Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1: A member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION of TRANSPORT VESICLES to their target membrane.Mice, Inbred CBAExcitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Tensor Tympani: A short muscle that arises from the pharyngotympanic tube (EUSTACHIAN TUBE) and inserts into the handle of the MALLEUS. This muscle pulls the handle medially thus controlling the tension and movement of TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Mice, Inbred ICRGAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral: Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Hearing Loss, High-Frequency: Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Transient potassium currents regulate the discharge patterns of dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cells. (1/432)

Pyramidal cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show three distinct temporal discharge patterns in response to sound: "pauser," "buildup," and "chopper." Similar discharge patterns are seen in vitro and depend on the voltage from which the cell is depolarized. It has been proposed that an inactivating A-type K+ current (IKI) might play a critical role in generating the three different patterns. In this study we examined the characteristics of transient currents in DCN pyramidal cells to evaluate this hypothesis. Morphologically identified pyramidal cells in rat brain slices (P11-P17) exhibited the three voltage-dependent discharge patterns. Two inactivating currents were present in outside-out patches from pyramidal cells: a rapidly inactivating (IKIF, tau approximately 11 msec) current insensitive to block by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and variably blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) with half-inactivation near -85 mV, and a slowly inactivating TEA- and 4-AP-sensitive current (IKIS, tau approximately 145 msec) with half-inactivation near -35 mV. Recovery from inactivation at 34 degrees C was described by a single exponential with a time constant of 10-30 msec, similar to the rate at which first spike latency increases with the duration of a hyperpolarizing prepulse. Acutely isolated cells also possessed a rapidly activating (<1 msec at 22 degrees C) transient current that activated near -45 mV and showed half-inactivation near -80 mV. A model demonstrated that the deinactivation of IKIF was correlated with the discharge patterns. Overall, the properties of the fast inactivating K+ current were consistent with their proposed role in shaping the discharge pattern of DCN pyramidal cells.  (+info)

Voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances in acutely isolated guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus neurons. (2/432)

Although it is known that voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances (VGCCs) contribute to the responses of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) neurons, little is known about the properties of VGCCs in the DCN. In this study, the whole cell voltage-clamp technique was used to examine the pharmacology and voltage dependence of VGCCs in unidentified DCN neurons acutely isolated from guinea pig brain stem. The majority of cells responded to depolarization with sustained inward currents that were enhanced when Ca2+ was replaced by Ba2+, were blocked partially by Ni2+ (100 microM), and were blocked almost completely by Cd2+ (50 microM). Experiments using nifedipine (10 microM), omegaAga IVA (100 nM) and omegaCTX GVIA (500 nM) demonstrated that a variety of VGCC subtypes contributed to the Ba2+ current in most cells, including the L, N, and P/Q types and antagonist-insensitive R type. Although a large depolarization from rest was required to activate VGCCs in DCN neurons, VGCC activation was rapid at depolarized levels, having time constants <1 ms at 22 degrees C. No fast low-threshold inactivation was observed, and a slow high-threshold inactivation was observed at voltages more positive than -20 mV, indicating that Ba2+ currents were carried by high-voltage activated VGCCs. The VGCC subtypes contributing to the overall Ba2+ current had similar voltage-dependent properties, with the exception of the antagonist-insensitive R-type component, which had a slower activation and a more pronounced inactivation than the other components. These data suggest that a variety of VGCCs is present in DCN neurons, and these conductances generate a rapid Ca2+ influx in response to depolarizing stimuli.  (+info)

Quantal size is correlated with receptor cluster area at glycinergic synapses in the rat brainstem. (3/432)

1. Whole-cell patch electrode recordings of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were obtained in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Mean mIPSC peak amplitude was found to vary considerably between AVCN neurons (range, -19.1 to -317.9 pA; mean +/- s.d., -159.1 +/- 100.7 pA; 14 cells). 2. Immunolabelling of glycinergic receptor clusters in AVCN neurons was performed using antibodies against the glycine receptor clustering protein gephyrin. Measurements of the area of gephyrin immunoreactive clusters were obtained using confocal fluorescence microscopy. These measurements showed a large variability in cluster area, not only in the same cell (mean coefficient of variation, c.v., 0.66 +/- 0.18; 16 cells), but also in mean cluster area between cells (range, 0.21-0.84 microm2; 16 cells). 3. A possible relationship between mIPSC amplitude and receptor cluster area was investigated in a further series of experiments, in which mIPSCs recordings and immunolabelling of glycine receptor clusters were obtained for the same cells. In these experiments, AVCN neurons were identified using intracellular labelling with neurobiotin. Successful results using a combination of whole-cell recordings, neurobiotin identification and immunolabelling were obtained for a total of 10 AVCN neurons. Analysis of the results revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between mean receptor cluster size and mean mIPSC amplitude (P < 0.05, 10 cells, Spearman's correlation test). 4. These results provide direct experimental evidence supporting a hypothesis of central glycinergic transmission in which synaptic strength may be regulated by changes in the size of the postsynaptic receptor region.  (+info)

Role of intrinsic conductances underlying responses to transients in octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus. (4/432)

Recognition of acoustic patterns in natural sounds depends on the transmission of temporal information. Octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus form a pathway that encodes the timing of firing of groups of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional precision. Whole-cell patch recordings from octopus cells were used to examine how the brevity and precision of firing are shaped by intrinsic conductances. Octopus cells responded to steps of current with small, rapid voltage changes. Input resistances and membrane time constants averaged 2.4 MOmega and 210 microseconds, respectively (n = 15). As a result of the low input resistances of octopus cells, action potential initiation required currents of at least 2 nA for their generation and never occurred repetitively. Backpropagated action potentials recorded at the soma were small (10-30 mV), brief (0.24-0.54 msec), and tetrodotoxin-sensitive. The low input resistance arose in part from an inwardly rectifying mixed cationic conductance blocked by cesium and potassium conductances blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Conductances blocked by 4-AP also contributed to the repolarization of the action potentials and suppressed the generation of calcium spikes. In the face of the high membrane conductance of octopus cells, sodium and calcium conductances amplified depolarizations produced by intracellular current injection over a time course similar to that of EPSPs. We suggest that this transient amplification works in concert with the shunting influence of potassium and mixed cationic conductances to enhance the encoding of the onset of synchronous auditory nerve fiber activity.  (+info)

Axons from anteroventral cochlear nucleus that terminate in medial superior olive of cat: observations related to delay lines. (5/432)

The differences in path length of axons from the anteroventral cochlear nuclei (AVCN) to the medial superior olive (MSO) are thought to provide the anatomical substrate for the computation of interaural time differences (ITD). We made small injections of biotinylated dextran into the AVCN that produced intracellular-like filling of axons. This permitted three-dimensional reconstructions of individual axons and measurements of axonal length to individual terminals in MSO. Some axons that innervated the contralateral MSO had collaterals with lengths that were graded in the rostrocaudal direction with shorter collaterals innervating more rostral parts of MSO and longer collaterals innervating more caudal parts of MSO. These could innervate all or part of the length of the MSO. Other axons had restricted terminal fields comparable to the size of a single dendritic tree in the MSO. In the ipsilateral MSO, some axons had a reverse, but less steep, gradient in axonal length with greater axonal length associated with more rostral locations; others had restricted terminal fields. Thus, the computation of ITDs is based on gradients of axonal length in both the contralateral and ipsilateral MSO, and these gradients may account for a large part of the range of ITDs encoded by the MSO. Other factors may be involved in the computation of ITDs to compensate for differences between axons.  (+info)

Glutamate regulates IP3-type and CICR stores in the avian cochlear nucleus. (6/432)

Neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), are activated by glutamate released from auditory nerve terminals. If this stimulation is removed, the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) of NM neurons rises and rapid atrophic changes ensue. We have been investigating mechanisms that regulate [Ca2+]i in these neurons based on the hypothesis that loss of Ca2+ homeostasis causes the cascade of cellular changes that results in neuronal atrophy and death. In the present study, video-enhanced fluorometry was used to monitor changes in [Ca2+]i stimulated by agents that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores and to study the modulation of these responses by glutamate. Homobromoibotenic acid (HBI) was used to stimulate inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores, and caffeine was used to mobilize Ca2+ from Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores. We provide data indicating that Ca2+ responses attributable to IP3- and CICR-sensitive stores are inhibited by glutamate, acting via a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). We also show that activation of C-kinase by a phorbol ester will reduce HBI-stimulated calcium responses. Although the protein kinase A accumulator, Sp-cAMPs, did not have an effect on HBI-induced responses. CICR-stimulated responses were not consistently attenuated by either the phorbol ester or the Sp-cAMPs. We have previously shown that glutamate attenuates voltage-dependent changes in [Ca2+]i. Coupled with the present findings, this suggests that in these neurons mGluRs serve to limit fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+ rather than increase [Ca2+]i. This system may play a role in protecting highly active neurons from calcium toxicity resulting in apoptosis.  (+info)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. (7/432)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) contains a heterogeneous collection of cell types reflecting the multiple processing tasks undertaken by this nucleus. This in vivo study in the rat used intracellular recordings and dye filling to examine membrane potential changes and firing characteristics of onset chopper (OC) neurons to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time). Stable impalements were made from 15 OC neurons, 7 identified as multipolar cells. Neurons responded to characteristic frequency (CF) tones with sustained depolarization below spike threshold. With increasing stimulus intensity, the depolarization during the initial 10 ms of the response became peaked, and with further increases in intensity the peak became narrower. Onset spikes were generated during this initial depolarization. Tones presented below CF resulted in a broadening of this initial depolarizing component with high stimulus intensities required to initiate onset spikes. This initial component was followed by a sustained depolarizing component lasting until stimulus cessation. The amplitude of the sustained depolarizing component was greatest when frequencies were presented at high intensities below CF resulting in increased action potential firing during this period when compared with comparable high intensities at CF. During the presentation of tones at or above the high-frequency edge of a cell's response area, hyperpolarization was evident during the sustained component. The presence of hyperpolarization and the differences seen in the level of sustained depolarization during CF and off CF tones suggests that changes in membrane responsiveness between the initial and sustained components may be attributed to polysynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. The dual-component processing resulting from convergent auditory nerve excitation and polysynaptic inhibition enables OC neurons to respond in a unique fashion to intensity and frequency features contained within an acoustic stimulus.  (+info)

Responses of cochlear nucleus units in the chinchilla to iterated rippled noises: analysis of neural autocorrelograms. (8/432)

Temporal encoding of stimulus features related to the pitch of iterated rippled noises was studied for single units in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus. Unlike other periodic complex sounds that produce pitch, iterated rippled noises have neither periodic waveforms nor highly modulated envelopes. Infinitely iterated rippled noise (IIRN) is generated when wideband noise (WBN) is delayed (tau), attenuated, and then added to (+) or subtracted from (-) the undelayed WBN through positive feedback. The pitch of IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/tau, whereas the pitch of IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/2tau. Temporal responses of cochlear nucleus units were measured using neural autocorrelograms. Synchronous responses as shown by peaks in neural autocorrelograms that occur at time lags corresponding to the IIRN tau can be observed for both primarylike and chopper unit types. Comparison of the neural autocorrelograms in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] and IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] indicates that the temporal discharge of primarylike units reflects the stimulus waveform fine structure, whereas the temporal discharge patterns of chopper units reflect the stimulus envelope. The pitch of IIRN[+/-, tau, -1 dB] can be accounted for by the temporal discharge patterns of primarylike units but not by the temporal discharge of chopper units. To quantify the temporal responses, the height of the peak in the neural autocorrelogram at a given time lag was measured as normalized rate. Although it is well documented that chopper units give larger synchronous responses than primarylike units to the fundamental frequency of periodic complex stimuli, the largest normalized rates in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] were obtained for primarylike units, not chopper units. The results suggest that if temporal encoding is important in pitch processing, then primarylike units are likely to be an important cochlear nucleus subsystem that carries the pitch-related information to higher auditory centers.  (+info)

Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
In the auditory system of birds and mammals large axosomatic synapses can be found: the giant synaptic terminals of Held. These terminals contain many (hundreds of) active zones and one can say they act as many synapses activated exactly simultaneously. The synaptic currents induced by these terminals are often big enough to individually cause an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. The auditory nerve fibres, which are the axons of neurons in the cochlear ganglion (or spiral ganglion, in mammals) enter, in birds as well as in mammals, the auditory brainstem and bifurcate into two branches: one branch projects towards time-coding parts of the brainstem (birds: nucleus magnocellularis = NM; mammals: anteroventral cochlear nucleus = AVCN), the other branch connects to nuclei where sound intensity and spectral cues are predominantly coded (birds: nucleus angularis = NA; mammals: posteroventral cochlear nucleus and dorsal cochlear nucleus). The very same axon can thus form giant synapses in ...
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of divalent cations on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i transients of freshly isolated pyramidal cells of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus. AU - Harasztosi, Cs. AU - Rusznák, Z.. AU - Kovács, L.. AU - Szucs, G.. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - The effects of divalent cations on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-evoked cytoplasmic [Ca2+] elevations were studied in pyramidal neurones isolated from the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat. Ca2+ currents were recorded using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 10 μmol·1-1 Cd2+ exerted a greater blocking effect on the high-voltage activated (HVA) currents than on the low-voltage activated (LVA) ones (decrease to 26.6 ± 2.5% and to 87.8 ± 2.1%, respectively). The blocking effect of 200 μmol·1-1 Cd2+ was more pronounced and the difference between the effect on the HVA and LVA currents became smaller (decrease to 11.7 ± 2.1% and to 32.4 ± 2.7%, ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Get a sneak preview of the Cochlear Nucleus 7 processor! Stay tuned here for breaking news on the N7 from Cochlear. Information distilled by Bob MacPherson from an interview with Jan Janssen, Senior Vice President Research and Development, Cochlear Limited on MedicalResearch.com, dateline july 20, 2017: * The Nucleus® 7 Sound Processor is the worlds first and…
Next, we studied short-term plasticity in CPX I+/+ and CPX I−/− endbulb synapses using pairs and trains of pulses. Paired-pulse responses in CPX I+/+ mice differed somewhat from other mouse strains [CBA/CaJ (Yang and Xu-Friedman, 2008); black Swiss (M. A. Xu-Friedman and W. G. Regehr, unpublished observations)], in that depression was not as pronounced and was partially occluded by a briefly facilitating component (Fig. 6 C). We did not examine the basis for this further. Importantly, CPX I−/− littermates showed no depression at any interval tested, consistent with a decrease in probability of release (P r) (Zucker and Regehr, 2002; Wang and Manis, 2005). Using trains, we observed facilitation of CPX I−/− endbulb synapses at all stimulation frequencies tested (100, 200, and 333 Hz) (Fig. 6 D), which are in the range of spike rates that are observed in vivo (Fig. 4) (Sachs and Abbas, 1974; Taberner and Liberman, 2005). To compare EPSC amplitudes between the two strains throughout the ...
Dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform neurons, display heterogeneous spontaneous action potential activity and thus represent an appropriate model to study the role of different conductances in establishing firing heterogeneity. Particularly, fusiform neurons are divided into quiet, with no spontaneous firing, or active neurons, presenting spontaneous, regular firing. These modes are determined by the expression levels of an intrinsic membrane conductance, an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IKir). We used a computational model to test whether other subthreshold conductances vary homeostatically to maintain membrane excitability constant across the two subtypes. We found that Ih expression covaries specifically with IKir in order to maintain membrane resistance constant. The impact of Ih on membrane resistance is dependent on the level of IKir expression, being much smaller in quiet neurons with bigger IKir, but Ih variations are not relevant for creating the quiet and active ...
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A basic concept in theoretical neuroscience is the idea of pooling across a population of noisy inputs to achieve a more reliable measure of the encoded variable. This appears to be the computation that ICcc neurons are performing. There are few other demonstrations of a neural processing stage devoted to noise reduction. Phase locking in the auditory system improves from the auditory nerve to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat (Joris et al., 1994a,b), which has been modeled using both a summative mechanism (Kuhlmann et al., 2002) and a coincidence detection mechanism (Carney, 1992); a similar decrease in temporal jitter is seen from the electroreceptors to the midbrain torus of Eigenmannia (Carr et al., 1986). Retinal ganglion cells also improve on photoreceptor noise levels, using mechanisms such as temporal or spatial summation (Aho et al., 1993; Warrant, 1999), lateral inhibition (Srinivasan et al., 1982; Balboa and Grzywacz, 2000), and channel properties (Dhingra et al., 2005; ...
Full text Supplement:. Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding acoustic stimulus affects 10 to 15% of the adult population worldwide. Despite this prevalence, there are currently no effective drug therapies due to limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tinnitus onset following triggers such as exposure to loud sound. Many studies support the prevailing idea that tinnitus arises in response to enhanced multisensory synaptic transmission to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the first relay in the auditory brainstem integrating acoustic and multisensory inputs. Such findings include a correlation between tinnitus and aberrant neural activity in the DCN (Kaltenbach 2007), altered excitability in the DCN initiating a complex sequence of events in the auditory pathway (Brozoski et al., 2002) and an increased synchrony in the network activity (Shore et al., 2016). We investigate the role of plasticity in the DCN at the early stages following acoustic ...
Mammalian hearing is a complex special sense that involves detection, localization, and identification of the auditory stimulus. The cerebral cortex may subserve higher auditory processes by providing direct modulatory cortical projections to the auditory brainstem. To support the hypothesis that co …
Cochlear introduces the Nucleus 7 sound processor today! Compatible with Nucleus CI24RE, CI500 and Profile Series Implants, key features include: The N7 is the lightest sound processor on the market. Can stream sound directly from compatible Apple devices. Bimodal users can stream sound directly from a compatible iPhone, iPad or iPod touch to the Nucleus…
A slice of tissue 3.5 mm. thick has been removed to expose this surface, cut through the rostral part of the inferior olive. The restiform bodies continue to increase in size as they ascend toward the cerebellum. The lateral recesses of the ventricle extend around the restiform bodies, and the tela chorioidea and roots of the ninth and tenth nerves lie in close relationship here. The cochlear nuclei are visible within the lateral recess on the right and on the cut surface at (18). The sulcus limitans forms a groove in the floor of the ventricle medial to the area acustica (3 ...
Stroke recovery can be improved with a new treatment that creates new nerve synapses - essential for learning - in the brain. Researcher Marcela Pekna explained, "More nerve sprouts and connections between nerve cells are created so that the remaining cells can take over functions that the dead cells once had." The researchers focused on C3a peptide, which is naturally produced in the body and especially as a result of certain conditions. The researchers administered C3a to mice through nasal drops.. Of the 28 mice with stroke, half received C3a peptide while the other half received a placebo. Those mice treated with C3a recovered much better than the mice on a placebo. Although mice are capable of recovering from stroke even without any therapy, C3a sped up the recovery and enabled them to use their stroke-affected paws more easily and effectively. The effects of the treatment remained four weeks after the completion.. Pekna explained, "Say a stroke kills 10 million brain cells. Newly created ...
Rubio, María, Ko Matsui, Yugo Fukazawa, Naomi Kamasawa, Harumi Harada, Makoto Itakura, Elek Molnár, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, and Ryuichi Shigemoto. "The Number and Distribution of AMPA Receptor Channels Containing Fast Kinetic GluA3 and GluA4 Subunits at Auditory Nerve Synapses Depend on the Target Cells." Brain Structure and Function 222, no. 8 (2017): 3375-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1408-0 ...
Watch this video carefully and you will see that the chopper instrument is used just once to create a single chop. The rest of the surgery, the chopper is being used to push the nuclear pieces and keep them in front of the phaco tip. Without this effort, the pieces would tend to fall into…
... ,Blunt, round tip facilitates easier separation of the nucleus. 45 6.0mm from tip, Blunt, Angled, 6.0mm from tip, 1.5mm from end,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
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An emergency medical helicopter transporting a critically ill patient has been targeted by a green laser while flying nearby Sydney, NSW Ambulance says. Early on Saturday morning, the chopper was en route from Nepean Hospital to RPA
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Its another OCC family vacation as the Teutuls go walkabout in the land down under where Russell Crowe asks the guys to build an Australia-themed chopper.
Hold," he breathed. A man in a commanders uniform stepped into view, flanked by two Chelish marines, apparently on inspection. He gave the windows a cursory glance as they filed into the room, then cursed and grabbed for his battleaxe. Feruzi hissed, realizing hed spotted her. Leila slid the window open and Feruzi dove through, crossing the room in a single movement to slam the door closed, blocking the exit, but the maneuver left her open to a crushing axe blow that opened her arm to the bone. One of the marines pulled out a whistle and blew furiously. Chopper came through the window and stabbed the man in the back, sending him staggering and coughing. Leila fired her shortbow at the commander, nicking him, while Feruzi peppered him with her fists, forcing him back away from the door. He retaliated with his axe while the other marine stabbed Chopper in the side. Feruzi slumped against the door, gravely wounded but still blocking the path. Not knowing what else to do, she hurled Ezikials ...
Ink Work Figured if I dont ever get another one, I at least have one I really like....honestly....think i might have an idea for a second one Real
Has anyone ever used one of these? I was just looking at them on their website, and it might be the most ridiculous thing Ive ever seen. The body on...
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He was a skilful chopper, and indulged in some flourishes and ornaments in his art. He cut his trees level and close to the ground, that the sprouts which came
Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem station to adjust to this modified input from the cochlea. Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that are associated with and may be the origin of the signals that give rise to tinnitus percepts at the cortical level. This chapter summarizes what is known about these disturbances and their relationships to tinnitus. It also summarizes the mechanisms that trigger tinnitus-related disturbances and the anatomical, chemical, neurophysiological, and biophysical defects that underlie them. It concludes by highlighting some major controversies that research findings have generated and discussing the clinical implications the findings have for the future treatment of tinnitus.
Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate incidence of autophagy and apoptosis in spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) and cochlear nucleus neurons, ..
We talk about you every day. You are our patients, friends and family and because you donate, expert researchers push innovation forward. You deserve the best life and we want you to hear what you are missing. The research is moving fast and there couldnt be a better time to give. The more money we raise, the faster we can work. Every dollar matters and every dollar counts toward helping you and people all over the world. Today is the day to put your dollars to work. Read more.. For more information on contributing, please call the Foundation office at (405) 639-2875. ...
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Cep135/Bld10 is a conserved centriolar protein required for the formation of the central cartwheel, an early intermediate in centriole assembly. Surprisingly, Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for centriole duplication in Drosophila suggesting that either Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for cartwheel formation, or that the cartwheel is not essential for centriole assembly in flies. Using Electron Tomography and super-resolution microscopy we show that centrioles can form a cartwheel in the absence of Cep135/Bld10, but centriole width is increased and the cartwheel appears to disassemble over time. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy we show that Cep135/Bld10 is localised to a region between inner (SAS-6, Ana2) and outer (Asl, DSpd-2 and D-PLP) centriolar components, and the localisation of all these component is subtly perturbed in the absence of Cep135/Bld10, although the 9-fold symmetry of the centriole is maintained. Thus, in flies, Cep135/Bld10 is not essential for cartwheel assembly or ...
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This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
Hearing loss leads to a reorganization of the pathways in the central auditory system.12,20,22,23 These changes may occur rapidly24 and lead to abnormal interactions between auditory and other central pathways.20Analogous changes in the somatosensory system linked to phantom pain25 led us to suggest that there are similarities between neuropathic pain and tinnitus.12 In patients with gaze-evoked tinnitus, lateral eye movements failto produce the inhibition of the auditory cortex observed in controls.20 The absence of this phenomenon, called cross-modal inhibition, may contribute to the false perception of sounds.. Levine hypothesized that a reduction in auditory-nerve input leads to disinhibition of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and an increase in spontaneous activity in the central auditory system, which is experienced as tinnitus.26 This mechanism could explain the temporary ringing sensation that may follow exposure to noise,27 the effects of some drugs such as furosemide, and spontaneous ...
Scheme of neurones of auditory pathway. 4 neuronal afferent centripetal tract terminating in the primary acoustic cortex of temporal lobe. Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of bipolar neurons of the cochlear ganglion (1. N). Axons of bipolar neurons form the cochlear nerve. Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral lemniscus into the inferior collicle (3. N) in the mesencephalon. Signals interpolate in the inferior collicle and continue to the medial geniculate body (4. N). The last part of the auditory tract - acustic radiation (geniculo-cortical tract) continue into the upper part of the temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyruses (primary acustic cortex). Between the basic neurons of the auditory pathway there are inserted interstitial (relay neurons) which are grouped into independent nuclei : nucleus olivaris superior, ...
meshinder at aol.com (MEShinder) wrote in message news:,20010716122745.19834.00000992 at nso-bg.aol.com,... , In article ,b86268d4.0107160805.6215f470 at posting.google.com,, , jonesmat at physiology.wisc.edu (Matt Jones) writes: , , ,However, the earliest stage where neurons appear to respond to pitch , ,(as opposed to frequency - not the same thing) is probably the , ,cochlear nucleus which is the first main integrative processing stage , ,for auditory information. , , , , I am naive to the neuralogical difference between pitch and frequency , processing in the cochlear nuclei. I am aware of the tonotopy in these nuclei, , but Im not sure how it relates to a difference. Frequency is the physical description of the pressure wave (e.g., power spectral density) whereas pitch is the perceptual sensation evoked in the listener. Most of the time these things amount to roughly the same thing. However there are some well known situations in which frequency and pitch are different. For example, it is ...
For Dixie Chopper Discount Parts Call 606-678-9623 or 606-561-4983 Serial Numbers 8084019 and Higher Model # ____________________ Engine Model # ____________________ Serial # ____________________ Engine Serial # ____________________ Date Purchased ____________________ Engine Spec. # ____________________ Iron Eagle Owners Manual 700127 March, 2008 www.mymowerparts.com For Dixie Chopper Discount Parts Call 606-678-9623 or 606-561-4983 About This Manual AUTHORIZED DEALER This owners manual is considered a permanent part of the mower. It must be available to all of the operators and/or person(s) servicing the mower. Should the mower be resold, this manual must remain with the mower. All information, illustrations, and specifications contained in this manual were in effect at the time of publication. Dixie Chopper reserves the right to change, modify, and/or discontinue specifications and/ or design without notice. If there is a change that has been made to your mower which is not shown or ...
TY - CONF. T1 - The catch smooth muscle contains small fusiform cells: stem cells, sensors or else?. AU - Gilloteaux, Jacques. AU - Davey, Tracey. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. AB - New structures found in paramyosin smooth muscles. M3 - Paper. ER - ...
A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve ...
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Everyone knew it was going to be a treacherous descent from that height ….. ground wind-speeds were 60 kmph now, enough to crash the chopper itself ! And yet, it came down … in a broad spiral … round n round n round …spiraling down .. down … 600 feet, 400 feet, 200 feet .. the sound of the chopper filled the whole valley ; as it began to line-up for the landing…the wind speed suddenly picked up…n the chopper swayed n tilted at a terrible angle for a few moments … hung motionless in mid-air for a split-second …. everyone missed a heart-beat … and then gasped in relief … as the chopper rode away on the the winds & circled back, low over the camp, to regain horizontal. The chopper landing site was marked with a giant H with 30 kgs of Wakefields Chocolate-powder (!!!), which looked a dull-maroon color on the soft-white snow ...
Everyone knew it was going to be a treacherous descent from that height ….. ground wind-speeds were 60 kmph now, enough to crash the chopper itself ! And yet, it came down … in a broad spiral … round n round n round …spiraling down .. down … 600 feet, 400 feet, 200 feet .. the sound of the chopper filled the whole valley ; as it began to line-up for the landing…the wind speed suddenly picked up…n the chopper swayed n tilted at a terrible angle for a few moments … hung motionless in mid-air for a split-second …. everyone missed a heart-beat … and then gasped in relief … as the chopper rode away on the the winds & circled back, low over the camp, to regain horizontal. The chopper landing site was marked with a giant H with 30 kgs of Wakefields Chocolate-powder (!!!), which looked a dull-maroon color on the soft-white snow ...
Fast Jack Chopper Head with S6 Solid Back Shade features a cylindrical socket on a rigid stem. Head rotates 360 degrees and tilts 270 degrees. Available in 1, 3, 6, 12, or 18 inch stem lengths. Mounts to 1 Circuit Monorail, 2 Circuit Monorail, or Fast Jack canopy. Includes Fast Jack connector. Fixture finish available in Satin Nickel, Polished Nickel or Antique Bronze. S6 Shade available in Satin Nickel, Polished Nickel, Antique Bronze or Black. One 75 watt, 12 volt GU5.3 MR16 halogen or LED equivalent is required, but not included. ETL listed. Optional optical accessories sold separately. Canopy required if used as a monopoint, sold separately.
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The two cells in the top left must be 1+2. The 3 cells to the right totaling 15 cannot therefore have either a 1 or a 2, so they must be either 3+4+8, 3+5+7, or 4+5+6. The two vertical cells in the top left of the top right nonet cannot be 2+2 as that would mean duplicates, so they must be 1+3. The 1 cannot be in the top line as that conflicts with our first 2 cells therefore the top cell of this pair is 3 and the lower cell 1. This also means the 3 cell cage 15 to the left cannot contain a 3 and so is 4+5+6. Similarly the neighbouring 16 must be 9+7. The four cells in the top right cage (totaling 15) can only include one of 1, 3, 7, or 9 (if at all) because of the presence of 1, 3, 7, and 9 in the top right hand nonet. If any one of 1, 3, 7, or 9 is present then this must be the lone square in the nonet below. Therefore, these 4 cells is one of 1+2+4+8 or 2+3+4+6; the 2 cells in the middle of the left edge must be either 1+5 or 2+4; and so on. ...
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Shannon, I also saw a comment on their FB page on Friday about them charging a debit surcharge of $1 now. Can you try to find out about that too?. ...
DI-591 is a potent, high-affinity and cell-permeable inhibitor of the DCN1-UBC12 interaction. DI-591 binds to DCN1 and DCN2 with Ki values of 12 nM and 10.4 nM, respectively and has no appreciable binding to DCN3, DCN4, and DCN5 proteins. DI-591 selectively inhibits neddylation of cullin 3 but has no or minimal effect on neddylation of other cullin family members. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
This a massive list of deals! I walked my Target earlier last week and it took me a few days to slowly work on getting everything typed up. With all the current cartwheel offers and coupons, their are some fun match ups. Get stocked on canned goods, soups and even baking items at great prices.. Dont forget to also look over all the deals in the Target ad this week before you go shopping.. ...
Sederhana dan mudah dalam pengaplikasiannya, tinggal siapkan sampah organik sebanyak 6 m³ atau setara dengan berat 2 ton. Sampah harus dibuat ukuran kecil-kecil ( sekitar 10-15 mm) dengan cara dirajang atau menggunakan alat pencacah ( choper) menjadi seukuran dengan sampah dapur ( rumah tangga, hotel dan restoran) yakni 15 - 50 mm. Sampah yang berasal dari lingkungan pemukiman, hotel dan rumah tangga memang pada umumnya sudah berukuran kecil, sehingga sebenarnya tidak memerlukan dan tidak tergantung pada keberadaan mesin pencacah ( chopper) . Sampah, kemudian dimasukan ke dalam Komposter ( Rotary Klin) melalui pintu kearah reaktor. Di tempat lain, siapkan larutan mikroba sebagai aktivator dekomposisi- Green Phoskko® sebanyak 2 kg ( 1 permil dari bahan sampah sekitar 2 ton bahan baku kompos berupa sampah organik) , juga tambahkan Molases ( tetes tebu) atau gula pasir sekitar 50 sendok makan dan larutkan dalam air sebanyak 250 liter. Aduk hingga merata dan simpan 2-4 jam agar organic decomposer ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Central compensation in auditory brainstem after damaging noise exposure. AU - Schrode, Katrina M.. AU - Muniak, Michael. AU - Kim, Ye Hyun. AU - Lauer, Amanda M.. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Noise exposure is one of the most common causes of hearing loss and peripheral damage to the auditory system. A growing literature suggests that the auditory system can compensate for peripheral loss through increased central neural activity. The current study sought to investigate the link between noise exposure, increases in central gain, synaptic reorganization, and auditory function. All axons of the auditory nerve project to the cochlear nucleus, making it a requisite nucleus for sound detection. As the first synapse in the central auditory system, the cochlear nucleus is well positioned to respond plastically to loss of peripheral input. To investigate noise-induced compensation in the central auditory system, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and auditory ...
Glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in the adult vertebrate brain, but their activation in developing neurons also influences developmental processes. However, little is known about the developmental regulation of the subunits composing these receptors. Here we have studied age-dependent changes in the expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in the cochlear nucleus complex (CN), the superior olivary complex (SOC), the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and the inferior colliculus of the developing rat. In the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the distribution of AMPA receptor subunits changed drastically with age. While GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were highly expressed in the first 2 postnatal weeks, GluR4 staining was detectable only thereafter. GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities rapidly decreased during the third ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
Nerve synapse. Computer artwork of of a junction, or synapse, between two nerve cells (neurons). As the electrical signal reaches the presynaptic end of a neuron it triggers the release of neurotransmitters (white) across the gap, or synaptic cleft, between the two cells. The neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, changing the membranes excitability and triggering an electrical impulse. - Stock Image C017/3428
Neural Plasticity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its functional significance as reflected in behavior and in psychopathology. Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, biological psychology, and biological psychiatry.
Although inhibitory inputs were also shown to terminate on the somata of SBC, the poorly understood eponymous bushy dendrite of SBC could play a key role in modulation. Anatomical studies of other labs revealed unexplained complexity: additional auditory nerve synapses, inhibitory synapses of various identities and sources and even non-auditory excitatory inputs are all found on the dendrites. Additionally, anatomical indications of electrical coupling of SBC dendrites were found. Physiological knowledge about all these findings is scarce or non-existent. It is therefore one of the main goals of the Künzel-lab to analyze the SBCs dendritic inputs and better understand their role in SBC signal processing. The main feature of SBC now becomes an experimental advantage: their responses are precisely phase-locked and their output eventually has to suffice for the coding interaural phase differences. Thus we possess an experimentally well-defined functional read-out that will likely reveal even ...
Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. Finally, there is topographically patterned input to the superior colliculus and to the cerebellum, the latter receiving some of its input from the pontine nuclei activated by acoustic stimulation. Cochlear Nuclei All auditory ...
The contaminated beef has been linked to illness and at least one death, according to health officials.. Ashville-based Fairbanks Farms issued a voluntary recall for ground beef sold at Trader Joes, Price Chopper, Shaws, BJs and other stores. Each package carried the number "EST. 492" on the label. They were packaged Sept. 15-16 and may have been labeled with a sell-by date from Sept. 19 through Sept. 28.. The meat was linked to cases of E. coli-related illness in Connecticut, Maine and Massachusetts, the U.S. Department of Agriculture said Saturday. One person died and two others became ill, New Hampshire health officials said.. Fairbank Farms has had two other voluntary recalls over the last two years.. Price Chopper issued its own voluntary recall of the beef over the weekend, and began contacting, via telephone alert, some customers who may have bought the Fairbanks Farms product.. ...
Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and
A wonderful and brilliant husband and wife team of neuroscientists, Gavin Rumbaugh and Courtney Miller, from the Scripps Institute in Florida, gave a very good summary at the Four Arts Society in Palm Beach of research and findings related to memory loss and Alzheimers disease.. Things I learned included:. 1. It presently takes hundreds of millions of dollars and approximately 14 years to go through about 10,000 potential drug candidates in order to get 1 drug to market.. 2. Inserting luminescent genes has made it possible for computers to accurately count the development and location of new, active nerve synapses. This is important in order to more quickly test the effectiveness of new drugs on the regeneration of nerve synapses.. 3. Learning or knowing a second language is helpful in the development of additional synaptic pathways so that if you loose one you will have a backup and retain your memory.. 4. Getting out of routines can make the brain work harder and improve brain health. Simple ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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I think back to my daughter and oldest son. Elexis is ten, McGuire 13. How different this child has been. Elexis did two years of pre school. She was strong, smart, sassy, full of energy. Mommie did cartwheels when this wee one went to school. I didnt worry about her. McGuire, he had been in pre school since age of three. I did worry some about him because he was always a step behind the rest but Gary, Gary will be my ultimate final heart wrenching last to enter into kindergarten. We met with the school today after physical therapy. They wanted to meet him to see exactly what they needed to do for him the best they can. It was very helpful for me knowing they care. They are taking his health and his education seriously. He drew some pictures for them. He did great. Copied a triangle, a plus sign, and a square perfectly. His cutting was up to par as far as they could tell. He even put down the first letter of his name! Around and hook it back is how we make G. I also told them he had experience ...
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Whiteox writes about an Australian researcher named Renata Pronk, who has discovered that octopuses prefer HDTV. She recruited 32 gloomy octopuses from the waters of Chowder Bay. Previously, researchers have reported little success when showing video to octopuses. Miss Pronks insight was that the o...
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Linked to Issue 265 (creation of additional Prerequisite Groups) Would be nice if the Prerequisite Groups (PrerequisitePower=, etc) could take any BuildingType or VehicleType (any unit type would be better but VehicleTypes are the most important because you can have a vehicle that deploys into a building and are considered by the player to be one and the same) This, of course, would have the side-effect of doing away with the need for PrerequisiteProcAlternate (although the existence of...
Please note that images are to assist with product identification only, all prices are for individual components unless stated otherwise in the product description ...
Afferent synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea translate sound information into a discrete spike code, providing us the opportunity to directly observe the output of the cochlea. The availability of mutant strains with genetic hearing impairment makes the mouse a valuable species to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cochlear function. In this thesis, mouse was used as a model species to study cochlear sound encoding by recording single unit activities from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in vivo. First, developmental changes of ANF responses before and after hearing onset were characterized as an introduction on how normal ANF responses mature during the early postnatal age. Spontaneous bursting activity from ANFs/cochlear nucleus neurons was observed before hearing onset. After hearing onset, the average spontaneous and evoked spike rates of single ANFs increased, while tuning threshold and frequency selectivity improved between p14-15 to p20-21. ...
The vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) carries both equilibrium and auditory sensations from the inner ear to the medulla. Though the two senses are not directly related, anatomy is mirrored in the two systems. Problems with balance, such as vertigo, and deficits in hearing may both point to problems with the inner ear. Within the petrous region of the temporal bone is the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. The vestibule is the portion for equilibrium, composed of the utricle, saccule, and the three semicircular canals. The cochlea is responsible for transducing sound waves into a neural signal. The sensory nerves from these two structures travel side-by-side as the vestibulocochlear nerve, though they are really separate divisions. They both emerge from the inner ear, pass through the internal auditory meatus, and synapse in nuclei of the superior medulla. Though they are part of distinct sensory systems, the vestibular nuclei and the cochlear nuclei are close neighbors with adjacent inputs. ...
Tinnitus is typically induced by exposure to loud noise and causes whistling, clicking, roaring and other phantom sounds. It is estimated that 5 to 15 percent of Americans suffer from tinnitus, said Thanos Tzounopoulos, Ph.D., associate professor and member of the auditory research group in the Department of Otolaryngology, Pitt School of Medicine, where he also holds the auditory physiology endowed chair.. The study results build on previous research in mouse models demonstrating that tinnitus is associated with hyperactivity of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) cells, which fire impulses even when there is no actual sound to perceive. The teams work has shown that this hyperactivity is caused by a reduction in tiny channels, called KCNQ channels, through which potassium ions travel in and out of the cell. Based on this finding, KCNQ channel activators have emerged as clinical candidates for preventing the development of tinnitus.. "However, a significant percentage of people are exposed to loud ...
Fig. 1: The main ascending pathways in the mammalian auditory system. AN, auditory nerve; CN, cochlear nucleus; SO, superior olive; NLL, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; IC, inferior colliculus; MGB, thalamus; and A1, cortex. One goal of the lab is to identify functional pathways (patterns of afferent convergence) that link the brainstem auditory nuclei.. Current research in the laboratory centers on the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) because it occupies a pivotal position in the auditory system; it receives direct inputs from most, if not all, of the auditory nuclei in the brainstem and, in turn, provides nearly all of the input to the auditory forebrain. Anatomical evidence suggests that the projections to the ...
According to San Antonio Express-News archives, the last time one had to make an emergency landing was June 5, when a warning light indicated the engine could lose power. In December 2010, another chopper lost power and landed on U.S. 281 near Bitters Road. Since 2003, police choppers have had to make at least seven emergency landings.
Eighth Nerve Action Potential, Cochlear Nucleus, Olivary Complex (superior), Lateral Lemniscus, Inferior Colliculus [hearing Test ...
Cochlear Limited, the global leader in implantable hearing solutions, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the Cochlear™ Nucleus® 6 Sound Processor for use with the Nucleus 22 Cochlear Implant, giving those who have worn cochlear implants from the beginning (over 20 years in some cases) access to the latest breakthroughs in true wireless and automatic hearing. Released in 1985, the Nucleus 22 Implant was the first commercially available multi-channel cochlear implant in the world.. ...
Molecular mechanisms for cochlear nucleus structure and function ( K. Yee ) Synapse formation between inner ear hair cells and nerve fibers ( D. Vetter ) Responses of neurons in the auditory ...
This is probably my favorite puzzle so far, actually. I dunno, something about the clues and how its laid out just work really well, and theres a lot of fun in it! Theres LATEST - ASAP - NOW, which reads like a three-word short story about a frenzied news reporter. Theres the fact that TOUCHDOWN doesnt have the obvious football clue. Theres the way the constructors somehow managed to make DOT, of all things, into an interesting clue. Rex, you cant be totally grumpy about this one, right?!? I did get stuck in the lower left corner for a while, mostly out of a stubborn refusal to admit that ATTAR is a real word (which might or might not be why I made it word of the day). Also, I had DNA for 31A for like a million years. Again, this is why Im an English major, not a bio major ...
Our dear friend and colleague, Donata Oertel Sugden, PhD, passed away on April 22, 2020 from cancer. She was at home surrounded by her loving family.. Donata was a world renowned auditory neuroscientist whose discoveries of the role of cells in the cochlear nucleus will forever imprint our thinking about the neurophysiological basis of auditory function. She spent her career of 38 years at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she was until very recently Chair of the Neuroscience department. Donata was known to many members of ARO for the several decades that she was active in the association. Most notably, she was president of ARO in 2003, and Award of Merit recipient in 2004. She was a gentle, kind and brilliant woman. Her energy and enthusiasm were infectious and she was a role model for women scientists.. ...
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The shootdowns of five U.S. choppers in Iraq in recent weeks has lit a fire under programs to develop defenses for helicopters. One of the more unorthodox forthcoming countermeasures is Darpas Battlefield Helicopter Emulator, a small UAV that sounds like...
Carlos Gerosa, wanted in India over the Rs 3,600 crore AgustaWestland VVIP chopper scam, has been arrested by authorities in Italy on an Interpol notice requested by the Enforcement Directorate or ED in connection with its money laundering probe in the case.
Dorsal cochlear nucleus granule cell[edit]. The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or ... Dorsal cochlear granule cells. Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. ... Granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus play a role in the perception and response to sounds in our environment. ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ...
... cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) -> LLN -> caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The whole process has a less than 10ms[ ... First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... Third, a synapse occurs from the PnC axons to the motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus or the spinal cord that will ... The activation of the facial motor nucleus causes a jerk of the head while an activation in the spinal cord causes the whole ...
1982). "Hearing by cochlear nucleus stimulation in humans". Ann Otol Rhinol Otolaryngol. 24 (Suppl 91): 117-124. PMID 680539. ... This original ABI consisted of two ball electrodes which were implanted near the surface of the cochlear nucleus. A change from ... Since 1999 a 21 electrode array implant has been used with the Nucleus 24 ABI (Cochlear Limited) speech processor. A 12 ... 1984). "Cochlear nucleus implants". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 92 (1): 52-4. doi:10.1177/019459988409200111. PMID 6422415. ...
"Technology for an Advanced Cochlear Nucleus Auditory Prosthesis" (5R01DC009643). NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools ...
Robert Aaron Levine (1999). "Somatic (craniocervical) tinnitus and the dorsal cochlear nucleus hypothesis". American Journal of ... About 75% of new cases are related to emotional stress as the trigger factor rather than to precipitants involving cochlear ... Hearing loss may have many different causes, but among tinnitus subjects, the major cause is cochlear damage. Ototoxic drugs ...
... spike timing-dependent plasticities in the dorsal cochlear nucleus". Nat Neurosci. 7: 719-725. doi:10.1038/nn1272. Roberts, ... Patrick D.; Portfors, Christine V. (2008). "Cell-specific, spike timing-dependent plasticities in the dorsal cochlear nucleus ...
Saada AA; Niparko JK; Ryugo DK (1996). "Morphological changes in the cochlear nucleus of congenitally deaf white cats". Brain ...
"Somatosensory inputs modify auditory spike timing in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal cells". European Journal of Neuroscience ... For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. Furthermore, many cells in ... "Effects of the Activity of the Internal Globus Pallidus-Pedunculopontine Loop on the Transmission of the Subthalamic Nucleus- ...
Smith L, Gross J, Morest DK (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in the cochlear nucleus of the adult mouse following ... Kim JJ, Gross J, Potashner SJ, Morest DK (September 2004). "Fine structure of degeneration in the cochlear nucleus of the ... Josephson EM, Morest DK (July 2003). "Synaptic nests lack glutamate transporters in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse". Synapse ... in the embryonic development of the mouse cochlear nucleus". Journal of Neurobiology. 66 (9): 897-915. doi:10.1002/neu.20264. ...
"Temperature affects voltage-sensitive conductances differentially in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus". J ... stochastic oscillations in pacemaker neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus are partially responsible for the organization of ...
Model for the Convergence of Inputs Upon Neurons in the Cochlear Nucleus, D.Sc. Thesis, MIT, 1966. Chaney, T.J. and C.E. Molnar ... Kim, D.O. and C.E. Molnar: Cochlear mechanics: Measurements and models, in The Nervous System, Vol. 3, Human Communication and ...
"Prof (Dr.) Mohan Kameswaran's keynote address at CochlearNucleus® 6 launch for MERF recipients". YouTube video. Cochlear ... He is one of the founders of the Cochlear Implant Group of India and served as its president when the society was formed in ... He is one of the pioneers of cochlear implant surgery in India and a visiting professor at Rajah Muthiah Medical College of the ... "Description". COCHLEAR IMPLANT GROUP OF INDIA. 2005. Retrieved 12 December 2015. "City to Host Meet for ENT Surgeons". Indian ...
... reticular thalamic nuclei, cortical and hippocampal interneurons > inferior colliculi, cochlear and vestibular nuclei), and in ... Kv3.1 channels are prominently expressed in brain (cerebellum > globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra > ... focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii". The Journal of Physiology. 562 (Pt 3): 655-72. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073338. PMC ...
... the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (mammalian anteroventral cochlear nucleus) and the cochlear nucleus angularis (see figure ... mammalian posteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei). The neurons of the nucleus magnocellularis phase-lock, but are fairly ... Neurons from the nucleus laminaris project to the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and to the anterior ... The fibers of the auditory nerve innervate both cochlear nuclei in the brainstem, ...
"Effects of monaural and binaural sound deprivation on cell development in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of rats". Exp. ... "Late appearance and deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear nucleus (nuc. magnocellularis)". ... Webster DB, Webster M (1979). "Effects of neonatal conductive hearing loss on brain stem auditory nuclei". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. ... Smith ZD, Gray L, Rubel EW (October 1983). "Afferent influences on brainstem auditory nuclei of the chicken: n. laminaris ...
Moushegian, G.; Rupert, A. L. (1973). "Response diversity of neurons in ventral cochlear nucleus of kangaroo rat to low- ... This phenomenon came to be known as the cochlear microphonic (CM). The FFR may have been accidentally discovered back in 1930; ... but it was later discovered that the response is non-neural and is cochlear in origin, specifically from the outer hair cells. ... to describe the CM-like neural components recorded directly from several brainstem nuclei (research based on Jewett and ...
The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which contain the special somatic afferent column. The inferior olivary nucleus, which ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ... The dorsal column nuclei, which contain the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Basal plate neuroblasts give rise to: The hypoglossal ... They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus. The soma (cell bodies) in these ...
... known as the antero-ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), postero-ventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) ... The SOC receives input from cochlear nuclei, primarily the ipsilateral and contralateral AVCN. Four nuclei make up the SOC but ... Next in the pathway is the cochlear nucleus, which receives mainly ipsilateral (that is, from the same side) afferent input. ... The IC is situated in the midbrain and consists of a group of nuclei the largest of these is the central nucleus of inferior ...
The cochlear nerve is lateral to the root of the vestibular nerve. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus, ... The acoustic tubercle is a nuclei on the end of the cochlear nerve. ...
... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the ... and receives projections predominantly from the ventral cochlear nucleus, although the dorsal cochlear nucleus projects there ... posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). The trapezoid body is a bundle of ... Some of these axons come from the cochlear nucleus and cross over to the other side before traveling on to the superior olivary ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior colliculus, and ... Köppl, Christine (1997). "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... "Mode-Locked Spike Trains in Responses of Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Chopper and Onset Neurons to Periodic Stimuli". Journal of ...
Their axons do not extend beyond the dorsal cochlear nucleus but synapse with other cartwheel cells and pyramidal cells within ... Berrebi, AS; Mugnaini, E (1991). "Distribution and targets of the cartwheel cell axon in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the ... Cartwheel cells are neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where they greatly outnumber the other inhibitory interneurons ... and therefore plays a key role in the shaping of the overall output of the superficial layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. ...
Unipolar brush cells are neurons specific to the cerebellum and the granule region of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. In all ...
The inferior colliculus receives input from both the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear nucleus and respectively the ... All nuclei except the contralateral ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus send projections to the central nucleus (CNIC) ... IC are large auditory nuclei on the right and left sides of the midbrain. It is divided into three parts, the Central Nucleus ... and at the base of the projection of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus. The inferior colliculi ...
The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... The inferior colliculus in turn projects to the medial geniculate nucleus, a part of the thalamus where sound information is ... a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through the cochlear fluid - endolymph. The basilar membrane ...
For the development of the modern cochlear implant - a device that bestows hearing to individuals with profound deafness.[18] ... For the development of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a surgical technique that reduces tremors and ... quality control system that detects harmful misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and signals the nucleus to carry ...
... the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the ... At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear nucleus and the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus ... The outputs from the cochlear nuclei are received in higher regions of the auditory brainstem. The cochlear nuclei (CN) are ... and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of ...
Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the ... "Somatosensory effects on neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus." J Neurophysiol 73(2): 743-65. NIF Search - Dorsal Cochlear ... Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN, also known as the "tuberculum acusticum"), is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral ...
The ventral cochlear nucleus is divided into the anterior ventral (anteroventral) cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and the posterior ... The anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) (or accessory), is placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve, and is on ... ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB), nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL), and ventral nucleus of the lateral ... In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), auditory nerve fibers enter the brain via the nerve root in the VCN. ...
1997) Projections from the ventral cochlear nucleus to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in rats. J Comp Neurol 385:245-264. ... 2004) Onset neurones in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 5: ... Glycine immunoreactivity of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus which project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J ... Hyperactivity in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus after Cochlear Trauma. Darryl P. Vogler, Donald Robertson, Wilhelmina H. A. M. ...
Excitatory Amino Acid Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Inhibitory Amino Acid These keywords were added ... The neuronal architecture of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat in the region of the cochlear nerve root: electron ... Osen, K.K., 1969, The intrinsic organization of the cochlear nuclei, Acta Otolaryngol., 67:352-359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... In: Merchán M.A., Juiz J.M., Godfrey D.A., Mugnaini E. (eds) The Mammalian Cochlear Nuclei. NATO ASI series (Series A, Life ...
... labeled axons were present bilaterally in the cochlear nucleus. The distribution of boutons within the cochlear nucleus … ... We used anterograde tracing techniques to examine projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pigs. ... labeled axons were present bilaterally in the cochlear nucleus. The distribution of boutons within the cochlear nucleus was ... Auditory cortical projections to the cochlear nucleus in guinea pigs Hear Res. 2005 Jan;199(1-2):89-102. doi: 10.1016/j.heares. ...
The Cochlear Nucleus 6 System is our most advanced system to help you enjoy smarter hearing. Learn more. ... Our Products Cochlears range of solutions * Cochlear implantsA cochlear implant is an established, effective and long-term ... Cochlear FamilyWhether youre new to Cochlear or have had your implant for years, you are part of a very special family - one ... When you choose a CochlearNucleus® implant youre choosing the most trusted name in the industry.. ...
Nucleus Freedom Cochlear Implant System Pediatric Post-approval Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The objective of this multisite study is to evaluate the performance of the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant system in a large ... Ossification or any other cochlear anomaly that might prevent complete insertion of the electrode array, as confirmed by ... with bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss who undergo implantation with the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear Implant ...
... Kei Hori and Mikio Hoshino ... Kei Hori and Mikio Hoshino, "GABAergic Neuron Specification in the Spinal Cord, the Cerebellum, and the Cochlear Nucleus," ...
K. K. Osen, "Cytoarchitecture of the cochlear nuclei in the cat," Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 453- ... D. K. Ryugo and F. H. Willard, "The dorsal cochlear nucleus of the mouse: a light microscopic analysis of neurons that project ... E. T. Pierce, "Histogenesis of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei in the mouse. An autoradiographic study," Journal of ... GABAergic Neuron Specification in the Spinal Cord, the Cerebellum, and the Cochlear Nucleus. Kei Hori and Mikio Hoshino ...
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The ventral cochlear nucleus (or anterior, or accessory ), placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve, is on the ... Ventral reticular nucleus, Lateral reticular nucleus, Paramedian reticular nucleus) • Raphe nuclei (Obscurus, Magnus, Pallidus ... Posterior Ventral Cochlear Nucleus (PVCN). *Needs information added. References. *↑ Smith, P. H., P. X. Joris, et al. (1993). " ... Gracile nucleus/Cuneate nucleus/Accessory cuneate nucleus • Area postrema • Posterior median sulcus • Dorsal respiratory group ...
Implantation with the Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant. Device: Nucleus Hybrid L24 Implantation with Nucleus Hybrid L24 ... Evaluation of the Nucleus Hybrid™ L24 Cochlear Implant System. This study has been completed. ... Further study details as provided by Cochlear:. Primary Outcome Measures: *Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) Monosyllabic Word ... Delivery of acoustic-electric stimulation will be provided by the Nucleus Hybrid L24 cochlear implant system. ...
1982) Functional synapse elimination in the developing avian cochlear nucleus with simultaneous reduction in cochlear nerve ... 1973) The development of auditory evoked responses in the cochlea and cochlear nuclei of the chick. Brain Res 63:59-74. ... 1994) Membrane properties underlying the firing of neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 14:5352-5364. ... 1987) Maturation of synapses and electrical properties of cells in the cochlear nuclei. Hear Res 30:99-110. ...
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory and multisensory signals at the earliest levels of auditory processing. ... Cb: cerebellum; DCN: dorsal cochlear nucleus; Md: medulla; VCN: ventral cochlear nucleus. Inset: D: deep layer; F: fusiform ... Gómez-Nieto, R., and Rubio, M. E. (2009). A bushy cell network in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol. 516, 241- ...
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), a brainstem nucleus that receives direct input from the auditory nerve, is essential for ... 2002) Effects of cochlear ablation on noise induced hyperactivity in the hamster dorsal cochlear nucleus: implications for the ... 2012) Acoustic over-exposure triggers burst firing in dorsal cochlear nucleus fusiform cells. Hear Res 283:98-106, doi:10.1016/ ... 2015) Single granule cells excite Golgi cells and evoke feedback inhibition in the cochlear nucleus. J Neurosci 35:4741-4750, ...
A list of all pages that have property "Label" with value "Cochlear nucleus neuron". *Cochlear nucleus neuron + ...
... Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol ... The cochlear nucleus was dissected and examined for terminal fibers by light and electron microscopy. Bouton endings were found ... This report provides evidence for direct auditory cortex projections to the cochlear nucleus in the mouse. The distribution of ... bilaterally forming synapses with dendrites of granule cells of the cochlear nucleus. ...
1975) Responses of single units in the cochlear nucleus of the cat to cosine noise. J Acoust Soc Am 58:858-866. ... 1995) Interspike intervals as a correlate of periodicity pitch in cat cochlear nucleus. J Acoust Soc Am 97:2414-2429. ... 1991) Temporal representation of rippled noise in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the chinchilla. J Acoust Soc Am 90:2450 ... 2008b) Temporal responses of cochlear nucleus units and the dominance region of pitch. Abstr Assoc Res Otolaryngol 31:223. ...
Many more labeled cells were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). These cells, identifiable as multipolar (stellate) ... Many more labeled cells were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). These cells, identifiable as multipolar (stellate) ... Direct projections from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) mediate a high-speed transfer of acoustic ... Direct projections from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) mediate a high-speed transfer of acoustic ...
Noradrenaline enhances temporal auditory contrast and neuronal timing precision in the cochlear nucleus of the mustached bat. M ... Noradrenaline enhances temporal auditory contrast and neuronal timing precision in the cochlear nucleus of the mustached bat ... Noradrenaline enhances temporal auditory contrast and neuronal timing precision in the cochlear nucleus of the mustached bat ... Noradrenaline enhances temporal auditory contrast and neuronal timing precision in the cochlear nucleus of the mustached bat ...
Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem ... Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that ... Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ... anteroventral cochlear nucleus; contraCN, contralateral cochlear nucleus; CunN, cuneate nucleus; DCN, dorsal cochlear nucleus, ...
The representation of speech-like stimuli in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus have been the subject of numerous studies ... Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Good Frequency Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Selective Listening These keywords were added by ... I. Anteroventral cochlear nucleus. J. Comp. Neurol., 313, 240-258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... May B.J., Le Prell G.S., Hienz R.D., Sachs M.B. (1997) Speech Representation in the Auditory Nerve and Ventral Cochlear Nucleus ...
In the cochlear nucleus of the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi) and the mustache bat (Pteronotus parnelli), species- ... Kössl, M.; Vater, M. und Schweizer, Hermann (1988): Distribution of catecholamine fibers in the cochlear nucleus of horseshoe ... In both bats the subnuclei of the cochlear nucleus receive a differentially dense supply of catecholaminergic fibers, and ... The marginal cell group, located medially to the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of Pteronotus, receives the densest supply of ...
In this study both ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from Nucleus Hybrid L24 CI users. Correlations between these two ... In this study both ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from Nucleus Hybrid L24 CI users. Correlations between these two ... Speech perception was assessed using Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) word lists presented in quiet and AzBio sentences ... Speech perception was assessed using Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC) word lists presented in quiet and AzBio sentences ...
  • Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves form a synapse first at these nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the number of different nuclei located within the pontine tegmentum, it is a region associated with a range of functions including sensory and motor functions (due to the cranial nuclei and fiber tracts), control of stages of sleep and levels of arousal and vigilance (due to the ascending cholinergic systems), and some aspects of respiratory control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pontine tegmentum contains nuclei of several cranial nerves and consequently has a role in several groups of sensory and motor processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of many of the neurons of most of the cranial nerves are contained in one or more nuclei in the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Special for the zebrafish in comparison to amniotes is the predominant origin of anamniote excitatory deep cerebellar nuclei homologs (i.e., eurydendroid cells) from ptf1a expressing VCP cells, the sequential activity of various atoh1 paralogs and the incomplete coverage of the subpial cerebellar plate with proliferative EGL cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Four deep cerebellar nuclei are embedded in the white matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results further suggest that early antioxidant treatment for acoustic trauma not only rescues cochlear hair cells, but also has impact on central auditory structures. (houghear.org)
  • The cochlear nucleus is the first 'relay station' of the central auditory system and receives mainly ipsilateral afferent input. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997) to the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle, and terminate in both the cerebellar nuclei, and at granule cells (GR) of the cerebellar cortex (Steinmetz & Sengelaub, 1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but almost all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2006) Oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus: II. (yale.edu)
  • 2 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2006) Oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus: I. Experimental basis of a simulation paradigm. (yale.edu)
  • 4 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2009) A simulation of chopper neurons in the cochlear nucleus with wideband input from onset neurons. (yale.edu)
  • This is the readme for the models associated with the papers: Bahmer A, Langner G (2006) Oscillating neurons in the cochlear nucleus: I. Experimental basis of a simulation paradigm. (yale.edu)
  • Model for the Convergence of Inputs Upon Neurons in the Cochlear Nucleus, D.Sc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, while in some ways homologous to cerebellar molecular layer stellate cells, SSCs exhibit properties that place them in a computationally unique position in the entire cochlear nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • The anterior cochlear nucleus contains several cell types, which correspond fairly well with different physiological unit types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). (epfl.ch)
  • Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are a class of excitatory glutamatergic interneuron found in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and also in the granule cell domain of the cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter end by arborizing around the cells of the medial nucleus, which is situated in the area acustica of the rhomboid fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific SBA labelling was associated with large non-granule neurones of variable size and shape throughout the cochlear nucleus. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The variation in location, size and shape as well as the high percentage of the labelled neurones suggest that cells of several, if not all, non-granule cell types, which have been described for the cochlear nucleus according to the usual Nissl schemes, are SBA positive. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We investigated spontaneous neuronal firing rates in the ventral cochlear nucleus in a guinea pig model of cochlear trauma in which we have shown that hyperactivity consistently develops in the inferior colliculus ( Mulders and Robertson, 2009 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • We found a significant elevation of spontaneous firing rates in VCN after cochlear trauma, and this increase may be more evident in particular neuronal response categories in VCN. (jneurosci.org)
  • 5 . Bahmer A, Langner G (2010) Parameters for a model of an oscillating neuronal network in the cochlear nucleus defined by genetic algorithms. (yale.edu)
  • Neuronal nuclei (NeuN) antibodies serve as core tools for studying the development and differentiation of neurons and for staining mature neurons. (news-medical.net)
  • The team named this Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) 1 . (news-medical.net)
  • The nucleus of post-mitotic neurons contains most of the NeuN, which initially appears at embryonic day 9.5 in the neural tube of the mouse and associates with the neuronal cells that exit the cell cycle 1 . (news-medical.net)
  • The elegantly coiled, mechanically tuned cochlear duct and functional differentiation between inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs), afferent and efferent neuronal connections are among the features that enable the widest acoustic frequency range and most complex vocalizations among vertebrate species. (pnas.org)
  • The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thalamic parts delineated by the lamellar and cellular "limiting" elements, according to the founding system of Burdach (1822), constituted the classic thalamic nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • This original ABI consisted of two ball electrodes which were implanted near the surface of the cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electrode array with 21 electrodes developed by Cochlear Limited was developed for the European market at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1967, Sohmer and Feinmesser were the first to publish ABRs recorded with surface electrodes in humans which showed that cochlear potentials could be obtained non-invasively. (wikipedia.org)