A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
The upper chamber of the COCHLEA that is filled with PERILYMPH. It is connected to SCALA TYMPANI via helicotrema at the apex of the cochlea.
One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.

Transient potassium currents regulate the discharge patterns of dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cells. (1/432)

Pyramidal cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show three distinct temporal discharge patterns in response to sound: "pauser," "buildup," and "chopper." Similar discharge patterns are seen in vitro and depend on the voltage from which the cell is depolarized. It has been proposed that an inactivating A-type K+ current (IKI) might play a critical role in generating the three different patterns. In this study we examined the characteristics of transient currents in DCN pyramidal cells to evaluate this hypothesis. Morphologically identified pyramidal cells in rat brain slices (P11-P17) exhibited the three voltage-dependent discharge patterns. Two inactivating currents were present in outside-out patches from pyramidal cells: a rapidly inactivating (IKIF, tau approximately 11 msec) current insensitive to block by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and variably blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) with half-inactivation near -85 mV, and a slowly inactivating TEA- and 4-AP-sensitive current (IKIS, tau approximately 145 msec) with half-inactivation near -35 mV. Recovery from inactivation at 34 degrees C was described by a single exponential with a time constant of 10-30 msec, similar to the rate at which first spike latency increases with the duration of a hyperpolarizing prepulse. Acutely isolated cells also possessed a rapidly activating (<1 msec at 22 degrees C) transient current that activated near -45 mV and showed half-inactivation near -80 mV. A model demonstrated that the deinactivation of IKIF was correlated with the discharge patterns. Overall, the properties of the fast inactivating K+ current were consistent with their proposed role in shaping the discharge pattern of DCN pyramidal cells.  (+info)

Voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances in acutely isolated guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus neurons. (2/432)

Although it is known that voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances (VGCCs) contribute to the responses of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) neurons, little is known about the properties of VGCCs in the DCN. In this study, the whole cell voltage-clamp technique was used to examine the pharmacology and voltage dependence of VGCCs in unidentified DCN neurons acutely isolated from guinea pig brain stem. The majority of cells responded to depolarization with sustained inward currents that were enhanced when Ca2+ was replaced by Ba2+, were blocked partially by Ni2+ (100 microM), and were blocked almost completely by Cd2+ (50 microM). Experiments using nifedipine (10 microM), omegaAga IVA (100 nM) and omegaCTX GVIA (500 nM) demonstrated that a variety of VGCC subtypes contributed to the Ba2+ current in most cells, including the L, N, and P/Q types and antagonist-insensitive R type. Although a large depolarization from rest was required to activate VGCCs in DCN neurons, VGCC activation was rapid at depolarized levels, having time constants <1 ms at 22 degrees C. No fast low-threshold inactivation was observed, and a slow high-threshold inactivation was observed at voltages more positive than -20 mV, indicating that Ba2+ currents were carried by high-voltage activated VGCCs. The VGCC subtypes contributing to the overall Ba2+ current had similar voltage-dependent properties, with the exception of the antagonist-insensitive R-type component, which had a slower activation and a more pronounced inactivation than the other components. These data suggest that a variety of VGCCs is present in DCN neurons, and these conductances generate a rapid Ca2+ influx in response to depolarizing stimuli.  (+info)

Quantal size is correlated with receptor cluster area at glycinergic synapses in the rat brainstem. (3/432)

1. Whole-cell patch electrode recordings of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were obtained in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Mean mIPSC peak amplitude was found to vary considerably between AVCN neurons (range, -19.1 to -317.9 pA; mean +/- s.d., -159.1 +/- 100.7 pA; 14 cells). 2. Immunolabelling of glycinergic receptor clusters in AVCN neurons was performed using antibodies against the glycine receptor clustering protein gephyrin. Measurements of the area of gephyrin immunoreactive clusters were obtained using confocal fluorescence microscopy. These measurements showed a large variability in cluster area, not only in the same cell (mean coefficient of variation, c.v., 0.66 +/- 0.18; 16 cells), but also in mean cluster area between cells (range, 0.21-0.84 microm2; 16 cells). 3. A possible relationship between mIPSC amplitude and receptor cluster area was investigated in a further series of experiments, in which mIPSCs recordings and immunolabelling of glycine receptor clusters were obtained for the same cells. In these experiments, AVCN neurons were identified using intracellular labelling with neurobiotin. Successful results using a combination of whole-cell recordings, neurobiotin identification and immunolabelling were obtained for a total of 10 AVCN neurons. Analysis of the results revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between mean receptor cluster size and mean mIPSC amplitude (P < 0.05, 10 cells, Spearman's correlation test). 4. These results provide direct experimental evidence supporting a hypothesis of central glycinergic transmission in which synaptic strength may be regulated by changes in the size of the postsynaptic receptor region.  (+info)

Role of intrinsic conductances underlying responses to transients in octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus. (4/432)

Recognition of acoustic patterns in natural sounds depends on the transmission of temporal information. Octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus form a pathway that encodes the timing of firing of groups of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional precision. Whole-cell patch recordings from octopus cells were used to examine how the brevity and precision of firing are shaped by intrinsic conductances. Octopus cells responded to steps of current with small, rapid voltage changes. Input resistances and membrane time constants averaged 2.4 MOmega and 210 microseconds, respectively (n = 15). As a result of the low input resistances of octopus cells, action potential initiation required currents of at least 2 nA for their generation and never occurred repetitively. Backpropagated action potentials recorded at the soma were small (10-30 mV), brief (0.24-0.54 msec), and tetrodotoxin-sensitive. The low input resistance arose in part from an inwardly rectifying mixed cationic conductance blocked by cesium and potassium conductances blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Conductances blocked by 4-AP also contributed to the repolarization of the action potentials and suppressed the generation of calcium spikes. In the face of the high membrane conductance of octopus cells, sodium and calcium conductances amplified depolarizations produced by intracellular current injection over a time course similar to that of EPSPs. We suggest that this transient amplification works in concert with the shunting influence of potassium and mixed cationic conductances to enhance the encoding of the onset of synchronous auditory nerve fiber activity.  (+info)

Axons from anteroventral cochlear nucleus that terminate in medial superior olive of cat: observations related to delay lines. (5/432)

The differences in path length of axons from the anteroventral cochlear nuclei (AVCN) to the medial superior olive (MSO) are thought to provide the anatomical substrate for the computation of interaural time differences (ITD). We made small injections of biotinylated dextran into the AVCN that produced intracellular-like filling of axons. This permitted three-dimensional reconstructions of individual axons and measurements of axonal length to individual terminals in MSO. Some axons that innervated the contralateral MSO had collaterals with lengths that were graded in the rostrocaudal direction with shorter collaterals innervating more rostral parts of MSO and longer collaterals innervating more caudal parts of MSO. These could innervate all or part of the length of the MSO. Other axons had restricted terminal fields comparable to the size of a single dendritic tree in the MSO. In the ipsilateral MSO, some axons had a reverse, but less steep, gradient in axonal length with greater axonal length associated with more rostral locations; others had restricted terminal fields. Thus, the computation of ITDs is based on gradients of axonal length in both the contralateral and ipsilateral MSO, and these gradients may account for a large part of the range of ITDs encoded by the MSO. Other factors may be involved in the computation of ITDs to compensate for differences between axons.  (+info)

Glutamate regulates IP3-type and CICR stores in the avian cochlear nucleus. (6/432)

Neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), are activated by glutamate released from auditory nerve terminals. If this stimulation is removed, the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) of NM neurons rises and rapid atrophic changes ensue. We have been investigating mechanisms that regulate [Ca2+]i in these neurons based on the hypothesis that loss of Ca2+ homeostasis causes the cascade of cellular changes that results in neuronal atrophy and death. In the present study, video-enhanced fluorometry was used to monitor changes in [Ca2+]i stimulated by agents that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores and to study the modulation of these responses by glutamate. Homobromoibotenic acid (HBI) was used to stimulate inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores, and caffeine was used to mobilize Ca2+ from Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores. We provide data indicating that Ca2+ responses attributable to IP3- and CICR-sensitive stores are inhibited by glutamate, acting via a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). We also show that activation of C-kinase by a phorbol ester will reduce HBI-stimulated calcium responses. Although the protein kinase A accumulator, Sp-cAMPs, did not have an effect on HBI-induced responses. CICR-stimulated responses were not consistently attenuated by either the phorbol ester or the Sp-cAMPs. We have previously shown that glutamate attenuates voltage-dependent changes in [Ca2+]i. Coupled with the present findings, this suggests that in these neurons mGluRs serve to limit fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+ rather than increase [Ca2+]i. This system may play a role in protecting highly active neurons from calcium toxicity resulting in apoptosis.  (+info)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. (7/432)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) contains a heterogeneous collection of cell types reflecting the multiple processing tasks undertaken by this nucleus. This in vivo study in the rat used intracellular recordings and dye filling to examine membrane potential changes and firing characteristics of onset chopper (OC) neurons to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time). Stable impalements were made from 15 OC neurons, 7 identified as multipolar cells. Neurons responded to characteristic frequency (CF) tones with sustained depolarization below spike threshold. With increasing stimulus intensity, the depolarization during the initial 10 ms of the response became peaked, and with further increases in intensity the peak became narrower. Onset spikes were generated during this initial depolarization. Tones presented below CF resulted in a broadening of this initial depolarizing component with high stimulus intensities required to initiate onset spikes. This initial component was followed by a sustained depolarizing component lasting until stimulus cessation. The amplitude of the sustained depolarizing component was greatest when frequencies were presented at high intensities below CF resulting in increased action potential firing during this period when compared with comparable high intensities at CF. During the presentation of tones at or above the high-frequency edge of a cell's response area, hyperpolarization was evident during the sustained component. The presence of hyperpolarization and the differences seen in the level of sustained depolarization during CF and off CF tones suggests that changes in membrane responsiveness between the initial and sustained components may be attributed to polysynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. The dual-component processing resulting from convergent auditory nerve excitation and polysynaptic inhibition enables OC neurons to respond in a unique fashion to intensity and frequency features contained within an acoustic stimulus.  (+info)

Responses of cochlear nucleus units in the chinchilla to iterated rippled noises: analysis of neural autocorrelograms. (8/432)

Temporal encoding of stimulus features related to the pitch of iterated rippled noises was studied for single units in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus. Unlike other periodic complex sounds that produce pitch, iterated rippled noises have neither periodic waveforms nor highly modulated envelopes. Infinitely iterated rippled noise (IIRN) is generated when wideband noise (WBN) is delayed (tau), attenuated, and then added to (+) or subtracted from (-) the undelayed WBN through positive feedback. The pitch of IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/tau, whereas the pitch of IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/2tau. Temporal responses of cochlear nucleus units were measured using neural autocorrelograms. Synchronous responses as shown by peaks in neural autocorrelograms that occur at time lags corresponding to the IIRN tau can be observed for both primarylike and chopper unit types. Comparison of the neural autocorrelograms in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] and IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] indicates that the temporal discharge of primarylike units reflects the stimulus waveform fine structure, whereas the temporal discharge patterns of chopper units reflect the stimulus envelope. The pitch of IIRN[+/-, tau, -1 dB] can be accounted for by the temporal discharge patterns of primarylike units but not by the temporal discharge of chopper units. To quantify the temporal responses, the height of the peak in the neural autocorrelogram at a given time lag was measured as normalized rate. Although it is well documented that chopper units give larger synchronous responses than primarylike units to the fundamental frequency of periodic complex stimuli, the largest normalized rates in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] were obtained for primarylike units, not chopper units. The results suggest that if temporal encoding is important in pitch processing, then primarylike units are likely to be an important cochlear nucleus subsystem that carries the pitch-related information to higher auditory centers.  (+info)

Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
Cholinergic synapses in the cochlear nucleus (CN) have been reported to modulate spontaneous activity via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In this study, muscarinic receptor binding was measured as specific binding of 1-[N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine in CN regions of control rats and 7 days, 1 month, …
Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
In the auditory system of birds and mammals large axosomatic synapses can be found: the giant synaptic terminals of Held. These terminals contain many (hundreds of) active zones and one can say they act as many synapses activated exactly simultaneously. The synaptic currents induced by these terminals are often big enough to individually cause an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. The auditory nerve fibres, which are the axons of neurons in the cochlear ganglion (or spiral ganglion, in mammals) enter, in birds as well as in mammals, the auditory brainstem and bifurcate into two branches: one branch projects towards time-coding parts of the brainstem (birds: nucleus magnocellularis = NM; mammals: anteroventral cochlear nucleus = AVCN), the other branch connects to nuclei where sound intensity and spectral cues are predominantly coded (birds: nucleus angularis = NA; mammals: posteroventral cochlear nucleus and dorsal cochlear nucleus). The very same axon can thus form giant synapses in ...
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Deafness affects the expression and distribution of voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kvs) of central auditory neurons in the short-term, i.e., hours to days, but the consequences in the expression of Kvs after long-term deafness remain unknown. We tested expression and distribution of Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b, key for auditory processing, in the rat cochlear nucleus (CN), and in the inferior colliculus (IC), at 1, 15 and 90 days after mechanical lesion of the cochlea, using a combination of qRT-PCR and Western blot in the whole CN, along with semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry in the AVCN, where the role of both Kvs in excitability control for accurate auditory timing signal processing is well established. Neither Kv1.1/Kv3.1b mRNA or protein expression changed significantly in the CN between 1 and 15 days after deafness. At 90 days post-lesion, however, mRNA and protein expression for both Kvs increased, suggesting that expression regulation of Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b is part of cellular mechanisms for long
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of divalent cations on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i transients of freshly isolated pyramidal cells of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus. AU - Harasztosi, Cs. AU - Rusznák, Z.. AU - Kovács, L.. AU - Szucs, G.. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - The effects of divalent cations on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-evoked cytoplasmic [Ca2+] elevations were studied in pyramidal neurones isolated from the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat. Ca2+ currents were recorded using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 10 μmol·1-1 Cd2+ exerted a greater blocking effect on the high-voltage activated (HVA) currents than on the low-voltage activated (LVA) ones (decrease to 26.6 ± 2.5% and to 87.8 ± 2.1%, respectively). The blocking effect of 200 μmol·1-1 Cd2+ was more pronounced and the difference between the effect on the HVA and LVA currents became smaller (decrease to 11.7 ± 2.1% and to 32.4 ± 2.7%, ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Get a sneak preview of the Cochlear Nucleus 7 processor! Stay tuned here for breaking news on the N7 from Cochlear. Information distilled by Bob MacPherson from an interview with Jan Janssen, Senior Vice President Research and Development, Cochlear Limited on MedicalResearch.com, dateline july 20, 2017: * The Nucleus® 7 Sound Processor is the worlds first and…
Next, we studied short-term plasticity in CPX I+/+ and CPX I−/− endbulb synapses using pairs and trains of pulses. Paired-pulse responses in CPX I+/+ mice differed somewhat from other mouse strains [CBA/CaJ (Yang and Xu-Friedman, 2008); black Swiss (M. A. Xu-Friedman and W. G. Regehr, unpublished observations)], in that depression was not as pronounced and was partially occluded by a briefly facilitating component (Fig. 6 C). We did not examine the basis for this further. Importantly, CPX I−/− littermates showed no depression at any interval tested, consistent with a decrease in probability of release (P r) (Zucker and Regehr, 2002; Wang and Manis, 2005). Using trains, we observed facilitation of CPX I−/− endbulb synapses at all stimulation frequencies tested (100, 200, and 333 Hz) (Fig. 6 D), which are in the range of spike rates that are observed in vivo (Fig. 4) (Sachs and Abbas, 1974; Taberner and Liberman, 2005). To compare EPSC amplitudes between the two strains throughout the ...
The mechanism of action of aniracetam on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors was examined in outside-out patches and at glutamatergic synapses in neurons of the chick cochlear nucleus. A combination of rapid-flow analysis, using glutamate as an agonist, and kinetic modeling indicated that aniracetam slows both the rate of channel closing, and the microscopic rates of desensitization, even for partially liganded receptors. Little effect was observed on the rate of recovery from desensitization or on the response to the weakly desensitizing agonist kainate. Aniracetams effects on receptor deactivation saturated at lower concentrations than its effects on desensitization, suggesting that cooperativity between homologous binding sites was required to regulate desensitization. Analysis of responses to paired pulses of agonist also indicated that AMPA receptors must desensitize partially even after agonist exposures too brief to permit rebinding. In the presence of ...
Dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform neurons, display heterogeneous spontaneous action potential activity and thus represent an appropriate model to study the role of different conductances in establishing firing heterogeneity. Particularly, fusiform neurons are divided into quiet, with no spontaneous firing, or active neurons, presenting spontaneous, regular firing. These modes are determined by the expression levels of an intrinsic membrane conductance, an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IKir). We used a computational model to test whether other subthreshold conductances vary homeostatically to maintain membrane excitability constant across the two subtypes. We found that Ih expression covaries specifically with IKir in order to maintain membrane resistance constant. The impact of Ih on membrane resistance is dependent on the level of IKir expression, being much smaller in quiet neurons with bigger IKir, but Ih variations are not relevant for creating the quiet and active ...
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A basic concept in theoretical neuroscience is the idea of pooling across a population of noisy inputs to achieve a more reliable measure of the encoded variable. This appears to be the computation that ICcc neurons are performing. There are few other demonstrations of a neural processing stage devoted to noise reduction. Phase locking in the auditory system improves from the auditory nerve to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat (Joris et al., 1994a,b), which has been modeled using both a summative mechanism (Kuhlmann et al., 2002) and a coincidence detection mechanism (Carney, 1992); a similar decrease in temporal jitter is seen from the electroreceptors to the midbrain torus of Eigenmannia (Carr et al., 1986). Retinal ganglion cells also improve on photoreceptor noise levels, using mechanisms such as temporal or spatial summation (Aho et al., 1993; Warrant, 1999), lateral inhibition (Srinivasan et al., 1982; Balboa and Grzywacz, 2000), and channel properties (Dhingra et al., 2005; ...
Full text Supplement:. Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding acoustic stimulus affects 10 to 15% of the adult population worldwide. Despite this prevalence, there are currently no effective drug therapies due to limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tinnitus onset following triggers such as exposure to loud sound. Many studies support the prevailing idea that tinnitus arises in response to enhanced multisensory synaptic transmission to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the first relay in the auditory brainstem integrating acoustic and multisensory inputs. Such findings include a correlation between tinnitus and aberrant neural activity in the DCN (Kaltenbach 2007), altered excitability in the DCN initiating a complex sequence of events in the auditory pathway (Brozoski et al., 2002) and an increased synchrony in the network activity (Shore et al., 2016). We investigate the role of plasticity in the DCN at the early stages following acoustic ...
Mammalian hearing is a complex special sense that involves detection, localization, and identification of the auditory stimulus. The cerebral cortex may subserve higher auditory processes by providing direct modulatory cortical projections to the auditory brainstem. To support the hypothesis that co …
Cochlear introduces the Nucleus 7 sound processor today! Compatible with Nucleus CI24RE, CI500 and Profile Series Implants, key features include: The N7 is the lightest sound processor on the market. Can stream sound directly from compatible Apple devices. Bimodal users can stream sound directly from a compatible iPhone, iPad or iPod touch to the Nucleus…
A slice of tissue 3.5 mm. thick has been removed to expose this surface, cut through the rostral part of the inferior olive. The restiform bodies continue to increase in size as they ascend toward the cerebellum. The lateral recesses of the ventricle extend around the restiform bodies, and the tela chorioidea and roots of the ninth and tenth nerves lie in close relationship here. The cochlear nuclei are visible within the lateral recess on the right and on the cut surface at (18). The sulcus limitans forms a groove in the floor of the ventricle medial to the area acustica (3 ...
Stroke recovery can be improved with a new treatment that creates new nerve synapses - essential for learning - in the brain. Researcher Marcela Pekna explained, More nerve sprouts and connections between nerve cells are created so that the remaining cells can take over functions that the dead cells once had. The researchers focused on C3a peptide, which is naturally produced in the body and especially as a result of certain conditions. The researchers administered C3a to mice through nasal drops.. Of the 28 mice with stroke, half received C3a peptide while the other half received a placebo. Those mice treated with C3a recovered much better than the mice on a placebo. Although mice are capable of recovering from stroke even without any therapy, C3a sped up the recovery and enabled them to use their stroke-affected paws more easily and effectively. The effects of the treatment remained four weeks after the completion.. Pekna explained, Say a stroke kills 10 million brain cells. Newly created ...
Rubio, María, Ko Matsui, Yugo Fukazawa, Naomi Kamasawa, Harumi Harada, Makoto Itakura, Elek Molnár, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, and Ryuichi Shigemoto. The Number and Distribution of AMPA Receptor Channels Containing Fast Kinetic GluA3 and GluA4 Subunits at Auditory Nerve Synapses Depend on the Target Cells. Brain Structure and Function 222, no. 8 (2017): 3375-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1408-0 ...
Once charged up (which took less than an hour over USB), the HELO is ready for flight. In our testing, it took a few seconds to gain momentum, but soon the chopper began to rise with a quick thumb swipe of the on-screen throttle. All of the controls come via a free iOS app (iOS 4.0+ compatible); this includes a simple throttle slider for basic control, joystick with trim, an auto-land button and a toggle switch for the choppers LED lights. While some may find the joystick difficult to maneuver at first, those with patience and a nimble touch will master the reins quickly. Within the app, a little searching will provide you with flying tips, a joystick/motion control toggle, pitch inversion, on-screen throttle placement and three transmission channels, in case a slew of oncoming HELO TCs are in your airspace. The app also allows users to record, store and playback successful flight plans.. Motion controls are extremely difficult to master, so we stuck with the joystick. There is also an ...
Watch this video carefully and you will see that the chopper instrument is used just once to create a single chop. The rest of the surgery, the chopper is being used to push the nuclear pieces and keep them in front of the phaco tip. Without this effort, the pieces would tend to fall into…
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Miniature Wood and Styrene Length Cutter An Ideal Companion for Evergreen Strips, Tubes, Rods and Shapes. The Chopper II fits in your work space - only 7 X 7. Replaceable cutting Mat for cleaner cuts. Cutting depth 1/4 Max. Ideal for cutting Evergreen strips. Right or left hand operation. Light (under 2 Lbs) , stron
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An emergency medical helicopter transporting a critically ill patient has been targeted by a green laser while flying nearby Sydney, NSW Ambulance says. Early on Saturday morning, the chopper was en route from Nepean Hospital to RPA
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Its another OCC family vacation as the Teutuls go walkabout in the land down under where Russell Crowe asks the guys to build an Australia-themed chopper.
Hold, he breathed. A man in a commanders uniform stepped into view, flanked by two Chelish marines, apparently on inspection. He gave the windows a cursory glance as they filed into the room, then cursed and grabbed for his battleaxe. Feruzi hissed, realizing hed spotted her. Leila slid the window open and Feruzi dove through, crossing the room in a single movement to slam the door closed, blocking the exit, but the maneuver left her open to a crushing axe blow that opened her arm to the bone. One of the marines pulled out a whistle and blew furiously. Chopper came through the window and stabbed the man in the back, sending him staggering and coughing. Leila fired her shortbow at the commander, nicking him, while Feruzi peppered him with her fists, forcing him back away from the door. He retaliated with his axe while the other marine stabbed Chopper in the side. Feruzi slumped against the door, gravely wounded but still blocking the path. Not knowing what else to do, she hurled Ezikials ...
Ink Work Figured if I dont ever get another one, I at least have one I really like....honestly....think i might have an idea for a second one Real
Has anyone ever used one of these? I was just looking at them on their website, and it might be the most ridiculous thing Ive ever seen. The body on...
Octopus Body Plan - The octopus body is unique in that its arms are attached to the head. But the octopus has no inner or outer shell. Find out more about how the octopus body.
He was a skilful chopper, and indulged in some flourishes and ornaments in his art. He cut his trees level and close to the ground, that the sprouts which came
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Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem station to adjust to this modified input from the cochlea. Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that are associated with and may be the origin of the signals that give rise to tinnitus percepts at the cortical level. This chapter summarizes what is known about these disturbances and their relationships to tinnitus. It also summarizes the mechanisms that trigger tinnitus-related disturbances and the anatomical, chemical, neurophysiological, and biophysical defects that underlie them. It concludes by highlighting some major controversies that research findings have generated and discussing the clinical implications the findings have for the future treatment of tinnitus.
Afferent:. Neural activity begins with the transduction of acoustic waves into electrochemical communication in the hair cells of the basilar membrane. Synaptic connections stimulate activity in sensory neurons. Apical, intermediate, and basal neurons of the cochlea innervate the cochlear nucleus. The cochlear nucleus gives rise to a variety of connections. Ipsilaterally, these connections are to the medial superior olive, the lateral superior olive (absent or reduced in dolphins and bats), the lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body, lateral pre-olivary nucleus, and dorsal and ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus. Contralaterally, these connections of the cochlear nucleus are to the medial trapezoidal body, medial superior olive, medial pre-olivary nucleus, and dorsal and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus. The medial trapezoidal body innervates the lateral superior olive of the same side. [2, pp. 284-294]. Afferent innervation of the retro-olivary group is laminar, and may indicate a ...
Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate incidence of autophagy and apoptosis in spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) and cochlear nucleus neurons, ..
We talk about you every day. You are our patients, friends and family and because you donate, expert researchers push innovation forward. You deserve the best life and we want you to hear what you are missing. The research is moving fast and there couldnt be a better time to give. The more money we raise, the faster we can work. Every dollar matters and every dollar counts toward helping you and people all over the world. Today is the day to put your dollars to work. Read more.. For more information on contributing, please call the Foundation office at (405) 639-2875. ...
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Cep135/Bld10 is a conserved centriolar protein required for the formation of the central cartwheel, an early intermediate in centriole assembly. Surprisingly, Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for centriole duplication in Drosophila suggesting that either Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for cartwheel formation, or that the cartwheel is not essential for centriole assembly in flies. Using Electron Tomography and super-resolution microscopy we show that centrioles can form a cartwheel in the absence of Cep135/Bld10, but centriole width is increased and the cartwheel appears to disassemble over time. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy we show that Cep135/Bld10 is localised to a region between inner (SAS-6, Ana2) and outer (Asl, DSpd-2 and D-PLP) centriolar components, and the localisation of all these component is subtly perturbed in the absence of Cep135/Bld10, although the 9-fold symmetry of the centriole is maintained. Thus, in flies, Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for cartwheel assembly or ...
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This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
Hearing loss leads to a reorganization of the pathways in the central auditory system.12,20,22,23 These changes may occur rapidly24 and lead to abnormal interactions between auditory and other central pathways.20Analogous changes in the somatosensory system linked to phantom pain25 led us to suggest that there are similarities between neuropathic pain and tinnitus.12 In patients with gaze-evoked tinnitus, lateral eye movements failto produce the inhibition of the auditory cortex observed in controls.20 The absence of this phenomenon, called cross-modal inhibition, may contribute to the false perception of sounds.. Levine hypothesized that a reduction in auditory-nerve input leads to disinhibition of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and an increase in spontaneous activity in the central auditory system, which is experienced as tinnitus.26 This mechanism could explain the temporary ringing sensation that may follow exposure to noise,27 the effects of some drugs such as furosemide, and spontaneous ...
Scheme of neurones of auditory pathway. 4 neuronal afferent centripetal tract terminating in the primary acoustic cortex of temporal lobe. Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of bipolar neurons of the cochlear ganglion (1. N). Axons of bipolar neurons form the cochlear nerve. Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral lemniscus into the inferior collicle (3. N) in the mesencephalon. Signals interpolate in the inferior collicle and continue to the medial geniculate body (4. N). The last part of the auditory tract - acustic radiation (geniculo-cortical tract) continue into the upper part of the temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyruses (primary acustic cortex). Between the basic neurons of the auditory pathway there are inserted interstitial (relay neurons) which are grouped into independent nuclei : nucleus olivaris superior, ...
meshinder at aol.com (MEShinder) wrote in message news:,20010716122745.19834.00000992 at nso-bg.aol.com,... , In article ,b86268d4.0107160805.6215f470 at posting.google.com,, , jonesmat at physiology.wisc.edu (Matt Jones) writes: , , ,However, the earliest stage where neurons appear to respond to pitch , ,(as opposed to frequency - not the same thing) is probably the , ,cochlear nucleus which is the first main integrative processing stage , ,for auditory information. , , , , I am naive to the neuralogical difference between pitch and frequency , processing in the cochlear nuclei. I am aware of the tonotopy in these nuclei, , but Im not sure how it relates to a difference. Frequency is the physical description of the pressure wave (e.g., power spectral density) whereas pitch is the perceptual sensation evoked in the listener. Most of the time these things amount to roughly the same thing. However there are some well known situations in which frequency and pitch are different. For example, it is ...
For Dixie Chopper Discount Parts Call 606-678-9623 or 606-561-4983 Serial Numbers 8084019 and Higher Model # ____________________ Engine Model # ____________________ Serial # ____________________ Engine Serial # ____________________ Date Purchased ____________________ Engine Spec. # ____________________ Iron Eagle Owners Manual 700127 March, 2008 www.mymowerparts.com For Dixie Chopper Discount Parts Call 606-678-9623 or 606-561-4983 About This Manual AUTHORIZED DEALER This owners manual is considered a permanent part of the mower. It must be available to all of the operators and/or person(s) servicing the mower. Should the mower be resold, this manual must remain with the mower. All information, illustrations, and specifications contained in this manual were in effect at the time of publication. Dixie Chopper reserves the right to change, modify, and/or discontinue specifications and/ or design without notice. If there is a change that has been made to your mower which is not shown or ...
TY - CONF. T1 - The catch smooth muscle contains small fusiform cells: stem cells, sensors or else?. AU - Gilloteaux, Jacques. AU - Davey, Tracey. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. AB - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. M3 - Paper. ER - ...
A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve ...
In most industrial processes that use electrical energy as a source of tension or current, requiring a power circuit to control of these physical states.This paper deals with observability problems of the parallel multi-cell chopper. This type of choppers is a new DC/DC static power converter. After modeling of the power converter, its hybrid dynamical behavior and properties are highlighted. The observability properties of the state vector is studied from the new observability concept ( The Z(TN)- observability ). Following this observability analysis an adequate sensor placement is proposed after an observability analysis and a super-twisting observer has been proposed, that ensures finite-time convergence and robustness under bounded perturbations. That is why, its estimation by means of an observer becomes an attractive and economical solution. The suitability of the proposed strategy is proved by extensive computer aided simulations employing a comprehensive model of the system considering noisy
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Everyone knew it was going to be a treacherous descent from that height ….. ground wind-speeds were 60 kmph now, enough to crash the chopper itself ! And yet, it came down … in a broad spiral … round n round n round …spiraling down .. down … 600 feet, 400 feet, 200 feet .. the sound of the chopper filled the whole valley ; as it began to line-up for the landing…the wind speed suddenly picked up…n the chopper swayed n tilted at a terrible angle for a few moments … hung motionless in mid-air for a split-second …. everyone missed a heart-beat … and then gasped in relief … as the chopper rode away on the the winds & circled back, low over the camp, to regain horizontal. The chopper landing site was marked with a giant H with 30 kgs of Wakefields Chocolate-powder (!!!), which looked a dull-maroon color on the soft-white snow ...
Everyone knew it was going to be a treacherous descent from that height ….. ground wind-speeds were 60 kmph now, enough to crash the chopper itself ! And yet, it came down … in a broad spiral … round n round n round …spiraling down .. down … 600 feet, 400 feet, 200 feet .. the sound of the chopper filled the whole valley ; as it began to line-up for the landing…the wind speed suddenly picked up…n the chopper swayed n tilted at a terrible angle for a few moments … hung motionless in mid-air for a split-second …. everyone missed a heart-beat … and then gasped in relief … as the chopper rode away on the the winds & circled back, low over the camp, to regain horizontal. The chopper landing site was marked with a giant H with 30 kgs of Wakefields Chocolate-powder (!!!), which looked a dull-maroon color on the soft-white snow ...
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Target is offering up an opportunity to save 50% Off a different toy with Target Cartwheel every day all the way thru 12/24! Todays offer is for 50% Off Zoomer Dino Boomer and there is a limit of one toy per guest and it is valid today only, 11/9.. This offer is valid on Item # 087-02-0730 only and this toy is priced at $79.99 in-stores, so just $39.99 after cartwheel.. NOT FAMILIAR WITH TARGET CARTWHEEL? This savings program introduced by Target allows you to save even more when shopping in-store. Even better- these offers can be used with Target Coupons AND Manufacturer coupons for up to a triple stack! You can see my post HERE to help get you started.. ...
The two cells in the top left must be 1+2. The 3 cells to the right totaling 15 cannot therefore have either a 1 or a 2, so they must be either 3+4+8, 3+5+7, or 4+5+6. The two vertical cells in the top left of the top right nonet cannot be 2+2 as that would mean duplicates, so they must be 1+3. The 1 cannot be in the top line as that conflicts with our first 2 cells therefore the top cell of this pair is 3 and the lower cell 1. This also means the 3 cell cage 15 to the left cannot contain a 3 and so is 4+5+6. Similarly the neighbouring 16 must be 9+7. The four cells in the top right cage (totaling 15) can only include one of 1, 3, 7, or 9 (if at all) because of the presence of 1, 3, 7, and 9 in the top right hand nonet. If any one of 1, 3, 7, or 9 is present then this must be the lone square in the nonet below. Therefore, these 4 cells is one of 1+2+4+8 or 2+3+4+6; the 2 cells in the middle of the left edge must be either 1+5 or 2+4; and so on. ...
A scientist might want to do cartwheels upon making a discovery, but this time the discovery itself relies on cartwheels. Researchers at Rice University...
Shannon, I also saw a comment on their FB page on Friday about them charging a debit surcharge of $1 now. Can you try to find out about that too?. ...
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DI-591 is a potent, high-affinity and cell-permeable inhibitor of the DCN1-UBC12 interaction. DI-591 binds to DCN1 and DCN2 with Ki values of 12 nM and 10.4 nM, respectively and has no appreciable binding to DCN3, DCN4, and DCN5 proteins. DI-591 selectively inhibits neddylation of cullin 3 but has no or minimal effect on neddylation of other cullin family members. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
This a massive list of deals! I walked my Target earlier last week and it took me a few days to slowly work on getting everything typed up. With all the current cartwheel offers and coupons, their are some fun match ups. Get stocked on canned goods, soups and even baking items at great prices.. Dont forget to also look over all the deals in the Target ad this week before you go shopping.. ...
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Sederhana dan mudah dalam pengaplikasiannya, tinggal siapkan sampah organik sebanyak 6 m³ atau setara dengan berat 2 ton. Sampah harus dibuat ukuran kecil-kecil ( sekitar 10-15 mm) dengan cara dirajang atau menggunakan alat pencacah ( choper) menjadi seukuran dengan sampah dapur ( rumah tangga, hotel dan restoran) yakni 15 - 50 mm. Sampah yang berasal dari lingkungan pemukiman, hotel dan rumah tangga memang pada umumnya sudah berukuran kecil, sehingga sebenarnya tidak memerlukan dan tidak tergantung pada keberadaan mesin pencacah ( chopper) . Sampah, kemudian dimasukan ke dalam Komposter ( Rotary Klin) melalui pintu kearah reaktor. Di tempat lain, siapkan larutan mikroba sebagai aktivator dekomposisi- Green Phoskko® sebanyak 2 kg ( 1 permil dari bahan sampah sekitar 2 ton bahan baku kompos berupa sampah organik) , juga tambahkan Molases ( tetes tebu) atau gula pasir sekitar 50 sendok makan dan larutkan dalam air sebanyak 250 liter. Aduk hingga merata dan simpan 2-4 jam agar organic decomposer ...
The name is Himeko. I love hello kitty, chopper and all things pink. Anything you need to enquire me about, drop me a mail at [email protected] ...
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Dorsal cochlear nucleus granule cell[edit]. The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or ... Dorsal cochlear granule cells. Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. ... Granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus play a role in the perception and response to sounds in our environment. ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ...
He conducted some of the first studies of the neural coding of complex (speech-like) sounds in the cochlear nucleus and showed ... Møller, Aage R. (1974). "Coding of sounds with rapidly varying spectrum in the cochlear nucleus". The Journal of the Acoustical ... "The Cochlear Nucleus-A tribute to Aage Møller". "Aage R. Moller". Møller, Aage R. (1972). "Coding of sounds in lower levels of ... Møller found evidence that the spasm was created by the facial motor nucleus probably through the process of activation of ...
"Technology for an Advanced Cochlear Nucleus Auditory Prosthesis" (5R01DC009643). NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools ...
Robert Aaron Levine (1999). "Somatic (craniocervical) tinnitus and the dorsal cochlear nucleus hypothesis". American Journal of ... Hearing loss may have many different causes, but among those with tinnitus, the major cause is cochlear injury. Ototoxic drugs ... About 75% of new cases are related to emotional stress as the trigger factor rather than to precipitants involving cochlear ...
At the level of the cochlear nucleus, several cell types show an enhancement of ENVn information. Multipolar cells can show ... Some cochlear implant systems transmit information about TFSp in the channels of the cochlear implants that are tuned to low ... in the ventral cochlear nucleus. These synapses contact bushy cells (Spherical and globular) and faithfully transmit (or ... nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant". Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 38: V-IX, 1-181. doi:10.1159/000414597. PMID ...
"Dual Coding of Frequency Modulation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 38 (17): 4123-4137. doi: ... cochlear) or central damage, development, ageing and rehabilitation systems (e.g., hearing aids or cochlear implants) on the ... Lorenzi, C.; Gallégo, S.; Patterson, R. D. (July 1997). "Discrimination of temporal asymmetry in cochlear implantees". The ... Füllgrabe, Christian; Meyer, Bernard; Lorenzi, Christian (2003-04-01). "Effect of cochlear damage on the detection of complex ...
P. I. M. Johannesma (1972). "The pre-response stimulus ensemble of neurons in the cochlear nucleus". IPO Symposium on Hearing ...
... spike timing-dependent plasticities in the dorsal cochlear nucleus". Nat Neurosci. 7 (7): 719-725. doi:10.1038/nn1272. PMID ...
Saada AA; Niparko JK; Ryugo DK (1996). "Morphological changes in the cochlear nucleus of congenitally deaf white cats". Brain ...
Smith L, Gross J, Morest DK (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in the cochlear nucleus of the adult mouse following ... Kim JJ, Gross J, Potashner SJ, Morest DK (September 2004). "Fine structure of degeneration in the cochlear nucleus of the ... Josephson EM, Morest DK (July 2003). "Synaptic nests lack glutamate transporters in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse". Synapse ... in the embryonic development of the mouse cochlear nucleus". Journal of Neurobiology. 66 (9): 897-915. doi:10.1002/neu.20264. ...
"Somatosensory inputs modify auditory spike timing in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal cells". European Journal of Neuroscience ... Cochlear implant[edit]. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016) ... For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. Furthermore, many cells in ... "Effects of the Activity of the Internal Globus Pallidus-Pedunculopontine Loop on the Transmission of the Subthalamic Nucleus- ...
Fu, Qian-Jie; Shannon, Robert V. (January 2000). "Effect of stimulation rate on phoneme recognition by Nucleus-22 cochlear ... "A computer interface for psychophysical and speech research with the Nucleus cochlear implant". The Journal of the Acoustical ... Shannon has been one of the earlier and main researchers studying the psychophysics of electrical stimulation in cochlear- ... Fu, Qian-Jie; Shannon, Robert V. (November 1998). "Effects of amplitude nonlinearity on phoneme recognition by cochlear implant ...
"Temperature affects voltage-sensitive conductances differentially in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus". J ... stochastic oscillations in pacemaker neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus are partially responsible for the organization of ...
Model for the Convergence of Inputs Upon Neurons in the Cochlear Nucleus, D.Sc. Thesis, MIT, 1966. Chaney, T.J. and C.E. Molnar ... Kim, D.O. and C.E. Molnar: Cochlear mechanics: Measurements and models, in The Nervous System, Vol. 3, Human Communication and ...
"Prof (Dr.) Mohan Kameswaran's keynote address at CochlearNucleus® 6 launch for MERF recipients". YouTube video. Cochlear ... He is one of the pioneers of cochlear implant surgery in India and a visiting professor at Rajah Muthiah Medical College of the ... "Description". COCHLEAR IMPLANT GROUP OF INDIA. 2005. Retrieved 12 December 2015. "City to Host Meet for ENT Surgeons". Indian ... Honouring his introduction of Cochlear Implant Program in Sri Lanka, the President of the country presented him with the Award ...
... reticular thalamic nuclei, cortical and hippocampal interneurons > inferior colliculi, cochlear and vestibular nuclei), and in ... Kv3.1 channels are prominently expressed in brain (cerebellum > globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra > ... focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii". The Journal of Physiology. 562 (Pt 3): 655-72. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073338. PMC ...
... the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (mammalian anteroventral cochlear nucleus) and the cochlear nucleus angularis (see figure ... mammalian posteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei). The neurons of the nucleus magnocellularis phase-lock, but are fairly ... Neurons from the nucleus laminaris project to the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and to the anterior ... The fibers of the auditory nerve innervate both cochlear nuclei in the brainstem, ...
"Effects of monaural and binaural sound deprivation on cell development in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of rats". Exp. ... "Late appearance and deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear nucleus (nuc. magnocellularis)". ... Webster DB, Webster M (1979). "Effects of neonatal conductive hearing loss on brain stem auditory nuclei". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. ... Smith ZD, Gray L, Rubel EW (October 1983). "Afferent influences on brainstem auditory nuclei of the chicken: n. laminaris ...
Moushegian, G.; Rupert, A. L. (1973). "Response diversity of neurons in ventral cochlear nucleus of kangaroo rat to low- ... This phenomenon came to be known as the cochlear microphonic (CM). The FFR may have been accidentally discovered back in 1930; ... but it was later discovered that the response is non-neural and is cochlear in origin, specifically from the outer hair cells. ... to describe the CM-like neural components recorded directly from several brainstem nuclei (research based on Jewett and ...
Her principal field of research has been studies of the cochlear nuclei. She has been active in the Norwegian chapter of the ...
The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which contain the special somatic afferent column. The inferior olivary nucleus, which ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ... The dorsal column nuclei, which contain the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Basal plate neuroblasts give rise to: The hypoglossal ... They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus. The soma (cell bodies) in these ...
"The effect of the acoustic nerve chronic electric stimulation upon the guinea pig cochlear nucleus development". Acta ... By using the same approach to reconstruct the solitary tract and its gustatory nuclei, he observed that the nucleus of the last ... the cochlear implant would need several electrodes, so it could stimulate the different frequency regions on the "cochlear ... The multichannel cochlear implant was designed and developed in 1975 at Saint-Antoine Hospital by a multidisciplinary team ...
... known as the antero-ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), postero-ventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) ... The SOC receives input from cochlear nuclei, primarily the ipsilateral and contralateral AVCN. Four nuclei make up the SOC but ... Next in the pathway is the cochlear nucleus, which receives mainly ipsilateral (that is, from the same side) afferent input. ... The IC is situated in the midbrain and consists of a group of nuclei the largest of these is the central nucleus of inferior ...
The cochlear nerve is lateral to the root of the vestibular nerve. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus, ... The acoustic tubercle is a nuclei on the end of the cochlear nerve. ...
... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the ... and receives projections predominantly from the ventral cochlear nucleus, although the dorsal cochlear nucleus projects there ... posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). The trapezoid body is a bundle of ... Some of these axons come from the cochlear nucleus and cross over to the other side before traveling on to the superior olivary ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior colliculus, and ... Köppl, Christine (1997). "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the ... "Mode-Locked Spike Trains in Responses of Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Chopper and Onset Neurons to Periodic Stimuli". Journal of ... Nucleus accumbens (a part of striatum) is involved in both music related emotions, as well as rhythmic timing. According to the ...
Their axons do not extend beyond the dorsal cochlear nucleus but synapse with other cartwheel cells and pyramidal cells within ... Berrebi, AS; Mugnaini, E (1991). "Distribution and targets of the cartwheel cell axon in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the ... Cartwheel cells are neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where they greatly outnumber the other inhibitory interneurons ... and therefore plays a key role in the shaping of the overall output of the superficial layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba". ... "Mode-Locked Spike Trains in Responses of Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Chopper and Onset Neurons to Periodic Stimuli". Journal of ...
The posterior branch enters the dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nucleus to give rise to the auditory dorsal stream. Language ... division of the two streams first occurs in the auditory nerve where the anterior branch enters the anterior cochlear nucleus ...
For the development of the modern cochlear implant - a device that bestows hearing to individuals with profound deafness.[18] ... For the development of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a surgical technique that reduces tremors and ... quality control system that detects harmful misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and signals the nucleus to carry ...
The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which contain the special somatic afferent column. ... The nucleus ambiguus, which form the special visceral efferent.. *The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory ... They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus. The soma (cell bodies) in these ... The basal plate neuroblasts will give rise to the motor nuclei.. *Alar plate neuroblasts give rise to: *The solitary nucleus, ...
For example, unilateral destruction, in a region of the auditory pathway above the cochlear nucleus, results in slight hearing ... projection patterns of the different neuronal populations in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei". Brain Res Bull. 60 (5-6 ... The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to ... "Recruitment of the auditory cortex in congenitally deaf cats by long-term cochlear electrostimulation". Science. 285 (5434): ...
... where the signal is projected to the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla, or the gustatory nucleus of the solitary ... Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ... where the signal is then transmitted to the anterior olfactory nucleus, the piriform cortex, the medial amygdala, and the ...
Nuclei *Vestibular nuclei. *Cochlear nuclei. *cochlear nerve *striae medullares. *lateral lemniscus. *vestibular *Scarpa's ...
... cochlear ganglia and superior cervival ganglia and moderate losses of nodose petrosal ganglia and vestibular ganglia.[23][29] ... The activated JNK translocates into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates and transactivates c-Jun.[23][28] The transactivation ... nodose petrosal ganglia and cochlear ganglia.[23][29] In addition they also had minor losses of their facial motoneurons ...
Osteoclasts are large cells with multiple nuclei located on bone surfaces in what are called Howship's lacunae (or resorption ...
cell nucleus. • cell leading edge. • protein complex. • actomyosin contractile ring. • cytoskeleton. • cleavage furrow. • ... Cochlear implantation is effective in restoring hearing function in MYH9-RD patients with severe/profound deafness.[58] ... "Cochlear implantation is safe and effective in patients with MYH9-related disease". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 9: 100 ...
Auditory nerve fibers take this slightly-processed sensory information to the cochlear nucleus where information either ... from these two types of sign-selective neurons then converge at the top of the neuronal hierarchy-the pre-pacemaker nucleus, ...
inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ... Interposed nucleus in Intermediate hemisphere/spinocerebellum → SCP → Reticular formation, or → Cerebellothalamic tract → Red ...
It sends efferents to the spinal cord, cerebellum, thalamus and occipital lobe via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). The ... increasing activation of the auditory association cortex as previously deaf participants gain hearing experience via a cochlear ...
... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and ... This nucleus projects to the ventral posteriomedial (VPM) nucleus in the contralateral thalamus via the ventral trigeminal ... Brainstem Nuclei Archived 2007-04-13 at the Wayback Machine *^ George Paxinos (2004). The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic ...
MRI uses strong magnetic fields to align atomic nuclei (usually hydrogen protons) within body tissues, then uses a radio signal ... The modality is currently contraindicated for patients with pacemakers, cochlear implants, some indwelling medication pumps, ... to disturb the axis of rotation of these nuclei and observes the radio frequency signal generated as the nuclei return to their ...
... around the nucleus elongates and contracts in association with the centrosome to guide the nucleus to its final destination.[18 ... spontaneous activity is thought to be involved in tonotopic map formation by segregating cochlear neuron axons tuned to high ... Activation of the type 1 receptor leads to phosphorylation of Smad proteins, which translocate to the nucleus to activate gene ... JAK kinase phosphorylates STAT proteins, which dissociate from the receptor and translocate to the nucleus to regulate gene ...
There, he did a cross-species analysis of the cochlear nucleus in large game cats and pinnipeds, did the first auditory ... Design Of Pediatric Cochlear Implants. [40]. UCSF. NIDCD. $1,097,866. $2 million 1981-1995. Functional Organization Of The ... He led the cochlear implant team at UCSF,[3][9] which transferred its technology to Advanced Bionics,[10] and their version is ... "BionicEar.com - Harmony Cochlear Implant by Advanced Bionics". Advanced Bionics. 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-02.. CS1 maint: ...
Nuclei[edit]. Main article: Cranial nerve nucleus. The cell bodies of many of the neurons of most of the cranial nerves are ... The cochlear nerve transmits information from the cochlea, allowing sound to be heard.[3] ... These nuclei are important relative to cranial nerve dysfunction because damage to these nuclei such as from a stroke or trauma ... In terms of specific cranial nerve nuclei, the midbrain of the brainstem has the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (III) and ...
cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • Rb-E2F complex. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • negative ... Once wild-type mammals have reached adulthood, their cochlear hair cells become incapable of proliferation. In studies where ... Wang S, Fusaro G, Padmanabhan J, Chellappan SP (December 2002). "Prohibitin co-localizes with Rb in the nucleus and recruits N- ... "Rapid cell-cycle reentry and cell death after acute inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene product in postnatal cochlear hair ...
The evoked potential is generated in the cochlea, goes through the cochlear nerve, through the cochlear nucleus, superior ...
Cuneatus sends signals to the cochlear nucleus indirectly via spinal grey matter, this info is used in determining if a ...
This echo cancellation occurs in the Dorsal Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus (DNLL).[citation needed] ... which synapse onto spiral ganglion fibers that travel through the cochlear nerve into the brain. ... In vertebrates, inter-aural time differences are known to be calculated in the superior olivary nucleus of the brainstem. ... In the auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), many ILD sensitive neurons have response functions that decline ...
inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus ... nucleus in the pons.[2] The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the ...
Nuclei *vestibular nuclei. *cochlear nuclei. *Cochlear nerve *striae medullares. *lateral lemniscus. *Vestibular *Scarpa's ...
Nuclei *vestibular nuclei. *cochlear nuclei. *Cochlear nerve *striae medullares. *lateral lemniscus. *Vestibular *Scarpa's ...
Nuclei *vestibular nuclei. *cochlear nuclei. *Cochlear nerve *striae medullares. *lateral lemniscus. *Vestibular *Scarpa's ... The fibers from the retina run along the optic nerve to nine primary visual nuclei in the brain, from which a major relay ... Other axons terminate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and are involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Its diameter ... it extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasma and continues as the optic tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus, ...
The only cerebellum-like structure found in mammals is the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), one of the two primary sensory nuclei ... The globose and the emboliform nuclei are also referred to as combined in the interposed nucleus). The fastigial and interposed ... Sagittal cross-section of human cerebellum, showing the dentate nucleus, as well as the pons and inferior olivary nucleus ... deep nuclei. Climbing fibers project to Purkinje cells and also send collaterals directly to the deep nuclei.[8] The mossy ...
... which form a portion of the cochlear division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and disappear into the median sulcus. ... Facial motor nucleus. *GSE: Abducens nucleus. *GVE: Superior salivary nucleus. *Inferior salivary nucleus ...
Three electrodes are implanted; two in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus which conveys facial sensory ... Cochlear implants) in humans. Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [21] and PETA [22] have expressed ...
... the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the ... At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear nucleus and the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus ... The outputs from the cochlear nuclei are received in higher regions of the auditory brainstem. The cochlear nuclei (CN) are ... and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of ...
Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the ... Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN, also known as the "tuberculum acusticum"), is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral ... The second set of inputs is relayed through a set of small granule cells in the cochlear nucleus. There are also a great number ...
Cochlear provides a broad range of implants and solutions to address your type of hearing loss. Click here to find the right ... Cochlear Nucleus Implant Reliability Report. Volume 18 , December 2019. D1712187. Cochlear Ltd; 2020. *Hearing Implant ... Nucleus® Implant System reliability. When choosing a cochlear implant system, you want to trust that you are choosing the best ... Nucleus® Implants. Cochlear provides a broad range of implants and electrodes to address your type of hearing loss, cochlea ...
The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine March 2016, 29 (2) 286-288; DOI: https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2016.02.150258 ...
1997) Projections from the ventral cochlear nucleus to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in rats. J Comp Neurol 385:245-264. ... 2004) Onset neurones in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 5: ... Glycine immunoreactivity of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J ... Hyperactivity in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus after Cochlear Trauma. Darryl P. Vogler, Donald Robertson, Wilhelmina H. A. M. ...
Excitatory Amino Acid Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Inhibitory Amino Acid These keywords were added ... The neuronal architecture of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat in the region of the cochlear nerve root: electron ... Osen, K.K., 1969, The intrinsic organization of the cochlear nuclei, Acta Otolaryngol., 67:352-359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In: Merchán M.A., Juiz J.M., Godfrey D.A., Mugnaini E. (eds) The Mammalian Cochlear Nuclei. NATO ASI series (Series A, Life ...
... labeled axons were present bilaterally in the cochlear nucleus. The distribution of boutons within the cochlear nucleus … ... We used anterograde tracing techniques to examine projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pigs. ... labeled axons were present bilaterally in the cochlear nucleus. The distribution of boutons within the cochlear nucleus was ... Auditory cortical projections to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pigs Hear Res. 2005 Jan;199(1-2):89-102. doi: 10.1016/j.heares. ...
The Cochlear Nucleus 6 System is our most advanced system to help you enjoy smarter hearing. Learn more. ... Our Products Cochlears range of solutions * Cochlear implantsA cochlear implant is an established, effective and long-term ... Cochlear FamilyWhether youre new to Cochlear or have had your implant for years, you are part of a very special family - one ... When you choose a CochlearNucleus® implant youre choosing the most trusted name in the industry.. ...
Nucleus Freedom Cochlear Implant System Pediatric Post-approval Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The objective of this multisite study is to evaluate the performance of the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant system in a large ... Ossification or any other cochlear anomaly that might prevent complete insertion of the electrode array, as confirmed by ... with bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss who undergo implantation with the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear Implant ...
... Kei Hori and Mikio Hoshino ... Kei Hori and Mikio Hoshino, "GABAergic Neuron Specification in the Spinal Cord, the Cerebellum, and the Cochlear Nucleus," ...
K. K. Osen, "Cytoarchitecture of the cochlear nuclei in the cat," Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 453- ... D. K. Ryugo and F. H. Willard, "The dorsal cochlear nucleus of the mouse: a light microscopic analysis of neurons that project ... E. T. Pierce, "Histogenesis of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei in the mouse. An autoradiographic study," Journal of ... GABAergic Neuron Specification in the Spinal Cord, the Cerebellum, and the Cochlear Nucleus. Kei Hori and Mikio Hoshino ...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
The ventral cochlear nucleus (or anterior, or accessory ), placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve, is on the ... Ventral reticular nucleus, Lateral reticular nucleus, Paramedian reticular nucleus) • Raphe nuclei (Obscurus, Magnus, Pallidus ... Posterior Ventral Cochlear Nucleus (PVCN). *Needs information added. References. *↑ Smith, P. H., P. X. Joris, et al. (1993). " ... Gracile nucleus/Cuneate nucleus/Accessory cuneate nucleus • Area postrema • Posterior median sulcus • Dorsal respiratory group ...
cochlear nuclei, anterior and posterior synonyms, cochlear nuclei, anterior and posterior pronunciation, cochlear nuclei, ... English dictionary definition of cochlear nuclei, anterior and posterior. n. pl. nu·cle·i or nu·cle·us·es 1. A central or ... essential part around which other parts are gathered or grouped; a core: the nucleus of a city. 2. ... nucleus. [ˈnjuːklɪəs] N (nuclei or nucleuses (pl)) [ˈnjuːklɪaɪ] → núcleo m. the nucleus of a library → el núcleo de una ...
Implantation with the Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant. Device: Nucleus Hybrid L24 Implantation with Nucleus Hybrid L24 ... Evaluation of the Nucleus Hybrid™ L24 Cochlear Implant System. This study has been completed. ... Further study details as provided by Cochlear:. Primary Outcome Measures: *Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) Monosyllabic Word ... Delivery of acoustic-electric stimulation will be provided by the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant system. ...
1982) Functional synapse elimination in the developing avian cochlear nucleus with simultaneous reduction in cochlear nerve ... 1973) The development of auditory evoked responses in the cochlea and cochlear nuclei of the chick. Brain Res 63:59-74. ... 1994) Membrane properties underlying the firing of neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 14:5352-5364. ... 1987) Maturation of synapses and electrical properties of cells in the cochlear nuclei. Hear Res 30:99-110. ...
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. ... Cb: cerebellum; DCN: dorsal cochlear nucleus; Md: medulla; VCN: ventral cochlear nucleus. Inset: D: deep layer; F: fusiform ... Gómez-Nieto, R., and Rubio, M. E. (2009). A bushy cell network in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol. 516, 241- ...
Experimental: Nucleus CI422 Cochlear Implant with Nucleus 6 (N6) Sound Processor Intervention: Device: Nucleus CI422 Cochlear ... Clinical study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the CochlearNucleus® CI422 cochlear implant for new cochlear implant ... Safety and Efficacy of the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Cochlear Implant in Adults. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Safety and Efficacy of the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Cochlear Implant in Adults ...
Neurosurgical interventions at the cochlear nerve & nucleus for treatment of tinnitus. van den Berge, M., 2020, [Groningen]: ... Another novel option is neurostimulation of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem with an auditory brainstem implant (ABI). We ... The effect of direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve with a ring electrode was evaluated, but appeared to be not a viable ... Tinnitus can be the result of compression of the cochlear nerve with a blood vessel (neurovascular conflict). In this thesis, ...
... a single electrical compartment representing the soma of a ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neuron was created. The K+ currents ... The roles potassium currents play in regulating the electrical activity of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons J Neurophysiol. ... a single electrical compartment representing the soma of a ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neuron was created. The K+ currents ...
A list of all pages that have property "Label" with value "Cochlear nucleus neuron". *Cochlear nucleus neuron + ...
Many more labeled cells were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). These cells, identifiable as multipolar (stellate) ... Many more labeled cells were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). These cells, identifiable as multipolar (stellate) ... Direct projections from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) mediate a high-speed transfer of acoustic ... Direct projections from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) mediate a high-speed transfer of acoustic ...
Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem ... Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that ... Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ... anteroventral cochlear nucleus; contraCN, contralateral cochlear nucleus; CunN, cuneate nucleus; DCN, dorsal cochlear nucleus, ...
The representation of speech-like stimuli in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus have been the subject of numerous studies ... Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Good Frequency Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Selective Listening These keywords were added by ... I. Anteroventral cochlear nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol., 313, 240-258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... May B.J., Le Prell G.S., Hienz R.D., Sachs M.B. (1997) Speech Representation in the Auditory Nerve and Ventral Cochlear Nucleus ...
In the cochlear nucleus of the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi) and the mustache bat (Pteronotus parnelli), species- ... Kössl, M.; Vater, M. und Schweizer, Hermann (1988): Distribution of catecholamine fibers in the cochlear nucleus of horseshoe ... In both bats the subnuclei of the cochlear nucleus receive a differentially dense supply of catecholaminergic fibers, and ... The marginal cell group, located medially to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of Pteronotus, receives the densest supply of ...
Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Xiaoqin Wang, Murray B. Sachs ... We have investigated responses of the auditory nerve fibres (ANFS) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) units to narrow ... Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus ... Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. ...
... Hey, Matthias; Boehnke, Britta; Dillier, ... Objective: To describe the principles and operation of a new telemetry-based function test for the Nucleus (R) cochlear implant ... Objective: To describe the principles and operation of a new telemetry-based function test for the Nucleus (R) cochlear implant ... To describe the principles and operation of a new telemetry-based function test for the Nucleus (R) cochlear implant, known as ...
Inhibitory and excitatory subtypes of cochlear nucleus neurons are defined by distinct bHLH transcription factors, Ptf1a and ... Inhibitory and excitatory subtypes of cochlear nucleus neurons are defined by distinct bHLH transcription factors, Ptf1a and ... Inhibitory and excitatory subtypes of cochlear nucleus neurons are defined by distinct bHLH transcription factors, Ptf1a and ... Inhibitory and excitatory subtypes of cochlear nucleus neurons are defined by distinct bHLH transcription factors, Ptf1a and ...
This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of ... Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the ... This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of ... Home , Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory ...
Lai, W K; Dillier, N; Laszig, R; Fisch, U (1997). Results from a pilot study using the nucleus CI24M/SP5 cochlear implant ... OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study in adults with the Nucleus CI24M/SP5 cochlear implant system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight ... OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study in adults with the Nucleus CI24M/SP5 cochlear implant system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight ... Download PDF Results from a pilot study using the nucleus CI24M/SP5 cochlear implant system. Item availability may be ...
  • The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Labeled boutons were also present in the ventral cochlear nucleus, where they were located in the small cell cap as well as magnocellular parts of both posteroventral and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Projections to the inferior colliculus from the anteroventral cochlear nucleus in the cat: possible substrates for binaural interaction. (wikidoc.org)
  • 1981). "Tonotopic organization of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. (wikidoc.org)
  • Classification of unit types in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus: post-stimulus time histograms and regularity analysis. (springer.com)
  • The representation of the steady-state vowel /eh/ in the discharge pat-terns of cat anteroventral cochlear nucleus neurons. (springer.com)
  • Bourk, T. R. (1976) Electrical Responses of Neural Units in the Anteroventral Cochlear nucleus of the Cat . (springer.com)
  • The fine structure of two types of stellate cells in the anterior division of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. (springer.com)
  • The functional role of excitatory and inhibitory interactions in chopper cells of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (springer.com)
  • A model of selective processing of auditory-nerve inputs by stellate cells of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (springer.com)
  • The marginal cell group, located medially to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of Pteronotus, receives the densest supply of catecholaminergic fibers of all auditory nuclei. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We have investigated responses of the auditory nerve fibres (ANFS) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) units to narrow band 'single-form ant' stimuli (SFSS). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. (kuleuven.be)
  • Morphological characterization of bushy cells and their inputs in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (jhu.edu)
  • The ascending branches of these axons innervate the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and give rise to large axosomatic endings, called the endbulbs of Held, and smaller boutons. (elsevier.com)
  • Ryugo, DK & Fekete, DM 1982, ' Morphology of primary axosomatic endings in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat: A study of the endbulbs of Held ', Journal of Comparative Neurology , vol. 210, no. 3, pp. 239-257. (elsevier.com)
  • Tuberculoventral neurons in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) provide frequency‐specific inhibition to neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVON) of the mouse (Wickesberg and Oertel, '88, '90). (northwestern.edu)
  • The anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) is the first central processing site for acoustic information. (edu.au)
  • The anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), the first centre of the central auditory pathway, contains globular bushy cells, which are unique in their ability to produce fast excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs). (edu.au)
  • In a quantitative electron microscopical study on the plasticity of the central auditory system of the Wistar rat, we first determined what fraction of the total number of synaptic contact zones SCZs in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus AVCN is attributable to primary sensory innervation and how many synapses remain after total unilateral cochlear ablation. (duhnnae.com)
  • The axons from the low-frequency region of the cochlea project to the ventral portion of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the ventrolateral portions of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons from the high-frequency region project to the dorsal portion of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and the uppermost dorsal portions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cochlear nuclear (CN) complex comprises two cranial nerve nuclei in the human brainstem, the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the dorsal cochlear nucleus is layered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve) carry information from the inner ear, the cochlea, on the same side of the head, to the nerve root in the ventral cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear nucleus and the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) on the ventral aspect of the brain stem, ventrolateral to the inferior peduncle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axons from the spiral ganglion cells of the lower frequencies innervate the ventrolateral portions of the ventral cochlear nucleus and lateral-ventral portions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons from the higher frequency organ of corti hair cells project to the dorsal portion of the ventral cochlear nucleus and the dorsal-medial portions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types of principal cells convey information out of the ventral cochlear nucleus: Bushy cells, stellate cells, and octopus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the cochlea form their first synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DCN differs from the ventral portion of the CN as it not only projects to the central nucleus (a subdivision) of the inferior colliculus (CIC), but also receives efferent innervation from the auditory cortex, superior olivary complex and the inferior colliculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the ventral subdivision of the cochlear nucleus shows hyperactivity has never been investigated despite the fact that, like the dorsal division, it also receives direct input from the damaged cochlea and supplies major ascending inputs to brainstem and midbrain auditory centers. (jneurosci.org)
  • We investigated spontaneous neuronal firing rates in the ventral cochlear nucleus in a guinea pig model of cochlear trauma in which we have shown that hyperactivity consistently develops in the inferior colliculus ( Mulders and Robertson, 2009 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The mean spontaneous firing rates of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons was significantly elevated compared to sham controls. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hyperactivity in the ventral subdivision of cochlear nucleus therefore needs to be considered in relation to neural models of the genesis of tinnitus. (jneurosci.org)
  • The ventral cochlear nucleus (or anterior , or accessory ), placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve , is on the ventral aspect of the inferior peduncle . (wikidoc.org)
  • Bushy cells in the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), which receive end bulbs of held from auditory nerve fibers, project to the superior olivary complex through the trapezoid body and intermediate acoustic stria. (wikidoc.org)
  • contralaterally in the dorsomedial periolivary nucleus (DMPO), ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB), nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL), and Ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL). (wikidoc.org)
  • Using kinetic data from three different K+ currents in acutely isolated neurons, a single electrical compartment representing the soma of a ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neuron was created. (nih.gov)
  • Anatomically, the axons of SBCs cross the midline in the dorsal component of the trapezoid body and typically innervate the medial superior olive (MSO) on both sides, the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO), and the contralateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL). (kuleuven.be)
  • In contrast, GBC axons travel in the ventral component of the trapezoid body, never innervate the MSO, rarely innervate the ipsilateral LSO, and always innervate the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. (kuleuven.be)
  • Compared to adjacent Nissl-stained sections 80% of the non-granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and more than 90% of the non-granule cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) bound SBA. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • A limbic nucleus that sits at the ventral head of the striatum, contiguous with the caudate and putamen and adjacent to the olfactory tubercle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nucleus accumbens is part of the ventral striatum nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral wall of the third ventricle near the pituitary stalk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The inhibition from tuberculoventral neurons onto ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons is likely to be mediated by glycine (Wickesberg and Oertel, '90). (northwestern.edu)
  • The cochlear nucleus (CN) consists of a dorsal and ventral division (DCN, VCN) having three functionally and anatomically segregated outputs (for a review, see Young and Oertel, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) is the first relay station of the auditory pathway. (edu.au)
  • In the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the distribution of AMPA receptor subunits changed drastically with age. (wiley.com)
  • Here we describe, using in situ hybridization, the subunit expression patterns of GABA A receptors in the rat cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and dorsal and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus. (elsevier.com)
  • the ventral nucleus also expresses the δ subunit. (elsevier.com)
  • and the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), the latter two nuclei forming the ventral ganglion. (scribd.com)
  • Cochlear provides a broad range of implants and electrodes to address your type of hearing loss, cochlea anatomy and surgeon preference. (cochlear.com)
  • All our implants are designed to last a lifetime with performance and preservation of the cochlear structures in mind. (cochlear.com)
  • I chose Cochlear because they have a very strong track record for making the newer technologies available to prior generation implants. (cochlear.com)
  • Cochlear™ Nucleus® implants are the most reliable on the market. (cochlear.com)
  • There is no information yet about availability in other regions, or on compatibility with Nucleus 22 series implants. (cochlearimplanthelp.com)
  • Recent advances in acoustic signal processing for cochlear implants have produced incremental, but significant, improvements in cochlear implant recipients' speech understanding. (mathworks.com)
  • It will also provide examples of day-to-day contributions to people with Cochlear implants or hearing aids. (mathworks.com)
  • Since the 1970s, thousands of people who are severely hard of hearing or deaf have chosen to try cochlear implants to hear sounds better. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Cochlear implants are very different from hearing aids," Dr. Selena Briggs told ConsumerAffairs. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Cochlear implants channel sound to bypass damaged parts of the cochlea. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • There are only three cochlear implants that are FDA-approved," Dr. Briggs says, "but, ultimately, the choice is up to the patient. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • In addition to cochlear implants, other types of hearing implants may be a good choice for you depending on the type of hearing loss you have. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Founded in 1981, Cochlear Limited is a leading manufacturer of Nucleus® cochlear implants and other hearing solutions, including the Nucleus® Hybrid Implant System and the Baha® bone conduction system. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Advanced Bionics is a California-based manufacturer of cochlear implants. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • It offers cochlear implants, bone-anchored hearing systems and middle ear implants for people with sensorineural, conductive or mixed hearing loss. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Get expert buying tips about Cochlear Implants delivered to your inbox. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Cochlear implants and other hearing implants might look complicated, but they are relatively simple tools. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The processor is also external and converts sounds picked up by the microphone to digital information (in cochlear implants) or to sound waves (in BAHAs and middle ear implants). (consumeraffairs.com)
  • In cochlear implants, digital information is passed from the processor to the receiver, where it is converted into electronic impulses. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Cochlear implants and auditory brain stem implants use a small wire called an electrode array to transmit electronic impulses and stimulate the auditory nerve or brain stem. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Cochlear implants that have electrodes designed without wire perform better than those with wires for long-term hearing preservation, a Mount Sinai researcher has reported in a first-of-its-kind study. (news-medical.net)
  • Cochlear Limited, the global leader in implantable hearing solutions, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the Cochlear™ Nucleus® 6 Sound Processor for use with the Nucleus 22 Cochlear Implant, giving those who have worn cochlear implants from the beginning (over 20 years in some cases) access to the latest breakthroughs in true wireless and automatic hearing. (news-medical.net)
  • Cochlear implants (CIS) require efficient speech processing to maximize information transmission to the brain, especially in noise. (mdpi.com)
  • Cochlear implants are options for habilitation (i.e., helping a person develop or learn new skills or abilities) or rehabilitation (i.e., helping a person relearn old skills that were lost somehow) available for individuals with profound hearing impairment (Geers & Moog, 1994). (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • In 1990 cochlear implants were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for children between the ages of 2 and 17. (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Most early research focused on the benefit gained from use of cochlear implants in conjunction with speechreading (Geers & Moog, 1992). (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • More recent research has investigated the receptive and expressive language gains experienced by users of cochlear implants (Hasenstab & Tobey, 1991). (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Research shows that pediatric implant users gain substantial benefit from multichannel cochlear implants, that these benefits develop over a long course of time, and that multichannel implants are more beneficial than single-channel devices (Hasenstab, 1989). (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Several significant factors interact in the consideration of cochlear implants as an option. (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Trends in effective use of cochlear implants have been observed. (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Cochlear implants have the ability to restore hearing for individuals who are severely hard of hearing or profoundly deaf and who receive limited to no benefit from hearing aids. (deafadvocacy.org)
  • Cochlear implants are a proven medical option for children as young as 12 months old with profound hearing loss in both ears and for individuals who are two years or older with severe-to-profound hearing loss in both ears whom obtain little or no benefit from hearing aids. (deafadvocacy.org)
  • Cochlear implants (CIs) can provide deaf people with a sense of hearing by directly stimulating the auditory nerve. (nature.com)
  • Cochlear was the first manufacturer to introduce an accessible magnet feature to cochlear implants in 1997, allowing the magnet to be removed if required in a simple outpatient procedure before the MRI takes place. (mpo-mag.com)
  • As the most chosen cochlear implant manufacturer with recipients all around the world, we at Cochlear understand our responsibility to innovate reliable implants and upgradeable sound processors that meet the needs of our customers today and in the future,' said Patricia Trautwein, AuD, Vice President, Marketing and Product Management, Cochlear Americas. (mpo-mag.com)
  • This document addresses cochlear implants, auditory brainstem implants, and replacement or upgrade of speech processor and controller components. (unicare.com)
  • The WHA resolution outlines practical, cost effective steps, starting with awareness, hearing screening programs at key stages of life, and making assistive hearing technologies, such cochlear implants, more accessible to those who need them. (medindia.net)
  • Products include hearing systems for cochlear, bone conduction and acoustic implants. (medindia.net)
  • The trade name for cochlear implants manufactured by Cochlear is the Cochlear Nucleus series cochlear implants. (medindia.net)
  • The approved indications for the use of Cochlear Nucleus series cochlear implants is the treatment of moderate to profound hearing loss. (medindia.net)
  • These cells can be further subdivided into spherical and globular types based upon their appearance in Nissl-stained material, and their location in the nucleus (anterior AVCN and posterior AVCN respectively). (wikidoc.org)
  • Consistent with these findings, immunocytochemical localization showed increased labeling intensity for both Kvs in the AVCN at day 90 after cochlear lesion, further supporting that up-regulation of Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b in neurons of this CN division, over a long term after auditory deprivation, may be required to adapt intrinsic excitability to altered input. (garvan.org.au)
  • The descending branches of those same nerve fibers make contact as pericellular nests of boutons terminaux or boutons en passage neurons of different classes within PVCN and DCN, and here the transformations are quite different from those in AVCN. (scribd.com)
  • Discover key features and benefits of the Nucleus 6 Sound Processor. (cochlearimplanthelp.com)
  • Cochlear introduces the Nucleus 7 sound processor today! (cochlearimplanthelp.com)
  • Centennial, Colo. (July 26, 2017) - Cochlear Limited (ASX: COH), the global leader in implantable hearing solutions, introduces today its latest innovation, the Cochlear TM Nucleus ® 7 Sound Processor. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June, the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor is the world's first Made for iPhone cochlear implant sound processor and the smallest and lightest behind-the-ear cochlear implant sound processor available on the market. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • With the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor, people with a Cochlear Nucleus Implant can now stream sound directly from a compatible iPhone, iPad and iPod touch directly to their sound processor. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • Chris Smith, Cochlear Chief Executive Officer and President, welcomes the FDA approval of the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor, explaining that Cochlear is proud to give people with moderate to profound hearing loss access to mobile technology like never before. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • The approval of the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor is a turning point for people with hearing loss, opening the door for them to make phone calls, listen to music in high-quality stereo sound, watch videos and have FaceTime ® calls streamed directly to their cochlear implant," explains Smith. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • The Nucleus 7 Sound Processor offers a range of first-of-its-kind features with the Nucleus Smart App. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • 5 The Nucleus Smart App Find My Processor feature helps locate a lost sound processor by using Location Services to determine the last place the sound processor was connected to the paired iPhone or iPod touch, whether it has been lost on the playground, in the house or in the car. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • The advancements provided by the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor give parents more control and allow them to better monitor their child's hearing while adults and teenagers will be able to stream music and make FaceTime calls just like their hearing friends and family. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • With the commercial availability of the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor, Cochlear is also offering the world's only Smart Bimodal Solution that's Made for iPhone (the combination of a cochlear implant in one ear and a hearing aid in the other), enabling both hearing solutions to provide synchronized streaming to both ears from a compatible iPhone, iPad or iPod touch. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • 4 The Nucleus 7 Bimodal Solution is delivered by using a Nucleus 7 Sound Processor, a compatible ReSound TM hearing aid and a paired iPhone or iPod touch to control functionality for both hearing devices. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • The Nucleus 7 Sound Processor is 25 percent smaller and 24 percent lighter than the previous generation Nucleus 6 Sound Processor. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • MUMBAI, India - Cochlear Limited, the global leader in implantable hearing solutions, has announced the launch of Nucleus® 6 in India, its next generation cochlear implant sound processor. (thomasnet.com)
  • Nucleus 6 delivers industry first innovations designed to provide superior outcomes in a way that makes hearing a lot easier for the recipient - in the smallest sound processor on the market. (thomasnet.com)
  • As an early adopter of new technology, Mathias was also eager to try Cochlear's newest cochlear implant technology, the Nucleus ® 7 Sound Processor . (cochlearamericas.com)
  • The Nucleus 5 System is the only one of its kind on the market today that offers the smallest, most water resistant sound processor, the thinnest titanium cochlear implant, two-way remote assistant, SmartSound((TM)) 2 technology and AutoPhone((TM)) capability. (deafadvocacy.org)
  • After having been involved in the global clinical validation of the new Nucleus 5 Sound Processor, I have seen first-hand how it will enable users to more fully experience everyday hearing activities like talking on the telephone, conversing in school and work settings, and going to concerts. (deafadvocacy.org)
  • Cochlear delivers Nucleus Profile Plus Implant, first cochlear implant manufacturer to enable Android direct connectivity with the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor. (mpo-mag.com)
  • With FDA approval, as well as Health Canada's approval, of the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor's expanded connectivity features, Cochlear is also the first cochlear implant manufacturer to enable access of direct audio streaming from Android devices to its cochlear implant sound processor without any intermediary device or attachments needed to be added to the sound processor. (mpo-mag.com)
  • This approval allows Nucleus 7 recipients the ability to connect to compatible Apple and Android devices without compromising on size, weight 6 or battery life 7 of the sound processor. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Access to direct Android streaming between the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor and a compatible Android phone is dependent upon Android phone manufacturers implementing Google's Audio Streaming for Hearing Aids (ASHA) protocol into future operating system updates for their handsets. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Since the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor was first launched in 2017 as the world's first Made for iPhone cochlear implant sound processor 8 and the announcement of the Nucleus Smart App compatibility with Android devices in 2018, Cochlear has continued to work to extend the benefits of its industry-leading technology to Android smartphone users as the technology has come available. (mpo-mag.com)
  • With the updates, the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor continues to remain the industry's smallest and lightest behind-the-ear cochlear implant sound processor. (mpo-mag.com)
  • who showed increases in posteroventral cochlear nucleus in rats with behaviorally demonstrated tinnitus. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present experiments examine the projection from the deep DCN to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). (northwestern.edu)
  • 6,7 According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 72 million people who could potentially benefit from the use of a hearing device including a cochlear implant or hearing aid. (cochlearamericas.com)
  • There are three major fiber bundles, axons of cochlear nuclear neurons, that carry information from the cochlear nuclei to targets that are mainly on the opposite side of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following injection of dextrans into the temporal cortex, labeled axons were present bilaterally in the cochlear nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • 1993). "Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence for delay lines to the medial superior olive. (wikidoc.org)
  • The first experimental evidence for a direct projection from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) was published over 70 years ago, when Woollard and Harpman (1940) described a few degenerating axons entering the MG after lesioning the CN in a guinea pig. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. (kuleuven.be)
  • The central axons of Type I spiral ganglion neurons travel in the auditory nerve and terminate in the cochlear nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • This nucleus receives axons from the mammillary body via the mammillothalamic tract, from the hippocampus via the fornix, and from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus sends axons to medial cerebral cortices: the cingulate gyrus, the anterior limbic area, and the parahippocampal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The central axons form synaptic connections with cells in the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ipsilaterally located in the medulla of the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons from the intermediate frequency region project to intermediate targets, such that tonotopy is preserved between the cochlea and the cochlear nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCN granule cells and their parallel fiber axons represent a site of integration of multimodal sensory inputs such as the trigeminal ganglion ( 20 ), the spinal trigeminal nucleus ( 21 ), the pontine nucleus ( 22 ), the cuneate nucleus, the gracile nuclei ( 23 , 24 ), and the raphe nucleus ( 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • in this way the tonotopic organization that is established in the cochlea is preserved in the cochlear nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical research shows that deeper insertion beyond the hearing zone can be associated with deterioration in performance due to pitch confusion at the tip of the cochlea as well as damage to the delicate cochlear structures. (cochlear.com)
  • Ablation of a cochlea causes total sensory deafferentation of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem, providing a model to investigate nervous degeneration and formation of new synaptic contacts in the adult brain. (duhnnae.com)
  • The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of the cochlear nerve lie within the cochlea and collectively form the spiral ganglion , named for the spiral shape it shares with the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cochlear implant prosthesis is a device that includes an external package (microphone and speech processor) worn by the user and an internal package (an array of electrodes that is surgically implanted into the cochlea (end organ of hearing) in the inner ear. (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to reveal synaptic plasticity within the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) as a result of noise trauma and to determine whether effective antioxidant protection to the cochlea can also impact plasticity changes in the DCN. (houghear.org)
  • In both bats the subnuclei of the cochlear nucleus receive a differentially dense supply of catecholaminergic fibers, and within the subnuclei, the catecholamine innervation densities can be correlated with the tonotopic frequency representation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • These granule cells receive excitatory input from mossy fibers originating from pontine nuclei . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Its axon projects to the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus where it forms parallel fibers, also similar to cerebellar granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like somatic C fibers, unmyelinated type II cochlear afferents differ in size, number, and innervation pattern from type I afferents that encode sound. (pnas.org)
  • In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • There, its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as either type I or type II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (scribd.com)
  • This highly specialized synaptic arrangement, which is characterized by little convergence from disparate regions of the cochlear partition, is important in preserving temporal information transmitted by auditory nerve fibers. (scribd.com)
  • The Nucleus 7 is expected to be available in the US in September 2017 for new candidates. (cochlearimplanthelp.com)
  • This tonotopic organization is preserved because only a few inner hair cells synapse on the dendrites of a nerve cell in the spiral ganglion, and the axon from that nerve cell synapses on only a very few dendrites in the cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synapses in the nucleus accumbens use dopamine as their neurotransmitter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Increasing the activity of these synapses (i.e., increasing the level of dopamine in the nucleus) leads to a rewarding or pleasurable sensation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Excitatory synapses were quickly reduced and then began to increase in number again, necessarily being complemented from sources other than cochlear neurons, while inhibitory synapses were reduced more slowly and continuously. (duhnnae.com)
  • Join a webinar on November 1st to learn about the Nucleus 6 processor! (cochlearimplanthelp.com)
  • This entry was posted in Events , News and tagged cochlear , N7 , Nucleus 7 , processor by CochlearImplantHELP . (cochlearimplanthelp.com)
  • This item is the first commercial model of a speech processor produced by Cochlear Limited. (maas.museum)
  • It was designed for use with the Nucleus 22 implant developed in 1983 which, in 1985, was the first multi-channel implant and speech processor system to receive approval for use by the US Food and Drug Administration. (maas.museum)
  • This speech processor is the first of a number of generations of devices produced by Cochlear with continual improvements in sound processing and reduction in size. (maas.museum)
  • It represents Cochlear's design strategy of making a flexible cochlear implant with sophisticated sound processing in the externally worn speech processor, allowing the recipient to take advantage of improvements in technology without surgically replacing their implanted device. (maas.museum)
  • This is an example of the first commercial version of the cochlear implant and speech processor developed by Nucleus, later known as Cochlear. (maas.museum)
  • The speech processor is the first wearable speech processor developed by Nucleus. (maas.museum)
  • The cochlear nucleus (CN) is the first brainstem auditory nucleus, and elevated activity at this level is of interest because it could either directly drive the hyperactivity seen in higher centers or, alternatively, it could trigger mechanisms that eventually lead to the de novo generation of hyperactivity in the higher parts of the pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • The second set of inputs is relayed through a set of small granule cells in the cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granule cells are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum , the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus , the superficial layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus , the olfactory bulb , and the cerebral cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or three short dendrites that give rise to a few branches with expansions at the terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The dorsal cochlear granule cells are small excitatory interneurons which are developmentally related and thus resemble the cerebellar granule cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The δ subunit's absence from cochlear nucleus granule cells may mean that tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABA A receptors is less important for this cell type. (elsevier.com)
  • In the auditory system, inhibition already modulates second order neurons in the cochlear nucleus, e.g. spherical bushy cells (SBCs). (nih.gov)
  • In 1992, Mullen and co-workers immunized mice with brain cell nuclei to create monoclonal antibodies 1 . (news-medical.net)
  • In 1992, Mullen and colleagues generated monoclonal antibodies by immunizing mice with brain cell nuclei 1 . (abcam.com)
  • The agency has also awarded innovation this year, giving DexCom ($DXCM) an OK for pediatric use of its continuous glucose monitoring system and Cochlear ($COH) an approval for its next-generation cochlear implant. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB) - Contralateral stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • All acoustic information thus enters the brain through the cochlear nuclei, where the processing of acoustic information begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), also known as the tuberculum acusticum or acoustic tubercle, curves over the VCN and wraps around the cerebellar peduncle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another pathway, called the dorsal acoustic stria (DAS, also known as the stria of von Monakow), rises above the medulla into the pons where it hits the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus along with its kin, the intermediate acoustic stria (IAS, also known as the stria of Held). (wikipedia.org)
  • The inferior colliculus receives direct, monosynaptic projections from the superior olivary complex, the contralateral dorsal acoustic stria, some classes of stellate neurons of the VCN, as well as from the different nuclei of the lateral lemniscus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delivery of acoustic-electric stimulation will be provided by the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant system. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The co-primary study endpoints will be statistically significant differences between the mean, preoperative monosyllabic CNC word score (unilateral acoustic, ear to be implanted) and the postoperative monosyllabic CNC word scores (Hybrid mode) for the activated, Hybrid L24 cochlear implant subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Direct projections from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) mediate a high-speed transfer of acoustic information to the auditory thalamus. (frontiersin.org)
  • The elegantly coiled, mechanically tuned cochlear duct and functional differentiation between inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs), afferent and efferent neuronal connections are among the features that enable the widest acoustic frequency range and most complex vocalizations among vertebrate species. (pnas.org)
  • Part of the cochlear division of the acoustic nerve , highly magnified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron ) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve , a cranial nerve present in amniotes , the other part being the vestibular nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the device is to improve speech recognition of cochlear implant users by representing acoustic (sound) information. (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Results further suggest that early antioxidant treatment for acoustic trauma not only rescues cochlear hair cells, but also has impact on central auditory structures. (houghear.org)
  • There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. (scribd.com)
  • Finally, there is topographically patterned input to the superior colliculus and to the cerebellum, the latter receiving some of its input from the pontine nuclei activated by acoustic stimulation. (scribd.com)
  • 2008.Vol31.PMID 18275284 Wouterlood FG and Mugnaini E. Cartwheel neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: a Golgi-electron microscopic study in rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processing of vibrotactile inputs from hairy skin by neurons of the dorsal column nuclei in the cat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). (epfl.ch)
  • In fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, excitatory synapsesactivate a TTX-sensitive Na + conductance and deactivate a resting I h conductance, leading to a striking reshaping of the synaptic potential. (elsevier.com)
  • Released in 1985, the Nucleus 22 Implant was the first commercially available multi-channel cochlear implant in the world. (news-medical.net)
  • Unilateral implantation of an FDA approved single or multi-channel cochlear implant is considered medically necessary for subsequent bilateral implantation (that is, sequential implantation) without retesting of hearing when the above criteria are met at the time of the initial (first) cochlear implantation. (unicare.com)
  • This study was carried out to investigate incidence of autophagy and apoptosis in spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) and cochlear nucleus neurons, and their involvement in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced hearing impairment in rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The multichannel cochlear implant is a unique technological achievement, representing the application of a novel combination of science, technology, and medicine. (mathworks.com)
  • The effect of direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve with a ring electrode was evaluated, but appeared to be not a viable treatment option as damage of the nerve lead to increase in hearing loss in the majority of patients. (rug.nl)
  • This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway and whether it elicited an evoked response. (epfl.ch)
  • Stellate/multipolar cells form the projection to both inferior colliculi (central nucleus and dorsal cortex), and synapse in a banded pattern, following the tonotopy of the region [2] . (wikidoc.org)
  • Ossification or any other cochlear anomaly that might prevent complete insertion of the electrode array, as confirmed by medical examination and tests including MRI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It was the first multiple electrode cochlear implant to be approved for clinical use by any health regulatory body. (maas.museum)
  • Objective: The primary goal of this study was to examine changes that may occur in electrode impedance, electrically evoked compound action potential (EAP) threshold and slope of the EAP growth function, and behavioral measures of threshold (MAP T-level) and maximum comfort (C-level) over time in both adult and child cochlear implant users. (syr.edu)
  • The internal and external components of the cochlear implant are connected via an electric coupling. (hoagiesgifted.org)
  • Apostolides, PF & Trussell, LO 2014, ' Control of interneuron firing by subthreshold synaptic potentials in principal cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus ', Neuron , vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 324-330. (elsevier.com)
  • One of these antibodies recognized a neuron-specific nuclear protein, expressed by most neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, that they named NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei) 1 . (abcam.com)
  • The new Nucleus 5 System is the most advanced cochlear implant system on the market for all ages*, which includes powerful features designed to restore hearing in deaf children so that they have the greatest potential to develop the spoken language skills necessary for school. (deafadvocacy.org)
  • The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons of the avian nucleus magnocellularis transmit phase-locked action potentials of the auditory nerve in a pathway that contributes to sound localization based on interaural timing differences. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, these factors improve the ability of cochlear nucleus magnocellularis neurons to faithfully transmit timing information encoded by the auditory nerve. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the chick, such temporal resolution necessitates accurate and reliable transmission of auditory nerve activity by the end-bulb synapse in the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (nMag). (jneurosci.org)
  • Tinnitus can be the result of compression of the cochlear nerve with a blood vessel (neurovascular conflict). (rug.nl)
  • Cochlear nerve is in center, shown as striped. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terminal nuclei of the vestibular nerve, with their upper connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochlear nucleus (CN), the exclusive destination of the auditory nerve, is the gateway for all central processing of auditory information. (mit.edu)
  • A single or multi-channel unilateral or bilateral cochlear implant is intended to restore a level of auditory sensation to an individual with bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss by means of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. (unicare.com)
  • In all commercial cochlear implant (CI) devices, the electric stimulation is performed with a rectangular pulse that generally has two phases of opposite polarity. (nature.com)
  • Built on the industry benchmark set by Cochlear's previous generation system, preliminary research shows that the Nucleus 5 System outperforms other cochlear implant systems with higher speech performance results than reported for other systems. (deafadvocacy.org)
  • 1 The new implant is built off Cochlear's Nucleus Profile Series Implant, which maintains an accessible magnet if removal is ever required. (mpo-mag.com)
  • The Nucleus Profile Plus Implant is built on Cochlear's unrivaled cochlear implant reliability record of the Profile Implant and the entire Cochlear Nucleus implant portfolio. (mpo-mag.com)
  • In 1985 Cochlear™ released the first commercial multichannel Nucleus® implant system. (mathworks.com)
  • The emergence of hyperactivity in the form of elevated spontaneous firing rates after cochlear trauma has been well documented in a number of central auditory structures, including the auditory cortex, inferior colliculus, and dorsal subdivision of the cochlear nucleus. (jneurosci.org)
  • We used anterograde tracing techniques to examine projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pigs. (nih.gov)
  • Tinnitus is generated by an increase of the spontaneous discharges of the dorsal cochlear nucleus neurons, tonotopic reorganisation and an increase of the neural synchronism in the auditory cortex. (ent-review.com)
  • The next synapse in the ascending auditory pathway is obligatory, in the cochlear nucleus (CN). (springer.com)
  • they terminate in periolivary nuclei and nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and may function to modulate activity in the olivocochlear tract. (drugs.com)
  • The results illustrate direct cortical projections to the cochlear nucleus that are likely to modulate the activity in a number of ascending auditory pathways. (nih.gov)
  • For CochleaProjections and Cochlear Nucleus Projections. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Spiral ganglion projections into the cochlear nucleus. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Indeed, while in some ways homologous to cerebellar molecular layer stellate cells, SSCs exhibit properties that place them in a computationally unique position in the entire cochlear nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exposure to loud sound causes cochlear damage resulting in hearing loss and tinnitus. (pnas.org)
  • CENTENNIAL, Colo. - Cochlear Limited (ASX: COH), the global leader in implantable hearing solutions, announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the Aqua+ accessory, the only waterproof behind-the-ear solution for cochlear implant recipients on the market today. (thomasnet.com)
  • We understand the law, science, and medicine involved in these cochlear implant claims, and and believe that Advanced Bionics should be held accountable for any harm for which it is legally responsible and that HiRes 90K implant recipients that have experienced performance degradation or failures should be fairly compensated for their legally recoverable damages. (sawinlawyers.com)
  • With the Nucleus Profile Plus Implant, cochlear implant recipients have easier access to 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla (T) MRI scans without the need to remove the internal magnet or use a head wrap. (mpo-mag.com)
  • The easy to remove magnet will continue to provide cochlear implant recipients with lifetime access to MRI if their healthcare needs or imaging technology changes over time. (mpo-mag.com)
  • 2-4 The Nucleus Profile Plus Implant also includes a thin design 5 , providing cochlear implant recipients the potential of a better cosmetic outcome and less time in surgery. (mpo-mag.com)
  • For more than two decades, Cochlear has been pleased to provide Nucleus Cochlear Implant recipients with access to MRIs,' said Tony Manna, President, Cochlear Americas. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Now with the approval of the Nucleus Profile Plus Implant, we are able to provide our cochlear implant recipients MRI access without the need to remove the internal magnet or needing a head wrap at 1.5 and 3.0 T, improving the experience for both healthcare professionals and their patients. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Decreased protein synthesis in cochlear nucleus following developmental auditory deprivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuronal nuclei (NeuN) antibodies serve as core tools for studying the development and differentiation of neurons and for staining mature neurons. (news-medical.net)
  • The team named this Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) 1 . (news-medical.net)
  • Kim, K. K., Adelstein, R. S. & Kawamoto, S. Identification of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) as Fox-3, a new member of the Fox-1 gene family of splicing factors. (abcam.com)
  • In chick, although the auditory system begins to function early in embryonic development, maturation of audition around the time of hatching suggested that synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus of young chicks may undergo further developmental changes. (jneurosci.org)
  • This finding, together with previous evidence that type II afferents respond weakly to synaptic transmission from cochlear hair cells, and normally are insensitive to sound, supports the identification of type II afferents as cochlear nociceptors, mediating the sensation of painfully loud sound. (pnas.org)
  • The DCN is therefore in a sense a second order sensory nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • article{4eb3b53f-1b63-4de6-bd49-3b095c15d4ed, abstract = {Objective: To describe the principles and operation of a new telemetry-based function test for the Nucleus (R) cochlear implant, known as the CS19 Intra-Cochlear Impedance Matrix (IIM) and to present results from a multicentre clinical study to establish reproducibility (test-retest reliability) and normative ranges. (lu.se)
  • abstract = "The incorporation of tritiated leucine was used as an index of protein synthesis in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of mice unilaterally (right side) hearing deprived throughout the period of hearing development. (elsevier.com)