Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Receptors, Kainic Acid: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.CyclopropanesReceptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Receptors, Presynaptic: Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.QuinoxalinesPhosphinic Acids: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... cranial nerve VIII (auditory) -> cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) -> LLN -> caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The ... Third, a synapse occurs from the PnC axons to the motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus or the spinal cord that will ... Second, there is a synapse from the CRN axons to the cells in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC) of the brain. These ...
... which synapse onto spiral ganglion fibers that travel through the cochlear nerve into the brain. In vertebrates, inter-aural ... Then auditory nerves localize the sources by this frequency spectrum. Therefore, a corresponding theory was proposed and called ...
There, its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve. The number of fibers varies significantly across ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic nerve) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form synaptic connections with the hair cells of the cochlea via ribbon synapses ...
... it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the cochlea form their first synapses. The DCN differs ... Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN, also known as the "tuberculum acusticum"), is a cortex-like structure on the dorso-lateral ... The second set of inputs is relayed through a set of small granule cells in the cochlear nucleus. There are also a great number ...
In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), auditory nerve fibers enter the brain via the nerve root in the VCN. The ventral ... Stellate/multipolar cells form the projection to both inferior colliculi (central nucleus and dorsal cortex), and synapse in a ... cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and the posterior ventral (posteroventral) cochlear nucleus (PVCN). In the VCN, auditory nerve fibers ... The anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) (or accessory), is placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve, and is on ...
The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form synaptic connections with the hair cells of the cochlea via ribbon synapses ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Cochlear nuclear complexEdit. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ...
A single inner hair cell is innervated by numerous nerve fibers, whereas a single nerve fiber innervates many outer hair cells ... Neurons of the auditory or vestibulocochlear nerve (the eighth cranial nerve) innervate cochlear and vestibular hair cells. The ... Efferent synapses occur on outer hair cells and on afferent axons under inner hair cells. The presynaptic terminal bouton is ... Inner hair cell nerve fibers are also very heavily myelinated, which is in contrast to the unmyelinated outer hair cell nerve ...
The vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve being the other). In humans ... Axons of the vestibular nerve synapse in the vestibular nucleus are found on the lateral floor and wall of the fourth ventricle ... Structure The peripheral fibers divide into three branches (some sources list two): the superior branch passes through the ... The vestibular nerve dynamically updates the frame of reference of motor movement based on the orientation of the head in ...
The release of neurotransmitter at a ribbon synapse, in turn, generates an action potential in the connected auditory-nerve ... The fluid found in these two cochlear chambers is perilymph, while scala media, or the cochlear duct, is filled with endolymph ... along auditory nerve fibers, and further processing in the brain. The complexities of contemporary neuroscience are continually ... There are two types of afferent neurons found in the cochlear nerve: Type I and Type II. Each type of neuron has specific cell ...
The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. The ... The spinal trigeminal nerve nuclei which contains the general somatic afferent column. The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, ... where the main sensory tracts run and synapse. It also supplies part of the cerebellum. Direct branches of the vertebral artery ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ...
... to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal. The parasympathetic fibers of the nerve of the pterygoid canal synapse at the ... fibers depart CN IX as the tympanic nerve and continue to the middle ear where they make up a tympanic plexus on the cochlear ... Specific nerves include several cranial nerves, specifically the oculomotor nerve, facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and ... "visceral nerve fibers - definition of visceral nerve fibers in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, ...
The fibers connecting the spiral ganglion with the central nervous system form the cochlear nerve. Diagrammatic longitudinal ... In addition, outer hair cells form reciprocal synapses onto Type II spiral ganglion cells, suggesting that the Type II cells ... The spiral (cochlear) ganglion is the group of nerve cells that serve the sense of hearing by sending a representation of sound ... The rudiment of the acoustic nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the ...
... they release neurotransmitter at synapses with the fibers of the auditory nerve, which does produce action potentials. In this ... The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... However, the nerve pulses delivered to the brain contain both rate-versus-place and fine temporal structure information, so the ... known as vibrations are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in ...
Cochlear nerve fibers (30,000+) each have a most sensitive frequency and respond over a wide range of levels. Simplified, nerve ... Efferent synapses occur on outer hair cells and on afferent (towards the brain) dendrites under inner hair cells The cochlear ... There are far fewer inner hair cells in the cochlea than afferent nerve fibers - many auditory nerve fibers innervate each hair ... 30+ hairs per nerve fiber); this contrasts inner hair cells (IHC) that have only afferent innervation (30+ nerve fibers per one ...
... is the first place where vertically orienting data from the fusiform cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus can finally synapse ... It has been shown that great majority of auditory fibers ascending in the lateral lemniscus terminate in the CNIC. In addition ... The inferior colliculus lies caudal to its counterpart - the superior colliculus - above the trochlear nerve, and at the base ... The majority of the ascending fibers from the lateral lemniscus project to IC, which means major ascending auditory pathways ...
Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve ... and the axon from that nerve cell synapses on only a very few dendrites in the cochlear nucleus. In contrast with the VCN that ... to the nerve root in the ventral cochlear nucleus. At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear ... The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve ...
Taberner, Annette M.; Liberman, M. Charles (2005-01-01). "Response Properties of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in the Mouse". ... For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. Furthermore, many cells in ... "The Artificial Synapse Chip: A Flexible Retinal Interface Based on Directed Retinal Cell Growth and Neurotransmitter ... nerve fiber discharge patterns". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 74 (2): 493-501. doi:10.1121/1.389815. ISSN ...
Nerves in the peripheral nervous system spread out to various parts of the body, including muscle fibers. A muscle fiber and ... monitor the information from these receptor cells and pass it on to the brainstem via the cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII ... Calcium causes the release of neurotransmitters stored in synaptic vesicles, which enter the synapse between two neurons known ... Two main types of nociceptors exist, A-fiber nociceptors and C-fiber nociceptors. A-fiber receptors are myelinated and conduct ...
The AP represents the summed response of the synchronous firing of the nerve fibers. It also appears as an AC voltage. The ... Moore EJ (1971). Human cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve action potentials from surface electrodes. Unpublished Ph.D. ... The depolarized hair cell releases neurotransmitters across a synapse to primary auditory neurons of the spiral ganglion. Upon ... There are at least 3 other potentials generated upon cochlear stimulation: Cochlear microphonic (CM) Summating potential (SP) ...
From the cochlea, peripheral auditory information goes to the cochlear nucleus. From there, through the cochlear nerve, axons ... Its synapses are located close to the soma of the thalamic neuron, often forming the center of glomerular complexes. The ... doi:10.1016/s0006-8993(97)00181-9. Parent M.; Parent A. (2004). "The pallidofugal motor fiber motor system in primates". Park. ... From the retina, the axons of the optic nerves go directly to the geniculate nuclei. The nasal component of the optic nerves ( ...
The evoked potential is generated in the cochlea, goes through the cochlear nerve, through the cochlear nucleus, superior ... since stimulation of sensory cortex cannot result in descending impulses beyond the first synapse (synapses cannot be backfired ... In the peripheral nervous system pain and heat signals are carried along thin (C and A delta) fibers to the spinal cord, and ... They are recorded by stimulating peripheral nerves, most commonly the tibial nerve, median nerve or ulnar nerve, typically with ...
The implant vibrates the skull and inner ear, which stimulate the nerve fibers of the inner ear, allowing hearing. The surgical ... resulting from damage to the hair cells and synapses of the cochlea and auditory nerve. Sensorineural hearing loss reduces the ... Two main brands manufacture BAHAs today - the original inventors Cochlear, and the hearing aid company Oticon. During the late ... Once the sound is able to reach the cochlea at normal or near-normal levels, the cochlea and auditory nerve are able to ...
Granule cells give rise to parallel fiber (PF) axons which synapse onto PCs. Two cerebellar sites of CS-US convergence are 1) ... auditory information is received via the cochlear nuclei (Steinmetz & Sengelaub, 1992). The PN give rise to mossy fiber (MF) ... see Cranial nerve nucleus). Output from these nuclei control various eye muscles that work synergistically to produce an ... The critical region of the IO for eyeblink conditioning is the dorsal accessory olive (Brodal, 1981), and climbing fibers (CF) ...
Warm and cold sensitive nerve fibers differ in structure and function. The cold-sensitive and warm-sensitive nerve fibers are ... When a louder sound is heard, more hair cells are stimulated and the intensity of firing of axons in the cochlear nerve is ... These receptor neurons then synapse at the olfactory cranial nerve (CN I), which sends the information to the olfactory bulbs ... Skin used by the single receptor ending of a temperature-sensitive nerve fiber is small. There are 20 cold points per square ...
... then a hypervariability exists in the number of vesicles released from the axon terminal fiber into the synapse. This ... Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". J Physiol. 117 (1): 109-128. PMC 1392564 ... "Temperature affects voltage-sensitive conductances differentially in octopus cells of the mammalian cochlear nucleus". J ... In synapses, the number of calcium ions that enter the postsynaptic side after a spike is on the order of 250 ions, potentially ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... "Phase Locking of Auditory-Nerve Fibers to the Envelopes of High-Frequency Sounds: Implications for Sound Localization". Journal ... "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba". ...
Inner hair Cell Synapse to the afferent nerve fibers. *Auditory neurons in the spiral ganglion. ... Cochlear implantation. Evidence suggests that success with a CI in ANSD patients is in line with that of typically deaf ... A cochlear implant is an astonishing piece of medical kit but the surgery, albeit relatively safe, is still surgery. Trial ... Cochlear microphonics. Reflects hearing loss. Usually present, Alice and Oliver both have beautiful CMs.. ...
... its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus. Types of neurons[edit]. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Cochlear nuclear complex[edit]. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that ...
Recordings from slices indicate that octopus cells of the cochlear nucleus detect coincident firing of auditory nerve fibers ... 1982) Functional synapse elimination in the developing avian cochlear nucleus with simultaneous reduction in cochlear nerve ... 1985) The development of stimulus following in the cochlear nerve and inferior colliculus of the mouse. Brain Res 354:255-267. ... 1987) Maturation of synapses and electrical properties of cells in the cochlear nuclei. Hear Res 30:99-110. ...
First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... cranial nerve VIII (auditory) -> cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) -> LLN -> caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The ... Third, a synapse occurs from the PnC axons to the motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus or the spinal cord that will ... Second, there is a synapse from the CRN axons to the cells in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC) of the brain. These ...
The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form synaptic connections with the hair cells of the cochlea via ribbon synapses ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Cochlear nuclear complexEdit. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ...
In wild-type mice, the inner spiral bundle contains efferent fibers synapsing with cochlear nerve dendrites in the region below ... Cochlear Function.. Because OC feedback can alter cochlear thresholds and is required for development of normal cochlear ... IHCs are responsible for transducing acoustic stimuli and exciting the fibers of the cochlear nerve, whereas OHC are involved ... As reported for α9 −/− mice (7), loss of α10 has no effect on cochlear baseline sensitivity. This loss is not unexpected given ...
After nerve fibers from the spiral ganglion of Corti enter the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, where do they synapse? ... and these volleys are transmitted by the cochlear nerve to the cochlear nuclei of the brain. ... True or false: the basilar fibers, rods of Corti, and reticular lamina move as a rigid unit. ... What does upward movement of the basilar fiber do to the reticular lamina? ...
The inner hair cell-cochlear nerve fiber synapse is the primary conduit through which information about the acoustic ... they are relatively insensitive to diffuse loss of cochlear synapses and cochlear neurons: a) DPOAEs are unaffected because ... 33(34):13686-94). Cochlear nerve cell bodies (spiral ganglion cells, SGC) show proportional declines, with losses recorded in ... As animals age, losses spread to cochlear regions that initially appear uninvolved in the noise insult. Noise-induced cochlear ...
... the resting release probability in the endbulb of Held synapses of the auditory nerve fibers with bushy cells in the cochlear ... Recordings from single-unit auditory nerve fibers and AVCN principal neurons. Auditory nerve fiber recordings were performed ... We did not observe a significant reduction of SGN or IHC synapse number or in auditory nerve fiber function when compared with ... same apical cochlear region) (Fig. 4 A,B). In vivo extracellular recordings from single auditory nerve fibers of 6- to 9-week- ...
... of ribbon size and glutamate-receptor expression underlie sensitivity differences among cochlear-nerve hair-cell synapses. ... Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons. Buran BN, Strenzke N, Neef A, ... Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss. Kujawa SG and Liberman MC. J ... Efferent Feedback Minimizes Cochlear Neuropathy from Moderate Noise Exposure. Maison SF, Usubuchi H and Liberman MC. J. ...
... neurotrophin-3 helps to repair noise-induced damage in the mouse inner ear by promoting the regeneration of damaged synapses. ... Several fascicles of the cochlear nerve fibers were present in these sections. All myelinated fibers from each section were ... the cochlear nerve fibers, or the synapses that connect them. Correspondingly, the amplitude of ABR peak 1 (P1), the summed ... Ntf3 regulates ribbon synapse numbers without altering cochlear nerve axonal numbers, suggesting a direct effect of Ntf3 on IHC ...
Scientists have discovered that the synapses between cochlear nerve fibers and inner hair cells are the most vulnerable ... cochlear implant. a medical device that bypasses damaged structures in the inner ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve ... Noise-induced cochlear neuropathy is selective for fibers with low spontaneous rates. J Neurophysiol. 2013;110(3):577-86. doi: ... auditory nerve. eighth cranial nerve that connects the inner ear to the brainstem and is responsible for hearing and balance ...
... parallel fibers synapse on apical dendrites, and auditory nerve fibers synapse on basal dendrites [8]. ... Gene context of Cochlear Nerve. *FGF1 and FGF2 act as trophic factors for the developing cochlear nerve fibres [26]. ... High impact information on Cochlear Nerve. *Kainic acid injections result in degeneration of cochlear nucleus cells innervated ... Psychiatry related information on Cochlear Nerve. *However, the effect of sensorineural hearing losses on auditory nerve ...
... suggesting a major role of olivocochlear efferents in maintaining functional heterogeneity among cochlear nerve fibers. Our ... and low-threshold fibers differ in the sizes of their pre- and postsynaptic elements as well as the position of their synapses ... All spatial gradients in synaptic elements collapse after cochlear de-efferentation, ... and olivocochlear efferent terminals at eight locations along the cochlear spiral in normal and surgically de-efferented mice. ...
Distance between ribbons and AMPAR subunits within synapses. (A) Afferent synapses between IHCs and auditory nerve fibers from ... A) Afferent synapses between IHCs and auditory nerve fibers from the midcochlea of a P30 mouse, labeled with antibodies to the ... To directly test the hypothesis that IEM-1460 prevents synapse loss, we labeled and counted synapses in cochlear whole-mount ... 0.15 µm for synapses from all three cochlear regions, ranging from 0.022 to 0.34 µm at individual synapses (Fig. 6 D and E). ...
In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we ... that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs) on their basal dendrites ... In addition we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct ... In addition we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct ...
This is because the cochlear amplifier (outer hair cells; OHCs) and the low-threshold auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) are spared ... of synapses on inner hair cells (IHCs) that is undetectable by audiograms. ... COCHLEAR SYNAPTOPATHY IN THE NOISE-EXPOSED AND AGING RHESUS MACAQUE (MACACA MULATTA). M. Valero1, S. Hauser2, J. Burton2, G. ... Cochlear function was assayed for 8-wks. Following 108-dB SPL noise, monkeys with normal audiograms had 15-30% synaptopathy. ...
Synapses, Neurons and Brains . During this module we will have a special lecture which will be given by Prof. Israel Nelken ... activity of the auditory nerve fiber. Now this auditory nerve fiber has one ... cochlear nerve onto nerve that goes out of the ear and into the central nervous ... hair cell and the auditory nerve fibers. And this cause changes in the spiking ...
The data provide new insights in possible corticofugal modulation of inner hair cell synapses and new corticofugal effects as ... The data provide new insights in possible corticofugal modulation of inner hair cell synapses and new corticofugal effects as ... for plastic changes at the synapses of inner hair cells and cochlear nerve fibers leading to facilitation of these synapses in ... at the affected inner hair cell-cochlear nerve fiber synapses.. This interpretation of our present data (ABR PI amplitude ...
... the resting release probability in the endbulb of Held synapses of the auditory nerve fibers with bushy cells in the cochlear ... the synapse made by auditory nerve (AN) fibers onto bushy cells (BCs) of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, where depression ... Calcium imaging of auditory nerve fiber terminals in the cochlear nucleus JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS Chanda, S., Oh, S., ... We considered this issue at bushy cells (BCs) in the cochlear nucleus, which relay auditory nerve (AN) activity to higher ...
... in rat and mouse cochlear cultures, fluorescently tagged gentamicin accumulates in the afferent auditory nerve fibers in ... targeting the auditory nerve appears reasonable as AGs interact with certain nerve synapses. AGs can aggravate myasthenia ... they are roughly in agreement as to the time course of uptake into cochlear tissues [87-89]. Based on the cochlear structures, ... NMDA antagonists do interact with receptors of afferent auditory nerve fibers [238]. Thus, ...
McGuire, B. M., Fiorillo, B., Ryugo, D. K., Lauer, A. M. (2015). Auditory nerve synapses persist in ventral cochlear nucleus ... homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release from auditory nerve fibers. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. doi: 10.1073/pnas. ... Lauer, A. M., Fuchs, P. A., Ryugo, D. K., Francis, H. W. (2012). Efferent synapses return to inner hair cells in the aging ... GluA4 is indispensable for driving ultra-fast neurotransmission across a high-fidelity central synapse. Journal of Physiology, ...
cochlear nuclei, anterior and posterior the nuclei of termination of sensory fibers of the cochlear nerve (see anatomic Table ... nerve to synapse in the ciliary ganglion. Postganglionic fibres pass through the short ciliary nerves to the sphincter pupillae ... any collection of nerve cells giving origin to the fibers, or a part of the fibers, of a peripheral nerve. ... cochlear nucleus (dorsal and ventral). the nuclei of termination of sensory fibers of the cochlear part of the ...
Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem ... Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that ... Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ... Fusiform cells receive some excitatory input from auditory nerve fibers and some from the parallel fiber axons of granule cells ...
... auditory nerve fibers, or in their synapses.9 Another study suggests that there is an abnormality in the auditory system, ... and/or the Cochlear Microphonic (CM), indicating disordered function of the auditory nerve with normal function of the cochlear ... who had in common normal cochlear function despite having abnormal cochlear nerve function. Moreover, they experienced ... The cochlear nerve impairment can be seen by electrophysiological evidence and may be an important cause of unilateral AN. ...
  • This suggests that the problem in transmitting sound from the ear to the brain lies either in the innermost workings of the ear itself or in an abnormality (or in rare cases complete absence) of the auditory nerves. (alicesears.com)
  • do cranial nerves have ventral or dorsal roots? (cram.com)
  • Trapezoid body Trigeminal lemniscus Dorsal trigeminal tract Ventral trigeminal tract Medial lemniscus Lateral lemniscus Medial longitudinal fasciculus Vestibulo-oculomotor fibers Anterior trigeminothalamic tract Central tegmental tract. (ccmz.info)
  • Brain and spinal cord: Trapezoid body Trigeminal lemniscus Dorsal trigeminal tract Ventral trigeminal tract Medial lemniscus Lateral lemniscus Medial longitudinal fasciculus Vestibulo-oculomotor fibers Anterior trigeminothalamic tract Central tegmental tract. (ccmz.info)
  • their central processes follow the dorsal roots into the central nervous system and synapse in sensory areas. (tabers.com)
  • The aim of the present study was primarily to investigate the expression and role of CD105 in a series of sporadic vestibular nerve schwannomas. (bvsalud.org)
  • In mammals, cochlear hair cells are anatomically and functionally divided into inner and outer hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, respectively). (pnas.org)
  • IHCs are responsible for transducing acoustic stimuli and exciting the fibers of the cochlear nerve, whereas OHC are involved in the mechanical amplification and fine tuning of cochlear vibrations via their electromotile response ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, recent rodent research has demonstrated that noise exposures causing only temporary threshold shifts can induce a permanent loss of ~50% of synapses on inner hair cells (IHCs) that is undetectable by audiograms. (asp.org)
  • When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. (elsevier.com)
  • During this period, MOC fibers also innervate IHCs and are thought to modulate their firing rate. (elsevier.com)
  • They do not synapse directly at the basal surface of the IHCs but at specialized postsynaptic regions on afferent type I dendrites (Pujol & Lenoir 1986). (oae.it)
  • These nerves are different from the nerves that travel from the inner hair cells (IHCs) in a few ways. (hyperacusisfocus.org)
  • Third, while nerves from IHCs collectively respond to the full dynamic range of audible sounds levels, type II nerves will not be activated unless the entire pool of OHCs they are connected to are maximally stimulated by only the most intense sound levels. (hyperacusisfocus.org)
  • El sistema olivococlear se divide en una porción medial y una lateral, con neuronas que inervan a las células ciliadas externas y a fibras del nervio auditivo respectivamente. (bvsalud.org)
  • From there, fibers representing the medial visual fields travel posteriorly without crossing at the optic chiasm, while fibers of the lateral visual fields do cross within the chiasm. (statpearls.com)
  • The fibers of the medial OC bundle synapse directly at the basal surface of the OHCs. (oae.it)
  • Both the lateral and medial fibers of the OC bundle pass dorsally from their cell bodies through the reticular formation to the floor of the 4th ventricle (Warr 1992). (oae.it)
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the cochleovestibular apparatus bilaterally in children with isolated unilateral bony cochlear nerve canal (bCNC) stenosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Papers submitted should deal with auditory anatomy, physiology, psychophysics, imaging, modeling and behavioural studies in animals and humans, as well as hearing aids and cochlear implants . (elsevier.com)
  • We know that cranial nerves have always been a challenging subject among anatomy students. (kenhub.com)
  • Cranial nerves anatomy is essential for almost any medical specialty since they control so many body functions, such as rolling your eyes when you're annoyed by something. (kenhub.com)
  • The twelve cranial nerves are typically covered in introductory anatomy courses, and memorizing their names is facilitated by numerous mnemonics developed by students over the years of this practice. (philschatz.com)
  • The data provide new insights into possible corticofugal modulation of inner hair cell synapses and new corticofugal effects as neuronal enhancement of processing in the superior olivary complex (SOC) and lateral lemniscus (LL). (frontiersin.org)
  • Another pathway permits processing en route-coordinating signals from both ears, for example. (dana.org)
  • Demonstration and analyses of extrinsic fluorescence signals associated with nerve excitation and conduction. (nih.gov)
  • Ganglion cells, whose cell bodies are located deep in the retina, have central projections that form the optic nerves fibers, which traverse the optic canal to enter the cranium. (statpearls.com)
  • El sistema eferente córtico-coclear se origina en la capa V y VI de la corteza auditiva y proyecta a los colículos inferiores y complejo olivar superior, donde a través del sistema olivococlear se conecta con el órgano receptor auditivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Spoendlin , H. ( 1966 ) The Organization of the Cochlear Receptor (Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. (cambridge.org)
  • in other cases the receptor must forward information across a chemical synapse to excite the nerve fiber. (openedition.org)
  • To gain insight into the role of synaptic organization in cochlear and ANF function, mice carrying targeted mutations of presynaptic scaffold protein Bassoon were analyzed. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • In order to study whether Mover is regulated by activity in auditory nerve fibers (ANF) Mover fluorescence intensities were compared in wild-type and knock-out Otoferlin mice, the latter one are lacking activity in ANF. (uni-goettingen.de)