, S-acetylcoenzyme A
Veteran storyteller Hayes masterfully spins a kid-pleasing tall-tale from the Arizona desert. From the first line, "When I was a kid growing up in Arizona, I used to love to chew bubblegum," he shows his gift for connecting with young readers, who will completely accept his report of gum-inspired scoldings from a stern teacher and gum-caused laundry woes, and then why not? his story of how his trusty wad of bubblegum saved him from a rattlesnake: the snakes fangs get entangled in the gum and then the snake blows the worlds biggest bubble which explodes in the worlds biggest pop. Mexican artist Antonio Castros hyper-realistic illustrations complement the text perfectly. Young Joe is depicted with such meticulous attention to detail, from the gum bulge in his cheek to the hole in the bottom of his boot, that the gum-chewing rattler seems just as convincing: if a snake did chew bubblegum, this would be exactly how he would look. A brief illustrators note at the end shows how Castro uses models ...
Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS; fatty acid:CoA ligase, AMP binding forming, EC 6.2.1.3) catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA thioesters from free fatty acids in the presence of CoA, ATP, and Mg2+. This activation is a critical step in fatty acid metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In fact, fatty acyl-CoAs represent important bioactive compounds, which are involved in many cellular processes in addition to serving as substrates for lipid biosynthesis and β-oxidation (Schulz, 1991).. Recent published papers have confirmed the importance of ACSs in various organisms. In Escherichia coli, ACS plays a pivotal role in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and in regulating of the global transcriptional regulator FadR (Black et al., 1997). The E. coli ACS gene was cloned and its sequence is found to have a segment of 25 highly conserved amino acid residues that Black et al. (1997) proposed as a signature motif common to the family of fatty ACSs. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the activation of ...
TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 11 Foldchange Functional No. Gene_ID Product Function_Class (Mutant/WT) GG_PDE category Positive Regulation 1 Rv0006 gyrA DNA gyrase subunit A -2.5 0.92 2 2 Rv0007 conserved hypothetical -2.0 0.49 3 protein 3 Rv0058 dnaB DNA helicase (contains -2.4 0.88 2 intein) 4 Rv0108c hypothetical protein -2.4 0.87 16.6 5 Rv0145 conserved hypothetical -2.7 0.97 10.5 protein 6 Rv0166 fadD5 acyl-CoA synthase -4.2 1.00 1 7 Rv0167 yrbE1A part of mce1 operon -8.9 1.00 0 8 Rv0168 yrbE1B part of mce1 operon -2.0 0.50 0 9 Rv0169 mce1 part of mce1 operon, cell -5.1 1.00 0 invasion protein 10 Rv0170 mce1B part of mce1 operon -7.2 1.00 0 11 Rv0171 mce1C part of mce1 operon -13.3 1.00 0 12 Rv0172 mce1D part of mce1 operon -5.0 1.00 0 13 Rv0173 lprK part of mce1 operon -3.0 0.99 0 14 Rv0174 mce1F part of mce1 operon -5.0 1.00 0 15 Rv0175 conserved hypothetical -2.0 0.55 3 protein (mce1) 16 Rv0176 conserved hypothetical -2.2 0.69 3 protein (mce1) 17 Rv0177 conserved hypothetical -4.0 1.00 10.5 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
A powerful quaternary based cleaner, disinfectant and deodoriser. It effectively destroys a broad spectrum of bacteria, fungi and viruses at source. It kills odours and leaves a fresh fragrance. Safe to use on all water washable surfaces, floors, walls, cages, feeding bowls, bedding, toys, runs, yards, carpets, toilets and drains. Ideal for usage in Kennels and catteries to control Canine Parvo-virus (type 2), Feline Calici virus and kennel cough etc. Also effective against H1N1 Swine-flu, Newcastle disease, TB, Avian Inflenza Virus and foot & mouth not to mention its use in many laundries to control MRSA Unlike conventional disinfectants. Also highly effective against Weils Disease. For disinfection of feeding bowls etc use dilution of 1:100 and rinse thoroughly with clean water. For disinfection of kennel areas dilute 1:20. May be harmful if ingested by young animals. When cleaning areas with this product please ensure that animals are removed from the area until cleaning is complete. Size: ...
These anthocyanins are typically broken down as the fruit matures and so even black immature chiles will ripen to red/yellow/etc. A very rare trait which interferes with this breakdown is seen in the variety "Pimenta da Neyde". This trait results in mature fruit which remain purple or black. I havent been able to find any publications describing this trait, so Ive decided to refer to it as anthocyanin-retainer. Ive found some of illustrative images of the the fruit produced in F1 plants: ("Pimenta da Neyde" x "Bubblegum 7" -, "Neyde x Bubblegum 7"), ("Pimenta da Neyde" x "Trinidad Douglah" -, "Douglah x Neyde"). These photos indicate the anthocyanin-retainer mutation is recessive, so the short-hand label for the trait should be the lower-case "an". (I would only have to prove this pattern and write it up in a proper research publication to make the label official ...
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Import Data And Price Of Phenyl Butyric Acid , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of Phenyl Butyric Acid Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this Phenyl Butyric Acid import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for Phenyl Butyric Acid import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not ...
Bahiagrass is one of the most important warm season forage grasses. In Florida alone it is grown on more than 5 million acres. Howeve r, the high lignin content in the bahiagrass biomass significantly reduces its forage qual i ty. A key enzyme in the lignin biosynthetic pathway is th e 4coumarate CoA ligase (4CL); it catalyzes the formation of CoA thiol esters of 4 coumarate and other hydr oxycinn amates. We cloned four 4CL cDNA s from tetraploi d ba hiagrass cv. Argentine and an RNAi construct targeting a highly conserved domain was constructed using 200 bp of the coding sequences. The 4CL RNAi construct was intr o duced to bahiagrass callus by b iolistic gene transfer under transcriptional control of three alternative promoters: the constitutive e35S promoter, OsC4H promoter for xylem specific expression and the ZmdJ1 promoter for expre s sion in the green tissue. Following regeneration of plants their transgenic nature was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analysis. Significant reduction ...
Digital still photograph from Massachusetts Bay near Cohasset, MA, showing seastars (Asterias sp.), blood stars (Henricia sanguinolenta), blood drop tunicates (Dendrodoa carnea), mussels, and barnacles on cobbles and boulders covered with bubblegum algae and red filamentous algae. Water depth at this location is approximately 19.6 meters. ...
get off my mound tshirt (2) ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ (1) $1 natural light (1) $1 pabst (1) $10 million for someone to do chores around my house (1) $11 (1) $25 bags of grass (1) $50000 sink (1) $75 fine in the Netherlands (1) 17th avenue berts batting cage (1) 1952 was the first year Topps put bubblegum in packs (1) 1996 Yankees (3) 1998 ALCS (1) 2:30 the day before hitter (1) 2004-2006: the dark ages (1) 2005 draft (1) 2012 ALCS (1) 2012 ALDS (1) 2013 team awards (14) 20never (1) 25 and under team (1) 2nd-smelliest NL Central team (1) 35 and over team (1) 500th post (1) 75 billion times better than 75 billion scott brosius stacked on top of each other (1) 99 Problems and a new contract is one (1) a canary named bernie (1) a canary who lives in jose cansecos hair (1) a love story (1) a sixer of PBR is an essential element of a complete breakfast (1) a watch with a diamond encrusted face the size of a babys head (1) A-Insurancefraud (1) a-rod (13) a.j. burnett (2) as (6) Aaron Laffey is a Starting ...
get off my mound tshirt (2) ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ (1) $1 natural light (1) $1 pabst (1) $10 million for someone to do chores around my house (1) $11 (1) $25 bags of grass (1) $50000 sink (1) $75 fine in the Netherlands (1) 17th avenue berts batting cage (1) 1952 was the first year Topps put bubblegum in packs (1) 1996 Yankees (3) 1998 ALCS (1) 2:30 the day before hitter (1) 2004-2006: the dark ages (1) 2005 draft (1) 2012 ALCS (1) 2012 ALDS (1) 2013 team awards (14) 20never (1) 25 and under team (1) 2nd-smelliest NL Central team (1) 35 and over team (1) 500th post (1) 75 billion times better than 75 billion scott brosius stacked on top of each other (1) 99 Problems and a new contract is one (1) a canary named bernie (1) a canary who lives in jose cansecos hair (1) a love story (1) a sixer of PBR is an essential element of a complete breakfast (1) a watch with a diamond encrusted face the size of a babys head (1) A-Insurancefraud (1) a-rod (13) a.j. burnett (2) as (6) Aaron Laffey is a Starting ...
com, that Lee is doing of his bearded gay friends in London. Well worth a look, believe me. Its its own blog post in its own right! A curious blend of the life-death spiritual iconography of medieval diptychs, and the surprisingly erotic mastication of bubblegum. With beards ...
High school administrators across central Ohio are increasingly warning parents about teens using e-cigarettes or vapes.Battery-powered vaporizers allow youngsters to inhale vapors from nicotine mixed with liquids in flavors such as bubblegum, cookies-and-cream or Mountain Dew. They also can be used to inhale marijuana and other drugs.Its illegal for unaccompanied minors to use or possess the devices, but high schools and some middle schools across the country have been updating tobacco
Buy Formatt Hitech 4 x 4" Color Graduated Pink 3 Filter featuring Soft Edge, Produces a "Bubblegum" Color Made with Absorbing Cell Technology. Review Formatt Hitech
Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD) is a rare genetic condition resulting from a mutation (change) in a persons DNA. Due to this change, people with VLCAD have problems breaking down certain fats properly. VLCAD occurs when the body either does not make enough or makes non-working enzyme called very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Enzymes are proteins that help break down the food we eat into the pieces our body can use for energy. In this case, the job of the VLCAD enzyme is to break down the very long-chain fatty acids, which are parts of the fat from our food. These fatty acids are important energy sources when there are not enough sugars in the body, such as in between meals. A person with VLCAD cannot use this type of fatty acid for energy because it cant break it down. This also causes a build-up of too many unused very long-chain fatty acids, which can be harmful to the body.. Those affected by VLCAD can show symptoms any time between infancy and adulthood. ...
Although lithium has been used therapeutically to treat patients with bipolar disorder for over 50 years, its mechanism of action, as well as that of other drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, is not agreed upon. In the present paper, I review studies in unanaesthetized rats using a neuropharmacological approach, combined with kinetic, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, demonstrating that chronic administration of three commonly used mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine), at therapeutically relevant doses, selectively target the brain arachidonic acid cascade. Upon chronic administration, lithium and carbamazepine decrease the binding activity of activator protein-2 and, in turn, the transcription, translation and activity of its arachidonic acid-selective calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 gene product, whereas chronic valproic acid non-competitively inhibits long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. The net overlapping effects of the three mood stabilizers are decreased ...
The phenylacetic acid (PA) degradative pathway is the central pathway by which complex aromatic compounds (e.g. styrene) get degraded. Upper pathways for different aromatic compounds converge at common intermediate phenylacetyl-CoA, which is then metabolized to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. We previously made a link in Burkholderia cenocepacia between phenylacetic acid (PA) degradation and virulence by showing that insertional mutagenesis of paaA and paaE results in PA-conditional growth and an attenuated killing phenotype in the Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection. Insertional mutagenesis of paaK1, which encodes a phenylacetyl-CoA ligase, did not result in a PA-conditional growth probably due to the presence of a second similar gene (paaK2) encoding another phenylacetyl-CoA ligase (PaaK2). Recently published crystallographic and enzyme kinetics studies comparing the two ligases show that PaaK1 is better able to bind hydroxylated PA derived molecules such as 3-hydroxyphenylacetic (3-OHPA) acid and
The elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL or ELO) are essential in the biosynthesis of fatty acids longer than C14. Here, two ELO full-length cDNAs (TmELO1, TmELO2) from the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) were isolated and the functions were characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) lengths of TmELO1 and TmELO2 were 1005 bp and 972 bp, respectively and the corresponding peptide sequences each contained several conserved motifs including the histidine-box motif HXXHH. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated high similarity with the ELO of Tribolium castaneum and Drosophila melanogaster. Both TmELO genes were expressed at various levels in eggs, 1st and 2nd instar larvae, mature larvae, pupae, male and female adults. Injection of dsTmELO1 but not dsTmELO2 RNA into mature larvae significantly increased mortality although RNAi did not produce any obvious changes in the fatty acid composition in the survivors. Heterologous expression of TmELO genes in yeast revealed that TmELO1 and ...
Glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase 1 also known as myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT-1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMT1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136448 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020936 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Duronio RJ, Reed SI, Gordon JI (May 1992). "Mutations of human myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase cause temperature-sensitive myristic acid auxotrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89 (9): 4129-33. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.9.4129. PMC 525646 . PMID 1570339. "Entrez Gene: NMT1 N-myristoyltransferase 1". Rajala RV, Datla RS, Moyana TN, et al. (2000). "N-myristoyltransferase". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). "Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO Rep. 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve141. PMC 1083955 . ...

4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar | Plant Physiology4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar | Plant Physiology

4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar. Sandra M. Allina, Aviva Pri-Hadash, David A. Theilmann, Brian E. Ellis, Carl J. ... 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar. Sandra M. Allina, Aviva Pri-Hadash, David A. Theilmann, Brian E. Ellis, Carl J. ... 1996) Two divergent members of a tobacco 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) gene family. Plant Physiol 112:193-205. ... 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase in Hybrid Poplar. Properties of Native Enzymes, cDNA Cloning, and Analysis of Recombinant Enzymes ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/116/2/743?ijkey=439a580766721bcef2c2a8e80901933b1ea79fa8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | Cloning, Functional Characterization and Site-Directed Mutagenesis of 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Involved...Frontiers | Cloning, Functional Characterization and Site-Directed Mutagenesis of 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Involved...

4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyzes the formation of hydroxycinnamates CoA esters, and plays an essential role at the ... 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyzes the formation of hydroxycinnamates CoA esters, and plays an essential role at the ... Coenzyme A ligases in Populus trichocarpa: novel specificity, metabolic regulation, and simulation of Coenzyme A ligation ... Allina, S. M., Pri-Hadash, A., Theilmann, D. A., Ellis, B. E., and Douglas, C. J. (1998). 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme A ligase in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2017.00004/full

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A LigasePseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase

... and the pqsA gene encodes a predicted protein with homology to acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) ligases. In order to elucidate the ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase. Journal of Bacteriology, 190(4), 1247- 1255. Retrieved from ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase. Journal of Bacteriology. February 2008; 190(4): 1247-1255. ... "Pseudomonas aeruginosa PqsA Is an Anthranilate-Coenzyme A Ligase". Journal of Bacteriology. 190:4. (1247-1255), February 2008. ...
more infohttp://thescholarship.ecu.edu/handle/10342/3250

Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase - WikipediaCoenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase - Wikipedia

Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase (EC 6.3.2.31, CofE-AF, MJ0768, CofE) is an enzyme with systematic name L-glutamate:coenzyme ... Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... coenzyme F420-0 + L-glutamate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } GDP + phosphate + coenzyme F420-1 This protein catalyses ... Li, H.; Graupner, M.; Xu, H.; White, R.H. (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_F420-0:L-glutamate_ligase

Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase - WikipediaCoenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase - Wikipedia

Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase (EC 6.3.2.34, F420:gamma-glutamyl ligase, CofE-AF, MJ0768, CofE) is an enzyme with ... coenzyme F420-1 ligase (GDP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction GTP + coenzyme F420-1 + L-glutamate ... Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... I Li, H.; Graupner, M.; Xu, H.; White, R.H. (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate_ligase

Purification and properties of benzoate-coenzyme A ligase, a Rhodopseudomonas palustris enzyme involved in the anaerobic...Purification and properties of benzoate-coenzyme A ligase, a Rhodopseudomonas palustris enzyme involved in the anaerobic...

The reaction product, benzoyl-CoA, was an effective inhibitor of the ligase reaction. The kinetic properties of the enzyme ... ligase was purified from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Synthesis of the enzyme was induced when cells ... match the kinetics of substrate uptake by whole cells and confirm a role for benzoate-CoA ligase in maintaining entry of ... A soluble benzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase was purified from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Synthesis ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Purification-and-properties-of-benzoate-coenzyme-A-Gei%C3%9Fler-Harwood/15a5fc9416e5d987df77073aedf9b58aed8e953b

MOESM15 of Mutation of 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase 1 gene affects lignin biosynthesis and increases the cell wall...MOESM15 of Mutation of 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase 1 gene affects lignin biosynthesis and increases the cell wall...

... coenzyme A ligase 1 gene affects lignin biosynthesis and increases the cell wall digestibility in maize brown midrib5 mutants ... Maize brown midrib Cell wall digestibility Lignin 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase ... MOESM15 of Mutation of 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase 1 gene affects lignin biosynthesis and increases the cell wall ...
more infohttps://springernature.figshare.com/articles/MOESM15_of_Mutation_of_4-coumarate_coenzyme_A_ligase_1_gene_affects_lignin_biosynthesis_and_increases_the_cell_wall_digestibility_in_maize_brown_midrib5_mutants/7975403

Biological ChemistryBiological Chemistry

3-Hydroxybenzoate:Coenzyme A Ligase from Cell Cultures of Centaurium erythraea: Isolation and Characterization. Barillas, ... Structural mechanisms of HECT-type ubiquitin ligases by Lorenz, Sonja. *Ancestral protein reconstruction: techniques and ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bchm.2000.381.issue-2/issue-files/bchm.2000.381.issue-2.xml

ACSL3 | Cancer Genetics WebACSL3 | Cancer Genetics Web

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in ... We found previously that long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 (FACL3), a critical enzyme for activation of long-chain fatty acids ... long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity - long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process - mitochondrial outer membrane - ... Expression and vitamin D3 regulation of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in human prostate cancer cells.. Prostaglandins ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ACSL3.htm

Frontiers | Current Understanding of the Correlation of Lignin Structure with Biomass Recalcitrance | ChemistryFrontiers | Current Understanding of the Correlation of Lignin Structure with Biomass Recalcitrance | Chemistry

AFEX, ammonia fiber expansion; 4CL: 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; C3′ H, p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3′-hydroxylase; C4H, ... 2011). Silencing of 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase in switchgrass leads to reduced lignin content and improved fermentable ... 2012). Downregulation of maize cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase via RNA interference technology causes brown midrib and improves ... cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; CCR, cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fchem.2016.00045/full

Bacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital | Science Translational MedicineBacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital | Science Translational Medicine

... acetate-coenzyme A ligase, SE2161; and conserved hypothetical protein, SE0692) on different days (table S5) (30). ...
more infohttp://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/391/eaah6500.full

fadD19 - Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA/3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oate--CoA ligase - Mycobacterium bovis (strain ATCC BAA-935 / AF2122...fadD19 - Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA/3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oate--CoA ligase - Mycobacterium bovis (strain ATCC BAA-935 / AF2122...

Catalyzes the activation of long-chain fatty acids as acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA), which are then transferred to the ... Steroid-coenzyme A ligaseBy similarity. ,p>Manually curated information which has been propagated from a related experimentally ... Ligase. Biological process. Cholesterol metabolism, Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Steroid metabolism, Sterol ... Steroid-CoA ligaseBy similarity. ,p>Manually curated information which has been propagated from a related experimentally ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q7TWB7

Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Dependent Activation of the Escherichia coli acsP2 Promoter by a Synergistic Class III Mechanism |...Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Dependent Activation of the Escherichia coli acsP2 Promoter by a Synergistic Class III Mechanism |...

Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs; acetate:coenzyme A ligase [AMP forming]; EC 6.2.1.1) irreversibly catalyzes the conversion ... Regulation of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 182:4173-4179. ... The enzymic interconversion of acetate and acetyl-coenzyme A in Escherichia coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 102:327-336. ... Sigma 70 is the principal sigma factor responsible for the transcription of acs, which encodes acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase in ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/185/17/5148?ijkey=46771fa22b68d857eac1550cf3372ea042ae1648&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

KEGG ENZYME: 6.2.1.7KEGG ENZYME: 6.2.1.7

cholate---CoA ligase;. BAL;. bile acid CoA ligase;. bile acid coenzyme A ligase;. choloyl-CoA synthetase;. choloyl coenzyme A ... cholic acid:CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A synthetase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha- ... Purification and characterization of a rat liver bile acid coenzyme A ligase from rat liver microsomes. ... THCA-CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanate---CoA ligase;. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta- ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?enzyme+6.2.1.7

Bacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital | Science Translational MedicineBacterial colonization and succession in a newly opened hospital | Science Translational Medicine

... acetate-coenzyme A ligase, SE2161; and conserved hypothetical protein, SE0692) on different days (table S5) (30). ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/391/eaah6500

Recombinant Human FATP2 protein (ab161235) | AbcamRecombinant Human FATP2 protein (ab161235) | Abcam

Very long chain fatty acid CoA ligase. *Very long chain fatty acid coenzyme A ligase 1 ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-fatp2-protein-ab161235.html

KAKEN - Research Projects | Comprehensive study on regulatory systems for the initiation of secondary metabolism and...KAKEN - Research Projects | Comprehensive study on regulatory systems for the initiation of secondary metabolism and...

Journal Article] Cinnamate : coenzyme A ligase from the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)2003. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Cinnamate : coenzyme A ligase from the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).2003. *. Author(s) ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-13854005/

Sequence DetailSequence Detail

succinate-Coenzyme A ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit. 17. 3. 9. 13. ... succinate-Coenzyme A ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/sequence/OTTMUSP00000048627

KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Brevibacillus brevisKEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Brevibacillus brevis

BBR47_25950 kbl; 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase BBR47_54610 bioF; 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase BBR47_22500 patB; ... tRNA-splicing ligase RtcB (3-phosphate/5-hydroxy nucleic acid ligase) [EC:6.5.1.8] K14415 RTCB; tRNA-splicing ligase RtcB (3 ... phosphate/5-hydroxy nucleic acid ligase) [EC:6.5.1.8] K01881 PARS; prolyl-tRNA synthetase [EC:6.1.1.15] K01881 PARS; prolyl- ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?bbe00001+BBR47_00860

SLC27A5 - Bile acyl-CoA synthetase - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC27A5 gene & proteinSLC27A5 - Bile acyl-CoA synthetase - Homo sapiens (Human) - SLC27A5 gene & protein

Fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase, very long-chain 3. Solute carrier family 27 member 5 ... "The human liver-specific homolog of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is cholate:CoA ligase.". Steinberg S.J., Mihalik S.J., ... very long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ... "Human liver-specific very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase: cDNA cloning and characterization of a second enzymatically ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9Y2P5

Anaerobic metabolism of l-phenylalanine via benzoyl-CoA in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica - Semantic ScholarAnaerobic metabolism of l-phenylalanine via benzoyl-CoA in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica - Semantic Scholar

... phenylacetate-CoA ligase (AMP-forming), enzyme(s) oxidizing phenylacetyl-CoA to phenylglyoxylate with nitrate, and ... Purification and characterization of phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase from a denitrifying Pseudomonas sp., an enzyme involved in ... Benzoyl-coenzyme A thioesterase of Azoarcus evansii: properties and function. *Wael Ismail ... Benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase (dearomatizing), a key enzyme of anaerobic aromatic metabolism. ATP dependence of the reaction, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Anaerobic-metabolism-of-l-phenylalanine-via-in-the-Schneider-Mohamed/99440acaeb4cf3a200dc3fff787bbee70d40be8f

Glycine - DrugBankGlycine - DrugBank

Details1. 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial. Kind. Protein. Organism. Human. Pharmacological action. ... U2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial. Not Available. Human. ... 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial. Molecular Weight. 45284.6 Da. ... Styles NA, Falany JL, Barnes S, Falany CN: Quantification and regulation of the subcellular distribution of bile acid coenzyme ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00145

BackgroundBackground

2 amino 3 ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase; 5) Citrate synthase; 6) Aconitate hydratase mitochondrial; and 7) Succinate ... 2 amino 3 ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase. EgrG_000107200.1. 0,00500288. 0. -. - ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/34694/cdc_34694_DS13.txt

Plus itPlus it

strain CBS3 4-chlorobenzoate:coenzyme A ligase. Biochemistry 36, 15650-15659.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ... Fatty acyl:CoA ligases can control directional membrane transport of fatty acids, thereby regulating their bioactivity (Black ... Stuible, H., Buttner, D., Ehlting, J., Hahlbrock, K., and Kombrink, E. (2000). Mutational analysis of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase ... Other members of this superfamily occur in plants, including 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CL), which activate 4-coumarate in the ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/14/6/1405
  • In biochemistry , a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond , usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligases are classified as EC 6 in the EC number classification of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some enzymes depend on the presence of other enzymes, called coenzymes, to function, or they depend on a specific body temperature. (paulaschoice.com)