Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Auditory Brain Stem Implants
Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced
Hearing Loss, Central
Anterior Thalamic Nuclei
Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1
Hearing Loss, Conductive
Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
Transient potassium currents regulate the discharge patterns of dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cells. (1/432)Pyramidal cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show three distinct temporal discharge patterns in response to sound: "pauser," "buildup," and "chopper." Similar discharge patterns are seen in vitro and depend on the voltage from which the cell is depolarized. It has been proposed that an inactivating A-type K+ current (IKI) might play a critical role in generating the three different patterns. In this study we examined the characteristics of transient currents in DCN pyramidal cells to evaluate this hypothesis. Morphologically identified pyramidal cells in rat brain slices (P11-P17) exhibited the three voltage-dependent discharge patterns. Two inactivating currents were present in outside-out patches from pyramidal cells: a rapidly inactivating (IKIF, tau approximately 11 msec) current insensitive to block by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and variably blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) with half-inactivation near -85 mV, and a slowly inactivating TEA- and 4-AP-sensitive current (IKIS, tau approximately 145 msec) with half-inactivation near -35 mV. Recovery from inactivation at 34 degrees C was described by a single exponential with a time constant of 10-30 msec, similar to the rate at which first spike latency increases with the duration of a hyperpolarizing prepulse. Acutely isolated cells also possessed a rapidly activating (<1 msec at 22 degrees C) transient current that activated near -45 mV and showed half-inactivation near -80 mV. A model demonstrated that the deinactivation of IKIF was correlated with the discharge patterns. Overall, the properties of the fast inactivating K+ current were consistent with their proposed role in shaping the discharge pattern of DCN pyramidal cells. (+info)
Voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances in acutely isolated guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus neurons. (2/432)Although it is known that voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances (VGCCs) contribute to the responses of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) neurons, little is known about the properties of VGCCs in the DCN. In this study, the whole cell voltage-clamp technique was used to examine the pharmacology and voltage dependence of VGCCs in unidentified DCN neurons acutely isolated from guinea pig brain stem. The majority of cells responded to depolarization with sustained inward currents that were enhanced when Ca2+ was replaced by Ba2+, were blocked partially by Ni2+ (100 microM), and were blocked almost completely by Cd2+ (50 microM). Experiments using nifedipine (10 microM), omegaAga IVA (100 nM) and omegaCTX GVIA (500 nM) demonstrated that a variety of VGCC subtypes contributed to the Ba2+ current in most cells, including the L, N, and P/Q types and antagonist-insensitive R type. Although a large depolarization from rest was required to activate VGCCs in DCN neurons, VGCC activation was rapid at depolarized levels, having time constants <1 ms at 22 degrees C. No fast low-threshold inactivation was observed, and a slow high-threshold inactivation was observed at voltages more positive than -20 mV, indicating that Ba2+ currents were carried by high-voltage activated VGCCs. The VGCC subtypes contributing to the overall Ba2+ current had similar voltage-dependent properties, with the exception of the antagonist-insensitive R-type component, which had a slower activation and a more pronounced inactivation than the other components. These data suggest that a variety of VGCCs is present in DCN neurons, and these conductances generate a rapid Ca2+ influx in response to depolarizing stimuli. (+info)
Quantal size is correlated with receptor cluster area at glycinergic synapses in the rat brainstem. (3/432)1. Whole-cell patch electrode recordings of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were obtained in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Mean mIPSC peak amplitude was found to vary considerably between AVCN neurons (range, -19.1 to -317.9 pA; mean +/- s.d., -159.1 +/- 100.7 pA; 14 cells). 2. Immunolabelling of glycinergic receptor clusters in AVCN neurons was performed using antibodies against the glycine receptor clustering protein gephyrin. Measurements of the area of gephyrin immunoreactive clusters were obtained using confocal fluorescence microscopy. These measurements showed a large variability in cluster area, not only in the same cell (mean coefficient of variation, c.v., 0.66 +/- 0.18; 16 cells), but also in mean cluster area between cells (range, 0.21-0.84 microm2; 16 cells). 3. A possible relationship between mIPSC amplitude and receptor cluster area was investigated in a further series of experiments, in which mIPSCs recordings and immunolabelling of glycine receptor clusters were obtained for the same cells. In these experiments, AVCN neurons were identified using intracellular labelling with neurobiotin. Successful results using a combination of whole-cell recordings, neurobiotin identification and immunolabelling were obtained for a total of 10 AVCN neurons. Analysis of the results revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between mean receptor cluster size and mean mIPSC amplitude (P < 0.05, 10 cells, Spearman's correlation test). 4. These results provide direct experimental evidence supporting a hypothesis of central glycinergic transmission in which synaptic strength may be regulated by changes in the size of the postsynaptic receptor region. (+info)
Role of intrinsic conductances underlying responses to transients in octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus. (4/432)Recognition of acoustic patterns in natural sounds depends on the transmission of temporal information. Octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus form a pathway that encodes the timing of firing of groups of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional precision. Whole-cell patch recordings from octopus cells were used to examine how the brevity and precision of firing are shaped by intrinsic conductances. Octopus cells responded to steps of current with small, rapid voltage changes. Input resistances and membrane time constants averaged 2.4 MOmega and 210 microseconds, respectively (n = 15). As a result of the low input resistances of octopus cells, action potential initiation required currents of at least 2 nA for their generation and never occurred repetitively. Backpropagated action potentials recorded at the soma were small (10-30 mV), brief (0.24-0.54 msec), and tetrodotoxin-sensitive. The low input resistance arose in part from an inwardly rectifying mixed cationic conductance blocked by cesium and potassium conductances blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Conductances blocked by 4-AP also contributed to the repolarization of the action potentials and suppressed the generation of calcium spikes. In the face of the high membrane conductance of octopus cells, sodium and calcium conductances amplified depolarizations produced by intracellular current injection over a time course similar to that of EPSPs. We suggest that this transient amplification works in concert with the shunting influence of potassium and mixed cationic conductances to enhance the encoding of the onset of synchronous auditory nerve fiber activity. (+info)
Axons from anteroventral cochlear nucleus that terminate in medial superior olive of cat: observations related to delay lines. (5/432)The differences in path length of axons from the anteroventral cochlear nuclei (AVCN) to the medial superior olive (MSO) are thought to provide the anatomical substrate for the computation of interaural time differences (ITD). We made small injections of biotinylated dextran into the AVCN that produced intracellular-like filling of axons. This permitted three-dimensional reconstructions of individual axons and measurements of axonal length to individual terminals in MSO. Some axons that innervated the contralateral MSO had collaterals with lengths that were graded in the rostrocaudal direction with shorter collaterals innervating more rostral parts of MSO and longer collaterals innervating more caudal parts of MSO. These could innervate all or part of the length of the MSO. Other axons had restricted terminal fields comparable to the size of a single dendritic tree in the MSO. In the ipsilateral MSO, some axons had a reverse, but less steep, gradient in axonal length with greater axonal length associated with more rostral locations; others had restricted terminal fields. Thus, the computation of ITDs is based on gradients of axonal length in both the contralateral and ipsilateral MSO, and these gradients may account for a large part of the range of ITDs encoded by the MSO. Other factors may be involved in the computation of ITDs to compensate for differences between axons. (+info)
Glutamate regulates IP3-type and CICR stores in the avian cochlear nucleus. (6/432)Neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), are activated by glutamate released from auditory nerve terminals. If this stimulation is removed, the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) of NM neurons rises and rapid atrophic changes ensue. We have been investigating mechanisms that regulate [Ca2+]i in these neurons based on the hypothesis that loss of Ca2+ homeostasis causes the cascade of cellular changes that results in neuronal atrophy and death. In the present study, video-enhanced fluorometry was used to monitor changes in [Ca2+]i stimulated by agents that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores and to study the modulation of these responses by glutamate. Homobromoibotenic acid (HBI) was used to stimulate inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores, and caffeine was used to mobilize Ca2+ from Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores. We provide data indicating that Ca2+ responses attributable to IP3- and CICR-sensitive stores are inhibited by glutamate, acting via a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). We also show that activation of C-kinase by a phorbol ester will reduce HBI-stimulated calcium responses. Although the protein kinase A accumulator, Sp-cAMPs, did not have an effect on HBI-induced responses. CICR-stimulated responses were not consistently attenuated by either the phorbol ester or the Sp-cAMPs. We have previously shown that glutamate attenuates voltage-dependent changes in [Ca2+]i. Coupled with the present findings, this suggests that in these neurons mGluRs serve to limit fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+ rather than increase [Ca2+]i. This system may play a role in protecting highly active neurons from calcium toxicity resulting in apoptosis. (+info)
Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. (7/432)Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) contains a heterogeneous collection of cell types reflecting the multiple processing tasks undertaken by this nucleus. This in vivo study in the rat used intracellular recordings and dye filling to examine membrane potential changes and firing characteristics of onset chopper (OC) neurons to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time). Stable impalements were made from 15 OC neurons, 7 identified as multipolar cells. Neurons responded to characteristic frequency (CF) tones with sustained depolarization below spike threshold. With increasing stimulus intensity, the depolarization during the initial 10 ms of the response became peaked, and with further increases in intensity the peak became narrower. Onset spikes were generated during this initial depolarization. Tones presented below CF resulted in a broadening of this initial depolarizing component with high stimulus intensities required to initiate onset spikes. This initial component was followed by a sustained depolarizing component lasting until stimulus cessation. The amplitude of the sustained depolarizing component was greatest when frequencies were presented at high intensities below CF resulting in increased action potential firing during this period when compared with comparable high intensities at CF. During the presentation of tones at or above the high-frequency edge of a cell's response area, hyperpolarization was evident during the sustained component. The presence of hyperpolarization and the differences seen in the level of sustained depolarization during CF and off CF tones suggests that changes in membrane responsiveness between the initial and sustained components may be attributed to polysynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. The dual-component processing resulting from convergent auditory nerve excitation and polysynaptic inhibition enables OC neurons to respond in a unique fashion to intensity and frequency features contained within an acoustic stimulus. (+info)
Responses of cochlear nucleus units in the chinchilla to iterated rippled noises: analysis of neural autocorrelograms. (8/432)Temporal encoding of stimulus features related to the pitch of iterated rippled noises was studied for single units in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus. Unlike other periodic complex sounds that produce pitch, iterated rippled noises have neither periodic waveforms nor highly modulated envelopes. Infinitely iterated rippled noise (IIRN) is generated when wideband noise (WBN) is delayed (tau), attenuated, and then added to (+) or subtracted from (-) the undelayed WBN through positive feedback. The pitch of IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/tau, whereas the pitch of IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/2tau. Temporal responses of cochlear nucleus units were measured using neural autocorrelograms. Synchronous responses as shown by peaks in neural autocorrelograms that occur at time lags corresponding to the IIRN tau can be observed for both primarylike and chopper unit types. Comparison of the neural autocorrelograms in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] and IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] indicates that the temporal discharge of primarylike units reflects the stimulus waveform fine structure, whereas the temporal discharge patterns of chopper units reflect the stimulus envelope. The pitch of IIRN[+/-, tau, -1 dB] can be accounted for by the temporal discharge patterns of primarylike units but not by the temporal discharge of chopper units. To quantify the temporal responses, the height of the peak in the neural autocorrelogram at a given time lag was measured as normalized rate. Although it is well documented that chopper units give larger synchronous responses than primarylike units to the fundamental frequency of periodic complex stimuli, the largest normalized rates in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] were obtained for primarylike units, not chopper units. The results suggest that if temporal encoding is important in pitch processing, then primarylike units are likely to be an important cochlear nucleus subsystem that carries the pitch-related information to higher auditory centers. (+info)
There is no cure for tinnitus, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the condition. These include sound therapy, which involves exposing the ear to soothing sounds to mask the tinnitus, and counseling, which can help individuals cope with the emotional effects of tinnitus. Other treatments may include medications to relieve anxiety or depression, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding loud noises and taking steps to reduce stress.
It is important for individuals who experience tinnitus to seek medical attention if the condition persists or worsens over time, as it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment. A healthcare professional can evaluate the individual's hearing and overall health to determine the cause of the tinnitus and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
There are two main types of noise-induced hearing loss:
1. Acoustic trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs suddenly after a single exposure to an extremely loud noise, such as an explosion or a gunshot.
2. Cumulative trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs gradually over time as a result of repeated exposure to loud noises, such as machinery or music.
The risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss increases with the intensity and duration of noise exposure. Factors that can contribute to an individual's risk of developing NIHL include:
1. Loudness of the noise: Noises that are louder than 85 decibels can cause permanent damage to the hair cells in the inner ear.
2. Prolonged exposure: The longer an individual is exposed to loud noises, the greater their risk of developing NIHL.
3. Age: Older adults are more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to the natural aging process and the degeneration of the hair cells in the inner ear.
4. Genetics: Some individuals may be more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to genetic factors.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or otosclerosis, can increase an individual's risk of developing NIHL.
The symptoms of noise-induced hearing loss can vary depending on the severity of the damage. Some common symptoms include:
1. Difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds
2. Difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments
3. Ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus)
4. Muffled hearing
5. Decreased sensitivity to sounds
There is currently no cure for noise-induced hearing loss, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These include:
1. Hearing aids: These can help amplify sounds and improve an individual's ability to hear.
2. Cochlear implants: These are electronic devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
3. Tinnitus management: There are several techniques and therapies available to help manage tinnitus, including sound therapy, counseling, and relaxation techniques.
4. Speech therapy: This can help individuals with hearing loss improve their communication skills and better understand speech in noisy environments.
Prevention is key when it comes to noise-induced hearing loss. To reduce your risk of developing NIHL, you should:
1. Avoid loud noises whenever possible
2. Wear earplugs or earmuffs when exposed to loud noises
3. Take regular breaks in a quiet space if you are working in a loud environment
4. Keep the volume down on personal audio devices
5. Get your hearing checked regularly to identify any potential issues early on.
The term "decerebrate" comes from the Latin word "cerebrum," which means brain. In this context, the term refers to a state where the brain is significantly damaged or absent, leading to a loss of consciousness and other cognitive functions.
Some common symptoms of the decerebrate state include:
* Loss of consciousness
* Flaccid paralysis (loss of muscle tone)
* Dilated pupils
* Lack of responsiveness to stimuli
* Poor or absent reflexes
* Inability to speak or communicate
The decerebrate state can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Severe head injury
* Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic brain injury
Treatment for the decerebrate state is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may involve medications to control seizures, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the decerebrate state may be a permanent condition, and individuals may require long-term care and support.
Symptoms of conductive hearing loss may include:
* Difficulty hearing soft sounds
* Muffled or distorted sound
* Ringing or other noises in the affected ear
* Difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy environments
Causes of conductive hearing loss can include:
* Middle ear infections (otitis media)
* Eardrum perforation or tearing
* Tubal erosion or narrowing
* Ossicular anomalies or abnormalities
* Certain head or neck injuries
* Tumors or cysts in the middle ear
Diagnosis of conductive hearing loss typically involves a physical examination and a series of tests, including:
* Otoscopy (examination of the outer ear and eardrum)
* Tympanometry (measurement of the movement of the eardrum)
* Acoustic reflex threshold testing (assessment of the acoustic reflex, which is a normal response to loud sounds)
* Otoacoustic emissions testing (measurement of the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound waves)
Treatment for conductive hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Antibiotics for middle ear infections
* Tubes inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and improve air flow
* Surgery to repair or replace damaged ossicles or other middle ear structures
* Hearing aids or cochlear implants to amplify sound waves and improve hearing.
There are several types of deafness, including:
1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by problems with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. It is typically permanent and cannot be treated with medication or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of deafness is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Auditory processing disorder (APD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing sounds, even though the ears are functioning normally.
5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by ringing or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of sound. It can be a symptom of deafness or a separate condition.
There are several ways to diagnose deafness, including:
1. Hearing tests: These can be done in a doctor's office or at a hearing aid center. They involve listening to sounds through headphones and responding to them.
2. Imaging tests: These can include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any physical abnormalities in the ear or brain.
3. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: This is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
4. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: This is a test that measures the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
There are several ways to treat deafness, including:
1. Hearing aids: These are devices that amplify sound and can be worn in or behind the ear. They can help improve hearing for people with mild to severe hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve. They can help restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Speech therapy: This can help people with hearing loss improve their communication skills, such as speaking and listening.
4. Assistive technology: This can include devices such as captioned phones, alerting systems, and assistive listening devices that can help people with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
5. Medications: There are several medications available that can help treat deafness, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or steroids to reduce inflammation.
6. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat deafness, such as when there is a blockage in the ear or when a tumor is present.
7. Stem cell therapy: This is a relatively new area of research that involves using stem cells to repair damaged hair cells in the inner ear. It has shown promising results in some studies.
8. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to repair or replace damaged or missing genes that can cause deafness. It is still an experimental area of research, but it has shown promise in some studies.
9. Implantable devices: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can help restore hearing by bypassing damaged hair cells. Examples include cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants.
10. Binaural hearing: This involves using a combination of hearing aids and technology to improve hearing in both ears, which can help improve speech recognition and reduce the risk of falls.
It's important to note that the best treatment for deafness will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and personal preferences. It's important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.
High-frequency hearing loss can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis): This is the most common cause of high-frequency hearing loss and affects many people as they age.
2. Noise exposure: Exposure to loud noises, such as those from heavy machinery or music, can damage the hair cells in the inner ear and lead to high-frequency hearing loss.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis or labyrinthitis, can cause inflammation and damage to the inner ear and auditory nerve, leading to high-frequency hearing loss.
4. Trauma: A head injury or other trauma to the head or ear can cause damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve, resulting in high-frequency hearing loss.
5. Genetics: Some people may be born with a genetic predisposition to high-frequency hearing loss.
Symptoms of high-frequency hearing loss can include difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds, such as women's and children's voices, birds chirping, or the high notes of music. People with high-frequency hearing loss may also have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments or when background noise is present.
Treatment for high-frequency hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and can include hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address any underlying conditions that are contributing to the hearing loss. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have high-frequency hearing loss, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve communication and quality of life.
Dorsal cochlear nucleus
Huntington Medical Research Institutes
Models of neural computation
D. Kent Morest
Sound localization in owls
Frequency following response
Interaural time difference
Neuroscience of music
Language processing in the brain
Cranial nerve nucleus
David Dewhurst Medal
List of marine molluscs of Ireland (Bivalvia)
List of University of Sydney people
Medial vestibular nucleus
Temporal envelope and fine structure
2019 in paleomammalogy
Spatial hearing loss
Index of anatomy articles
1977 in science
Ramesh C. Deka
Auditory brainstem implant
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Debbie Entsminger - COCHLEAR IMPLANT BASICS
- The requirement will study the feasibility of an auditory prosthesis for the deaf based on stimulating microelectrodes placed into the ventral cochlear nucleus. (nih.gov)
- The terminals are confined to those parts of the GCD immediately surrounding the ventral cochlear nucleus. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Single-unit recordings of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons in live rodents. (uclm.es)
- Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats. (uclm.es)
- The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. (nih.gov)
- Synaptic inputs onto medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons in the ventral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VNTB) in the auditory brainstem are poorly understood. (nih.gov)
- El núcleo coclear se encuentra en posición lateral y dorsolateral a los pedúnculos cerebelosos inferiores y está dividido funcionalmente en las porciones dorsal y ventral. (bvsalud.org)
- The GCD receives auditory and nonauditory inputs and projects in turn to the dorsal cochlear nucleus, thus appearing to serve as a central locus for integrating polysensory information and descending feedback. (johnshopkins.edu)
- There is no PN projection to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (johnshopkins.edu)
- The BSE-challenged mice (A-C) show confluent vacuolation in the dorsal cochlear nucleus that extends ventrally with increasing lesion severity. (cdc.gov)
- And the dorsal cochlear nucleus, located on the brain stem, has been implicated in tinnitus. (livestrong.com)
- The term dorsal cochlear nucleus refers to one of three cochlear nuclei identified by dissection and Nissl stain. (washington.edu)
- 2009) "Two Distinct Types of Inhibition Mediated by Cartwheel Cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. (hamilton.edu)
- In the cochlear nucleus, there is a magnocellular core of neurons whose axons form the ascending auditory pathways. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Previously, it has been shown that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ptf1a is required for the differentiation and survival of neurons of the inferior olivary and cochlear brainstem nuclei, which contribute to motor coordination and sound processing, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
- Here we identified mouse Ptf1a as a novel regulator of cell-fate decisions during both early and late brainstem neurogenesis, which are critical for proper development of several major classes of brainstem cells, including neurons of the somatosensory and viscerosensory nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
- Group 1 cases had labeled cells in both the cochlear nuclei and the lateral and medial superior olivary nuclei. (duke.edu)
- It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex. (nih.gov)
Input from the cochlear2
- Effects of stimulus level on the speech perception abilities of children using cochlear implants or digital hearing aids. (nih.gov)
- Cochlear implants: the view from the brain. (nih.gov)
- One set of skins covers two cochlear implants (left and right). (deafmetalusa.com)
- NIH research contributed to the development of cochlear implants, which have become the most common and successful intervention for children who are profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing. (nih.gov)
- Programming adjustments to a cochlear implant are performed at specialized cochlear implant centers or at clinics by audiologists with expertise in cochlear implants. (fda.gov)
- According to the National Institutes of Health, in the United States, roughly 58,000 cochlear implants have been implanted in adults and 38,000 in children, as of 2012. (fda.gov)
- Cochlear implants often require regular programming visits with an audiologist. (fda.gov)
- 36. Cochlear implants in the management of hearing loss in Neurofibromatosis Type 2. (nih.gov)
- Cochlear implants have successfully restored hearing to thousands of deaf individuals. (extremetech.com)
- The cases could be divided into three groups based on counts of labeled cells in brainstem auditory nuclei. (duke.edu)
- The cochlear nuclei are the first central processors of auditory information and provide inputs to all the major brainstem and midbrain auditory nuclei. (woofahs.com)
- Our data identify Ptf1a as a major regulator of cell-fate specification decisions in the developing brainstem, and as a previously unrecognized developmental regulator of both viscerosensory and somatosensory brainstem nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
- 28. Hearing rehabilitation in neurofibromatosis type 2 patients: cochlear versus auditory brainstem implantation. (nih.gov)
- 33. Cochlear implantation and auditory brainstem implantation in neurofibromatosis type 2. (nih.gov)
- 38. Cochlear implantation in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and bilateral vestibular schwannoma. (nih.gov)
- The evidence is adequate to conclude that cochlear implantation is reasonable and necessary for treatment of bilateral pre-or-postlinguistic, sensorineural, moderate-to-profound hearing loss in individuals who demonstrate limited benefit from amplification. (cms.gov)
Implant sound processor2
- The Cochlear™ Nucleus® 7 Sound Processor is the world's first and only cochlear implant sound processor you can control from your Apple® or Android™ device when using the Nucleus® Smart App . (cochlear.com)
- The remote programming feature is indicated for patients who have had six months of experience with their cochlear implant sound processor and are comfortable with the programming process. (fda.gov)
- Organization of the inferior colliculus of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): differences in distribution of projections from the cochlear nuclei and the superior olivary complex. (duke.edu)
- The signal travels along the auditory pathway from the cochlear nuclear complex proximally to the inferior colliculus. (medscape.com)
- 2012 ) Frequency discrimination and stimulus deviance in the inferior colliculus and cochlear nucleus. (neurotree.org)
- A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound hearing loss, by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear. (fda.gov)
- Both groups had labeled cells in the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the superior paraolivary nucleus. (duke.edu)
- It and the others, the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and the posteroventral cochlear nucleus , form a protrusion on the lateral surface of the medulla , where they are entered by the cochlear nerve and overlaid by the cerebellar flocculus . (washington.edu)
- Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system combines the natural hearing through acoustic amplification of low frequencies with the electrical stimulation of a cochlear implant for high frequencies in one device. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- Excitatory, glutamatergic inputs originate in the cochlear nucleus, but inhibitory synaptic inputs have not been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
- In an analogous way, perhaps the cerebropontocochlear nucleus projection endows the auditory system with a timing mechanism for extracting temporal information. (johnshopkins.edu)
- However, a literature review by Barbee et al suggested that ABR wave I amplitude, as well as the summating potential-to-action potential ratio and speech recognition in noise with and without temporal distortion, offers an effective nonbehavioral measure of cochlear synaptopathy. (medscape.com)
- The Cochlear™ Nucleus® Sound Processors feature built-in technology that lets you stream sound directly to your sound processor. (cochlear.com)
- The type of loss which may be helped by a cochlear implant is known as sensorineural hearing loss or nerve deafness, which results when delicate portions of the inner ear known as hair cells have been damaged and fail to perform their normal function of converting sound waves into electrical current that stimulates the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain, where they are recognized as sound. (cms.gov)
- A cochlear implant, which is an electronic device surgically placed under the skin, bypasses the hair cells and directly transmits sounds through multiple electrodes, which stimulate the auditory nerve. (cms.gov)
- The Nucleus Smart App is amazing because I can monitor my son's battery life, start streaming from his wireless accessories like the Mini Mic and we can find his lost sound processor if he loses it in the park. (cochlear.com)
- Personalize your hearing experience in everyday moments with the Nucleus Smart App. (cochlear.com)
- With the Nucleus Smart App, you can locate a lost Nucleus Sound Processor using the GPS functionality that tells you the last location the sound processor had contact with your compatible smartphone. (cochlear.com)
- Another feature on the Nucleus Smart App is the Hearing Tracker. (cochlear.com)
- 1,2 Along with the recent release of the Nucleus Smart App for Android, Cochlear has also added a first-of-its-kind control feature called ForwardFocus* available to compatible smartphone users of the app. (cochlear.com)
- The Cochlear Nucleus Smart App is available on App Store and Google Play. (cochlear.com)
- HEAROES custom made skins allow you to personalize your Cochlear Implant. (deafmetalusa.com)
- Through insurance and reimbursement services, Cochlear representatives will walk your patients through the steps and answer any questions they may have along the way. (cochlear.com)
- Reorganization of Mn2+ uptake in the superior olivary complex and cochlear nucleus was dependent upon tinnitus status. (cdc.gov)
- In this study, we show that the loss of Ptf1a compromises the development of the nucleus of the solitary tract, which processes viscerosensory information, and the spinal and principal trigeminal nuclei, which integrate somatosensory information of the face. (jneurosci.org)
- The PN represent a key station between the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, so the pontocochlear nucleus projection emerges as a significant source of highly processed information that is introduced into the early stages of the auditory pathway. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Non-clinical testing of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system has also been conducted, which studied the electrical components, biocompatibility and durability of the device. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- The ultimate goal is an auditory prosthesis for deaf individuals who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. (nih.gov)
- Request a free informational guide about the Nucleus System today. (cochlear.com)
- Australia-based Cochlear has obtained US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system, which combines the functions of a cochlear implant and a hearing aid. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- Nucleus Hybrid L24 is a first-of-its-kind system designed for the treatment of those aged 18 and older, with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in the high frequencies and normal to only mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- FDA approval of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system is based on its evaluation of a clinical study involving 50 individuals with severe to profound high-frequency hearing loss who still had significant levels of low-frequency hearing. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- D1376556.CLTD5709 Acceptance and Performance with the Nucleus 7 Cochlear Implant System with Adult Recipients. (cochlear.com)
- Mauger SJ, Warren C, Knight M, Goorevich M, Nel E. Clinical evaluation of the Nucleus 6 cochlear implant system: performance improvements with SmartSound iQ. (cochlear.com)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a remote feature for follow-up programming sessions for the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System through a telemedicine platform. (fda.gov)
- To support the approval of the remote programming feature for the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System, the FDA evaluated data from a clinical study of 39 patients, aged 12 or older, each of whom had a cochlear implant for at least one year. (fda.gov)
- On the other hand, the new Nucleus 6 system from Cochlear now offers some incredible new features with a much more universal appeal. (extremetech.com)
- Following acoustic trauma, MEMRI, the SNA index, showed evidence of spatially dependent rearrangement of Mn2+ uptake within specific brain nuclei (i.e., reorganization). (cdc.gov)
- Ready for next-generation Bluetooth ® LE Audio technology, the Nucleus® 8 Sound Processor will make it easier to bring sound to you, in more places than ever before. (cochlear.com)
- If you don't use a smartphone, you can easily stream phone calls, music and more directly to your Nucleus Sound Processor by using the True Wireless™ Phone Clip -which clips onto your clothing, no cords or strings attached. (cochlear.com)
- The Cochlear Nucleus 8 Sound Processor is compatible with iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. (cochlear.com)
- Having volunteered with Cochlear for over a decade, Shane knew about the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor as soon as it was announced. (cochlear.com)
- According to FDA, Nucleus Hybrid L24 is the first implantable device that may help those with profound sensorineural hearing loss who do not benefit from conventional hearing aids. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- Six of these patients underwent additional surgery to replace the device with a conventional cochlear implant. (medicaldevice-network.com)
- D1333702 Support Animation - Pairing Nucleus 7 with an Android Device. (cochlear.com)
- The injection sites for both group 1 and group 2 were located in the central nucleus, but those for group 1 tended to be located laterally relative to those for group 2, which were located more medially and caudally. (duke.edu)
- The injection sites for group 3 cases lay outside the central nucleus of the IC. (duke.edu)
- The two regions of the central nucleus of the IC, distinguished on the basis of connectivity, are likely to subserve different functions. (duke.edu)
- Music to electric ears: pitch and timbre perception by cochlear implant patients. (nih.gov)
- Demonstration of traveling waves in the guinea pig cochlea by recording cochlear microphonics. (nih.gov)
- Masking of sounds by a background noise:cochlear mechanical correlates. (uclm.es)
- Histopathologic analysis of cochlear nuclei from host-encoded prion protein (PrP)-a mice (C57/BL6) inoculated with (A) fixed material from the suspected case, (B) fixed material from experimental goat bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), (C) unfixed material from experimental sheep BSE, and (D) fixed material from experimental goat scrapie. (cdc.gov)
- A COCHLEAR NUCLEUS AUDITORY PROSTHESIS BASED ON MICROSTIMULATION NIH Guide, Volume 26, Number 33, October 3, 1997 RFP AVAILABLE: NIH-DC-98-01 National Institutes of Health The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, is recompeting an ongoing project that is currently being performed by Huntington Medical Research Institutes, under Contract No. N01-DC-5-2105. (nih.gov)
- Pitch perception in patients with a multi-channel cochlear implant using various pulses width. (nih.gov)
- We used the retrograde tracer Fast Blue to demonstrate that a major projection arises from the contralateral pontine nuclei (PN) to the GCD. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Consult your health professional to determine if you are a candidate for Cochlear technology. (cochlear.com)
- Once your clinician enrolls you in Remote Care**, you can use Cochlear Remote Check to complete a hearing review, or use Cochlear Remote Assist to have a video appointment from anywhere. (cochlear.com)
- If you are attempting to reach us during normal business hours please contact us via phone (800.483.3123) or email (Custom[email protected]) as we could be experiencing technical issues. (mycochlear.com)
- If you are interested in being a guest author for the ProNews blog please contact Jamie by email at [email protected]. (cochlear.com)
- Please enter the Cochlear store and complete your order. (mycochlear.com)