Coenzyme ACoenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Ubiquinone: A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.CobamidesCoenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC 6.2.1.1.Mevalonic AcidHydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by transfer of the carbonyl group. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. A block in this enzymatic conversion leads to the metabolic disease, methylmalonic aciduria. EC 5.4.99.2.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Corrinoids: Cyclic TETRAPYRROLES based on the corrin skeleton.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Aldehyde Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Ethanolamine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.MercaptoethanolGlutaratesApoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Succinate-CoA Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC 6.2.1.5) or GTP to GDP (EC 6.2.1.4) and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Xanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enzymes and Coenzymes: Biological catalysts and their cofactors.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)DimethylaminesAcetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acetate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC 2.7.2.1.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.EstersPyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.MalonatesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.PQQ Cofactor: A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Formate Dehydrogenases: Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Myringosclerosis: The formation of dense connective tissue in the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE that does not necessarily cause or lead to loss of hearing.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for short-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.PyruvatesTetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration: A rare autosomal recessive degenerative disorder which usually presents in late childhood or adolescence. Clinical manifestations include progressive MUSCLE SPASTICITY; hyperreflexia; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; DYSTONIA; DYSARTHRIA; and intellectual deterioration which progresses to severe dementia over several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p972; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp972-929)Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.ValeratesFermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.FluorobenzenesPyruvate Synthase: A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the first step in the beta-oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Transketolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.MalatesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Enzyme Reactivators: Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Enoyl-CoA Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC 4.2.1.17.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.MethylaminesFormates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Meglutol: An antilipemic agent which lowers cholesterol, triglycerides, serum beta-lipoproteins and phospholipids. It acts by interfering with the enzymatic steps involved in the conversion of acetate to hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A as well as inhibiting the activity of HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES which is the rate limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Fatty Acid Desaturases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the stereoselective, regioselective, or chemoselective syn-dehydrogenation reactions. They function by a mechanism that is linked directly to reduction of molecular OXYGEN.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.PropaneNucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methanobacteriales: An order of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped methanogens, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are nonmotile, do not catabolize carbohydrates, proteinaceous material, or organic compounds other than formate or carbon monoxide, and are widely distributed in nature.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.Methylmalonyl-CoA Decarboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that catalyzes the decarboxylation of (S)-2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA to propanoyl-CoA. In microorganisms the reaction can be coupled to the vectorial transport of SODIUM ions across the cytoplasmic membrane.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.

Dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. (1/978)

A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (PA) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) of supplemental PA were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0.88 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. The level of PA detected in the unsupplemented diet was 0.02 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Feed efficiencies (FE) and protein efficiency ratios were highest in shrimp fed the diets supplemented with 120, 240, and 480 mg PA/kg diet, followed by the groups fed 60 mg/kg, then 40 mg/kg, and finally the unsupplemented control group (P < 0.05). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with PA had significantly higher survival percentages and lower hepatopancreatic lipid concentration than those fed the unsupplemented, control diets. Broken-line regression analyses of weight gain percentage and hepatopancreatic CoA and PA concentrations of the shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary PA concentration in growing P. monodon is 101-139 mg/kg.  (+info)

High-affinity binding of very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters to the peroxisomal non-specific lipid-transfer protein (sterol carrier protein-2). (2/978)

Binding of fluorescent fatty acids to bovine liver non-specific lipid-transfer protein (nsL-TP) was assessed by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the single tryptophan residue of nsL-TP and the fluorophore. Upon addition of pyrene dodecanoic acid (Pyr-C12) and cis-parinaric acid to nsL-TP, FRET was observed indicating that these fatty acids were accommodated in the lipid binding site closely positioned to the tryptophan residue. Substantial binding was observed only when these fatty acids were presented in the monomeric form complexed to beta-cyclodextrin. As shown by time-resolved fluorescence measurements, translocation of Pyr-C12 from the Pyr-C12-beta-cyclodextrin complex to nsL-TP changed dramatically the direct molecular environment of the pyrene moiety: i.e. the fluorescence lifetime of the directly excited pyrene increased at least by 25% and a distinct rotational correlation time of 7 ns was observed. In order to evaluate the affinity of nsL-TP for intermediates of the beta-oxidation pathway, a binding assay was developed based on the ability of fatty acyl derivatives to displace Pyr-C12 from the lipid binding site as reflected by the reduction of FRET. Hexadecanoyl-CoA and 2-hexadecenoyl-CoA were found to bind readily to nsL-TP, whereas 3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA and 3-ketohexadecanoyl-CoA bound poorly. The highest affinities were observed for the very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters (24:0-CoA, 26:0-CoA) and their enoyl derivatives (24:1-CoA, 26:1-CoA). Binding of non-esterified hexadecanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid (24:0) was negligible.  (+info)

The synthesis and hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A thioesters by soluble and microsomal fractions from the brain of the developing rat. (3/978)

1. The specific activities of long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase (EC6.2.1.3) and of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA hydrolase (EC3.1.2.2) were measured in soluble and microsomal fractions from rat brain. 2. In the presence of either palmitic acid or stearic acid, the specific activity of the ligase increased during development; the specific activity of this enzyme with arachidic acid or behenic acid was considerably lower. 3. The specific activities of palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction decreased markedly (75%) between 6 and 20 days after birth; by contrast, the corresponding specific activities in the soluble fraction showed no decline. 4. Stearoyl-CoA hydrolase in the microsomal fraction is inhibited (99%) by bovine serum albumin; this is in contrast with the microsomal fatty acid-chain-elongation system, which is stimulated 3.9-fold by albumin. Inhibition of stearoyl-CoA hydrolase does not stimulate stearoyl-CoA chain elongation. Therefore it does not appear likely that the decline in the specific activity of hydrolase during myelogenesis is responsible for the increased rate of fatty acid chain elongation. 5. It is suggested that the decline in specific activity of the microsomal hydrolase and to a lesser extent the increase in the specific activity of the ligase is directly related to the increased demand for long-chain acyl-CoA esters during myelogenesis as substrates in the biosynthesis of myelin lipids.  (+info)

The tricarboxylic acid cycle of Helicobacter pylori. (4/978)

The composition and properties of the tricarboxylic acid cycle of the microaerophilic human pathogen Helicobacter pylori were investigated in situ and in cell extracts using [1H]- and [13C]-NMR spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. NMR spectroscopy assays enabled highly specific measurements of some enzyme activities, previously not possible using spectrophotometry, in in situ studies with H. pylori, thus providing the first accurate picture of the complete tricarboxylic acid cycle of the bacterium. The presence, cellular location and kinetic parameters of citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate oxidase, fumarate reductase, fumarase, malate dehydrogenase, and malate synthase activities in H. pylori are described. The absence of other enzyme activities of the cycle, including alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, and succinate dehydrogenase also are shown. The H. pylori tricarboxylic acid cycle appears to be a noncyclic, branched pathway, characteristic of anaerobic metabolism, directed towards the production of succinate in the reductive dicarboxylic acid branch and alpha-ketoglutarate in the oxidative tricarboxylic acid branch. Both branches were metabolically linked by the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidase activity. Under the growth conditions employed, H. pylori did not possess an operational glyoxylate bypass, owing to the absence of isocitrate lyase activity; nor a gamma-aminobutyrate shunt, owing to the absence of both gamma-aminobutyrate transaminase and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activities. The catalytic and regulatory properties of the H. pylori tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes are discussed by comparing their amino acid sequences with those of other, more extensively studied enzymes.  (+info)

ApoB100 secretion from HepG2 cells is decreased by the ACAT inhibitor CI-1011: an effect associated with enhanced intracellular degradation of ApoB. (5/978)

The concept that hepatic cholesteryl ester (CE) mass and the rate of cholesterol esterification regulate hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins remains controversial. The present study was carried out in HepG2 cells to correlate the rate of cholesterol esterification and CE mass with apoB secretion by CI-1011, an acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor that is known to decrease apoB secretion, in vivo, in miniature pigs. HepG2 cells were incubated with CI-1011 (10 nmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 10 micromol/L) for 24 hours. ApoB secretion into media was decreased by 25%, 27%, and 43%, respectively (P<0.0012). CI-1011 (10 micromol/L) inhibited HepG2 cell ACAT activity by 79% (P<0.002) and cellular CE mass by 32% (P<0.05). In contrast, another ACAT inhibitor, DuP 128 (10 micromol/L), decreased cellular ACAT activity and CE mass by 85% (P<0.002) and 42% (P=0.01), respectively, but had no effect on apoB secretion into media. To characterize the reduction in apoB secretion by CI-1011, pulse-chase experiments were performed and analyzed by multicompartmental modelling using SAAM II. CI-1011 did not affect the synthesis of apoB or albumin. However, apoB secretion into the media was decreased by 42% (P=0.019). Intracellular apoB degradation increased proportionately (P=0.019). The secretion of albumin and cellular reuptake of labeled lipoproteins were unchanged. CI-1011 and DuP 128 did not affect apoB mRNA concentrations. These results show that CI-1011 decreases apoB secretion by a mechanism that involves an enhanced intracellular degradation of apoB. This study demonstrates that ACAT inhibitors can exert differential effects on apoB secretion from HepG2 cells that do not reflect their efficacy in inhibiting cholesterol esterification.  (+info)

The crystal structure of a novel bacterial adenylyltransferase reveals half of sites reactivity. (6/978)

Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) is an essential enzyme in bacteria that catalyses a rate-limiting step in coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis, by transferring an adenylyl group from ATP to 4'-phosphopantetheine, yielding dephospho-CoA (dPCoA). Each phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) subunit displays a dinucleotide-binding fold that is structurally similar to that in class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Superposition of bound adenylyl moieties from dPCoA in PPAT and ATP in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases suggests nucleophilic attack by the 4'-phosphopantetheine on the alpha-phosphate of ATP. The proposed catalytic mechanism implicates transition state stabilization by PPAT without involving functional groups of the enzyme in a chemical sense in the reaction. The crystal structure of the enzyme from Escherichia coli in complex with dPCoA shows that binding at one site causes a vice-like movement of active site residues lining the active site surface. The mode of enzyme product formation is highly concerted, with only one trimer of the PPAT hexamer showing evidence of dPCoA binding. The homologous active site attachment of ATP and the structural distribution of predicted sequence-binding motifs in PPAT classify the enzyme as belonging to the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily.  (+info)

Purification and some properties of a medium-chain acyl-thioester hydrolase from lactating-rabbit mammary gland which terminates chain elongation in fatty acid synthesis. (7/978)

1. An acyl-thioester hydrolase was isolated from the cytosol of lactating-rabbit mammary gland. The purified enzyme terminates fatty acid synthesis at medium-chain (C8:0-C12:0) acids when it is incubated with fatty acid synthetase and rate-limiting concentrations of malonyl-CoA. These acids are characteristic products of the lactating gland. 2. The mol.wt. of the enzyme is 29000+/-500 (mean+/-S.D. of three independent preparations), as estimated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. The enzyme also hydrolyses acyl-CoA esters of chain lengths C10:0-C16:0 when these are used as model substrates. The greatest activity was towards dodecanoyl-CoA, and the three preparations had specific activities of 305, 1130 and 2010 nmol of dodecanoyl-CoA hydrolysed/min per mg of protein when 56muM substrate was used. 4. The way in which this enzyme controls the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids by fatty acid synthetase is briefly discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase, BltD, from Bacillus subtilis. (8/978)

Overexpression of the BltD gene in Bacillus subtilis causes acetylation of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. BltD is co-regulated with another gene, Blt, which encodes a multidrug export protein whose overexpression facilitates spermidine export [Woolridge, Vazquez-Laslop, Markham, Chevalier, Gerner and Neyfakh (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8864-8866]. Here we show that BltD acetylates both spermidine and spermine at primary propyl amine moieties, with spermine being the preferred substrate. In the presence of saturating concentrations of acetyl CoA, BltD rapidly acetylates spermine at both the N1 and N12 positions. The Km (app) values for spermine, spermidine and N1-acetylspermine are +info)

*Coenzyme Q10

... , also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or ... "Coenzyme Q10". National Cancer Institute. Bonakdar, Robert Alan; Guarneri, Erminia. "Coenzyme Q10". American Family Physician. ... Bhagavan, H. N.; Chopra, R. K. (Jun 2007). "Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations". ... "4 Coenzyme Q oxidation reduction reactions in mitochondrial electron transport". In Kagan, V. E.; Quinn, P. J. Coenzyme Q: ...

*Coenzyme M

... is a coenzyme required for methyl-transfer reactions in the metabolism of methanogens. The coenzyme is an anion with ... The coenzyme is the C1 donor in methanogenesis. It is converted to methyl-coenzyme M thioether, the thioether CH 3SCH 2CH 2SO− ... Methyl-coenzyme M reacts with coenzyme B, 7-thioheptanoylthreoninephosphate, to give a heterodisulfide, releasing methane: CH 3 ... Taylor CD, Wolfe RS (10 August 1974). "Structure and methylation of coenzyme M(HSCH 2CH 2SO 3)". J. Biol. Chem. 249 (15): 4879- ...

*Coenzyme B

... is a coenzyme required for redox reactions in methanogens. The full chemical name of coenzyme B is 7- ... Coenzyme B reacts with 2-methylthioethanesulfonate (methyl-Coenzyme M, abbreviated CH 3-S-CoM), to release methane in ... methanogenesis: CH 3-S-CoM + HS-CoB → CH 4 + CoB-S-S-CoM This conversion is catalyzed by the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase ...

*Coenzyme F420

... or 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin is a coenzyme involved in redox reactions in methanogens, in many Actinobacteria, and ... Coenzyme M Coenzyme B Methanofuran Tetrahydromethanopterin Deppenmeier U (2002). "Redox-driven proton translocation in ... The coenzyme is a substrate for coenzyme F420 hydrogenase, 5,10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin reductase and ... Selengut JD, Haft DH (2010). "Unexpected abundance of coenzyme F420-dependent enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other ...

*Coenzyme A

... (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the ... Coenzyme A is one of five essential coenzymes that is necessary in the reaction mechanism of the citric acid cycle. Its acetyl- ... The coenzyme was named coenzyme A to stand for "activation of acetate." In 1953, Fritz Lipmann won the Nobel Prize in ... Coenzyme A, three ADP, one monophosphate, and one diphosphate are harvested from biosynthesis. New research shows that coenzyme ...

*Coenzyme Q10 deficiency

... is a deficiency of Coenzyme Q10. It can be associated with COQ2, APTX, PDSS2, PDSS1, CABC1, and COQ9. ... May 2009). "A nonsense mutation in COQ9 causes autosomal-recessive neonatal-onset primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency: a ... 8th Conference of the International Coenzyme Q10 Association. ...

*Coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase

It does so by combining the hydrogen donor coenzyme B and the methyl donor coenzyme M. Via this enzyme, most of the natural gas ... In enzymology, coenzyme-B sulfoethylthiotransferase, also known as methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) or most systematically as ... Ermler, U.; Grabarse, W.; Shima, S.; Goubeaud, M.; Thauer, R. K. (1997). "Crystal structure of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: The ... Bobik TA, Olson KD, Noll KM, Wolfe RS (1987). "Evidence that the heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine ...

*Coenzyme F420 hydrogenase

... reduced coenzyme F420 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are H2 and coenzyme F420, whereas its product is reduced coenzyme ... In enzymology, a coenzyme F420 hydrogenase (EC 1.12.98.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction H2 + coenzyme F420 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is hydrogen:coenzyme F420 oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include 8-hydroxy- ... Baron SF, Ferry JG (1989). "Purification and properties of the membrane-associated coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase from ...

*Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase

... also known as HADH is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the HADH gene. The HADH gene ... "Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrial". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Molven A, Matre ... A deficiency is associated with 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Mutations also cause 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ... "A preliminary analysis of the segregation of human hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase in human-mouse somatic cell hybrids". ...

*Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase

... (SCS, also known as succinyl-CoA synthetase or succinate thiokinase or succinate-CoA ligase) is ... Succinyl Coenzyme A Synthetases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular ... 1]. Crystal structures for the E. coli SCS provide evidence that the coenzyme A binds within each α-subunit (within a Rossman ... "Deficiency of the alpha subunit of succinate-coenzyme A ligase causes fatal infantile lactic acidosis with mitochondrial DNA ...

*Isobutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

Isobutyryl-coenzyme A Isobutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency at NLM Genetics Home Reference. ... Isobutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, commonly known as IBD deficiency, is a rare metabolic disorder in which the ... Defects in the ACAD8 gene cause isobutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. The ACAD8 gene provides instructions for making ...

*Methylated-thiol-coenzyme M methyltransferase

... coenzyme M methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction methanethiol + coenzyme M ⇌ {\displaystyle ... Methylated-thiol-coenzyme M methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.251, mtsA (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name methylated-thiol: ... Methylated-thiol---coenzyme M methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Tallant, T.C.; Paul, L.; Krzycki, J.A. (2001). "The MtsA subunit of the methylthiol:coenzyme M methyltransferase of ...

*Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase

The coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is ... It catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c by oxidation of coenzyme Q (CoQ) and the concomitant pumping of 4 protons from the ... coenzyme Q: cytochrome C oxidoreductase) is known as the ubiquinone ("Q") cycle. In this cycle four protons get released into ... Calculated positions of bc1 and related complexes in membranes Coenzyme Q-Cytochrome-c Reductase at the US National Library of ...

*Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (coenzyme-F420)

... (EC 1.1.98.2, coenzyme F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, F420 ... Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (coenzyme-F420) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Purwantini, E.; Daniels, L. (1996). "Purification of a novel coenzyme F420-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction D-glucose 6-phosphate + oxidized coenzyme F420 ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ...

*Dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase

... may stand for NADH dehydrogenase NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non- ...

*Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase

... (EC 6.3.2.31, CofE-AF, MJ0768, CofE) is an enzyme with systematic name L-glutamate:coenzyme ... Coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... Li, H.; Graupner, M.; Xu, H.; White, R.H. (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme ... coenzyme F420-1 This protein catalyses the successive addition of two glutamate residues to cofactor F420 by two distinct and ...

*3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

... (HADH deficiency) is a rare condition that prevents the body from converting ... Mutations in the HADH gene lead to inadequate levels of an enzyme called 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. Medium-chain ... People with 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency have inadequate levels of an enzyme required for a step that ... Problems related to 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting or by illnesses ...

*Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

Hegyi, T.; Ostfeld, B.; Gardner, K. (1992). "Medium chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency and SIDS". New Jersey ... Wilcken, B.; Hammond, J.; Silink, M. (1994-05-01). "Morbidity and mortality in medium chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase ... "Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme a Dehydrogenase Deficiency". PMID 20301597. Leydiker, K. B.; Neidich, J. A.; Lorey, F.; Barr, E. M ...

*Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

... (SCADD), also called ACADS deficiency and SCAD deficiency, is an autosomal ... The diagnosis of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency is based on the following: Newborn screening test Genetic ... Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency affected infants will have vomiting, low blood sugar, a lack of energy ( ... Short-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (Free full text). 95 (4): 195-200. doi ...

*Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-coenzyme Q reductase

... may stand for NADH dehydrogenase NADH:ubiquinone reductase (non- ...

*Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase

... coenzyme F420-1 ligase (GDP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction GTP + coenzyme F420-1 + L-glutamate ... Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase (EC 6.3.2.34, F420:gamma-glutamyl ligase, CofE-AF, MJ0768, CofE) is an enzyme with ... Coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... I Li, H.; Graupner, M.; Xu, H.; White, R.H. (2003). "CofE catalyzes the addition of two glutamates to F420-0 in F420 coenzyme ...

*Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

... (VLCADD) is a fatty-acid metabolism disorder which prevents the body ... Episodes of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting, illness, and ... pain cardiomyopathy Mutations in the ACADVL gene lead to inadequate levels of an enzyme called very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A ...

*Coenzyme gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase

... coenzyme alpha-F420-3 The enzyme caps the gamma-glutamyl tail of the hydride carrier coenzyme F420. Li, H.; Xu, H.; Graham, D.E ... coenzyme gamma-F420-2 (ADP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ATP + coenzyme gamma-F420-2 + L- ... Coenzyme gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase (EC 6.3.2.32, MJ1001, CofF protein, gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase) is an ... Coenzyme gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular ...

*Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

Mutations in the HADHA gene lead to inadequate levels of an enzyme called long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ... Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, often shortened to LCHAD deficiency, is a rare autosomal ...

*Methyl-Co(III) methanol-specific corrinoid protein):coenzyme M methyltransferase

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Methyl-Co(III) methanol-specific corrinoid protein):coenzyme M methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.246, methyltransferase 2, mtaA (gene ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction [methyl-Co(III) methanol-specific corrinoid protein] + coenzyme M ⇌ {\ ... Harms, U.; Thauer, R.K. (1996). "Methylcobalamin: coenzyme M methyltransferase isoenzymes MtaA and MtbA from Methanosarcina ...
Residues 4 to 115 (E-value = 4.8e-59) place CT822 in the CoA_binding family which is described as CoA binding domain (PF02629 ...
72-89-9:C23H38N7O17P3S, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, Acetyl CoA, Acetyl coenzyme A, Coenzyme A, S-acetate, S-acetilcoenzima A, S-Acetyl coenzyme A, S-Acetylcoenzym A, S-acetylcoenzyme A
கொழுப்பு அமிலங்கள், அல்லது கொழுப்பு அமிலத்தின் மீதங்கள் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் அசிட்டைல்- CoA உடன் மெலோனைல்-CoA அல்லது மெதில்மெலோனைல்-CoA தொகுதிகளை முன்தொடராகக் கொண்ட சங்கிலித் தொடர் நீட்சியாக்கத்தினால் கொழுப்பு அமில தொகுப்பு எனப்படும் செயல்முறை மூலம் தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட வேறுபட்ட மூலக்கூறுகளின் தொகுதியாகும்.[6][7] இவை ஐதரோகார்பன் சங்கிலி யால் ...
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic acid is ubiquitous and deficiency is rare. There are no suitable biomarkers that can be used to derive the requirement for pantothenic acid. Data available on pantothenic acid intakes and health consequences are very limited and cannot be used to derive DRVs for pantothenic acid. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an Average Requirement and a Population Reference Intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. The setting of AIs is based on observed pantothenic acid intakes with a mixed diet and the apparent absence of signs of deficiency in the EU, suggesting that current intake levels are adequate. The AI for adults is set at 5 mg/day. The AI for adults also applies to pregnant women. ...
Coenzyme A (CoA) functions as a carrier of acetyl and acyl groups in cells and thus plays an important role in numerous synthetic and degradative metabolic pathways in all organisms. In eukaryotes, CoA and its derivatives are also involved in membrane trafficking and signal transduction. This gene encodes the bifunctional protein coenzyme A synthase (CoAsy) which carries out the last two steps in the biosynthesis of CoA from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). The phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase domain of this bifunctional protein catalyzes the conversion of 4-phosphopantetheine into dephospho-coenzyme A (dpCoA) while its dephospho-CoA kinase domain completes the final step by phosphorylating dpCoA to form CoA. Mutations in this gene are associated with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Alternative splicing results in multiple isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014 ...
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Pantothenic Acid 250 mg - 250 tabletsRecommended Use:One tablet daily, or as recommended by your health care professional.Pantothenic acid is a member of the B-vitamin family, and is often referred to as Vitamin B-5. Its bioactive form, coenzyme a, plays many roles in the body, including the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the production of energy, and the synthesis or red blood cells and the key neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.Ingredients:Pantothenic Acid 250mg.WARNING: Keep out of the reach of children. Do not use if either tamper-evident seal is broken or missing. If you are pregnant or nursing, consult your health care professional before using this product. Suitable for vegetarians and hypoallergenic: contains no yeast, dairy, egg, gluten, corn, soy or wheat. Contains no sugar, starch, salt, preservatives, or artificial color, flavor or fragrance.
Low prices on Pantothenic Acid! Pantothenic acid supports stress reduction, metabolism and gland function*. Pantothenic acid is sometimes known as the
Abstract: Environmental citrate or malonate is degraded by a range of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria. For chosen illustrations, the genes encoding the specific enzymes with the degradation pathway are explained along with the encoded proteins and their catalytic mechanisms. Aerobic micro organism degrade citrate quickly by The fundamental enzyme products in the cell if a selected transporter for citrate is offered. Anaerobic degradation of citrate in Klebsiella pneumoniae needs the so-termed substrate activation module to transform citrate into its thioester Together with the phosphoribosyl dephospho-CoA prosthetic group of citrate lyase. The citryl thioester is subsequently cleaved into oxaloacetate as well as acetyl thioester, from which a whole new citryl thioester is formed given that the turnover carries on. The degradation of malonate Also features a substrate activation module by using a phosphoribosyl dephospho-CoA prosthetic group. The equipment receives Prepared for turnover just after ...
... - Pantothenic Acid, or Vitamin B5, is required for the production of cortico-steroid hormones in the adrenal glands. These hormones are the body
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By Nutri People. Vitamin B5 converts to co-enzyme A, which is involved in breaking down carbohydrates, fat and protein to make energy, and in making steroids, fatty acids, bile, haemoglobin and cholesterol. The brain contains high amounts of B5. Vitamin B5 helps make two important substances involved in nerve transmission - acetylcholine and sphingosine. B5 is important for a healthy immune system. It supports the adrenal glands and helps maintain healthy skin, digestion, nerves, bones and joints. Pantothenic acid helps balance cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure, stress, mood and sleep. Antibiotics, illness and alcohol deplete levels.. ...
Solgar Pantothenic Acid is an essential co-enzyme in the body. It is a vitamin B5. It is essential to the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and protein.
Also known as vitamin B, pantothenic acid is essential for a number of basic bodily functions. It participates in the continual breakdown of carbohydr
Sometimes referred to as Vitamin B-5, Pantothenic Acid has been studied closely for its apparent role in helping metabolize a range of food types and for the nutritional support of nervous-system signal transmission. Natures Plus uses the most c
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Enzymes for DNA repair or Coenzyme Q10 for antioxidant and antiaging benefits have become typical ingredients in todays skin care. Here, industry expert OLenick illustrates the difference between cofactors and coenzymes.
Coenzyme Q-10 is an essential component of the mitochondria and so is involved in energy production within body cells. Solgars Coenzyme Q-10 is obtained fr
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme A2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase (TIGR00745; EC 1.1.1.-; HMM-score: 31.2) ...
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme A2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase (TIGR00745; EC 1.1.1.-; HMM-score: 304) ...
Coenzyme A is an essential metabolite known for its central role in over one hundred cellular metabolic reactions. In cells, Coenzyme A is synthesized de novo in five enzymatic steps with vitamin B5 as the starting metabolite, phosphorylated by pantothenate kinase. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene cause a severe form of neurodegeneration for which no treatment is available. One therapeutic strategy is to generate Coenzyme A precursors downstream of the defective step in the pathway. Here we describe the synthesis, characteristics and in vivo rescue potential of the acetyl-Coenzyme A precursor S-acetyl-4-phosphopantetheine as a possible treatment for neurodegeneration associated with pantothenate kinase deficiency. ...
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A073FPV4 (A0A073FPV4_ECOLX), Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase. Escherichia coli 2-427-07_S4_C3
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0A0D1K1G7 (A0A0D1K1G7_STAAU), Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase. Staphylococcus aureus subsp aureus
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Learn more about Pantothenic Acid and Pantethine at Sky Ridge Medical Center Supplement Forms / Alternate Names Pantothenate; Vitamin B5 Uses Principal Proposed...
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Pantothenic acid acne works - details on what foods and supplements help get rid of acne. Ideal for treating acne spots directly.
... Coenzyme Q10 is widely used . Coenzyme Q10 can be used in a wide variety of industries . Coenzyme Q10 in Food Production N…
Coenzyme Q10, molecular model. This is the fully oxidised version of the molecule, known as ubiquinone. Coenzyme Q10 is involved in the electron transport chain that synthesises (ATP) adenosine triphosphate. It is therefore found in large quantities in mitochondria, the organelles that produce energy, in the form of ATP, for a cell. Coenzyme Q10 also acts as an antioxidant. - Stock Image C014/2293
We explored the uptake of B12 and its accumulation and conversion to the coenzymes in rats kept on a low-B12 diet for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week diet containing HO-B12 or CN-B12 or a 2-week continuum on a low-B12 diet.. We found major differences in both the distribution and the degree of conversion to the B12 coenzymes for HO-B12 and CN-B12 supplementations. Notably, more than half of the administered CN-B12 remained in this form in the kidneys, whereas HO-B12 was largely converted to the bioactive ADO-B12 providing more than the doubled amount of active coenzymes to the kidney tissues than CN-B12. The degree of conversion becomes even larger if subtracting ADO-B12 in the low-B12 organs and counting only its increments, accumulated in the cause of HO-B12 and CN-B12 supplementation. Our study also highlights the uncertainty of using plasma B12 as a sole marker of B12 tissue content.. The work has some limitations. Even though no B12 had been added, the low-B12 diet still contained 5 µg/kg ...
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Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is used to produce energy your body needs for cell growth and maintenance. It also functions as an antioxidant, which protects the body from damage caused by harmful molecules. - WebMD
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Regular readers may know I dont get much sleep, and nearly every morning I clasp on to the duvet, the lovely warm duvet and pray that God will turn back time
Western blotting results of adipogenesis-specific markers.Representative image of 3 repeats and quantification of (A) PPARγ, (B) C/EBPα, and (C) Acetyl CoA ca
Inhibitors of 4-phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) were identified through high-throughput screening of the AstraZeneca compound library. One series, cycloalkyl pyrimidines, showed inhibition of PPAT isozymes from several species, with the most potent inhibition of enzymes from Gram-positive species. Mode-of-inhibition studies with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus PPAT demonstrated representatives of this series to be reversible inhibitors competitive with phosphopantetheine and uncompetitive with ATP, binding to the enzyme-ATP complex. The potency of this series was optimized using structure-based design, and inhibition of cell growth of Gram-positive species was achieved. Mode-of-action studies, using generation of resistant mutants with targeted sequencing as well as constructs that overexpress PPAT, demonstrated that growth suppression was due to inhibition of PPAT. An effect on bacterial burden was demonstrated in mouse lung and thigh infection models, but further
How much of Pantothenic acid, known as pantothenate or vitamin B5 is present in Fast foods, enchirito, with cheese, beef and beans in details, quantity how high or low Pantothenic acid, known as pantothenate or vitamin B5 nutrient content it has.
Lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well achieved by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins inhibit the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a precursor for cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). In HepG2 cells, simvastatin decreased mitochondrial CoQ10 levels, and at higher concentrations was associated with a moderately higher degree of cell death, increased DNA oxidative damage and a reduction in ATP synthesis. Supplementation of CoQ10, reduced cell death and DNA oxidative stress, and increased ATP synthesis. It is suggested that CoQ10 deficiency plays an important role in statin-induced hepatopathy, and that CoQ10 supplementation protects HepG2 cells from this complication. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved ...
PANTOTHENIC ACID 500 mg Rapid Release Hypoallergenic/Vegetarian/Kosher These tablets are formulated in a special vegetable cellulose Rapid Release base allowing for quick disintegration. This technology affords maximum nutritional availability. Supplement Facts: Serving Size 1 tablet Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Pantothenic Acid (as d-calcium pantothenate) 500mg 5,000% Directions: Adults take one (1) tablet daily with food. Other Ingredients: Cellulose, stearic acid, magnesium stearate, cellulose & glycerin coating, silica. Does Not Contain: Yeast, corn, wheat, soy, gluten, milk, salt, sugar, starch, preservatives or artificial color.
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Although royal jelly constitutes one of the richest natural sources of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), a reliable and validated chromatographic method to determine this analyte in this matrix has yet to be described in the literature. In this work we present an original RP-HPLC procedure to measure the concen
Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) comes in several different forms; D-Calcium Pantothenate is the most popular due to its higher stability and quick rate of absorption into the digestive tract. While it can be naturally found in most unprocessed foods, it is. ...
1ODF: Crystal Structure of the Ygr205W Protein from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Close Structural Resemblance to E.Coli Pantothenate Kinase
Coenzyme Q10 is naturally made by the body and can be taken as a pill or injection. Studies have shown it to help protect the heart from damaging side effects of doxorubicin and to stimulate the immune system in cancer patients. Read about the results of clinical trials in cancer patients using coenzyme Q10 in this expert-reviewed summary.
Now Bateeilee Blog will post Health Benefits of Coenzyme Q10. Coenzyme Q10 is a naturally-occuring compound found in every cell in the body.
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ACLY antibody - middle region (ARP42736_P050) | Application: WB | ACLY is strongly supported by BioGPS gene expression data to be expressed in Human ACHN cells | Alias: ACL; ATPCL; CLATP
Coenzyme Q-10 is a naturally occurring antioxidant essential for good health. Most people do not produce adequate amounts of coenzyme Q-10 due to inadequate nutrition or improper digestion. Coenzyme Q-10 is responsible for producing the energy in our bodys cells. Nearly all cellular activities require energy, making coenzyme Q-10 a vitally important supplement. Coenzyme Q-10 acts as an antioxidant and protects against free radical damage. L-Taurine is a free amino .... Continue Reading → ...
Researchers from the University of Amsterdams Van t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences (HIMS) have developed a range of synthetic biomimetic compounds to replace the relatively expensive natural NADH and NADPH coenzymes in enzymatic conversions of industrial relevance. They show that some of the compounds even outperform their natural counterparts. The research has been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS).
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|p style=text-align: justify;||span id=ctl00_ContentPlaceHolder1_lbl_ProductDetails||strong||span|How Does ZENITH NUTRITIONS CoQ10 Work?|/span||/strong||span||br /| |span|Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), or ubiquinone, is a naturally-occurring, vitamin-like nutr
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Most healthy people should have no adverse effects when taking coenzyme Q--10, but others may experience stomach problems, diarrhea and nausea. In some cases, this supplement may also cause a skin...
Coenzyme Q10: The Different Forms and Heart Health (Part 2: Ubiquinol vs. Ubiquinone) If you have been looking into supplementing with coenzyme Q10, you may
Many claims are made for the vitamin-like substance CoQ10, from preventing cancer to slowing aging. Nothing can do all that, but research continues to uncover a range of potential benefits.
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Looking for Coenzyme b12? Find out information about Coenzyme b12. see coenzyme coenzyme , any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may... Explanation of Coenzyme b12
by Andrey , Oct 13, 2016 , Uncategorized. We decided to take a deeper look into the science surrounding pantothenic acid as an acne treatment. Heres what we found, both good and bad. Read on and check out the resources to make the right choice for your skin. Zits, pimples, boils … yuck! A ...
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Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
A coenzyme is a small, organic, non-protein molecules that carries chemical groups between enzymes. It is the cofactor for the enzyme and does not form a permanent part in the enzymes structure. Sometimes, they are called cosubstrates and are considered substrates that are loosely bound to the enzyme. In metabolism, coenzymes play a role in group-transfer reactions, such as ATP and coenzyme A, and oxidation-reduction reactions, such as NAD+ and coenzyme Q10. Coenzymes are frequently consumed and recycled. Chemical groups are added and detached continuously by an enzyme. ATP synthase enzyme phosphorylates and converts the ADP to ATP, while Kinase dephosphorylates the ATP back to ADP at continuous rates as well. Coenzyme molecules are mostly derived from vitamins. They are also commonly made from nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate and coenzyme A.. Through further research in coenzyme activity and its binding effect on the enzyme, more can be revealed about how the enzyme changes ...
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Olympian Labs Order Line - 888.244.8948 Olympian Labs Alpha Lipoic Coenzyme Q10. Alpha Lipoic Acid and CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are often considered to be life critical, vitamin-like nutrients. CoQ10 and ALA both cross the brain blood barrier to optimize cognitive function.
The CoA derivatives of a number of aliphatic and aromatic acids, but not phenylacetyl-CoA or (indol-3-yl)acetyl-CoA, can act as donor. Not identical with EC 2.3.1.68 glut
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha protein (ab79625). Please let us know if you have used this product in your…
ATP-citrate synthase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine (By similarity).
Coenzyme Q-10 is a naturally occurring antioxidant essential for good health. Most people do not produce adequate amounts of coenzyme Q-10 due to inadequate nutrition or improper digestion. Coenzyme Q-10 is responsible for producing the energy in our bodys cells. Nearly all cellular activities require energy, making coenzyme Q-10 a vitally important supplement. Coenzyme Q-10 acts as an antioxidant and protects against free radical damage. L-Taurine is a free amino .... Continue Reading → ...
ACAT1 antibody (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) for IP, WB. Anti-ACAT1 pAb (GTX30683) is tested in Human, Mouse, Hamster samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Coenzyme Q10 is a substance found in the cells of the human body, necessary for cellular respiration and the production of energy. Co Q10 is an oil-soluble quinone, also called ubiquinone (which means
|p|Coenzyme Q-10, or CoQ-10, is an enzyme that is naturally found in cells throughout your body and can help to promote cellular energy production, fighting fatigue and boosting your endurance. Unfortunately, certain medications, such as statins, can lowe
DRESDEN, Germany -- Treating Parkinsons disease patients with the antioxidant coenzyme (CoQ10) boosts plasma levels of the substance but doesnt improve disease symptoms, reported investi
Catalyzes the condensation of pantoate with beta-alanine to form pantothenate. Essential for panthotenate biosynthesis (Probable).
PathwayCommons: humancyc Pathway. superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle onclick="removeFacet(PathwayCommons: humancyc Pathway/superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle)"> PathwayCommons: humancyc Pathway superpathway of conversion of glucose to acetyl CoA and entry into the TCA cycle ...
Acetyl-CoA is a molecule that is broken down and used by the body for energy production. If the body has too much acetyl-CoA, it...
天然アミノ酸配列に適用可能な新規タンパク質チオエステル合成法の開発 [in Japanese] Development of Novel Protocol for Preparation of Protein Thioesters Applicable to Naturally Occurring Amino Acid Sequences [in Japanese] ...
神奇的Q10密碼 長庚醫院皮膚科主治醫師 長庚大學專任助理教授 翁雯柔什麼是Q10?Q10 (coenzyme Q10) 這個像達文西密碼般的名詞,是近兩年最HITO 商品之一。Q10 的全名是
Cashews: Tasty Little Gems Carrying Essential Minerals of Life. Cashews naturally come with many vitamins and minerals in them. They are a great on-the-go snack since they are packed to the brim with essential nutrients your body needs. One of these vital nutrients is called Pantothenic Acid, which is otherwise known as the Vitamin B-5. Pantothenic Acid can be found in the living cells of all life forms and is used for various chemical reactions throughout the body. As the Micronutrient Information Center of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University says, "Pantothenic acid is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential coenzyme in a variety of reactions that sustain life. CoA is required for chemical reactions that generate energy from food (fat, carbohydrates, and proteins). The synthesis of essential fats, cholesterol, and steroid hormones requires CoA…" (Higdon). The key phrase in this quote is: an essential coenzyme in a variety of reactions that sustain life. So quite ...
The enzyme 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.67) was purified from rat spleen approx. 1500-fold in 1.6% yield. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 0.317 +/- 0.089 mumol/min per mg of protein (mean +/- S.D., n = 6). The Km for the substrate acetyl-CoA was 137 +/- 13 microM and the pH optimum was about 8. Incubation of the purified enzyme was 1-O-[3H]octadecyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine followed by electrophoresis resulted in the incorporation of radioactivity into a protein of Mr 29,000. The enzyme was most active towards 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as substrate, 1-palmitoyl-2-lyso-glycero-3-phosphocholine being a poor substrate. In addition, the enzyme preferred acetyl-CoA to palmitoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA as substrate.. ...
Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble nutrient, which means that it is not stored in the body and must be replaced every day. Therefore, its difficult to have toxic levels of this vitamin in the body. Any excess will usually pass through urine. The result is a vitamin that is safe for all different age groups and genders.. Pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin that delivers numerous benefits for the human body. Make sure to replenish this vitamin daily to maintain great health. ...
Any of the following symptoms can be caused by a deficiency of PANTOTHENIC ACID (Vitamin B-5):. [ ] Pupils in eyes are unusually large, dilated. [ ] Periods of deep depression. [ ] Burning sensation of hands or feet. [ ] Poor co-ordination. [ ] Lightheaded or dizzy when sitting up or standing up. [ ] Diarrhea or constipation. [ ] Numbness or tingling in hands or feet. [ ] Joint pains. [ ] Muscle cramps. [ ] Rapid heartbeat on exertion. [ ] Irritability, agitation. [ ] Headaches. [ ] Insomnia, sleeplessness. [ ] Quarrelsome, hot temper. [ ] Inability to cope with stress. [ ] Restless legs, constant motion of legs at night. ...
The citrate lyase activation starts with a 3-dephospho-CoA reacting with ATP and a hydrogen ion through a triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA synthase resulting in a adenine and a 2-(5-triphospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-3-dephospho-CoA. The latter compound in turn reacts with with a citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein through a apo-citrate lyase phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase resulting in the release of a pyrophosphate and a hydrogen ion and a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.This protein complex can either react with a hydrogen ion and a acetate resulting in the release of a water and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein. The holo acyl-carrier protein creacts with an ATP and an acetate through a citrate lyase synthase resulting in the release of an AMP, a pyrophosphate and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-ccarrier protein. The holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein can also interact with an S-acetyl phosphopantethiene resulting in the release of a 4-phosphopantethiene and ...
The correlation of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and acetyl CoA levels with trichothecene production in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using an inhibitor (precocene II) and an enhancer (cobalt chloride) of trichothecene production by changing carbon sources in liquid medium. When precocene II (30 µM) was added to inhibit trichothecene production in a trichothecene high-production medium containing sucrose, ACL expression was reduced and ACL mRNA level as well as acetyl CoA amount in the fungal cells were reduced to the levels observed in a trichothecene trace-production medium containing glucose or fructose. The ACL mRNA level was greatly increased by addition of cobalt chloride in the trichothecene high-production medium, but not in the trichothecene trace-production medium. Levels were reduced to those level in the trichothecene trace-production medium by addition of precocene II (300 µM) together with cobalt chloride. These results suggest that ACL expression is activated in the presence of
Carnitine is an essential factor in long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine acts as a carrier of fatty acyl groups from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrion. Long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives do not penetrate the mitochondrial inner membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase A (CPT-A), located on the e …
The rate of ketogenesis depends upon the activity of three enzymes. One is hormone-sensitive lipase (or triglyceride lipase), which is found in peripheral adipocytes. The other two are acetyl CoA carboxylase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG CoA synthase), which are found in the liver. Hormone-sensitive lipase catalyzes the conversion of triglycerides to diglycerides for further degradation to the free fatty acids (lipolysis) that serve as substrates for ketogenesis. On the other hand, acetyl CoA carboxylase catalyzes the conversion of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA, increasing the hepatic level of the primary substrate of fatty acid biosynthesis. Malonyl CoA levels vary in the liver directly according to the rate of fatty acid synthesis and inversely with the rate of fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, malonyl CoA plays a pivotal role in the regulation of ketogenesis. Low levels of malonyl CoA stimulate transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria via the carnitine shuttle for ...

Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid | European Food Safety AuthorityScientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid | European Food Safety Authority

Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3581

Coenzyme Q10 - WikipediaCoenzyme Q10 - Wikipedia

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or ... "Coenzyme Q10". National Cancer Institute. Bonakdar, Robert Alan; Guarneri, Erminia. "Coenzyme Q10". American Family Physician. ... Bhagavan, H. N.; Chopra, R. K. (Jun 2007). "Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations". ... "4 Coenzyme Q oxidation reduction reactions in mitochondrial electron transport". In Kagan, V. E.; Quinn, P. J. Coenzyme Q: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_Q10

Coenzyme M - WikipediaCoenzyme M - Wikipedia

Coenzyme M is a coenzyme required for methyl-transfer reactions in the metabolism of methanogens. The coenzyme is an anion with ... The coenzyme is the C1 donor in methanogenesis. It is converted to methyl-coenzyme M thioether, the thioether CH 3SCH 2CH 2SO− ... Methyl-coenzyme M reacts with coenzyme B, 7-thioheptanoylthreoninephosphate, to give a heterodisulfide, releasing methane: CH 3 ... Taylor CD, Wolfe RS (10 August 1974). "Structure and methylation of coenzyme M(HSCH 2CH 2SO 3)". J. Biol. Chem. 249 (15): 4879- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_M

Coenzyme Q10Coenzyme Q10

... , also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊ ˌkjuː ˈtɛn/, CoQ, ... 8 Coenzyme Q10 concentrations in foods and dietary intake *8.1 Intake ... There are three redox states of Coenzyme Q10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced ( ...
more infohttp://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Coenzyme_Q10.html

Coenzyme Q10 - WikipediaCoenzyme Q10 - Wikipedia

Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 /ˌkoʊˌkjuːˈtɛn/, CoQ, or Q ... "Coenzyme Q10". National Cancer Institute.. *. Bonakdar, Robert Alan; Guarneri, Erminia. "Coenzyme Q10". American Family ... "4 Coenzyme Q oxidation reduction reactions in mitochondrial electron transport". In Kagan, V. E.; Quinn, P. J. Coenzyme Q: ... "Plasma coenzyme Q10 response to oral ingestion of coenzyme Q10 formulations". Mitochondrion. 7 (Suppl.): S78-S88. doi:10.1016/j ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubidecarenone

coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346)coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346)

... has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346) has role coenzyme (CHEBI: ... coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346) is a adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate (CHEBI:37240) coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346) is conjugate acid of coenzyme ... vinylacetyl-CoA (CHEBI:15543) has functional parent coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346). coenzyme A(4−) (CHEBI:57287) is conjugate base of ... CHEBI:15346 - coenzyme A. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15346

coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346)coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346)

... has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346) has role coenzyme (CHEBI: ... coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346) is a adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate (CHEBI:37240) coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346) is conjugate acid of coenzyme ... vinylacetyl-CoA (CHEBI:15543) has functional parent coenzyme A (CHEBI:15346). coenzyme A(4−) (CHEBI:57287) is conjugate base of ... CHEBI:15346 - coenzyme A. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=15346

Integrative Medicine: Coenzyme Q10Integrative Medicine: Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10 is an extremely important nutrient that every cell in your body must have in order to produce energy. ... Examples of coenzymes are vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, and coenzyme Q10. As mentioned previously, coenzyme Q10 is ... How Does Coenzyme Q10 Work?. Biological chemical reactions require helper substances known as enzymes. These enzymes are ... Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10 is an extremely important nutrient that every cell in your body must have in order to produce energy. ...
more infohttp://www.healthy.net/Health/Article/Coenzyme_Q10/534

Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase - WikipediaCoenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase - Wikipedia

The coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is ... It catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c by oxidation of coenzyme Q (CoQ) and the concomitant pumping of 4 protons from the ... coenzyme Q: cytochrome C oxidoreductase) is known as the ubiquinone ("Q") cycle. In this cycle four protons get released into ... Calculated positions of bc1 and related complexes in membranes Coenzyme Q-Cytochrome-c Reductase at the US National Library of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_Q_%E2%80%93_cytochrome_c_reductase

Coenzyme Q10 Archives - Healthy.netCoenzyme Q10 Archives - Healthy.net

The nutritional supplement coenzyme Q10 could slow the progress of early-stage Parkinsons. ...
more infohttps://healthy.net/tag/coenzyme-q10/

Coenzyme - New World EncyclopediaCoenzyme - New World Encyclopedia

Coenzyme F420. non-vitamins: ATP , CTP , SAM , PAPS , GSH , Coenzyme B , Coenzyme M , Coenzyme Q , Methanofuran , BH4 , H4MPT ... for example coenzyme A and ATP, and redox reactions, such as coenzyme Q10 and NAD+. Coenzymes are consumed and recycled ... or coenzyme A, the coenzyme that carries acyl groups. Most coenzymes are found in a huge variety of species, and some are ... Coenzymes. vitamins: NAD+ (B3) , NADP+ (B3) , Coenzyme A (B5) , THF / H4F (B9), DHF, MTHF , Ascorbic acid (C) , Menaquinone (K ...
more infohttps://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Coenzyme

CoEnzyme Q10 | Holland & BarrettCoEnzyme Q10 | Holland & Barrett

... including our CoEnzyme Q10 tablets and CoEnzyme Q10 capsules that have proven benefits with generating energy in the human body ...
more infohttps://www.hollandandbarrett.com/shop/brands/holland-barrett/vitamins-supplements/supplements/co-enzyme-q10/

CO Enzyme Q10CO Enzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q 10 is a compound that is made naturally in the body. Studies have shown that Coenzyme Q10 helps the immune system ... CO Enzyme Q10 is a fantastic supplement designed to promote a healthy cardiovascular system for all dogs and cats. ... There are currently no questions for CO Enzyme Q10 - be the first to ask one! ...
more infohttps://www.viovet.co.uk/CO-Enzyme-Q10/c27621/

Coenzyme ACoenzyme A

... Identifiers CAS number 85-61-0 PubChem 317 MeSH Coenzyme+A SMILES CC(C)(COP(=O)(O)OP(=O)(O)OCC1C (C(C(O1) ... Coenzymes. NAD+ - NADP+ - Coenzyme A - Tetrahydrofolic acid - Menaquinone - Ascorbic acid - Coenzyme F420 - Adenosine ... Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the ... A molecule of coenzyme A carrying an acetyl group is also referred to as acetyl-CoA. When it is not attached to an acyl group ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Coenzyme_A.html

Coenzyme Q10Coenzyme Q10

Discusses Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), also known as Q10, vitamin Q10, or ubiquinone. Looks at use to treat heart failure, cancer, ... What is coenzyme Q10?. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a substance similar to a vitamin. It is found in every cell of the body. Your ... Coenzymes help enzymes work to digest food and perform other body processes, and they help protect the heart and skeletal ... Gaby AR, Mischley LK (2006). Coenzyme Q10. In JE Pizzorno Jr, MT Murray, eds., Textbook of Natural Medicine, 3rd ed., pp. 859- ...
more infohttps://www.cardiosmart.org/healthwise/ug19/77sp/ec/ug1977spec

Types of Coenzyme | LIVESTRONG.COMTypes of Coenzyme | LIVESTRONG.COM

... there is another group of coenzymes known as metabolite coenzymes, usually made from nucleotides. Coenzymes act as agents for ... Coenzyme from Vitamin B-5. Vitamin B-5, or pantothenic acid, is used to make coenzyme A, often termed CoA. This has a free ... Many coenzymes are called vitamin-derived coenzymes, which are formed from the vitamins that are part of our diet. Water ... Electron Transfer Coenzymes. Some coenzymes function by ferrying electrons or negative charges to enhance a reaction. Vitamins ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/402487-types-of-coenzyme/

120251: Coenzyme Q10, Total | LabCorp120251: Coenzyme Q10, Total | LabCorp

Coenzyme Q10, Total. 27923-2. 120252. Coenzyme Q10, Total. ug/mL. 27923-2. ... Measurement of reduced and oxidized coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels in mouse tissues by HPLC with coulometric detection. ... Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2007 Apr;21(4):297-306. ... Coenzyme Q10 in human blood: native levels and determinants of oxidation during processing and storage. Free Radic Biol Med. ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/test-menu/22931/coenzyme-q10-total

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Formulas - iHerbCoenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Formulas - iHerb

Brands A-Z California Gold Nutrition, CGN Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Formulas Categories Supplements Antioxidants Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ... California Gold Nutrition, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Formulas 8 Results (showing 1 - 8) Visit Manufacturers Website » ...
more infohttps://www.iherb.com/c/california-gold-nutrition/Coenzyme-Q10-CoQ10-Formulas

Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency Symptoms | LIVESTRONG.COMCoenzyme Q10 Deficiency Symptoms | LIVESTRONG.COM

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like enzyme found in mitochondria, the power plants of cells. CoQ10s primary role is to help ... Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a vitamin-like enzyme found in mitochondria, the power plants of cells. CoQ10s primary role is to help ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/91983-coenzyme-q10-deficiency-symptoms/

Coenzyme Q10 Archives - Cancer TutorCoenzyme Q10 Archives - Cancer Tutor

Coenzyme Q10 / Co Q10 / Stockholm Protocol. Cancer Tutor Team Updated August 19, 2019. Read time: 1 min 10 ... How It Works Coenzyme Q10 is an antioxidant that is said to stimulate the heart muscles and the immune system in several ...
more infohttps://www.cancertutor.com/topics/coenzyme-q10/

Sunmark Coenzyme Q-10 Dietary SupplementSunmark Coenzyme Q-10 Dietary Supplement

Get the lowest price on Sunmark Coenzyme Q-10 Dietary Supplement, online at AllegroMedical.com. ... Sunmark Coenzyme Q-10 Dietary Supplement. *100 mg.. *Coenzyme Q-10 plays an important role in cells and is utilized in the ... Coenzyme Q-10 plays an important role in cells and is utilized in the normal process of energy production. Coenzyme Q-10 is a ... Sunmark Coenzyme Q-10 Dietary Supplement. 49348060544 - Sunmark Coenzyme Q-10 Dietary Supplement - Bottle of 1 - $14.34 ...
more infohttps://www.allegromedical.com/otc-medications-c6752/sunmark-coenzyme-q-10-dietary-supplement-p573760.html

1HBM: Methyl-coenzyme M Reductase Enzyme Product Complex1HBM: Methyl-coenzyme M Reductase Enzyme Product Complex

METHYL-COENZYME M REDUCTASE I ALPHA SUBUNITMETHYL-COENZYME M REDUCTASE I BETA SUBUNITMETHYL-COENZYME M REDUCTASE I GAMMA ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/pdb/1HBM

Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. | PNASLovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. | PNAS

Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans.. K Folkers, P Langsjoen, R Willis, P Richardson, L J Xia, C Q Ye, H Tamagawa ... Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans.. K Folkers, P Langsjoen, R Willis, P Richardson, L J Xia, C Q Ye, H Tamagawa ... Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans.. K Folkers, P Langsjoen, R Willis, P Richardson, L J Xia, C Q Ye, and H ... The mechanism of action of lovastatin is inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, an enzyme involved in ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/87/22/8931?ijkey=3b2c6bca0d70c82a2c7b2ace7358c5efcaf7265b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) - Heart & Cardiovascular DiseaseCoenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) - Heart & Cardiovascular Disease

Coenzyme Q10 may be indicated in cardiovascular disease, particularly in congestive heart failure. It may also be indicated to ... "Coenzyme Q10 may be indicated in cardiovascular disease, particularly in congestive heart failure. It may also be indicated to ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=42&m=321365

Coenzyme Q10Coenzyme Q10

Posted in Coenzyme Q10, Drugs / Pharmaceuticals, Herbs / Vegetables, Interactions / side effects Coenzyme Q10, Research ... Posted in Coenzyme Q10, Nerves / Brain / Psyche Q10 and Ginkgo biloba may be taken together with blood thinners. 8. June 2018. ... Posted in Cholesterol-lowering, Coenzyme Q10, Drugs / Pharmaceuticals, Interactions / side effects Q10 Prevents Migraine. 25. ... Category: Coenzyme Q10. Promising treatment for macular degeneration. 9. June 2018. Admin ...
more infohttp://www.vitalraadet.dk/en/category/q10/
  • Since coenzyme A is chemically a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters , thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. (bionity.com)
  • The nutritional supplement coenzyme Q10 could slow the progress of early-stage Parkinson's. (healthy.net)
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Coenzyme_A" . A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. (bionity.com)
  • Coenzyme Q 10 may be indicated in cardiovascular disease, particularly in congestive heart failure. (healingwell.com)
  • Where in the cell does this occur and what is the specific role of coenzyme Q10? (healthy.net)
  • Coenzyme Q10, which is fat-soluble and therefore mobile in cellular membranes, plays a unique role in the electron transport chain. (healthy.net)
  • The coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is the third complex in the electron transport chain (EC 1.10.2.2), playing a critical role in biochemical generation of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coenzyme Q-10 plays an important role in cells and is utilized in the normal process of energy production. (allegromedical.com)
  • Studies have shown that Coenzyme Q10 helps the immune system work better and makes the body better able to resist certain infections and types of cancer, as well as helps protect heart. (viovet.co.uk)
  • As mentioned previously, coenzyme Q10 is specifically utilized in energy production in the cells. (healthy.net)