The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.
A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.
A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.
Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.
Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
One of the AROMATIC-L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASES, this enzyme is responsible for the conversion of DOPA to DOPAMINE. It is of clinical importance in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.
A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.
A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
... accumulate a large variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with about 2500 structures, but only the opium poppy (Papaver ... somniferum) and Papaver setigerum are able to produce the analgesic and narcotic morphine and the antitussive codeine. In this ... Comparative transcript and alkaloid profiling in Papaver species identifies a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase involved in ... Out of 2000 expressed sequence tags obtained from P. somniferum, 69 show increased expression in morphinan alkaloid-containing ...
The Indian land races of opium poppy was examined for the capsule husk contents of 5 opium alkaloids morphine, codeine, ... The opium poppy variety top1 is blocked at T6ODM, and accumulates thebaine and oripavine rather than morphine and codeine. ... Oripavine is also a minor alkaloid of the opium poppy, but it is the main alkaloid of the oriental poppy Papaver orientale, ... Development of the Top1 Poppy. In Australia since 1994 the Tasmanian Alkaloids, the biggest grower of opium poppies, pursued a ...
bush should jump right on this :thup: http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99996667 Morphine-free poppies could help ... All morphine and codeine used in medicine is extracted from the opium poppy, meaning there is a legitimate demand for the crop ... The poppy Papaver somniferum accumulates morphine, codeine and other opiates in its latex - its sap-like substance. The ... The report, published in Nature, was in collaboration with the company Tasmanian Alkaloids.. Much of the commercial opium poppy ...
However, this focus has created a dearth of knowledge surrounding non-model species, which also are known to accumulate a wide- ... In order to access the genetic diversity of non-model plants accumulating BIAs, we selected 20 species representing 4 families ... Many BIAs have potent pharmacological activities, and plants accumulating them boast long histories of use in traditional ... and phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids. Transcriptome resources were used to design and execute a case study of candidate N- ...
As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) ... produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid ... The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many ... A high-resolution map of the extensive reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell ...
... such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant ... and the principles of regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis might be the basis for the future genetic modification of opium poppy ... The products of these enzymes can accumulate to very high concentrations, yet somehow avoid inhibiting their own biosynthesis. ... the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied. Environmental stresses, ...
... such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant ... and the principles of regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis might be the basis for the future genetic modification of opium poppy ... We found that brassinosteroids act via the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1), which accumulates in the ... the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied. Environmental stresses, ...
... and opium poppy accumulate the neurotransmitter dopamine (Roberts et al., 1983), a precursor to benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.. ... Codeine is the second-most predominant alkaloid in opium, at up to three percent; it is much more prevalent in the Iranian ... bracteate poppy. Oriental poppy. scarlet poppy. thebaine poppy. Andere deutsche Namen (nicht vorgeschlagen):. Dickblättriger ... great red poppy bot. - Armenischer Mohn, wiss.: Papaver bracteatum Weitere Neueinträge. great red poppy. bot. - der Arzneimohn ...
... the morphinan BIAs codeine and morphine. In addition, opium poppy produces other BIAs with biological activities, such as the ... Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids, possesses this enzyme as two polypeptides. The significance of ... Alkaloid Specialized metabolism Opium poppy Cytochrome P450 Aldo-keto reductase Fusion protein Virus-induced gene silencing ... Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a large group of nitrogen-containing specialized metabolites. Opium poppy (Papaver ...
Make research projects and school reports about alkaloid easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum ) in 1806, more than ten thousand alkaloids have been isolated from plants. Alkaloids ... Many alkaloids are important drugs, including morphine, quinine, atropine, and codeine.. Cite this article Pick a style below, ... Alkaloids can occur in all parts of the plant but frequently, depending on the plant species, they accumulate only in ...
Botanical medicine Definition Botanical medicine is a vital component of the healing arts that draws on the accumulated and ... Morphine, codeine, and other chemical analogs from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) are used for the management of pain ... Botanical medicine is a vital component of the healing arts that draws on the accumulated and developing knowledge of the ... purified alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), used in the treatment of leukemias and ...
The poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the commercial source for prescription narcotic painkillers such as morphine and codeine. The ... "opium tea." Police department spokeswoman Sarah Huntley said investigators believe McGuiggan and others had acquired poppy ... Although I originally wrote this post rather tongue-in-cheek, some scientific evidence has accumulated for the benefits of ... i Hallucinogenic compounds called tropane alkaloids… ... University of Colorado student died of opium tea overdose. ...
Morphine and codeine. Latex from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is a commercial source of the analgesics, morphine, and ... Oxidative stress and production of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids: biotechnological implications. H lio Nitta Matsuura, ... Brain [49] found that the callus tissue of Mucuna pruriense accumulated 25 mg/l DOPA in the medium containing relatively high ... This antibacterial alkaloid has been identified from a number of cell cultures, notably those of C. japonica, [61],[62],[63] ...
Opiates are naturally occurring alkaloids that are derived from the opium poppy and demonstrate analgesic effects. Opioids are ... Hydrocodone is a semisynthetic analgesic derived from codeine. Hydrocodone is 6 times more potent than codeine and is ... Drug accumulates in meconium either by direct deposition from bile or through swallowing of amniotic fluid. The first evidence ... Codeine is a naturally occurring opioid agonist often incorporated into formulations along with acetaminophen or aspirin to ...
The increasing demand for poppy alkaloids is the consequence of the wide...ning of the medical application of morphine and its ... of biotransformation for producing cultivars accumulating low or high alkaloid content or plant material with special alkaloid ... However, the production of raw material (either opium, or dried capsule is produced) has to be re-evaluated taking into ... spectrum (codeine, thebaine, narcotine) are discussed. The examples of Hungarian cultivars Monaco, Kék Gemona and Tebona ...
The increasing demand for poppy alkaloids is the consequence of the wide...ning of the medical application of morphine and its ... of biotransformation for producing cultivars accumulating low or high alkaloid content or plant material with special alkaloid ... However, the production of raw material (either opium, or dried capsule is produced) has to be re-evaluated taking into ... spectrum (codeine, thebaine, narcotine) are discussed. The examples of Hungarian cultivars Monaco, Kék Gemona and Tebona ...
Transcript of Codeine. Codeine Introduction Codeine, also known as methylmorphine, is a naturally occurring alkaloid of opium. ... of opium from Papaver somniferum (poppy seed) and is the main source for codeine production. Codeine was isolated from opium ... Does not accumulate in body tissue. Major pathway: mainly metabolized in liver by glucuronidation. Metabolised by CYP 3A4 to ... Codeine meconate. Codeine nitrate. Codeine pectinate. Codeine phosphate. Codeine picrate. Codeine sulphate. Codeine tartrate. ...
AlkaloidCrassulacean Acid MetabolismEnzyme CommissionSanguinarineOpium Poppy. Background. The "Peyote" is a small, fleshy ... codeine and sanguinarine. The biosynthesis of these alkaloids starts with the condensation of two tyrosine derivatives, ... Given that mescaline accumulates only in the peyote buttons, it is tempting to think that genes involved in mescaline ... Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source of several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, ...
... and all the opium poppy alkaloids such as narcotine, morphine and codeine. It seems that alkaloidal compounds have not been ... It has been shown that some algae can accumulate cobalt to the remarkable extent of producing a concentration factor of 10,000 ... Alkaloids are the toxic chemicals present in many terrestrial plants: for example nicotine, colchicine, coniine (from hemlock ...
Codeine, or 3-methylmorphine, is an alkaloid found in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum var. One such example is Wikipedia. ... As the clinical evidence accumulated, the use of sublingual immunotherapy became incorporated into major international ...
It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has ... Opium. The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. ... an accumulated waste product) levels & AMD progression via fundus photography, visual acuity, and retinal function via full- ...
Promethazine and Codeine official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... Codeine is one of the naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloids of opium derived from the opium poppy, it is classified ... Clearance may be decreased and the metabolites may accumulate to much higher plasma levels in patients with renal failure as ... Promethazine and Codeine - Clinical Pharmacology. Mechanism of Action. Codeine. Codeine is an opioid agonist relatively ...
The narcotic analgesic morphine is the major alkaloid of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Its biosynthetic precursor codeine ... Heat-treated plants accumulated higher levels of unbound and bound zeatin-t .... DOI:. 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1999.00472.x. PubMed ... Along the morphine biosynthetic pathway in opium poppy, codeinone reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of ... the penultimate enzyme in morphine biosynthesis in the opium poppy Papaver somniferum ...
The raw opium is collected from the dried milky sap of the opium poppy, which forms a gum containing codeine, morphine and ... but accumulate over time.Recovery from physical addiction to heroin is therefore linked directly to the time it takes for the ... alkaloids.Heroin is made from the morphine and in weight terms is 50% more powerful than morphine. ... These poppies are now grown in many countries including Burma, Afghanistan and more recently in the former republics of the ...
H3,Novel plants make pharmaceutical starter,/H3, Susan Milius A Tasmanian company has developed a poppy that produces a ... Opium, Opiates & Opioids 21. * Buprenorphine 1. * Codeine 2. * Fentanyl 0. * Heroin 6 ... To create more-desirable varieties, Tony Fist of the company Tasmanian Alkaloids in Westbury treated poppy seeds with a ... As a consequence of the synthetic pathways breakdown, top1 accumulates two intermediate compounds: thebaine and oripavine. To ...
CODEINE Codeine is a natural product found in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). An alkaloid of OPIUM, codeine can be ... Stool traverses the colon and accumulates, filling the rectum. The stretch upon the rectal walls stimulates reflexive ... Using lower doses of codeine has the advantage of reducing side effects, such as constipation. Codeine is one of the most ... separated from the other opium ALKALOIDS, purified, and used alone as an ANALGESIC (painkiller). It is however most often used ...
Codeine is one of the naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloids of opium derived from the opium poppy, it is classified ... Clearance may be decreased and the metabolites may accumulate to much higher plasma levels in patients with renal failure as ... Codeine has low plasma protein binding with about 7 to 25% of codeine bound to plasma proteins. Codeine passes the blood brain ... Codeine Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution contains codeine, a substance with a high potential for abuse ...
Codeine is one of the naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloids of opium derived from the opium poppy, it is classified ... Clearance may be decreased and the metabolites may accumulate to much higher plasma levels in patients with renal failure as ... Codeine has low plasma protein binding with about 7 to 25% of codeine bound to plasma proteins. Codeine passes the blood brain ... Codeine Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution contains codeine, a substance with a high potential for abuse ...
The analgesic property of this group was originally discovered in the naturally occurring alkaloids from the opium poppy, ... Naturally occurring opioids (morphine, codeine) are to be avoided in patients with decreased kidney function due to their ... confirming that hydromorphone does not accumulate in patients with anuria, and H6G is readily cleared by hemodialysis. Hence, ... What does this mean? It means that patients on codeine were 3.6 times more likely than people not on an opioid to have an ...
Modern natural drugs chemistry actually began with the work of Serturner, who first isolated morphine from opium poppy. , ... and morphine and codeine from Papaver somniferum. 2. The use of Rauwolfia serpentine. dates back to almost 3,000 years ago in ... contains alkaloid huperzine A, which is currently prescribed in China for senile dementia. In studies using hippocampal and ... with the influence of accumulated medical knowledge from Egypt, Persia and Babylon5. During the first century A.D., Dioscorides ...
  • P lants of the order Ranunculales, especially members of the species Papaver, accumulate a large variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with about 2500 structures, but only the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Papaver setigerum are able to produce the analgesic and narcotic morphine and the antitussive codeine. (opioids.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for this exceptional biosynthetic capability by comparison of alkaloid profiles with gene expression profiles between 16 different Papaver species. (opioids.com)
  • Oripavine is the major alkaloid of Papaver orientale. (scirp.org)
  • Recently, new Papaver somniferum strains have been developed which accumulate thebaine and oripavine, but not morphine and codeine. (scirp.org)
  • Thebaine an alkaloid present in 0.2% - 0.8% in opium and a major constituent (90% of total alkaloid content) in Papaver bracteatum (which is morphine free), possesses little utility medically for two reasons: (a) its lack of the depressant and analgesic properties common to other morphine alkaloids and (b) its expression of extreme toxicity and CNS stimulation. (scirp.org)
  • Oripavine is also a minor alkaloid of the opium poppy, but it is the main alkaloid of the oriental poppy Papaver orientale, which is a perennial flowering plant. (scirp.org)
  • The biosynthesis of morphinan alkaloids was examined in Papaver bracteatum and the O-demethylation of radioactive labelled thebaine to oripavine was not observed. (scirp.org)
  • The poppy Papaver somniferum accumulates morphine, codeine and other opiates in its latex - its sap-like substance. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Notable BIA-accumulating plants include morphine, codeine, and noscapine-accumulating opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ), members of the berberine-accumulating barberry ( Berberis ) genus, Japanese goldthread ( Coptis japonica ), meadowrue ( Thalictrum flavum ), and species producing the antimicrobial sanguinarine, such as Mexican prickly poppy ( Argemone mexicana ) and California poppy ( Eschscholzia californica ). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) is the world's oldest medicinal plant and produces several pharmaceutically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the analgesics morphine and codeine, the muscle relaxant and vasodilator papaverine, the antineoplastic drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. (ipb-halle.de)
  • One of the most stunning perennial poppies is that of Papaver Bracteatum , a fantastically red variety which is often known as the Great Red or Iranian Poppy . (leo.org)
  • it is much more prevalent in the Iranian poppy ( Papaver bracteatum ), and codeine is extracted from this species in some places although the below-mentioned morphine methylation process is still much more common. (leo.org)
  • Papaver bracteatum , also known as the Iranian poppy , is a sturdy perennial poppy with large deep red flowers up to 8 inches (20 cm) across on stiff stalks up to 4 feet (1.22 metres) high with a prominent black spot near the base of the petals. (leo.org)
  • In addition, the latex of Persian poppy ( Papaver bracteatum ) and opium poppy accumulate the neurotransmitter dopamine (Roberts et al. (leo.org)
  • An efficient protocol for the establishment of transgenic Persian poppy ( Papaver bracteatum Lindl. (leo.org)
  • Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is an important pharmaceutical plant and has been cultivated for thousands of years for its analgesic constituents: the morphinan BIAs codeine and morphine. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Papaver rhoeas, which does not accumulate morphinan alkaloids, possesses this enzyme as two polypeptides. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Since the identification of the first alkaloid, morphine, from the opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) in 1806, more than ten thousand alkaloids have been isolated from plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Codeine, or 3-methylmorphine, is an alkaloid found in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum var. (havasu.fr)
  • The top1 mutant of the opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) came out of a company research effort in 1995, but scientists haven't previously published studies of this mutant, says Philip Larkin of the plant-industry section, in Canberra, of CSIRO, Australia's federally funded research agency. (drugs-forum.com)
  • To be precise, we should really only use the term for those natural compounds which have been extracted from opium- the sticky exudates obtained from the poppy (papaver somniferum). (slidegur.com)
  • Short-day rhythm hindered the stem growth (by 45-60%), the flower initiation (by 3-45 days), and the alkaloid accumulation (by 4-5 times in some cases) of Papaver somniferum in comparison with long-day program. (gsajournals.org)
  • Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. (stanford.edu)
  • Noscapine was first characterized from opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) by the distinguished French chemist Pierre Jean Robiquet in 1817 ( 1 ) but unlike codeine, which he also discovered, and several other opiates, noscapine is non-painkilling and non-addictive. (ampliconexpress.com)
  • Morphine is extracted from the dried milky exudate of the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum ). (britannica.com)
  • Opium is the dried milky exudate obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy plant ( Papaver somniferum ), which grows naturally throughout most of Turkey. (britannica.com)
  • It is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of morphine alkaloids. (scirp.org)
  • However, this focus has created a dearth of knowledge surrounding non-model species, which also are known to accumulate a wide-range of BIAs but whose biosynthesis is thus far entirely unexplored. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Homology-based mining of libraries using BIA-biosynthetic enzymes as queries yielded ~850 gene candidates potentially involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alkaloid biosynthesis and accumulation are constitutive, organ- and cell type-specific processes in the plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Elicitor-induced sanguinarine biosynthesis in opium poppy cell cultures provides a platform to definitively characterize the environmental induction of alkaloid and other secondary metabolic pathways under precisely controlled conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The data suggest that phospholipid-dependent signaling pathways contribute to the activation of morphine biosynthesis at the expense of the production of other BIAs in poppy plants. (ipb-halle.de)
  • A better understanding of the effectors and the principles of regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis might be the basis for the future genetic modification of opium poppy to optimize BIA production. (ipb-halle.de)
  • Previous silencing of the penultimate step in morphine biosynthesis, codeinone reductase (COR), showed a dramatic decrease in morphinan alkaloids, as well as a significant increase in reticuline, the central BIA branch point intermediate. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Similarly, the alkaloid biosynthesis increases 2-3 times at higher light intensity of long-day treatments (2,4-3.2 × 10^4 lux). (gsajournals.org)
  • Understanding the biochemical genetics underpinning noscapine biosynthesis should enable improved production of this important pharmaceutical and related molecules both in poppy and other systems. (ampliconexpress.com)
  • Several cDNAs encoding the multitude of enzymes that subsequently convert ( S )-norcoclaurine to more than 80 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy have been isolated [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of the top1 poppy was an important finding for the opium industry in Australia, because this poppy strain produces thebaine and oripavine, but not morphine or codeine. (scirp.org)
  • In September 2004, Larkin's team reported a naturally occurring mutant version of the poppy that does not produce morphine or codeine, but does produce other alkaloids that can be used to make potent painkillers. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. (ipb-halle.de)
  • In the ease of certain cultivars, depending on light condition, the presence either of morphine or codeine became characteristic. (gsajournals.org)
  • Noscapine belongs to the phthalideisoquinoline subclass of the structurally diverse isoquinoline alkaloids whereas codeine, morphine, thebaine and oripavine belong to the morphinan subclass ( 10 ). (ampliconexpress.com)
  • We metabolite profiled capsule extract from three opium poppy varieties developed in Tasmania for alkaloid production that we designate as High Morphine 1 (HM1), High Thebaine 1 (HT1) and High Noscapine 1 (HN1) on the basis of the most abundant alkaloid in each case ( Fig. 1A ). (ampliconexpress.com)
  • In contrast a number of other functionally characterized genes associated with benzylisoquinoline alkaloid synthesis, including Berberine Bridge Enzyme ( BBE ), Tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-MethylTransferase ( TNMT ), Salutaridine Reductase ( SalR ), Salutaridinol 7-O-AcetylTransferase ( SalAT ) and Thebaine 6-O-demethylase ( T6ODM ) were expressed in all three varieties ( Fig. 1B ). (ampliconexpress.com)
  • Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid derived from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy and one of the many alkaloids found in the opium poppy. (whmsoft.net)
  • Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes approximately 2500 known compounds. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • alkaloid, any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and usually oxygen that are often derived from plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alkaloids are relatively stable compounds that accumulate as end products of different biosynthetic pathways, mostly starting from common amino acids such as lysine, ornithine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and others. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alkaloids are heterocyclic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Codeine is extremely effective as an antitussive and, until similar-acting synthetic compounds were identified, codeine was a very common ingredient in nonprescription cough medications. (prezi.com)
  • The advantage of this approach is that, mostly, the compounds that have been accumulated in a database have been investigated before - though mostly in a different context. (drugtimes.org)
  • Instead of morphine and the other opiates, large amounts of reticuline are accumulated in the latex,' says Larkin. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Much of the commercial opium poppy industry in Tasmania - which produces about 40% of the world's legal opiates - has now been turned over to growing this mutant, says Larkin. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Opiates are naturally occurring alkaloids that are derived from the opium poppy and demonstrate analgesic effects. (testcatalog.org)
  • In the top1 mutant, the poppy 's natural chemistry has a glitch that stops the normal process of making morphine , which is prized as a drug by itself and as a raw material for opiates such as heroin . (drugs-forum.com)
  • Codeine is derived from the opium flower and is included in the drug class opiates. (studymode.com)
  • The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Narcotic alkaloids used in medicine include morphine and codeine for the relief of pain and cocaine as a local anesthetic. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Codeine is classified as a narcotic and it shares many of its pharmacological characteristics with morphine. (prezi.com)
  • Codeine is not commonly marketed illegally on the streets because a large quantity is usually required to satisfy a narcotic addiction. (prezi.com)
  • Treats diarrhea (constipating side effect) Indications Codeine is a weak narcotic used as an antitussive and analgesic to relieve mild to moderate pain. (prezi.com)
  • Codeine is a weak narcotic pain-reliever and cough suppressant similar to morphine and hydrocodone. (studymode.com)
  • Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) represent a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites sharing a common biosynthetic origin beginning with tyrosine. (beds.ac.uk)
  • inhibited by 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI)) in poppy plants influences wound-induced BIA accumulation and the expression of key biosynthetic genes. (ipb-halle.de)
  • Our approach was based on the coordinated induction of all sanguinarine biosynthetic enzyme transcripts and proteins in elicited opium poppy cell suspension cultures. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Morphine, noscapine and papaverine are generally the most abundant alkaloids in aerial organs, whereas sanguinarine typically accumulates in roots [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, opium poppy produces other BIAs with biological activities, such as the vasodilator papaverine, the potential anti-cancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. (ucalgary.ca)
  • It was the first report on the isolation of morphinan alkaloids in the Milthantha species. (scirp.org)
  • Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. (ampliconexpress.com)
  • Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. (ampliconexpress.com)
  • Identification of genes exclusively present in the genome of a noscapine producing poppy variety, HN1 (High Noscapine 1). (ampliconexpress.com)
  • Codeine is a Schedule II drug when taken in tablet form with no other analgesic compound, and a Schedule III drug when taken in tablet form combined with analgesics such as aspirin or acetaminophen. (prezi.com)
  • Other derivatives of morphine include the analgesics methylmorphine ( codeine ), ethylmorphine, dihydrocodeinone, and dihydromorphinone and the emetic apomorphine. (britannica.com)
  • The report, published in Nature, was in collaboration with the company Tasmanian Alkaloids. (usmessageboard.com)
  • There is currently only a small market for reticuline, but the mutant poppy might provide an alternative, if Tasmanian Alkaloids was willing to distribute it freely, says Facchini. (usmessageboard.com)
  • To create more-desirable varieties, Tony Fist of the company Tasmanian Alkaloids in Westbury treated poppy seeds with a chemical mutagen. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. (drugs.com)
  • Reserve Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution for use in adult patients for whom the benefits of cough suppression are expected to outweigh the risks, and in whom an adequate assessment of the etiology of the cough has been made. (drugs.com)
  • Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution. (drugs.com)
  • Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution therapy or when used in patients at higher risk [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. (drugs.com)
  • Avoid the use of Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine. (drugs.com)
  • Ensure accuracy when prescribing, dispensing, and administering Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution. (drugs.com)
  • Avoid the use of Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution in patients taking benzodiazepines, other CNS depressants, or alcohol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10 ) , Drug Interactions (7.4) ]. (drugs.com)
  • Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution is not recommended for use in pregnant women. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged use of Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. (nih.gov)
  • If Promethazine HCl and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution is used for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. (nih.gov)
  • Promethazine Vc With Codeine Oral Solution with NDC 0121-0925 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Pharmaceutical Associates, Inc.. The generic name of Promethazine Vc With Codeine Oral Solution is promethazine and phenylephrine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate. (ndclist.com)
  • Codeine phosphate occurs as fine, white, needle-shaped crystals or as a white, crystalline powder and is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. (studymode.com)
  • As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high-resolution map of the extensive reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures is provided. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Opium poppy can be considered a model system to investigate the biology of plant alkaloid metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The function of most alkaloids in plants is unclear and their importance in metabolism is highly controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Codeine undergoes metabolism in the liver by the P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, which convert it into morphine (an active metabolite with a greater potency than codeine itself) and codeine-6-glucuronide respectively. (prezi.com)
  • Naturally occurring opioids (morphine, codeine) are to be avoided in patients with decreased kidney function due to their metabolism to morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and M6G. (ajkdblog.org)
  • The alkaloid profiles and correlations between alkaloids showed that in the Indian genetic resources of P. somniferum (a) morphine is synthesized from codeine rather than oripavine and (b) accumulation of morphine and codeine was limited upstream of codeinone and morphinone. (scirp.org)
  • In CYP82N3- and CYP82N4-silenced plants, we detected a significant accumulation of some alkaloids in roots and a significant reduction of some of these in latex. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The cough suppressing action of codeine is unrelated to its analgesic effects and, although not well understood, it is believed that unaltered codeine binds to receptors and depresses the cough center in the medulla. (prezi.com)
  • however, like morphine, codeine binds to receptors in the brain (opioid receptors) that are important for transmitting the sensation of pain throughout the body and brain. (studymode.com)
  • Codeine is a naturally occurring opioid agonist often incorporated into formulations along with acetaminophen or aspirin to increase its analgesic effect. (testcatalog.org)
  • When prescribed to treat pain, codeine is usually combined with either a salicylate (i.e. aspirin) or acetaminophen (i.e. (prezi.com)
  • Tylenol) because opiate narcotics and aspirin-like drugs interact in a synergistic fashion to give an analgesic equivalence greater than what can be achieved by aspirin or codeine alone. (prezi.com)
  • Codeine frequently is combined with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or aspirin for more effective pain relief. (studymode.com)
  • When used for pain, codeine is usually used with aspirin and sometimes caffeine. (studymode.com)
  • Many of the pharmaceuticals currently available to Western physicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies, including opium, aspirin, digitalis, and quinine. (wikidot.com)
  • A Tasmanian company has developed a poppy that produces a commercially useful drug precursor instead of full-fledged morphine , and an international research team has now reported how the plant does it. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Kratom will be smoked but speculation points to most of the alkaloids being destroyed by heat which is why smoking produces very little effect. (buykratomsupply.com)
  • Codeine's metabolite morphine mainly binds to μ1 opioid receptors blocking pain signals in the CNS, but some studies suggest the metabolite codeine-6-glucuronide causes the analgesic effect. (prezi.com)
  • The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with codeine are complex, requiring careful consideration of the effects on the parent drug, codeine, and the active metabolite, morphine. (drugs.com)
  • The important constituents of opium are morphine (10 percent), papaverine (1. (britannica.com)
  • When codeine and other opioids bind to specific opioid receptors (i.e. μ, δ, Κ) a cascade of events is set off that modulates the release of neurotransmitters involved in pain signaling. (prezi.com)
  • Many people who abuse codeine generally have previous experience with the more potent opioids. (prezi.com)
  • The Australian island of Tasmania grows some 40 percent of the world's legal poppy product. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Aconitine is the alkaloid of aconite . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Aconite in particular is regarded as extremely toxic, due to the presence of aconitine (Figure 124) and related C19 norditerpenoid alkaloids. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Additional alkaloids and research studies Aconitine is the alkaloid of aconite. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Peter Facchini of the University of Calgary in Alberta, who studies poppy biochemistry, says that for figuring out details of natural morphine synthesis, the new poppy is a 'very useful tool. (drugs-forum.com)
  • alkaloids as antimicrobial and current medicinal use Highlights include chapters on the chemical ecology of alkaloids in host-predator interactions, and on the compartmentation of alkaloids synthesis, transport, and storage. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • The therapeutic effects of codeine as a cough suppressant occur at lower doses than those required for analgesia. (prezi.com)
  • 2) Codeine is metabolized to morphine and subsequently undergoes glucuronidation and sulfation. (testcatalog.org)
  • Out of 2000 expressed sequence tags obtained from P. somniferum, 69 show increased expression in morphinan alkaloid-containing species. (opioids.com)
  • In order to access the genetic diversity of non-model plants accumulating BIAs, we selected 20 species representing 4 families within the Ranunculales. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Publically accessible, fully annotated, BLAST-accessible transcriptomes were not previously available for most species included in this report, despite the rich repertoire of bioactive alkaloids found in these plants and their importance to traditional medicine. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Alkaloids can occur in all parts of the plant but frequently, depending on the plant species, they accumulate only in particular organs (e.g., in barks, roots, leaves, and fruits), whereas at the same time other organs are alkaloid-free. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The levels of alkaloids in plants also vary from trace amounts to up to 10 % of dry weight, and a single plant species might contain over one hundred of different types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been observed that the alkaloids in these species invariably reside in the leaves. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Alkaloids are the active components of numerous medicinal plants or plant-derived drugs and poisons, and their structural diversity and different physiological activities are unmatched by any other group of natural products. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The position of the nitrogen atom in the hydrocarbon ring varies among different alkaloids and different plant families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plants The plants investigated were t hose predicted to have ant imicrobial an d antimalarial properties, PAs containing medicinal plant parts were collected and analysed for presence of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids qualitatively and compared for the quantity with each other. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Alkaloid Role In The Plant Role In Animals Medical Use. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • The plant material is reduced to a moderately coarse powder by appropriate means using grinders and sieves, to facilitate maximum effective contact of the solvent with the ruptured alkaloid bearing tissues and cells. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Analysis of an F2 mapping population indicated the genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. (ampliconexpress.com)
  • alkaloids) serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms, insects, and herbivores. (wikidot.com)
  • Psilocybin is perfect alternative that will leave you rock at low potency and mentally you feel the Magic capsules are you is so buy orange kush online or molly is a place where can I find legal ecstasy pills are cathine and legal and anxiety wild lettuce opium poppy plant with yourself and sleep: approved heard about the mood and fast and citrus aurantium. (buykratomsupply.com)
  • Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a large group of nitrogen-containing specialized metabolites. (ucalgary.ca)
  • 5] Sick animals tend to forage plants rich in secondary metabolites such as tannins and alkaloids. (wikidot.com)
  • The Great Red Poppy is the world's largest poppy. (leo.org)
  • Toxicity from codeine poisoning includes the opioid triad of: pinpoint pupils, depression of respiration, and loss of consciousness. (studymode.com)
  • Many BIAs have potent pharmacological activities, and plants accumulating them boast long histories of use in traditional medicine and cultural practices. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Hydrocodone is 6 times more potent than codeine and is prescribed for treatment of moderate-to-moderately severe pain. (testcatalog.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis was performed for each of 15 different enzyme/protein groupings, highlighting many novel genes with potential involvement in the formation of one or more alkaloid types, including morphinan, aporphine, and phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some of the major alkaloids, including mescaline, were identified by GC-MS and relevant metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database (KEGG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Larkin and Anthony Millgate, also of CSIRO, compared the activity of some 17,000 individual genes in the mutant and the natural poppies. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Introduction Codeine, also known as methylmorphine, is a naturally occurring alkaloid of opium. (prezi.com)
  • Over 25 alkaloids have been isolated from kratom the most important being mitragynine. (buykratomsupply.com)
  • Purine alkaloids, including caffeine (coffee), theophylline (antiasthma drug), theobromine (chocolate), and other methylxanthines, play a significant role in pharmacology and food chemistry. (stanford.edu)
  • Codeine-containing cough syrup such as Robitussin is a Schedule V drug and potential abuse is considered to be minor. (prezi.com)
  • Codeine cough syrup was once widely abused as a recreational drug and, to some extent, is still actively abused by some. (studymode.com)
  • Ethnobotanical studies of traditional herbal remedies for malaria from around the world have found that the active ingredient is very often an alkaloid comprised of two reticuline molecules. (usmessageboard.com)
  • Alkaloids are natural, organic substances that are predominantly found in plants and normally contain at least one nitrogen atom in their chemical structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He then screened the seedlings and found the top1 poppy . (drugs-forum.com)
  • Codeine crosses the blood-brain barrier, and is found in fetal tissue and breast milk. (studymode.com)
  • Because of the small concentration found in nature, most codeine found in medical products is synthesized from morphine. (studymode.com)
  • Of the 20 or more alkaloids found in opium, only a few are pharmacologically active. (britannica.com)
  • In top1 , Larkin and his colleagues have now pinpointed blockages in two arms of the poppy 's chemical pathways. (drugs-forum.com)
  • As early as 1997, Tasmanian growers turned to the top1 poppy to sell to pharmaceutical companies. (drugs-forum.com)
  • Many alkaloids, though poisons, have physiological effects that render them valuable as medicines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Older poisons like opium and arsenic are replaced by newer poisons. (santoshraut.com)
  • There is an urgent need for new anti-malarial drugs, and poppies modified by RNAi silencing or mutation could be an ideal source of reticuline, says Larkin. (usmessageboard.com)
  • This minor metabolic pathway as well as codeine's conversion to codeine-6-glucuronide contribute to codeine's analgesic activity. (prezi.com)
  • Since codeine itself is not an adequate analgesic, people with dysfunctional or inactive CYP2D6 enzymes have a poor response to codeine's therapeutic effects. (prezi.com)
  • Botanical medicine is a vital component of the healing arts that draws on the accumulated and developing knowledge of the medicinal properties of plants in the prevention and treatment of disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rigdification History of opium we are now going look in detail at one of the oldest fields in medicinal chemistry. (slidegur.com)
  • alkaloids from plants traditionally used for medicinal purposes in L ombok, Indonesia. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Whilst Aconitum napellus has had some medicinal uses, plants of both genera owe their highly toxic nature to diterpenoid alkaloids. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Today, ergot alkaloids are being exploited for medicinal purposes including the treatment of migraines, the induction of child birth, and the control of post-partum bleeding. (marjinalvideo.com)
  • Treatment: A single or multiple overdose with acetaminophen and codeine is a potentially lethal polydrug overdose, and consultation with a regional poison control center is recommended. (studymode.com)
  • 1983), a precursor to benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. (leo.org)
  • In addition to reducing pain, codeine also causes sedation drowsiness and depresses breathing. (studymode.com)
  • It is a semi-synthetic drug in that it is synthesized from codeine (an opioid alkaloid derived from opium poppy). (mentalhealthdaily.com)
  • Codeine is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. (studymode.com)