The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.
A member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION of TRANSPORT VESICLES to their target membrane.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.
An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.
A short muscle that arises from the pharyngotympanic tube (EUSTACHIAN TUBE) and inserts into the handle of the MALLEUS. This muscle pulls the handle medially thus controlling the tension and movement of TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Transient potassium currents regulate the discharge patterns of dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cells. (1/432)

Pyramidal cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) show three distinct temporal discharge patterns in response to sound: "pauser," "buildup," and "chopper." Similar discharge patterns are seen in vitro and depend on the voltage from which the cell is depolarized. It has been proposed that an inactivating A-type K+ current (IKI) might play a critical role in generating the three different patterns. In this study we examined the characteristics of transient currents in DCN pyramidal cells to evaluate this hypothesis. Morphologically identified pyramidal cells in rat brain slices (P11-P17) exhibited the three voltage-dependent discharge patterns. Two inactivating currents were present in outside-out patches from pyramidal cells: a rapidly inactivating (IKIF, tau approximately 11 msec) current insensitive to block by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and variably blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) with half-inactivation near -85 mV, and a slowly inactivating TEA- and 4-AP-sensitive current (IKIS, tau approximately 145 msec) with half-inactivation near -35 mV. Recovery from inactivation at 34 degrees C was described by a single exponential with a time constant of 10-30 msec, similar to the rate at which first spike latency increases with the duration of a hyperpolarizing prepulse. Acutely isolated cells also possessed a rapidly activating (<1 msec at 22 degrees C) transient current that activated near -45 mV and showed half-inactivation near -80 mV. A model demonstrated that the deinactivation of IKIF was correlated with the discharge patterns. Overall, the properties of the fast inactivating K+ current were consistent with their proposed role in shaping the discharge pattern of DCN pyramidal cells.  (+info)

Voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances in acutely isolated guinea pig dorsal cochlear nucleus neurons. (2/432)

Although it is known that voltage-gated Ca2+ conductances (VGCCs) contribute to the responses of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) neurons, little is known about the properties of VGCCs in the DCN. In this study, the whole cell voltage-clamp technique was used to examine the pharmacology and voltage dependence of VGCCs in unidentified DCN neurons acutely isolated from guinea pig brain stem. The majority of cells responded to depolarization with sustained inward currents that were enhanced when Ca2+ was replaced by Ba2+, were blocked partially by Ni2+ (100 microM), and were blocked almost completely by Cd2+ (50 microM). Experiments using nifedipine (10 microM), omegaAga IVA (100 nM) and omegaCTX GVIA (500 nM) demonstrated that a variety of VGCC subtypes contributed to the Ba2+ current in most cells, including the L, N, and P/Q types and antagonist-insensitive R type. Although a large depolarization from rest was required to activate VGCCs in DCN neurons, VGCC activation was rapid at depolarized levels, having time constants <1 ms at 22 degrees C. No fast low-threshold inactivation was observed, and a slow high-threshold inactivation was observed at voltages more positive than -20 mV, indicating that Ba2+ currents were carried by high-voltage activated VGCCs. The VGCC subtypes contributing to the overall Ba2+ current had similar voltage-dependent properties, with the exception of the antagonist-insensitive R-type component, which had a slower activation and a more pronounced inactivation than the other components. These data suggest that a variety of VGCCs is present in DCN neurons, and these conductances generate a rapid Ca2+ influx in response to depolarizing stimuli.  (+info)

Quantal size is correlated with receptor cluster area at glycinergic synapses in the rat brainstem. (3/432)

1. Whole-cell patch electrode recordings of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were obtained in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Mean mIPSC peak amplitude was found to vary considerably between AVCN neurons (range, -19.1 to -317.9 pA; mean +/- s.d., -159.1 +/- 100.7 pA; 14 cells). 2. Immunolabelling of glycinergic receptor clusters in AVCN neurons was performed using antibodies against the glycine receptor clustering protein gephyrin. Measurements of the area of gephyrin immunoreactive clusters were obtained using confocal fluorescence microscopy. These measurements showed a large variability in cluster area, not only in the same cell (mean coefficient of variation, c.v., 0.66 +/- 0.18; 16 cells), but also in mean cluster area between cells (range, 0.21-0.84 microm2; 16 cells). 3. A possible relationship between mIPSC amplitude and receptor cluster area was investigated in a further series of experiments, in which mIPSCs recordings and immunolabelling of glycine receptor clusters were obtained for the same cells. In these experiments, AVCN neurons were identified using intracellular labelling with neurobiotin. Successful results using a combination of whole-cell recordings, neurobiotin identification and immunolabelling were obtained for a total of 10 AVCN neurons. Analysis of the results revealed a positive, statistically significant correlation between mean receptor cluster size and mean mIPSC amplitude (P < 0.05, 10 cells, Spearman's correlation test). 4. These results provide direct experimental evidence supporting a hypothesis of central glycinergic transmission in which synaptic strength may be regulated by changes in the size of the postsynaptic receptor region.  (+info)

Role of intrinsic conductances underlying responses to transients in octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus. (4/432)

Recognition of acoustic patterns in natural sounds depends on the transmission of temporal information. Octopus cells of the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus form a pathway that encodes the timing of firing of groups of auditory nerve fibers with exceptional precision. Whole-cell patch recordings from octopus cells were used to examine how the brevity and precision of firing are shaped by intrinsic conductances. Octopus cells responded to steps of current with small, rapid voltage changes. Input resistances and membrane time constants averaged 2.4 MOmega and 210 microseconds, respectively (n = 15). As a result of the low input resistances of octopus cells, action potential initiation required currents of at least 2 nA for their generation and never occurred repetitively. Backpropagated action potentials recorded at the soma were small (10-30 mV), brief (0.24-0.54 msec), and tetrodotoxin-sensitive. The low input resistance arose in part from an inwardly rectifying mixed cationic conductance blocked by cesium and potassium conductances blocked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Conductances blocked by 4-AP also contributed to the repolarization of the action potentials and suppressed the generation of calcium spikes. In the face of the high membrane conductance of octopus cells, sodium and calcium conductances amplified depolarizations produced by intracellular current injection over a time course similar to that of EPSPs. We suggest that this transient amplification works in concert with the shunting influence of potassium and mixed cationic conductances to enhance the encoding of the onset of synchronous auditory nerve fiber activity.  (+info)

Axons from anteroventral cochlear nucleus that terminate in medial superior olive of cat: observations related to delay lines. (5/432)

The differences in path length of axons from the anteroventral cochlear nuclei (AVCN) to the medial superior olive (MSO) are thought to provide the anatomical substrate for the computation of interaural time differences (ITD). We made small injections of biotinylated dextran into the AVCN that produced intracellular-like filling of axons. This permitted three-dimensional reconstructions of individual axons and measurements of axonal length to individual terminals in MSO. Some axons that innervated the contralateral MSO had collaterals with lengths that were graded in the rostrocaudal direction with shorter collaterals innervating more rostral parts of MSO and longer collaterals innervating more caudal parts of MSO. These could innervate all or part of the length of the MSO. Other axons had restricted terminal fields comparable to the size of a single dendritic tree in the MSO. In the ipsilateral MSO, some axons had a reverse, but less steep, gradient in axonal length with greater axonal length associated with more rostral locations; others had restricted terminal fields. Thus, the computation of ITDs is based on gradients of axonal length in both the contralateral and ipsilateral MSO, and these gradients may account for a large part of the range of ITDs encoded by the MSO. Other factors may be involved in the computation of ITDs to compensate for differences between axons.  (+info)

Glutamate regulates IP3-type and CICR stores in the avian cochlear nucleus. (6/432)

Neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), are activated by glutamate released from auditory nerve terminals. If this stimulation is removed, the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) of NM neurons rises and rapid atrophic changes ensue. We have been investigating mechanisms that regulate [Ca2+]i in these neurons based on the hypothesis that loss of Ca2+ homeostasis causes the cascade of cellular changes that results in neuronal atrophy and death. In the present study, video-enhanced fluorometry was used to monitor changes in [Ca2+]i stimulated by agents that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores and to study the modulation of these responses by glutamate. Homobromoibotenic acid (HBI) was used to stimulate inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores, and caffeine was used to mobilize Ca2+ from Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) stores. We provide data indicating that Ca2+ responses attributable to IP3- and CICR-sensitive stores are inhibited by glutamate, acting via a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). We also show that activation of C-kinase by a phorbol ester will reduce HBI-stimulated calcium responses. Although the protein kinase A accumulator, Sp-cAMPs, did not have an effect on HBI-induced responses. CICR-stimulated responses were not consistently attenuated by either the phorbol ester or the Sp-cAMPs. We have previously shown that glutamate attenuates voltage-dependent changes in [Ca2+]i. Coupled with the present findings, this suggests that in these neurons mGluRs serve to limit fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+ rather than increase [Ca2+]i. This system may play a role in protecting highly active neurons from calcium toxicity resulting in apoptosis.  (+info)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. (7/432)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) contains a heterogeneous collection of cell types reflecting the multiple processing tasks undertaken by this nucleus. This in vivo study in the rat used intracellular recordings and dye filling to examine membrane potential changes and firing characteristics of onset chopper (OC) neurons to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time). Stable impalements were made from 15 OC neurons, 7 identified as multipolar cells. Neurons responded to characteristic frequency (CF) tones with sustained depolarization below spike threshold. With increasing stimulus intensity, the depolarization during the initial 10 ms of the response became peaked, and with further increases in intensity the peak became narrower. Onset spikes were generated during this initial depolarization. Tones presented below CF resulted in a broadening of this initial depolarizing component with high stimulus intensities required to initiate onset spikes. This initial component was followed by a sustained depolarizing component lasting until stimulus cessation. The amplitude of the sustained depolarizing component was greatest when frequencies were presented at high intensities below CF resulting in increased action potential firing during this period when compared with comparable high intensities at CF. During the presentation of tones at or above the high-frequency edge of a cell's response area, hyperpolarization was evident during the sustained component. The presence of hyperpolarization and the differences seen in the level of sustained depolarization during CF and off CF tones suggests that changes in membrane responsiveness between the initial and sustained components may be attributed to polysynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. The dual-component processing resulting from convergent auditory nerve excitation and polysynaptic inhibition enables OC neurons to respond in a unique fashion to intensity and frequency features contained within an acoustic stimulus.  (+info)

Responses of cochlear nucleus units in the chinchilla to iterated rippled noises: analysis of neural autocorrelograms. (8/432)

Temporal encoding of stimulus features related to the pitch of iterated rippled noises was studied for single units in the chinchilla cochlear nucleus. Unlike other periodic complex sounds that produce pitch, iterated rippled noises have neither periodic waveforms nor highly modulated envelopes. Infinitely iterated rippled noise (IIRN) is generated when wideband noise (WBN) is delayed (tau), attenuated, and then added to (+) or subtracted from (-) the undelayed WBN through positive feedback. The pitch of IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/tau, whereas the pitch of IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] is at 1/2tau. Temporal responses of cochlear nucleus units were measured using neural autocorrelograms. Synchronous responses as shown by peaks in neural autocorrelograms that occur at time lags corresponding to the IIRN tau can be observed for both primarylike and chopper unit types. Comparison of the neural autocorrelograms in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] and IIRN[-, tau, -1 dB] indicates that the temporal discharge of primarylike units reflects the stimulus waveform fine structure, whereas the temporal discharge patterns of chopper units reflect the stimulus envelope. The pitch of IIRN[+/-, tau, -1 dB] can be accounted for by the temporal discharge patterns of primarylike units but not by the temporal discharge of chopper units. To quantify the temporal responses, the height of the peak in the neural autocorrelogram at a given time lag was measured as normalized rate. Although it is well documented that chopper units give larger synchronous responses than primarylike units to the fundamental frequency of periodic complex stimuli, the largest normalized rates in response to IIRN[+, tau, -1 dB] were obtained for primarylike units, not chopper units. The results suggest that if temporal encoding is important in pitch processing, then primarylike units are likely to be an important cochlear nucleus subsystem that carries the pitch-related information to higher auditory centers.  (+info)

There is no cure for tinnitus, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the condition. These include sound therapy, which involves exposing the ear to soothing sounds to mask the tinnitus, and counseling, which can help individuals cope with the emotional effects of tinnitus. Other treatments may include medications to relieve anxiety or depression, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding loud noises and taking steps to reduce stress.

It is important for individuals who experience tinnitus to seek medical attention if the condition persists or worsens over time, as it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment. A healthcare professional can evaluate the individual's hearing and overall health to determine the cause of the tinnitus and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

There are two main types of noise-induced hearing loss:

1. Acoustic trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs suddenly after a single exposure to an extremely loud noise, such as an explosion or a gunshot.
2. Cumulative trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs gradually over time as a result of repeated exposure to loud noises, such as machinery or music.

The risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss increases with the intensity and duration of noise exposure. Factors that can contribute to an individual's risk of developing NIHL include:

1. Loudness of the noise: Noises that are louder than 85 decibels can cause permanent damage to the hair cells in the inner ear.
2. Prolonged exposure: The longer an individual is exposed to loud noises, the greater their risk of developing NIHL.
3. Age: Older adults are more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to the natural aging process and the degeneration of the hair cells in the inner ear.
4. Genetics: Some individuals may be more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to genetic factors.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or otosclerosis, can increase an individual's risk of developing NIHL.

The symptoms of noise-induced hearing loss can vary depending on the severity of the damage. Some common symptoms include:

1. Difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds
2. Difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments
3. Ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus)
4. Muffled hearing
5. Decreased sensitivity to sounds

There is currently no cure for noise-induced hearing loss, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These include:

1. Hearing aids: These can help amplify sounds and improve an individual's ability to hear.
2. Cochlear implants: These are electronic devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
3. Tinnitus management: There are several techniques and therapies available to help manage tinnitus, including sound therapy, counseling, and relaxation techniques.
4. Speech therapy: This can help individuals with hearing loss improve their communication skills and better understand speech in noisy environments.

Prevention is key when it comes to noise-induced hearing loss. To reduce your risk of developing NIHL, you should:

1. Avoid loud noises whenever possible
2. Wear earplugs or earmuffs when exposed to loud noises
3. Take regular breaks in a quiet space if you are working in a loud environment
4. Keep the volume down on personal audio devices
5. Get your hearing checked regularly to identify any potential issues early on.

The term "decerebrate" comes from the Latin word "cerebrum," which means brain. In this context, the term refers to a state where the brain is significantly damaged or absent, leading to a loss of consciousness and other cognitive functions.

Some common symptoms of the decerebrate state include:

* Loss of consciousness
* Flaccid paralysis (loss of muscle tone)
* Dilated pupils
* Lack of responsiveness to stimuli
* Poor or absent reflexes
* Inability to speak or communicate

The decerebrate state can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Severe head injury
* Stroke or cerebral vasculature disorders
* Brain tumors or cysts
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Traumatic brain injury

Treatment for the decerebrate state is typically focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may involve medications to control seizures, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the decerebrate state may be a permanent condition, and individuals may require long-term care and support.

Symptoms of conductive hearing loss may include:

* Difficulty hearing soft sounds
* Muffled or distorted sound
* Ringing or other noises in the affected ear
* Difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy environments

Causes of conductive hearing loss can include:

* Middle ear infections (otitis media)
* Eardrum perforation or tearing
* Tubal erosion or narrowing
* Ossicular anomalies or abnormalities
* Certain head or neck injuries
* Tumors or cysts in the middle ear

Diagnosis of conductive hearing loss typically involves a physical examination and a series of tests, including:

* Otoscopy (examination of the outer ear and eardrum)
* Tympanometry (measurement of the movement of the eardrum)
* Acoustic reflex threshold testing (assessment of the acoustic reflex, which is a normal response to loud sounds)
* Otoacoustic emissions testing (measurement of the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound waves)

Treatment for conductive hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Antibiotics for middle ear infections
* Tubes inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and improve air flow
* Surgery to repair or replace damaged ossicles or other middle ear structures
* Hearing aids or cochlear implants to amplify sound waves and improve hearing.

There are several types of deafness, including:

1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by problems with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. It is typically permanent and cannot be treated with medication or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of deafness is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Auditory processing disorder (APD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing sounds, even though the ears are functioning normally.
5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by ringing or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of sound. It can be a symptom of deafness or a separate condition.

There are several ways to diagnose deafness, including:

1. Hearing tests: These can be done in a doctor's office or at a hearing aid center. They involve listening to sounds through headphones and responding to them.
2. Imaging tests: These can include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any physical abnormalities in the ear or brain.
3. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: This is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
4. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: This is a test that measures the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.

There are several ways to treat deafness, including:

1. Hearing aids: These are devices that amplify sound and can be worn in or behind the ear. They can help improve hearing for people with mild to severe hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve. They can help restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Speech therapy: This can help people with hearing loss improve their communication skills, such as speaking and listening.
4. Assistive technology: This can include devices such as captioned phones, alerting systems, and assistive listening devices that can help people with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
5. Medications: There are several medications available that can help treat deafness, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or steroids to reduce inflammation.
6. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat deafness, such as when there is a blockage in the ear or when a tumor is present.
7. Stem cell therapy: This is a relatively new area of research that involves using stem cells to repair damaged hair cells in the inner ear. It has shown promising results in some studies.
8. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to repair or replace damaged or missing genes that can cause deafness. It is still an experimental area of research, but it has shown promise in some studies.
9. Implantable devices: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can help restore hearing by bypassing damaged hair cells. Examples include cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants.
10. Binaural hearing: This involves using a combination of hearing aids and technology to improve hearing in both ears, which can help improve speech recognition and reduce the risk of falls.

It's important to note that the best treatment for deafness will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and personal preferences. It's important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.

High-frequency hearing loss can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis): This is the most common cause of high-frequency hearing loss and affects many people as they age.
2. Noise exposure: Exposure to loud noises, such as those from heavy machinery or music, can damage the hair cells in the inner ear and lead to high-frequency hearing loss.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis or labyrinthitis, can cause inflammation and damage to the inner ear and auditory nerve, leading to high-frequency hearing loss.
4. Trauma: A head injury or other trauma to the head or ear can cause damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve, resulting in high-frequency hearing loss.
5. Genetics: Some people may be born with a genetic predisposition to high-frequency hearing loss.

Symptoms of high-frequency hearing loss can include difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds, such as women's and children's voices, birds chirping, or the high notes of music. People with high-frequency hearing loss may also have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments or when background noise is present.

Treatment for high-frequency hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and can include hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address any underlying conditions that are contributing to the hearing loss. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have high-frequency hearing loss, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve communication and quality of life.

... the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the ... At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear nucleus and the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus ... The outputs from the cochlear nuclei are received in higher regions of the auditory brainstem. The cochlear nuclei (CN) are ... and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of ...
Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the ... Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN, also known as the "tuberculum acusticum"), is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral ... The second set of inputs is relayed through a set of small granule cells in the cochlear nucleus. There are also a great number ...
Dorsal cochlear granule cells Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. ... The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or three short dendrites that give rise to a few ... Granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus play a role in the perception and response to sounds in our environment. Olfactory ... Its axon projects to the molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus where it forms parallel fibers, also similar to ...
He conducted some of the first studies of the neural coding of complex (speech-like) sounds in the cochlear nucleus and showed ... Møller, Aage R. (1974). "Coding of sounds with rapidly varying spectrum in the cochlear nucleus". The Journal of the Acoustical ... "The Cochlear Nucleus-A tribute to Aage Møller". "Aage R. Moller". Møller, Aage R. (1972). "Coding of sounds in lower levels of ... Møller found evidence that the spasm was created by the facial motor nucleus probably through the process of activation of ...
"Technology for an Advanced Cochlear Nucleus Auditory Prosthesis" (5R01DC009643). NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools ...
Robert Aaron Levine (1999). "Somatic (craniocervical) tinnitus and the dorsal cochlear nucleus hypothesis". American Journal of ... Hearing loss may have many different causes, but among those with tinnitus, the major cause is cochlear injury. Ototoxic drugs ... About 75% of new cases are related to emotional stress as the trigger factor rather than to precipitants involving cochlear ...
"Dual Coding of Frequency Modulation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 38 (17): 4123-4137. doi: ... cochlear) or central damage, development, ageing and rehabilitation systems (e.g., hearing aids or cochlear implants) on the ... Lorenzi, C.; Gallégo, S.; Patterson, R. D. (July 1997). "Discrimination of temporal asymmetry in cochlear implantees". The ... Füllgrabe, Christian; Meyer, Bernard; Lorenzi, Christian (2003-04-01). "Effect of cochlear damage on the detection of complex ...
... spike timing-dependent plasticities in the dorsal cochlear nucleus". Nat Neurosci. 7 (7): 719-725. doi:10.1038/nn1272. PMID ...
Saada AA; Niparko JK; Ryugo DK (1996). "Morphological changes in the cochlear nucleus of congenitally deaf white cats". Brain ...
... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) Each of ... Ear anatomy Cochlear nucleus innervated by a branching auditory nerve fibre Terminal nuclei of the vestibular nerve, with their ... There, its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as ... to the dorsal portion of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and the uppermost dorsal portions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. ...
Smith L, Gross J, Morest DK (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in the cochlear nucleus of the adult mouse following ... Kim JJ, Gross J, Potashner SJ, Morest DK (September 2004). "Fine structure of degeneration in the cochlear nucleus of the ... Josephson EM, Morest DK (July 2003). "Synaptic nests lack glutamate transporters in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse". Synapse ... in the embryonic development of the mouse cochlear nucleus". Journal of Neurobiology. 66 (9): 897-915. doi:10.1002/neu.20264. ...
These somatosensory neurons (fusiform cells) send signals to the cochlear nucleus and make it respond to sound. She showed that ... Specifically, the Auricle (or Michigan Tinnitus Device) looks to reprogram the fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. ... Martel, David T.; Pardo-Garcia, Thibaut R.; Shore, Susan E. (May 21, 2019). "Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Fusiform-cell Plasticity ... Her doctoral research involved studying how the cochlear responds to frequency-varying signals. After earning her doctorate, ...
Hashisaki GT, Rubel EW (1989). "Effects of unilateral cochlea removal on anteroventral cochlear nucleus neurons in developing ... Born DE, Rubel EW (1985). "Afferent influences on brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: neuron number and size following ... His group also studied the effects of cochlear removal on brainstem organization in chick and in gerbil, demonstrating a ... Parks TN, Rubel EW (1975). "Organization and development of brain stem auditory nuclei of the chicken: organization of ...
The cochlear nerve is lateral to the root of the vestibular nerve. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus, ... The acoustic tubercle is a nucleus on the end of the cochlear nerve. ...
"Temperature affects voltage-sensitive conductances differentially in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus". J ... stochastic oscillations in pacemaker neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus are partially responsible for the organization of ...
Model for the Convergence of Inputs Upon Neurons in the Cochlear Nucleus, D.Sc. Thesis, MIT, 1966. Chaney, T.J. and C.E. Molnar ... Kim, D.O. and C.E. Molnar: Cochlear mechanics: Measurements and models, in The Nervous System, Vol. 3, Human Communication and ...
"Prof (Dr.) Mohan Kameswaran's keynote address at CochlearNucleus® 6 launch for MERF recipients". YouTube video. Cochlear ... He is one of the pioneers of cochlear implant surgery in India and a visiting professor at Rajah Muthiah Medical College of the ... "Description". COCHLEAR IMPLANT GROUP OF INDIA. 2005. Retrieved 12 December 2015. "City to Host Meet for ENT Surgeons". Indian ... Honouring his introduction of Cochlear Implant Program in Sri Lanka, the President of the country presented him with the Award ...
... reticular thalamic nuclei, cortical and hippocampal interneurons > inferior colliculi, cochlear and vestibular nuclei), and in ... Kv3.1 channels are prominently expressed in brain (cerebellum > globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra > ... focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii". The Journal of Physiology. 562 (Pt 3): 655-72. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073338. PMC ...
... the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (mammalian anteroventral cochlear nucleus) and the cochlear nucleus angularis (see figure ... mammalian posteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei). The neurons of the nucleus magnocellularis phase-lock, but are fairly ... Neurons from the nucleus laminaris project to the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and to the anterior ... The fibers of the auditory nerve innervate both cochlear nuclei in the brainstem, ...
"Effects of monaural and binaural sound deprivation on cell development in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of rats". Exp. ... "Late appearance and deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear nucleus (nuc. magnocellularis)". ... Webster DB, Webster M (1979). "Effects of neonatal conductive hearing loss on brain stem auditory nuclei". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. ... Smith ZD, Gray L, Rubel EW (October 1983). "Afferent influences on brainstem auditory nuclei of the chicken: n. laminaris ...
Moushegian, G.; Rupert, A. L. (1973). "Response diversity of neurons in ventral cochlear nucleus of kangaroo rat to low- ... This phenomenon came to be known as the cochlear microphonic (CM). The FFR may have been accidentally discovered back in 1930; ... but it was later discovered that the response is non-neural and is cochlear in origin, specifically from the outer hair cells. ... to describe the CM-like neural components recorded directly from several brainstem nuclei (research based on Jewett and ...
Her principal field of research has been studies of the cochlear nuclei. She has been active in the Norwegian chapter of the ...
The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which contain the special somatic afferent column. The inferior olivary nucleus, which ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ... The dorsal column nuclei, which contain the gracile and cuneate nuclei. Basal plate neuroblasts give rise to: The hypoglossal ... They are caused by masses of gray matter known as the gracile nucleus and the cuneate nucleus. The soma (cell bodies) in these ...
"The effect of the acoustic nerve chronic electric stimulation upon the guinea pig cochlear nucleus development". Acta ... By using the same approach to reconstruct the solitary tract and its gustatory nuclei, he observed that the nucleus of the last ... "History of the french cochlear implant". Chouard, CH (Dec 2014). "Technical survey of the French role in multichannel cochlear ... the cochlear implant would need several electrodes, so it could stimulate the different frequency regions on the "cochlear ...
... known as the antero-ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), postero-ventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) ... The SOC receives input from cochlear nuclei, primarily the ipsilateral and contralateral AVCN. Four nuclei make up the SOC but ... Next in the pathway is the cochlear nucleus, which receives mainly ipsilateral (that is, from the same side) afferent input. ... The IC is situated in the midbrain and consists of a group of nuclei the largest of these is the central nucleus of inferior ...
... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the ... and receives projections predominantly from the ventral cochlear nucleus, although the dorsal cochlear nucleus projects there ... posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). The trapezoid body is a bundle of ... Some of these axons come from the cochlear nucleus and cross over to the other side before traveling on to the superior olivary ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior colliculus, and ... Köppl, Christine (1997). "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the ... "Mode-Locked Spike Trains in Responses of Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Chopper and Onset Neurons to Periodic Stimuli". Journal of ... Nucleus accumbens (a part of striatum) is involved in both music related emotions, as well as rhythmic timing. According to the ...
Their axons do not extend beyond the dorsal cochlear nucleus but synapse with other cartwheel cells and pyramidal cells within ... Berrebi, AS; Mugnaini, E (1991). "Distribution and targets of the cartwheel cell axon in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the ... Cartwheel cells are neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where they greatly outnumber the other inhibitory interneurons ... and therefore plays a key role in the shaping of the overall output of the superficial layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. ...
The posterior branch enters the dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nucleus to give rise to the auditory dorsal stream.: 8 ... division of the two streams first occurs in the auditory nerve where the anterior branch enters the anterior cochlear nucleus ...
The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... The purpose of the middle ear ossicles is to overcome the impedance mismatch between air waves and cochlear waves, by providing ... The inferior colliculus in turn projects to the medial geniculate nucleus, a part of the thalamus where sound information is ... hearing assistive devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants. In a clinical setting, this management is offered by ...
... visceromotor Nuclei present in the Pons Cochlear nuclei (VIII) - sensory Dorsal cochlear nucleus Ventral cochlear nucleus ... Nuclei present in the medulla Hypoglossal nucleus (XII) - motor Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (X) - visceromotor Nucleus ... Facial nucleus (VII) - motor Abducens nucleus (VI) - motor Trigeminal motor nucleus (V) - motor Main trigeminal nucleus (V) - ... Nuclei present in the Midbrain Red nucleus - motor, extrapyramidal Trochlear nucleus (IV) - motor Oculomotor nucleus (III) - ...
1996 Keith Daniel, Nucleus Ltd. 1997 Peter C. Farrell, ResMed 1998 George Kossoff, CSIRO 1999 Richard Kirsner, La Trobe ... an outstanding Australian biophysicist and biomedical engineer who performed pioneering work in the area of the cochlear ...
Mayo Family Gryphaeidae Vyalov, 1936 Neopycnodonte cochlear (Poli, 1795) Superfamily Pinnoidea Leach, 1819 Family Pinnidae ... 1930 Nucula nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758) Nucula sulcata Bronn, 1831 Nucula tumidula Malm, 1861 Superfamily Pristiglomoidea Sanders ...
... and cochlear nucleus. Consequently, the absence of an acoustic reflex, by itself, may not be conclusive in identifying the ... the acoustic reflex is integral to the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans model and the Integrated Cochlear Energy ...
... inventor of cochlear ear implant David A. Cooper AO - HIV/AIDS researcher and director of the Kirby Institute Grace Cuthbert- ... known for the initial mass function and accretion disk model of active galactic nuclei Paul D. Scully-Power - first Australian- ...
Researchers targeted 177 brain cells in the thalamus lateral geniculate nucleus area, which decodes signals from the retina. ... 11-4798 (1 March 2011). "Cochlear Implants". National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Miguel Nicolelis ... cochlear implants had been implanted as neuroprosthetic device in approximately 220,000 people worldwide. There are also ... "Reconstruction of natural scenes from ensemble responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus". The Journal of Neuroscience. 19 ( ...
... which joins with the cochlear nerve. It receives its blood supply from the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery, which is ... The medial vestibular nucleus (Schwalbe nucleus) is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata. ... DESCENDING MLF..Bilaterally for head/neck/eye movements It is one of the nuclei that corresponds to CN VIII, corresponding to ... Lateral vestibulo-spinal tract (lateral vestibular nucleus "Deiters")- via ventrolateral medulla and spinal cord to ventral ...
At the level of the cochlear nucleus, several cell types show an enhancement of ENVn information. Multipolar cells can show ... Some cochlear implant systems transmit information about TFSp in the channels of the cochlear implants that are tuned to low ... in the ventral cochlear nucleus. These synapses contact bushy cells (Spherical and globular) and faithfully transmit (or ... nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant". Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 38: V-IX, 1-181. doi:10.1159/000414597. PMID ...
1985). "Numerical estimations of structures in the cochlear nuclei and cochlear afferents and efferents". Acta Otolaryngol ... Efferent Fibers of the Cochlear Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus". In Rasmussen, G. L.; Windle, W. F. (eds.). Neural Mechanisms of ... Acoustic stimulation of the inner hair cells sends a neural signal to the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), and the axons ... This claim (that MOC-mediated cochlear protection is an epiphenomenon) was recently challenged by Darrow et al. (2007), who ...
2019). Nucleus-like structures are extracted from Yuka mammoth specimen by Yamagata et al. (2019), who visualise their dynamics ... Tony Harper; Guillermo W. Rougier (2019). "Petrosal morphology and cochlear function in Mesozoic stem therians". PLOS ONE. 14 ( ... "Signs of biological activities of 28,000-year-old mammoth nuclei in mouse oocytes visualized by live-cell imaging". Scientific ...
Gantz, Bruce J.; Turner, Christopher; Gfeller, Kate E.; Lowder, Mary W. (2005-05-01). "Preservation of Hearing in Cochlear ... and subthalamic nucleus. Closed-loop cortical neuromodulation has also been investigated as a treatment technique for ... Some examples of neural prostheses include cochlear implants that can aid in restoring hearing, artificial silicon retina ...
... instruction may be given to the MOC efferents to inhibit the output of the right cochlear rather than the left cochlear. If the ... The medial olivocochlear bundle (MOC) is part of a collection of brainstem nuclei known as the superior olivary complex (SOC). ... The automatic response involves the MOC efferents inhibiting the output of the cochlear of the left ear. The output of the ... Dichotic listening tests can be used to measure the efficacy of the attentional control of cochlear inhibition and the inter- ...
A gammatone response was originally proposed in 1972 as a description of revcor functions measured in the cochlear nucleus of ... P. I. M. Johannesma (1972). "The pre-response stimulus ensemble of neurons in the cochlear nucleus". IPO Symposium on Hearing ...
First reports on critical periods came from deaf children and animals that received a cochlear implant to restore hearing. ... In general electrophysiological analyses of axons and neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus showed that the visual ... Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM (March 1998). "Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity". Science. 279 (5357): ... Kral A, Sharma A (February 2012). "Developmental neuroplasticity after cochlear implantation". Trends in Neurosciences. 35 (2 ...
... cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) → LLN → caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The whole process has a less than 10ms[ ... First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... Third, a synapse occurs from the PnC axons to the motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus or the spinal cord that will ... The activation of the facial motor nucleus causes a jerk of the head while an activation in the spinal cord causes the whole ...
They contain nuclei and microvilli but are limiting of plasma membrane, they are also lack of endoplasmic reticulum and have ... Li-dong Z, Jun L, Yin-yan H, Jian-he S, Shi-ming Y (2008). "Supporting Cells-a New Area in Cochlear Physiology Study". Journal ... A high concentration of K+ would lead to depolarization of Hensen's cells and maintain a high level of endo cochlear potential ... Defourny J, Mateo Sánchez S, Schoonaert L, Robberecht W, Davy A, Nguyen L, Malgrange B (April 2015). "Cochlear supporting cell ...
... anterior thalamic nucleus ventral cochlear nucleus ventral corticospinal tract ventral horn cell ventral lateral nucleus of ... notochord nuchal ligament nucleus nucleus accumbens nucleus ambiguus nucleus fastigius nucleus of Luys nucleus pulposus nucleus ... soleus solitary nucleus solitary tract somatic somatic motor nuclei somite spasm spasticity specific sensory nucleus of ... dissection distal diverticulum doll's eyes phenomenon dorsal dorsal cochlear nucleus dorsal column dorsal column nuclei dorsal ...
... to bind to and remove p27 from the nucleus. Once p27 is excluded from the nucleus it cannot inhibit the cell's growth. In the ... Knockdown of CDKN1B stimulates regeneration of cochlear hair cells in mice. Since CDKN1B prevents cells from entering the cell ... In mammals where regeneration of cochlear hair cells normally does not occur, this inhibition could help regrow damaged cells ... while in benign melanomas p27 remained localized to the nucleus. P27 is misplaced to the cytoplasm by the MAP2K, Ras, and Akt ...
Cochlear NMDARs are the target of intense research to find pharmacological solutions to treat tinnitus. NMDARs are associated ... This allows the transcription factors in the nucleus to respond differently based in the phosphorylation state of Jacob. NMDA ... This information is then transported to the nucleus. Phosphorylation of Jacob does not take place with extrasynaptic NMDA ... February 2013). "Encoding and transducing the synaptic or extrasynaptic origin of NMDA receptor signals to the nucleus". Cell. ...
1977). "Observation of a Dimuon Resonance at 9.5 GeV in 400-GeV Proton-Nucleus Collisions". Physical Review Letters. 39 (5): ... December 16 - The first microelectronic multi-channel cochlear implant, developed by Ingeborg Hochmair and Erwin Hochmair, is ...
Pochukalina GN, Davis DS, Kostiuchek DF, Murti KG, Parfenov VN (1998). "[Splicing factors in oocyte nuclei from human antral ... "Isolation of novel and known genes from a human fetal cochlear cDNA library using subtractive hybridization and differential ...
Nucleus 5, a fifth-generation cochlear implant, was implanted in the ear of a three-year-old hearing-impaired child at AIIMS.[ ... He is one of the pioneers of cochlear implant surgery in India and performed the country's first bilateral cochlear ... "Inception of Cochlear implantation in AIIMS". AIIMS. Retrieved 11 July 2011. "Dr Ramesh C Deka : An outstanding alumnus". ... "Nucleus 5". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010. "AIIMS doctors perform Hi ...
In contrast, the tonotopic map within the cochlear nucleus runs parallel and obliquely through the nucleus and the ABI ... It is believed that the tumours caused by the NF2 damage specialised cells in the cochlear nucleus important for speech ... the electrode array of an ABI is paddle-shaped and is placed on the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem. By stimulating the ... House's original ABI consisted of two ball electrodes that were implanted near the surface of the cochlear nucleus on the ...
These impairments are associated with lesions in the basal ganglia, auditory nuclei of the brain stem, and oculomotor nuclei of ... Cochlear implants and hearing aids have also been known to improve the hearing loss that can come with kernicterus (auditory ...
... cochlear implant pioneered by Dr Graeme Clark AC. In 1982 Nucleus, by then a multinational company, was floated on the ... Control of Nucleus was gained by Pacific Dunlop Limited in 1988. Nucleus and Trainor are generally accorded recognition as the ... Nucleus Limited began as a private company in Sydney, Australia, in 1965. It was founded by former Watson-Victor executive Paul ... Smith, Ailie (2006). "Nucleus Limited (1965 - 1988)". Australian Science at Work (Corporate entry). Australian Science and ...
Nucleus Smart App. We got you covered even when you dont have a smartphone. Learn more! ... Easily connect with your Android or Apple phone with Nucleus® compatibility technology, ... The Cochlear Nucleus 8 Sound Processor is compatible with iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. Apple, the Apple logo, FaceTime, Made ... The CochlearNucleus® Sound Processors feature built-in technology that lets you stream sound directly to your sound processor ...
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) D cell (Definition) Electrophysiological properties of Cochlear nucleus (ventral) D cells from ... More information about Cochlear nucleus (ventral) D cells in other resources:. *View information about Cochlear nucleus ( ... Expert curators for Cochlear nucleus (ventral) D cells:. No assigned expert curators:. Become a neuron curator (login required) ... View genes differentially expressed in brain regions containing Cochlear nucleus (ventral) D cells from the Allen Institute ...
And always and other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of Cochlear Limited or Cochlear Bone Anchored ... Please enter the Cochlear store and complete your order. You may still submit to your insurance company with your invoice. ... Copyright © Cochlear Limited 2020. All rights reserved. Hear now. ... as we could be experiencing technical issues. Thank you. ...
"Projections of the pontine nuclei to the cochlear nucleus in rats",. abstract = "In the cochlear nucleus, there is a ... Ohlrogge, M., Doucet, J. R., & Ryugo, D. K. (2001). Projections of the pontine nuclei to the cochlear nucleus in rats. Journal ... Projections of the pontine nuclei to the cochlear nucleus in rats. / Ohlrogge, Matthias; Doucet, John R.; Ryugo, David K. In: ... Ohlrogge, Matthias ; Doucet, John R. ; Ryugo, David K. / Projections of the pontine nuclei to the cochlear nucleus in rats. In ...
ForwardFocus can help your Nucleus® 7 patients hear better in noisy environments- a feature that reduces distracting noise ... Meet Shane, a bilateral CochlearNucleus® recipient who says his world changed when he upgraded to the CochlearNucleus® 7 ... 87 percent reported they found it easier to control/monitor the Cochlear Nucleus 7 Sound Processor with the Cochlear Nucleus® ... A study of cochlear implant recipients participating in a trial of the Cochlear Nucleus 7 Sound Processor found1:. *100 percent ...
FDA approved a remote feature for follow-up programming sessions for the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System through a telemedicine ... The FDA granted the approval of the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System to Cochlear Americas. ... To support the approval of the remote programming feature for the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System, the FDA evaluated data from ... "Programming adjustments to a cochlear implant are performed at specialized cochlear implant centers or at clinics by ...
Cochlear Nucleus A8.186.211.865.428.600.135. Coffee D20.215.784.249. Colistin D12.776.543.695.54.600.110. Colitis, Ischemic ... Vestibular Nuclei A8.186.211.865.428.600.800. Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral A8.186.211.865.428.600.800.800. Visual Cortex A8.186. ... Suprachiasmatic Nucleus A8.186.211.730.385.357.342.625 A8.186.211.730.317.357.342.625. Supraoptic Nucleus A8.186.211.730. ... Red Nucleus A8.186.211.653.822.642. Reperfusion Injury C14.907.553.700 C14.907.725. Resins, Plant D5.750.78.740 D5.750.78.840. ...
Inversely gated backgrounds also produce small dynamic range shifts in the cochlear nucleus (Gibson et al., 1985) and IC (Rees ... 1985) Similarity of dynamic-range adjustment in auditory-nerve and cochlear nuclei. J Neurophysiol 53:940-958. ... 5A), whereas the cochlear amplifier is thought to have a higher gain in the cochlear base than in the apex (Cooper and Yates, ... 2000) Kinetics of exocytosis and endocytosis at the cochlear inner hair cell afferent synapse of the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
And the dorsal cochlear nucleus, located on the brain stem, has been implicated in tinnitus." ... or cochlear implants if you are severely hearing impaired) will often help. ...
Here, we use volume electron microscopy (EM) of the mouse cochlear nucleus to construct synaptic maps that precisely specify ... Globular bushy cells (GBCs) of the cochlear nucleus play central roles in the temporal processing of sound. Despite ... volumetric imaging constrains compartmental models to explore synaptic integration and temporal processing by cochlear nucleus ... volumetric imaging constrains compartmental models to explore synaptic integration and temporal processing by cochlear nucleus ...
Mode-locked spike trains in responses of ventral cochlear nucleus chopper and onset neurons to periodic stimuli Journal of ...
5. Recio-Spinoso A (2012). Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus ... Single-unit recordings of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons in live rodents. ... 4. Recio-Spinoso A Cooper NP (2013). Masking of sounds by a background noise:cochlear mechanical correlates. J Physiol (Lond.) ...
Cochlear Implant. Nucleus 6 bionic ear: A future of cyborgs with intelligent hearing draws closer DBS implants can dramatically ... On the other hand, the new Nucleus 6 system from Cochlear now offers some incredible new features with a much more universal ... Cochlear implants have successfully restored hearing to thousands of deaf individuals. With advances in microelectronics, their ...
Toward New Generation Auditory Brainstem Implants: Electrical and Optogenetic Stimulation of the Cochlear Nucleus ...
Reorganization of Mn2+ uptake in the superior olivary complex and cochlear nucleus was dependent upon tinnitus status. However ... showed evidence of spatially dependent rearrangement of Mn2+ uptake within specific brain nuclei (i.e., reorganization). ...
Reorganization of Mn2+ uptake in the superior olivary complex and cochlear nucleus was dependent upon tinnitus status. However ... showed evidence of spatially dependent rearrangement of Mn2+ uptake within specific brain nuclei (i.e., reorganization). ...
Enjoy the combination of a Nucleus Cochlear Implant together with a ReSound hearing aid - download a brochure today! ... This means that with a CochlearNucleus® 8, Nucleus® 7 or Kanso® 2 Sound Processor and a compatible ReSound hearing aid* ( ... when using a compatible ReSound hearing aid and CochlearNucleus® 8, Nucleus® 7 or Kanso® 2 Sound Processor. ... Pairing your Nucleus 7 Sound Processor and ReSound hearing aid with a Cochlear Wireless Mini Mic 2/2+ ...
... characteristic vacuoles in the trigeminal nerve nucleus, and confluent vacuolation in the dorsal cochlear nuclei in PrP-a mice ... Histopathologic analysis of cochlear nuclei from host-encoded prion protein (PrP)-a mice (C57/BL6) inoculated with (A) fixed ... Histopathologic analysis of cochlear nuclei from host-encoded prion protein (PrP)-a mice (C57/BL6) inoculated with (A) fixed ...
... when cochlear hair cells become specified. Utilizing surface markers for the cochlear prosensory domain, namely EPCAM and CD271 ... Hearing requires mechanosensitive hair cells in the organ of Corti, which derive from progenitors of the cochlear duct. Here ... Sensory hair cells located in the organ of Corti are essential for cochlear mechanosensation. Their loss is irreversible in ... examine human inner ear development by studying key developmental markers and describe organoid cultures from human cochlear ...
... the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB), and the A1 neuron. Weighted ...
In her current role, Bobbi is responsible for the fitting software for both Nucleus® Cochlear Implants and Baha® products, the ... Coordinator, Cochlear Implant Program Boys Town National Research Hospital. Michelle Hughes, PhD, CCC-A received her MA in ... Telepractice for Cochlear Implants. 420-480 Minutes. Tele-Tinnitus Progressive Tinnitus Management (PTM) via Clinical Video ... Cochlear Implants Hearing Evaluation - Children Hearing Evaluation - Adults Practice Management and Professional Issues ...
Mice with behavioral evidence of tinnitus exhibit dorsal cochlear nucleus hyperactivity due to decreased GABAergic inhibition. ...
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and ... The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and ... Cochlear Nucleus - Preferred Concept UI. M0026693. Scope note. ... Cochlear Nucleus Entry term(s). Cochlear Nuclei Nuclei, ... Cochlear Nuclei. Nuclei, Cochlear. Nucleus, Cochlear. Tree number(s):. A08. ...
... after stimulus onset between an inhibitory interneuron and its target postsynaptic cell in the feline dorsal cochlear nucleus. ...
University of Birmingham - Identifying Cochlear Nucleus Drug Targets Nick47, Dec 14, 2022, in forum: Research News ...
Cochlear Nucleus 98% * Glycine 80% * Glycine Receptors 78% * Neurons 68% * AMPA RECEPTORS IN AUDITORY NEURONS. Trussell, L. ...
a) cochlear nuclei. b) superior olivary nuclei. c) medial geniculate nuclei. d) inferior colliculi ... in addition to the nucleus accumbens, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the amygdala are thought to play major roles ... evidence that the nucleus accumbens is involved in drug addictions comes from reports that ... b) microinjection of addictive drugs into the nucleus accumbens can lead to the development of conditioned place preferences ...
Morphological and morphometrical maturation of ventral cochlear nucleus in human foetus. Mishra, Sabita; Roy, T S; Wadhwa, ... Although the human cochlear nucleus neurons attain adult morphological characters by mid-gestation, there are hardly any ... Auditory impulses perceived by the hair cells of the organ of corti are relayed in the cochlear nucleus, the first relay ... There are very few reports available regarding the morphological and functional maturation of the cochlear nucleus in human. ...
Cochlear Nucleus A8.186.211.865.428.600.135. Coffee D20.215.784.249. Colistin D12.776.543.695.54.600.110. Colitis, Ischemic ... Vestibular Nuclei A8.186.211.865.428.600.800. Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral A8.186.211.865.428.600.800.800. Visual Cortex A8.186. ... Suprachiasmatic Nucleus A8.186.211.730.385.357.342.625 A8.186.211.730.317.357.342.625. Supraoptic Nucleus A8.186.211.730. ... Red Nucleus A8.186.211.653.822.642. Reperfusion Injury C14.907.553.700 C14.907.725. Resins, Plant D5.750.78.740 D5.750.78.840. ...
Debbie is a bilateral Cochlear Nucleus 7 recipient. Is also an amazing person. Her hearing loss was gradual so she does not ... Today she is a bilateral Cochlear Nucleus 7 recipient with a 95% speech comprehension and she has returned to playing a guitar ... Welcome to Cochlear Implant Basics. Reminder. Cochlear Implant Basics is not offering medical advice. Please consult your own ... Will cochlear implants help me?" And he looked at me and goes, "Of course theyll help you hear. Youre hearing nothing now." ...
  • The requirement will study the feasibility of an auditory prosthesis for the deaf based on stimulating microelectrodes placed into the ventral cochlear nucleus. (
  • The terminals are confined to those parts of the GCD immediately surrounding the ventral cochlear nucleus. (
  • Single-unit recordings of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons in live rodents. (
  • Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats. (
  • The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. (
  • Synaptic inputs onto medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons in the ventral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VNTB) in the auditory brainstem are poorly understood. (
  • El núcleo coclear se encuentra en posición lateral y dorsolateral a los pedúnculos cerebelosos inferiores y está dividido funcionalmente en las porciones dorsal y ventral. (
  • The GCD receives auditory and nonauditory inputs and projects in turn to the dorsal cochlear nucleus, thus appearing to serve as a central locus for integrating polysensory information and descending feedback. (
  • There is no PN projection to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (
  • The BSE-challenged mice (A-C) show confluent vacuolation in the dorsal cochlear nucleus that extends ventrally with increasing lesion severity. (
  • And the dorsal cochlear nucleus, located on the brain stem, has been implicated in tinnitus. (
  • The term dorsal cochlear nucleus refers to one of three cochlear nuclei identified by dissection and Nissl stain. (
  • 2009) "Two Distinct Types of Inhibition Mediated by Cartwheel Cells in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. (
  • In the cochlear nucleus, there is a magnocellular core of neurons whose axons form the ascending auditory pathways. (
  • Previously, it has been shown that basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ptf1a is required for the differentiation and survival of neurons of the inferior olivary and cochlear brainstem nuclei, which contribute to motor coordination and sound processing, respectively. (
  • Here we identified mouse Ptf1a as a novel regulator of cell-fate decisions during both early and late brainstem neurogenesis, which are critical for proper development of several major classes of brainstem cells, including neurons of the somatosensory and viscerosensory nuclei. (
  • Group 1 cases had labeled cells in both the cochlear nuclei and the lateral and medial superior olivary nuclei. (
  • It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex. (
  • The inferior colliculus (IC) receives its major ascending input from the cochlear nuclei, the superior olivary complex, and the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus. (
  • The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. (
  • Effects of stimulus level on the speech perception abilities of children using cochlear implants or digital hearing aids. (
  • Cochlear implants: the view from the brain. (
  • One set of skins covers two cochlear implants (left and right). (
  • NIH research contributed to the development of cochlear implants, which have become the most common and successful intervention for children who are profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing. (
  • Programming adjustments to a cochlear implant are performed at specialized cochlear implant centers or at clinics by audiologists with expertise in cochlear implants. (
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, in the United States, roughly 58,000 cochlear implants have been implanted in adults and 38,000 in children, as of 2012. (
  • Cochlear implants often require regular programming visits with an audiologist. (
  • 36. Cochlear implants in the management of hearing loss in Neurofibromatosis Type 2. (
  • Cochlear implants have successfully restored hearing to thousands of deaf individuals. (
  • The cases could be divided into three groups based on counts of labeled cells in brainstem auditory nuclei. (
  • The cochlear nuclei are the first central processors of auditory information and provide inputs to all the major brainstem and midbrain auditory nuclei. (
  • Our data identify Ptf1a as a major regulator of cell-fate specification decisions in the developing brainstem, and as a previously unrecognized developmental regulator of both viscerosensory and somatosensory brainstem nuclei. (
  • 28. Hearing rehabilitation in neurofibromatosis type 2 patients: cochlear versus auditory brainstem implantation. (
  • 33. Cochlear implantation and auditory brainstem implantation in neurofibromatosis type 2. (
  • 38. Cochlear implantation in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and bilateral vestibular schwannoma. (
  • The evidence is adequate to conclude that cochlear implantation is reasonable and necessary for treatment of bilateral pre-or-postlinguistic, sensorineural, moderate-to-profound hearing loss in individuals who demonstrate limited benefit from amplification. (
  • The Cochlear™ Nucleus® 7 Sound Processor is the world's first and only cochlear implant sound processor you can control from your Apple® or Android™ device when using the Nucleus® Smart App . (
  • The remote programming feature is indicated for patients who have had six months of experience with their cochlear implant sound processor and are comfortable with the programming process. (
  • Organization of the inferior colliculus of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): differences in distribution of projections from the cochlear nuclei and the superior olivary complex. (
  • The signal travels along the auditory pathway from the cochlear nuclear complex proximally to the inferior colliculus. (
  • 2012 ) Frequency discrimination and stimulus deviance in the inferior colliculus and cochlear nucleus. (
  • A cochlear implant is an implanted electronic hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations to a person with severe to profound hearing loss, by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear. (
  • Both groups had labeled cells in the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the superior paraolivary nucleus. (
  • It and the others, the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and the posteroventral cochlear nucleus , form a protrusion on the lateral surface of the medulla , where they are entered by the cochlear nerve and overlaid by the cerebellar flocculus . (
  • Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system combines the natural hearing through acoustic amplification of low frequencies with the electrical stimulation of a cochlear implant for high frequencies in one device. (
  • Excitatory, glutamatergic inputs originate in the cochlear nucleus, but inhibitory synaptic inputs have not been demonstrated. (
  • In an analogous way, perhaps the cerebropontocochlear nucleus projection endows the auditory system with a timing mechanism for extracting temporal information. (
  • However, a literature review by Barbee et al suggested that ABR wave I amplitude, as well as the summating potential-to-action potential ratio and speech recognition in noise with and without temporal distortion, offers an effective nonbehavioral measure of cochlear synaptopathy. (
  • The Cochlear™ Nucleus® Sound Processors feature built-in technology that lets you stream sound directly to your sound processor. (
  • The type of loss which may be helped by a cochlear implant is known as sensorineural hearing loss or nerve deafness, which results when delicate portions of the inner ear known as hair cells have been damaged and fail to perform their normal function of converting sound waves into electrical current that stimulates the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain, where they are recognized as sound. (
  • A cochlear implant, which is an electronic device surgically placed under the skin, bypasses the hair cells and directly transmits sounds through multiple electrodes, which stimulate the auditory nerve. (
  • The Nucleus Smart App is amazing because I can monitor my son's battery life, start streaming from his wireless accessories like the Mini Mic and we can find his lost sound processor if he loses it in the park. (
  • Personalize your hearing experience in everyday moments with the Nucleus Smart App. (
  • With the Nucleus Smart App, you can locate a lost Nucleus Sound Processor using the GPS functionality that tells you the last location the sound processor had contact with your compatible smartphone. (
  • Another feature on the Nucleus Smart App is the Hearing Tracker. (
  • 1,2 Along with the recent release of the Nucleus Smart App for Android, Cochlear has also added a first-of-its-kind control feature called ForwardFocus* available to compatible smartphone users of the app. (
  • The Cochlear Nucleus Smart App is available on App Store and Google Play. (
  • HEAROES custom made skins allow you to personalize your Cochlear Implant. (
  • Through insurance and reimbursement services, Cochlear representatives will walk your patients through the steps and answer any questions they may have along the way. (
  • Reorganization of Mn2+ uptake in the superior olivary complex and cochlear nucleus was dependent upon tinnitus status. (
  • In this study, we show that the loss of Ptf1a compromises the development of the nucleus of the solitary tract, which processes viscerosensory information, and the spinal and principal trigeminal nuclei, which integrate somatosensory information of the face. (
  • Jamie is the Associate Marketing Manager in the Product and Professional Marketing Department at Cochlear Americas. (
  • The FDA granted the approval of the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System to Cochlear Americas. (
  • The PN represent a key station between the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, so the pontocochlear nucleus projection emerges as a significant source of highly processed information that is introduced into the early stages of the auditory pathway. (
  • Non-clinical testing of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system has also been conducted, which studied the electrical components, biocompatibility and durability of the device. (
  • The ultimate goal is an auditory prosthesis for deaf individuals who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. (
  • Request a free informational guide about the Nucleus System today. (
  • Australia-based Cochlear has obtained US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system, which combines the functions of a cochlear implant and a hearing aid. (
  • Nucleus Hybrid L24 is a first-of-its-kind system designed for the treatment of those aged 18 and older, with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in the high frequencies and normal to only mild hearing loss in the low frequencies. (
  • FDA approval of the Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear implant system is based on its evaluation of a clinical study involving 50 individuals with severe to profound high-frequency hearing loss who still had significant levels of low-frequency hearing. (
  • D1376556.CLTD5709 Acceptance and Performance with the Nucleus 7 Cochlear Implant System with Adult Recipients. (
  • Mauger SJ, Warren C, Knight M, Goorevich M, Nel E. Clinical evaluation of the Nucleus 6 cochlear implant system: performance improvements with SmartSound iQ. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a remote feature for follow-up programming sessions for the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System through a telemedicine platform. (
  • To support the approval of the remote programming feature for the Nucleus Cochlear Implant System, the FDA evaluated data from a clinical study of 39 patients, aged 12 or older, each of whom had a cochlear implant for at least one year. (
  • On the other hand, the new Nucleus 6 system from Cochlear now offers some incredible new features with a much more universal appeal. (
  • Following acoustic trauma, MEMRI, the SNA index, showed evidence of spatially dependent rearrangement of Mn2+ uptake within specific brain nuclei (i.e., reorganization). (
  • Ready for next-generation Bluetooth ® LE Audio technology, the Nucleus® 8 Sound Processor will make it easier to bring sound to you, in more places than ever before. (
  • If you don't use a smartphone, you can easily stream phone calls, music and more directly to your Nucleus Sound Processor by using the True Wireless™ Phone Clip -which clips onto your clothing, no cords or strings attached. (
  • The Cochlear Nucleus 8 Sound Processor is compatible with iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. (
  • Having volunteered with Cochlear for over a decade, Shane knew about the Nucleus 7 Sound Processor as soon as it was announced. (
  • According to FDA, Nucleus Hybrid L24 is the first implantable device that may help those with profound sensorineural hearing loss who do not benefit from conventional hearing aids. (
  • Six of these patients underwent additional surgery to replace the device with a conventional cochlear implant. (
  • D1333702 Support Animation - Pairing Nucleus 7 with an Android Device. (
  • The injection sites for both group 1 and group 2 were located in the central nucleus, but those for group 1 tended to be located laterally relative to those for group 2, which were located more medially and caudally. (
  • The injection sites for group 3 cases lay outside the central nucleus of the IC. (
  • The two regions of the central nucleus of the IC, distinguished on the basis of connectivity, are likely to subserve different functions. (
  • Music to electric ears: pitch and timbre perception by cochlear implant patients. (
  • Demonstration of traveling waves in the guinea pig cochlea by recording cochlear microphonics. (
  • Masking of sounds by a background noise:cochlear mechanical correlates. (
  • Histopathologic analysis of cochlear nuclei from host-encoded prion protein (PrP)-a mice (C57/BL6) inoculated with (A) fixed material from the suspected case, (B) fixed material from experimental goat bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), (C) unfixed material from experimental sheep BSE, and (D) fixed material from experimental goat scrapie. (
  • A COCHLEAR NUCLEUS AUDITORY PROSTHESIS BASED ON MICROSTIMULATION NIH Guide, Volume 26, Number 33, October 3, 1997 RFP AVAILABLE: NIH-DC-98-01 National Institutes of Health The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, is recompeting an ongoing project that is currently being performed by Huntington Medical Research Institutes, under Contract No. N01-DC-5-2105. (
  • Pitch perception in patients with a multi-channel cochlear implant using various pulses width. (
  • We used the retrograde tracer Fast Blue to demonstrate that a major projection arises from the contralateral pontine nuclei (PN) to the GCD. (
  • Consult your health professional to determine if you are a candidate for Cochlear technology. (
  • Once your clinician enrolls you in Remote Care**, you can use Cochlear Remote Check to complete a hearing review, or use Cochlear Remote Assist to have a video appointment from anywhere. (
  • For recipients, the process of upgrading to the latest Cochlear™ technology can be exciting-but it can also seem like a lot of work. (
  • All the technology that the Nucleus 7 has is what I've been waiting for for the past ten to twelve years," he said. (
  • If you are attempting to reach us during normal business hours please contact us via phone (800.483.3123) or email (Custom[email protected]) as we could be experiencing technical issues. (
  • If you are interested in being a guest author for the ProNews blog please contact Jamie by email at [email protected]. (
  • Please enter the Cochlear store and complete your order. (