The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.

Response of inferior colliculus neurons to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in neonatally deafened cats. (1/451)

Response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) were examined in control and profoundly deafened animals to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Seven adult cats were used: two controls; four neonatally deafened (2 bilaterally, 2 unilaterally); and one long-term bilaterally deaf cat. All control cochleae were deafened immediately before recording to avoid electrophonic activation of hair cells. Histological analysis of neonatally deafened cochleae showed no evidence of hair cells and a moderate to severe spiral ganglion cell loss, whereas the long-term deaf animal had only 1-2% ganglion cell survival. Under barbiturate anesthesia, scala tympani electrodes were implanted bilaterally and the auditory nerve electrically stimulated using 100 micros/phase biphasic current pulses. Single-unit (n = 419) recordings were made through the lateral (LN) and central (ICC) nuclei of the IC; responses could be elicited readily in all animals. Approximately 80% of cells responded to contralateral stimulation, whereas nearly 75% showed an excitatory response to ipsilateral stimulation. Most units showed a monotonic increase in spike probability and reduction in latency and jitter with increasing current. Nonmonotonic activity was seen in 15% of units regardless of hearing status. Neurons in the LN exhibited longer latencies (10-25 ms) compared with those in the ICC (5-8 ms). There was a deafness-induced increase in latency, jitter, and dynamic range; the extent of these changes was related to duration of deafness. The ICC maintained a rudimentary cochleotopic organization in all neonatally deafened animals, suggesting that this organization is laid down during development in the absence of normal afferent input. Temporal resolution of IC neurons was reduced significantly in neonatal bilaterally deafened animals compared with acutely deafened controls, whereas neonatal unilaterally deafened animals showed no reduction. It would appear that monaural afferent input is sufficient to maintain normal levels of temporal resolution in auditory midbrain neurons. These experiments have shown that many of the basic response properties are similar across animals with a wide range of auditory experience. However, important differences were identified, including increased response latencies and temporal jitter, and reduced levels of temporal resolution.  (+info)

Coding of sound pressure level in the barn owl's auditory nerve. (2/451)

Rate-intensity functions, i.e., the relation between discharge rate and sound pressure level, were recorded from single auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl. Differences in sound pressure level between the owl's two ears are known to be an important cue in sound localization. One objective was therefore to quantify the discharge rates of auditory nerve fibers, as a basis for higher-order processing of sound pressure level. The second aim was to investigate the rate-intensity functions for cues to the underlying cochlear mechanisms, using a model developed in mammals. Rate-intensity functions at the most sensitive frequency mostly showed a well-defined breakpoint between an initial steep segment and a progressively flattening segment. This shape has, in mammals, been convincingly traced to a compressive nonlinearity in the cochlear mechanics, which in turn is a reflection of the cochlear amplifier enhancing low-level stimuli. The similarity of the rate-intensity functions of the barn owl is thus further evidence for a similar mechanism in birds. An interesting difference from mammalian data was that this compressive nonlinearity was not shared among fibers of similar characteristic frequency, suggesting a different mechanism with a more locally differentiated operation than in mammals. In all fibers, the steepest change in discharge rate with rising sound pressure level occurred within 10-20 dB of their respective thresholds. Because the range of neural thresholds at any one characteristic frequency is small in the owl, auditory nerve fibers were collectively most sensitive for changes in sound pressure level within approximately 30 dB of the best thresholds. Fibers most sensitive to high frequencies (>6-7 kHz) showed a smaller increase of rate above spontaneous discharge rate than did lower-frequency fibers.  (+info)

Organization of inhibitory frequency receptive fields in cat primary auditory cortex. (3/451)

Based on properties of excitatory frequency (spectral) receptive fields (esRFs), previous studies have indicated that cat primary auditory cortex (A1) is composed of functionally distinct dorsal and ventral subdivisions. Dorsal A1 (A1d) has been suggested to be involved in analyzing complex spectral patterns, whereas ventral A1 (A1v) appears better suited for analyzing narrowband sounds. However, these studies were based on single-tone stimuli and did not consider how neuronal responses to tones are modulated when the tones are part of a more complex acoustic environment. In the visual and peripheral auditory systems, stimulus components outside of the esRF can exert strong modulatory effects on responses. We investigated the organization of inhibitory frequency regions outside of the pure-tone esRF in single neurons in cat A1. We found a high incidence of inhibitory response areas (in 95% of sampled neurons) and a wide variety in the structure of inhibitory bands ranging from a single band to more than four distinct inhibitory regions. Unlike the auditory nerve where most fibers possess two surrounding "lateral" suppression bands, only 38% of A1 cells had this simple structure. The word lateral is defined in this sense to be inhibition or suppression that extends beyond the low- and high-frequency borders of the esRF. Regional differences in the distribution of inhibitory RF structure across A1 were evident. In A1d, only 16% of the cells had simple two-banded lateral RF organization, whereas 50% of A1v cells had this organization. This nonhomogeneous topographic distribution of inhibitory properties is consistent with the hypothesis that A1 is composed of at least two functionally distinct subdivisions that may be part of different auditory cortical processing streams.  (+info)

A possible neurophysiological basis of the octave enlargement effect. (4/451)

Although the physical octave is defined as a simple ratio of 2:1, listeners prefer slightly greater octave ratios. Ohgushi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 1694-1700 (1983)] suggested that a temporal model for octave matching would predict this octave enlargement effect because, in response to pure tones, auditory-nerve interspike intervals are slightly larger than the stimulus period. In an effort to test Ohgushi's hypothesis, auditory-nerve single-unit responses to pure-tone stimuli were collected from Dial-anesthetized cats. It was found that although interspike interval distributions show clear phase-locking to the stimulus, intervals systematically deviate from integer multiples of the stimulus period. Due to refractory effects, intervals smaller than 5 msec are slightly larger than the stimulus period and deviate most for small intervals. On the other hand, first-order intervals are smaller than the stimulus period for stimulus frequencies less than 500 Hz. It is shown that this deviation is the combined effect of phase-locking and multiple spikes within one stimulus period. A model for octave matching was implemented which compares frequency estimates of two tones based on their interspike interval distributions. The model quantitatively predicts the octave enlargement effect. These results are consistent with the idea that musical pitch is derived from auditory-nerve interspike interval distributions.  (+info)

Noninvasive direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve for functional MR imaging of the auditory cortex. (5/451)

We herein present our preliminary experience with functional MR imaging of the direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve using an MR imaging-compatible electrode placed in the external auditory meatus of five patients with binaural sensorineural hearing loss. The stimulator was placed outside the imager's bore, and the electrode produced virtually no susceptibility artifacts. In three of five patients, it was possible to activate the superior temporal gyrus during functional MR imaging. No side effects were observed.  (+info)

Contributions of ion conductances to the onset responses of octopus cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus: simulation results. (6/451)

The onset response pattern displayed by octopus cells has been attributed to intrinsic membrane properties, low membrane impedance, and/or synaptic inputs. Although the importance of a low membrane impedance generally is acknowledged as an essential component, views differ on the role that ion channels play in producing the onset response. In this study, we use a computer model to investigate the contributions of ion channels to the responses of octopus cells. Simulations using current ramps indicate that, during the "ramp-up" stage, the membrane depolarizes, activating a low-threshold K(+) channel, K(LT), which increases membrane conductance and dynamically increases the current required to evoke an action potential. As a result, the model is sensitive to the rate that membrane potential changes when initiating an action potential. Results obtained when experimentally recorded spike trains of auditory-nerve fibers served as model inputs (simulating acoustic stimulation) demonstrate that a model with K(LT) conductance as the dominant conductance produces realistic onset response patterns. Systematically replacing the K(LT) conductance by a h-type conductance (which corresponds to a hyperpolarization-activated inward rectifier current, I(h)) or by a leakage conductance reduces the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential, and the model's response to "acoustic stimulation" becomes more chopper-like. Increasing the h-type conductance while maintaining a large K(LT) conductance causes an increase in threshold to both current steps and acoustic stimulation but does not significantly affect the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential and the onset response pattern under acoustic stimulation. These findings support the idea that K(LT), which is activated during depolarization, is the primary membrane conductance determining the response properties of octopus cells, and its dynamic role cannot be provided by a static membrane conductance. On the other hand, I(h), which is activated during hyperpolarization, does not play a large role in the basic onset response pattern but may regulate response threshold through its contribution to the membrane conductance.  (+info)

Reduced size of the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve in a child with sensorineural hearing loss. (7/451)

A 12-year-old female patient presented with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission testing failed to reveal any measurable emissions in the affected side. MR imaging did not reveal labyrinthine malformation. Three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in steady-state MR images showed a thin cochlear branch. We speculated that mumps infection or developmental malformation caused the unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.  (+info)

Morphological identification of physiologically characterized afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista. (8/451)

The turtle posterior crista consists of two hemicristae. Each hemicrista extends from the planum semilunatum to the nonsensory torus and includes a central zone (CZ) surrounded by a peripheral zone (PZ). Type I and type II hair cells are found in the CZ and are innervated by calyx, dimorphic and bouton afferents. Only type II hair cells and bouton fibers are found in the PZ. Units were intraaxonally labeled in a half-head preparation. Bouton (B) units could be near the planum (BP), near the torus (BT), or in midportions of a hemicrista, including the PZ and CZ. Discharge properties of B units vary with longitudinal position in a hemicrista but not with morphological features of their peripheral terminations. BP units are regularly discharging and have small gains and small phase leads re angular head velocity. BT units are irregular and have large gains and large phase leads. BM units have intermediate properties. Calyx (C) and dimorphic (D) units have similar discharge properties and were placed into a single calyx-bearing (CD) category. While having an irregular discharge resembling BT units, CD units have gains and phases similar to those of BM units. Rather than any single discharge property, it is the relation between discharge regularity and either gain or phase that makes CD units distinctive. Multivariate statistical formulas were developed to infer a unit's morphological class (B or CD) and longitudinal position solely from its discharge properties. To verify the use of the formulas, discharge properties were compared for units recorded intraaxonally or extracellularly in the half-head or extracellularly in intact animals. Most B units have background rates of 10-30 spikes/s. The CD category was separated into CD-high and CD-low units with background rates above or below 5 spikes/s, respectively. CD-low units have lower gains and phases and are located nearer the planum than CD-high units. In their response dynamics over a frequency range from 0.01-3 Hz, BP units conform to an overdamped torsion-pendulum model. Other units show departures from the model, including high-frequency gain increases and phase leads. The longitudinal gradient in the physiology of turtle B units resembles a similar gradient in the anamniote crista. In many respects, turtle CD units have discharge properties resembling those of calyx-bearing units in the mammalian central zone.  (+info)

A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve ...
This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivi
In terms of anatomy, an auditory nerve fiber is either bipolar or unipolar, with its distal projection being called the peripheral process, and its central projection being called the axon; these two projections are also known as the peripheral axon and the central axon, respectively. The peripheral process is sometimes referred to as a dendrite, although that term is somewhat inaccurate. Unlike the typical dendrite, the peripheral process generates and conducts action potentials, which then jump across the cell body (or soma) and continue to propagate along the central axon. In this respect, auditory nerve fibers are somewhat unusual in that action potentials pass through the soma. Both the peripheral process and the axon are myelinated. In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly across species; the domestic cat, for example, has an average of 50,000 fibers. The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discriminability of vowel representations in cat auditory-nerve fibers after acoustic trauma. AU - Miller, Roger L.. AU - Calhoun, Barbara M.. AU - Young, Eric D.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - This paper attempts to connect deficits seen in the neural representation of speech with perceptual deficits. Responses of auditory- nerve fibers were studied in cats exposed to acoustic trauma. Four synthetic steady-state vowels were used as test signals; these stimuli are identical, except that the second formant (F2) resonator in the synthesizer was set to 1.4, 115, 1.7, or 2 kHz, producing four spectra that differ mainly in the vicinity of the F2 frequency. These stimuli were presented to a large population (523) of auditory-nerve fibers in four cats with sloping high- frequency threshold shifts that reached 50-70 dB at 2-4 kHz. In normal animals, May et al. [Auditory Neurosci. 3, 135-162 (1996)] showed previously that the discharge rates of fibers with best frequencies near the ...
Here we show that BOLD value signals exhibit range adaptation in a manner that is consistent with the predictions of the efficient coding hypothesis.. We studied range adaptation as choices were made between immediate and delayed monetary rewards. As in prior work (Kable and Glimcher, 2007, 2010), we used participants preferences to estimate the idiosyncratic SV placed on delayed rewards. For each participant, we constructed two sets of choices, for which the SVs spanned a narrow or wide range. In our primary tests of range adaptation, we analyzed matching sets of choice trials, which were drawn from an overlapping region of the narrow and wide SV distributions.. Following from the efficient coding hypothesis, BOLD sensitivity to SV was predicted to increase as the range of SVs narrowed (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010). The alternative, range expansion hypothesis predicted that the range of BOLD activity would expand as the range of SVs expanded.. Across both Range Conditions, SV ...
Id: gen.mod,v 1.5 1994/10/22 23:10:11 billl Exp $ COMMENT Presynaptic spike generator --------------------------- This mechanism has been written to be able to use synapses in a single neuron receiving various types of presynaptic trains. This is a fake presynaptic compartment containing a fast spike generator. The trains of spikes can be either periodic or noisy (Poisson-distributed), and either tonic or bursting. Parameters; noise: between 0 (no noise-periodic) and 1 (fully noisy) fast_invl: fast interval, mean time between spikes (ms) slow_invl: slow interval, mean burst silent period (ms), 0=tonic train burst_len: mean burst length (nb. spikes) Written by Z. Mainen, modified by A. Destexhe, The Salk Institute ENDCOMMENT INDEPENDENT {t FROM 0 TO 1 WITH 1 (ms)} NEURON { POINT_PROCESS gen RANGE x RANGE fast_invl, slow_invl, burst_len, start, end RANGE noise } PARAMETER { fast_invl = 1 : time between spikes in a burst (msec) slow_invl = 50 : burst period (msec) burst_len = 10 : burst length (# ...
Keywords: Communications Biophysics, Electrophysiological State Functions and the Handling of Sensory Information, Steady-State Auditory Nerve Responses to Bursts of Noise at Different Repetition Rates ...
In the article An Improved Model for the Rate-Level Functions of Auditory-Nerve Fibers by Peter Heil, Heinrich Neubauer, and Dexter R. F. Irvine, which appeared on pages 15424-15437 of the October 26, 2011 issue, the authors regret a mistake in Equation 7. KAA−1 should have read KAA. The corrected equation is listed below. ...
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Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A. Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism: A review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings. BMC Complem Altern M. 2014;14:511. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-511.. Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott JA, Bensoussan A. A survey of the use of complementary medicine by a self-selected community group of Australian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. BMC Complem Altern M. 2014;14:472. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-472.. Besch J. Using a client survey to support continuous improvement: An Australian case study in managing change. Research Management Review. 2014;20(1):1-10. Besch J, Boon S, Bensoussan A. The national institute of complementary medicine: Past, present, future Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014;26(4):141-3. Betts D, Dahlen HG, Smith CA. A search for hope and understanding: An analysis of threatened miscarriage internet forums. ...
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The auditory nerve located within the inner ear is responsible for transmitting sound from the middle ear to the auditory centers in the brain. The auditory nerve is composed of two parts. The cochlea located in the inner ear has tiny nerve cells responsible for transmitting sounds from the middle ear. The second part of the auditory nerve is the auditory nerve also referred to as the vestibulocochlear nerve or the eighth cranial nerve. This auditory nerve pathway carries sound and other information to the brain, which translates position and direction of sound origin as well as body position necessary to control balance.. Sensorineural hearing loss is deafness that happens when this nerve is damaged. Unfortunately, nerve deafness is generally permanent. Though there are new research and developments for cochlear implants and other treatment, none fully restores hearing loss due to nerve deafness. Auditory nerve damage can result from infection, disease, trauma, or medications. Though rare, ...
A mathematical model of cochlear processing is developed to account for the nonlinear dependence of frequency selectivity on intensity in inner hair cell and auditory nerve fiber responses. The model describes the transformation from acoustic stimulus to intracellular hair cell potentials in the cochlea. It incorporates a linear formulation of basilar membrane mechanics and subtectorial fluid-cilia displacement coupling, and simplified description of the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process. The analysis at this stage is restricted to low-frequency single tones. The computed responses to single tone inputs exhibit the experimentally observed nonlinear effects of increasing intensity such as the increase in the bandwidth of frequency selectivity and the downward shift of the best frequency. In the model, the first effect is primarily due to the saturating effect of the hair cell nonlinearity. The second results from the combined effects of both the nonlinearity and the inner hair cell ...
Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Verhulstetal2018Model The model code for the Verhulst, Altoè, Vasilkov 2018 Hearing Research publication: Computational modeling of the human auditory periphery: Auditory-nerve responses, evoked potentials and hearing loss. *Hearing Research* 360, 55-75. (found in doc/ folder) The model code and interface was written by Alessandro Altoè and Sarah Verhulst (copyright 2012,2014,2015,2016,2018) and is licensed under the UGent acadamic license (see details in license file that is part of this repository). The Verhulstetal2018Model consists of the following files:, cochlea_utils.c, build.bat,,, model2018.m,,,,, ExampleSimulation.m, ExampleAnalysis.m, the HI profiles in the Poles folder. ##################### How to run the model ##################### 1. INSTALL NUMPY AND SCIPY (anaconda), check whether you should install 32 or 64 bit! The model works on python 2.7 and also on 3.6 ...
An audio processing pipeline, for an auditory prosthesis, includes: a common stage, including a common frequency analysis filter bank, configured to generate a common set of processed signals based on an input audio signal; and first and second stimulator-specific stages, responsive to the common set of signals and including first and second frequency-analysis filter banks, configured to generate first and second sets of processed signals adapted for the first and second hearing stimulators, respectively.
Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs, the secondary sensory neurons making up the auditory nerve) are continuously firing cells in a healthy ear (they fall silent when the hair cells degenerate, leading to deafness). In fact, their base frequency in silence is pretty high. The only thing the hair cell input does is lowering, or elevating the threshold and hence affecting firing rate. During a sine wave stimulus (a pure tone), the stereocilia of the hair cells deflect in one phase, and inflect on the other. One phase hence depolarizes the SGC, the other hyperpolarizes it. This generates a near-perfect representation of the sine wave input at low frequencies. At high frequencies the SGCs may skip a phase or two, but because multiple SGCs are involved, the population code is still stochastically spot on.. Sound level is coded in spike rate, frequency is coded by a place-frequency map (Müller, 1996). The base of the cochlea codes high frequencies, the apex low frequencies. Hence, loudness is coded by every ...
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Congenital deafness (CD) is a condition of impaired hearing due to genetic or pregnancy-related causes in infants with a highly variable onset of initial symptoms. Genetic CD is most probably related with pathological gene mutations while acquired CD normally correlates with irregularities during pregnancy. Thorough screening for temporal bone malformations and a detailed family background check in combination with molecular genetic tests yield a reliable diagnosis. A multidisciplinary team of medical professionals and educators is necessary to support infant patients and their parents.… Congenital Deafness: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Congenital deafness is nowadays one of the most common sensorial disorders. Most cases (50-70%) are produced by genetic causes, affecting 1 of 1.000 newborns. There are many genes involved that could follow a hereditary autosomal dominant pattern, autosomal recessive, X-linked or mitochondrial. Consequently, genetic diagnosis is usually complicated.. This panel is designed with the aim of analyzing the 63 more frequently genes related to congenital deafness.. ...
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Rubio, María, Ko Matsui, Yugo Fukazawa, Naomi Kamasawa, Harumi Harada, Makoto Itakura, Elek Molnár, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, and Ryuichi Shigemoto. The Number and Distribution of AMPA Receptor Channels Containing Fast Kinetic GluA3 and GluA4 Subunits at Auditory Nerve Synapses Depend on the Target Cells. Brain Structure and Function 222, no. 8 (2017): 3375-93. ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic evaluation and counseling for congenital deafness.. AU - Green, Glenn E.. AU - Cunniff, Chris. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 12408089. AN - SCOPUS:0036357244. VL - 61. SP - 230. EP - 240. JO - Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. JF - Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. SN - 0065-3071. ER - ...
When I was 10 years old, I swam underwater a lot in a swimming pool. I developed a painful earache. Unfortunately my parents believed it would go away with warm compresses. It did not and a few days later I lost hearing in my left ear. My parents brought me to my allergist first?? and then to an audiologist. All I remember is someone saying that my auditory nerve was probably damaged.It has been 27 years, does anyone know of anything more I could do now? Any technology that could help. It is very difficult in crowded situations with a lot of background noise to follow conversations.If it is indeed your auditory nerve that has sustained damage, then you might want to at very least read this: you google auditory nerve implant youll get a host of returns on the subject outlined above. This technology could eventually return most of your hearing ...
Peripheral neural responses to cochlear stimulation via electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) of differing pulse distance and interphase gap
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Yes there is - you can speak to your Audiologist. We can do a battery of tests that can give us an indication of each part of the hearing system. If you dont have an Audiologist, please let me know and i will gladly refer you to someone in your area. You can reach me at [email protected] ...
Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred
Afferent synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea translate sound information into a discrete spike code, providing us the opportunity to directly observe the output of the cochlea. The availability of mutant strains with genetic hearing impairment makes the mouse a valuable species to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cochlear function. In this thesis, mouse was used as a model species to study cochlear sound encoding by recording single unit activities from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in vivo. First, developmental changes of ANF responses before and after hearing onset were characterized as an introduction on how normal ANF responses mature during the early postnatal age. Spontaneous bursting activity from ANFs/cochlear nucleus neurons was observed before hearing onset. After hearing onset, the average spontaneous and evoked spike rates of single ANFs increased, while tuning threshold and frequency selectivity improved between p14-15 to p20-21. ...
In the auditory system of birds and mammals large axosomatic synapses can be found: the giant synaptic terminals of Held. These terminals contain many (hundreds of) active zones and one can say they act as many synapses activated exactly simultaneously. The synaptic currents induced by these terminals are often big enough to individually cause an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. The auditory nerve fibres, which are the axons of neurons in the cochlear ganglion (or spiral ganglion, in mammals) enter, in birds as well as in mammals, the auditory brainstem and bifurcate into two branches: one branch projects towards time-coding parts of the brainstem (birds: nucleus magnocellularis = NM; mammals: anteroventral cochlear nucleus = AVCN), the other branch connects to nuclei where sound intensity and spectral cues are predominantly coded (birds: nucleus angularis = NA; mammals: posteroventral cochlear nucleus and dorsal cochlear nucleus). The very same axon can thus form giant synapses in ...
This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
Watch The Video: Bionic Ear Delivers DNA To Regrow Auditory Nerve Cells ]. University of New South Wales Researchers at UNSW Australia have for the first time used electrical pulses delivered from a cochlear implant to deliver gene therapy, thereby successfully regrowing auditory nerves.. The research also heralds a possible new way of treating a range of neurological disorders, including Parkinsons disease, and psychiatric conditions such as depression through this novel way of delivering gene therapy.. The research is published today (Thursday 24 April) in the prestigious journal Science Translational Medicine.. People with cochlear implants do well with understanding speech, but their perception of pitch can be poor, so they often miss out on the joy of music, says UNSW Professor Gary Housley, who is the senior author of the research paper.. Ultimately, we hope that after further research, people who depend on cochlear implant devices will be able to enjoy a broader dynamic and tonal ...
Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate incidence of autophagy and apoptosis in spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) and cochlear nucleus neurons, ..
Scheme of neurones of auditory pathway. 4 neuronal afferent centripetal tract terminating in the primary acoustic cortex of temporal lobe. Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of bipolar neurons of the cochlear ganglion (1. N). Axons of bipolar neurons form the cochlear nerve. Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral lemniscus into the inferior collicle (3. N) in the mesencephalon. Signals interpolate in the inferior collicle and continue to the medial geniculate body (4. N). The last part of the auditory tract - acustic radiation (geniculo-cortical tract) continue into the upper part of the temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyruses (primary acustic cortex). Between the basic neurons of the auditory pathway there are inserted interstitial (relay neurons) which are grouped into independent nuclei : nucleus olivaris superior, ...
Stroke recovery can be improved with a new treatment that creates new nerve synapses - essential for learning - in the brain. Researcher Marcela Pekna explained, More nerve sprouts and connections between nerve cells are created so that the remaining cells can take over functions that the dead cells once had. The researchers focused on C3a peptide, which is naturally produced in the body and especially as a result of certain conditions. The researchers administered C3a to mice through nasal drops.. Of the 28 mice with stroke, half received C3a peptide while the other half received a placebo. Those mice treated with C3a recovered much better than the mice on a placebo. Although mice are capable of recovering from stroke even without any therapy, C3a sped up the recovery and enabled them to use their stroke-affected paws more easily and effectively. The effects of the treatment remained four weeks after the completion.. Pekna explained, Say a stroke kills 10 million brain cells. Newly created ...
It is not possible to prevent congenital deafness from occurring, and this is the reason why dogs who are deaf should not be bred. For dogs who are not deaf, it is important to have their ears checked every six months to make sure they are healthy. If something like an ear infection is left untreated, it can lead to chronic changes in the ears that can increase the risk of acquired deafness in the future.. Many deaf dogs go on to lead normal lives, and there are generally no additional underlying illnesses when it comes to congenital deafness. If anything, dogs with fair hair coat colors may be more susceptible to sunburns. Therefore, sunblock is important when these dogs go outside.. Deaf dogs can be trained using hand signals and body language, and their sense of smell will help dogs who are treated motivated. If training is initially difficult, you can contact a trainer who specializes in working with deaf dogs. It is also important to remember that deaf dogs should not walk off-leash because ...
A novel monitoring electrode for monitoring dorsal cochlear nucleus action potentials is provided, which has a superior performance in accuracy, adherent property, comprehensiveness, recording sensiti
When two identical sounds are presented from different locations with a short interval between them, the perception is of a single sound source at the location of the leading sound. This precedence effect is an important behavioral phenomenon whose neural basis is being increasingly studied. For t …
Get a sneak preview of the Cochlear Nucleus 7 processor! Stay tuned here for breaking news on the N7 from Cochlear. Information distilled by Bob MacPherson from an interview with Jan Janssen, Senior Vice President Research and Development, Cochlear Limited on, dateline july 20, 2017: * The Nucleus® 7 Sound Processor is the worlds first and…
The spatio-temporal pattern in the auditory nerve (AN), i.e. the temporal pattern of AN fiber activity across the tonotopic axis, provides cues to important features in sounds such as pitch, loudness, and spatial location ...
The development of hearing-evaluation equipment for people unable or not wanting to give feedback during a hearing test. Thus the project develops a new device capable of detecting and transforming the magnetic signs emitted by the auditory nerve ...
Although inhibitory inputs were also shown to terminate on the somata of SBC, the poorly understood eponymous bushy dendrite of SBC could play a key role in modulation. Anatomical studies of other labs revealed unexplained complexity: additional auditory nerve synapses, inhibitory synapses of various identities and sources and even non-auditory excitatory inputs are all found on the dendrites. Additionally, anatomical indications of electrical coupling of SBC dendrites were found. Physiological knowledge about all these findings is scarce or non-existent. It is therefore one of the main goals of the Künzel-lab to analyze the SBCs dendritic inputs and better understand their role in SBC signal processing. The main feature of SBC now becomes an experimental advantage: their responses are precisely phase-locked and their output eventually has to suffice for the coding interaural phase differences. Thus we possess an experimentally well-defined functional read-out that will likely reveal even ...
The inner hair cell-cochlear nerve fiber synapse is the primary conduit through which information about the acoustic environment is transmitted to the auditory nervous system. In ears that age normally, e.g., without noise exposure, synapses are lost gradually, throughout life, and are seen throughout the cochlea long before age-related loss of threshold sensitivity or hair cells (Sergeyenko et al 2013, J Neurosci. 33(34):13686-94). Cochlear nerve cell bodies (spiral ganglion cells, SGC) show proportional declines, with losses recorded in aging mice consistent with those observed in age-graded human temporal bones (Makary et al 2011, J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 12(6):711-17).. Noise produces similar synaptic losses, but immediately, and then accelerates aging, even for exposures that produce reversible threshold shifts and no hair cell loss (Kujawa and Liberman 2006, J Neurosci. 26(7):2115-23; Kujawa and Liberman 2009, J Neurosci. 29(45):14077-85). Losses at short post-exposure times are restricted ...
Right ventricular mural endocarditis presenting as an isolated apical mass in a non-addict patient with congenital deafness and aphasia ...
A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic device that can provide a sense of hearing to deaf or profoundly hearing impaired listeners by directly activating auditory nerve fibers. Optimal auditory performance with a CI requires subject-specific adjustments of several system parameters, i.e. the CI needs to be fitted to the individual user. A large number of system parameters is available to the clinician in the fitting software. For some of these parameters it is essential that they are individualized prior to switching on the device, since they ensure that sounds are audible without making sounds uncomfortably loud. For other parameters subject-specific optimization is less essential and a one-size-fits-all approach of using default settings results in good performance for the majority of CI users. However, these default settings may not always result in optimal settings for individual CI users and subject-specific fine-tuning of these parameter settings may further improve performance and/or ...
Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
In article ,199512080614.AAA03993 at,, Jeffrey G. Sirianni ,sirianni at UTS.CC.UTEXAS.EDU, wrote: ,Greater decay in the high frequencies indicates a cochlear lesion and not a ,retrocochlear lesion The decay also happened in a promontory stimulation test which was part of an evaluation to see if a cochlear implant would be indicated. Therefore, the cochlea itself is not the cause of the strange symptoms. Its either the auditory nerve or the brain. I wonder if it could somehow be caused by adapting to tinnitus. Since tinnitus tends to sound like a steady tone or other steady sound, could it be that the auditory nerve and/or auditory processing in the brain has learned to filter out all steady tones and other steady sounds that last more than a couple of minutes? The fact that the sound comes back to full loudness instantly if its interrupted for even a fraction of a second seems to support this. An MRI is now scheduled, as you suggested. But so is a cochlear implant, a few ...
A wonderful and brilliant husband and wife team of neuroscientists, Gavin Rumbaugh and Courtney Miller, from the Scripps Institute in Florida, gave a very good summary at the Four Arts Society in Palm Beach of research and findings related to memory loss and Alzheimers disease.. Things I learned included:. 1. It presently takes hundreds of millions of dollars and approximately 14 years to go through about 10,000 potential drug candidates in order to get 1 drug to market.. 2. Inserting luminescent genes has made it possible for computers to accurately count the development and location of new, active nerve synapses. This is important in order to more quickly test the effectiveness of new drugs on the regeneration of nerve synapses.. 3. Learning or knowing a second language is helpful in the development of additional synaptic pathways so that if you loose one you will have a backup and retain your memory.. 4. Getting out of routines can make the brain work harder and improve brain health. Simple ...
Sounds pass from the outer ear through to the inner ear, which contains the cochlea and auditory nerve. The cochlea is a coiled, spiral tube containing a large number of sensitive hair cells. The auditory nerve transmits sound signals to the brain.. If part of the cochlea is damaged, it will stop sending information to your brain. The brain may then actively seek out signals from parts of the cochlea that still work. These signals might then become over-represented in the brain, which may cause the sounds of tinnitus.. In older people, damage to the cochlea often occurs naturally with age. In younger people, it can be caused by repeated exposure to excessive noise.. ...
Sounds pass from the outer ear through to the inner ear, which contains the cochlea and auditory nerve. The cochlea is a coiled, spiral tube containing a large number of sensitive hair cells. The auditory nerve transmits sound signals to the brain.. If part of the cochlea is damaged, it will stop sending information to your brain. The brain may then actively seek out signals from parts of the cochlea that still work. These signals might then become over-represented in the brain, which may cause the sounds of tinnitus.. In older people, damage to the cochlea often occurs naturally with age. In younger people, it can be caused by repeated exposure to excessive noise.. ... Researchers at Harvard Medical Schools Eaton Peabody Laboratory learned you can lose up to 90 percent of your cochlear nerve fibers from frequent earbud use. Now hear this: Earbud headphones, even at low volume, may be causing permanent damage to your hearing. For decades, scientists have looked, almost exclusively, at the loss of…
In the article that appeared on page 693 of the October 2010 issue of Ear and Hearing, the following should have appeared as the last sentence of the third paragraph in the Introduction:. Our method is based on a method originally introduced by Wilson and his colleagues in the early 1990s (Wilson et al. 1992; Wilson et al. 1994; Wilson & Dorman 2008, Fig. 6D) as a variation of their virtual channels technique (cf. Wilson & Dorman 2009, pp. 103-108). In turn, Wilson et al.s (1992) technique is related to Townshend, Cotter, Van Campernolled, and Whites (1987) and Townshend and Whites (1987) stimulus sharpening technique.. The following reference entries should have appeared in the References section:. Townshend, B., Cotter, N., Van Campernolled, D., & White R. L. (1987). Pitch perception by cochlear implant subjects. J Acoust Soc Am, 82, 106-115.. Townshend, B., & White, R. L. (1987). Reduction of electrical interaction in auditory prostheses. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 34, 891-897.. Wilson, B. ...
We talk about you every day. You are our patients, friends and family and because you donate, expert researchers push innovation forward. You deserve the best life and we want you to hear what you are missing. The research is moving fast and there couldnt be a better time to give. The more money we raise, the faster we can work. Every dollar matters and every dollar counts toward helping you and people all over the world. Today is the day to put your dollars to work. Read more.. For more information on contributing, please call the Foundation office at (405) 639-2875. ...
Congenital deafness is a health issue that has higher prevalence in certain breeds, including the Dalmatian. Other studies in this breed have found the trait to be inherited in a complex rather than simple Mendelian manner. Using a large number of samples from animals that have been tested for hearing status, Dr. Wade will employ the latest genomic technologies and computational analyses to conduct this study. The ultimate goal is to identify mutations underlying the trait of congenital deafness in the Dalmatian breed and work towards a genetic testing solution for the Dalmatian breeding community. Funding for the research is provided through the efforts and generosity of the Dalmatian Club of America Foundation. The AKC Canine Health Foundation supports the funding of this effort and will oversee administration of funds and scientific progress reports.
presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system. ...
Whatever the initial cause, your nerves reacted with the only survival tool they had: they contracted, they lowered their length and volume to maintain themselves, and the gaps between the nerves(synapse) were stretched. A typical sized nerve signal might no longer leap this space. Specialized stimulator then sends out a test signal that represents the most typical waveform for healthy peripheral nerves. These impulses are sent 7.83 times per second because that is how long it takes for the nerve cell to re-polarize (or reset) itself between its transmission of nerve signals. The signals, (as they cross the synaptic junctions in the nerve roots of the lower back to get from one leg to the other), produce a little electro-magnetic field that is picked up by the nerves in your central nervous system (spine) and a signal is submitted to the brain to let click here it know exactly what is taking place in the back location. ...
Health,Scientists pursued the idea of implanting tiny electronic hearing devi...Now however scientists have shown in animals that its possible...If the idea pans out in further animal and human studies profou...In nearly every measure these work better than cochlear implant...The possible auditory nerve implants likely would be suitable fo...,Radical,Idea,of,Implanting,Tiny,Electrodes,,to,the,,Deaf,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Throughput Enhancement for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Using Transfer Rate Adaptation, Back-to-Back Transmission, and Frame Fragmentation ...
Signal transmission in the cochlear hair cell-nerve junction". Archives of Otolaryngology. 101 (9): 528-35. doi:10.1001/ ... The discovery of nerve growth factor by Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1954, and epidermal growth factor by Stanley Cohen in 1962, led ... Cowan WM (March 2001). "Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini: the path to the discovery of nerve growth factor". Annual ... Calcium is used in many processes including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, and cell migration ...
There is no cure or restoration capability if the damage becomes permanent, although cochlear nerve terminal regeneration has ... Cranial nerve VIII is the least affected component of the ear when ototoxicity arises, but if the nerve is affected, the damage ... Retrieved 30 Nov 2011.[permanent dead link] Hennig AK, Cotanche DA (1998). "Regeneration of cochlear efferent nerve terminals ... Cochlear implants are sometimes an option to restore hearing. Such treatments are typically taken to comfort the patient, not ...
Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.; Miller, Michael I. (1983-06-01). "SPEECH ENCODING IN THE AUDITORY NERVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ... the early neural codes of complex auditory stimuli forming the basis for modern cochlear implants, and somatosensory codes ... COCHLEAR IMPLANTSa". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 405 (1): 94-113. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb31622.x. ISSN ...
Sachs, M.B.; Young, E.D.; Miller, M.I. (June 1983). "Speech Encoding in the Auditory Nerve: Implications for Cochlear Implants ... Miller, M.I.; Sachs, M.B. (1983). "Representation of stop consonants in the discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". The ... "Representation of voice pitch in discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". Hearing Research. 14 (3): 257-279. doi:10.1016/ ... strategy for neuroprosthesis design at the 1982 New York Academy of Science meeting on the efficacy and timeliness of Cochlear ...
The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... At the cochlea, this information is converted into electrical impulses that travel by means of the cochlear nerve, which spans ... Simon, E.; Perrot, E.; Mertens, P. (2009). "Functional anatomy of the cochlear nerve and the central auditory system". ...
Moore EJ (1971). Human cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve action potentials from surface electrodes. Unpublished Ph.D. ... There are at least 3 other potentials generated upon cochlear stimulation: Cochlear microphonic (CM) Summating potential (SP) ... The auditory nerve action potential, also called the compound action potential (CAP), is the most widely studied component in ... 1954). "Exploration of cochlear potentials in guinea pigs with a micro-electrode". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America ...
For hearing, cochlear implants are used to stimulate the auditory nerve directly. The vestibulocochlear nerve is part of the ... Neural implants such as deep brain stimulation and Vagus nerve stimulation are increasingly becoming routine for patients with ...
The cochlear nerve, as well as spiral ganglion is situated inside it. The cochlear nerve conducts impulses from the receptors ...
Gaumond, R P; Molnar, C E; Kim, D O (September 1982). "Stimulus and recovery dependence of cat cochlear nerve fiber spike ... Johnson, Don H.; Swami, Ananthram (1983-08-01). "The transmission of signals by auditory‐nerve fiber discharge patterns". The ... Brillinger, D. R. (1988-08-01). "Maximum likelihood analysis of spike trains of interacting nerve cells". Biological ...
Böttcher's ganglion: Ganglion on the cochlear nerve in the internal auditory meatus. Böttcher's space: Also known as the ... with a dissertation on the nerve supply to the inner ear's cochlea. He furthered his studies with journeys to Germany, France ... particularly studies involving the structure of the reticular lamina and nerve fibers of the organ of Corti. Today his name is ...
The acoustic tubercle is a nuclei on the end of the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nerve is lateral to the root of the vestibular ... nerve. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus, lies immediately in front of the inferior peduncle; the other ...
Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (November 2009). "Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced ... Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (November 2009). "Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced ... Sergeyenko Y, Lall K, Liberman MC, Kujawa SG (August 2013). "Age-related cochlear synaptopathy: an early-onset contributor to ... Their research has shown that cochlear synapses may be temporarily or permanently damaged from overexposure to intense sound. ...
They then depolarise and send impulses to the brain via the cochlear nerve. This produces the sensation of sound. Interior of ... It is separated from the cochlear duct by the basilar membrane, and it extends from the round window to the helicotrema, where ... This movement is conveyed to the organ of Corti inside the cochlear duct, composed of hair cells attached to the basilar ... Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Diagrammatic longitudinal ...
... may affect the initiation of the nerve impulse in the cochlear nerve or the transmission of the nerve impulse along the nerve ... Profound or total hearing loss may be amenable to management by cochlear implants, which stimulate cochlear nerve endings ... Neural, or "retrocochlear", hearing loss occurs because of damage to the cochlear nerve (CVIII). This damage ... or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). SNHL accounts for about 90% of reported hearing loss. SNHL is usually ...
From the cochlea, peripheral auditory information goes to the cochlear nucleus. From there, through the cochlear nerve, axons ... From the retina, the axons of the optic nerves go directly to the geniculate nuclei. The nasal component of the optic nerves ( ...
They project their axons to the ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei as the cochlear nerve, a branch of the vestibulocochlear ... The rudiment of the cochlear nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the ... The axons of neurons in the spiral ganglion travel to the brainstem, forming the cochlear nerve. Diagrammatic longitudinal ... The spiral (cochlear) ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the modiolus, the conical central axis of the cochlea. These ...
First, the tumor usually arises from the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve, rather than the cochlear division ... and cranial nerve VII (controls facial expression and taste). Cranial nerve VIII, along with these two nerves, also passes ... Large tumors that compress the adjacent brainstem may affect other local cranial nerves. The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves ... portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). VS are slow-growing, benign and non-invasive. Progression to ...
... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the ... Cochlear nerve fibers (30,000+) each have a most sensitive frequency and respond over a wide range of levels. Simplified, nerve ... which in turn joins the vestibular nerve to form the vestibulocochlear nerve, or cranial nerve number VIII. The region of the ... At the cochlear base the BM is at its narrowest and most stiff (high-frequencies), while at the cochlear apex it is at its ...
The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... The purpose of the middle ear ossicles is to overcome the impedance mismatch between air waves and cochlear waves, by providing ... are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in the temporal lobe). ... they release neurotransmitter at synapses with the fibers of the auditory nerve, which does produce action potentials. In this ...
They reflect neuronal activity in the auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus, superior olive, and inferior colliculus of the ...
There are two types of afferent neurons found in the cochlear nerve: Type I and Type II. Each type of neuron has specific cell ... The fluid found in these two cochlear chambers is perilymph, while scala media, or the cochlear duct, is filled with endolymph ... Cochlear hair cells are organized as inner hair cells and outer hair cells; inner and outer refer to relative position from the ... The release of neurotransmitter at a ribbon synapse, in turn, generates an action potential in the connected auditory-nerve ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior colliculus, and ... Köppl, Christine (1997). "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the ... they release neurotransmitters and cause action potentials to occur down the auditory nerve. The auditory nerve then leads to ... Laudanski, J.; Coombes, S.; Palmer, A. R.; Sumner, C. J. (2009). "Mode-Locked Spike Trains in Responses of Ventral Cochlear ...
"The effect of the acoustic nerve chronic electric stimulation upon the guinea pig cochlear nucleus development". Acta ... the cochlear implant would need several electrodes, so it could stimulate the different frequency regions on the "cochlear ... he observed that the nucleus of the last brachial nerve, the pneumogastric nerve, extended a long way down, undoubtedly causing ... The multichannel cochlear implant was designed and developed in 1975 at Saint-Antoine Hospital by a multidisciplinary team ...
In contrast to hearing aids, which amplify sound, cochlear implants are designed to stimulate the auditory nerve. Tubulopathy ... "Cochlear Implants". National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Even though sensorineural deafness is irreversible, one treatment are cochlear implants, which includes a microphone and ... deafness because of problems with the hearing nerve) and salt-wasting renal tubulopathy (salt loss caused by kidney problems). ...
... and their movement generates nerve impulses which are then taken to the brain by the cochlear nerve. The auditory nerve takes ... Recent research, reported in 2012 achieved growth of cochlear nerve cells resulting in hearing improvements in gerbils, using ... the cochlear nerve and also within the brainstem. A case history (usually a written form, with questionnaire) can provide ... "Sound and Fury - Cochlear Implants - Essay". PBS. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-01 ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ... "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba". ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. ...
Cochlear filtering limits the range of AM rates encoded in individual auditory-nerve fibers. In the auditory nerve, the ... Cochlear implants are devices that electrically stimulate the auditory nerve, thereby creating the sensation of sound in a ... Palmer AR, Russell IJ (1986). "Phase-locking in the cochlear nerve of the guinea-pig and its relation to the receptor potential ... Some cochlear implant systems transmit information about TFSp in the channels of the cochlear implants that are tuned to low ...
They work by artificial stimulation of the cochlear nerve by providing an electric impulse substitution for the firing of hair ... NAD Cochlear Implant Committee. "NAD Position Statement on Cochlear Implants (2000)". Cochlear Implants %7c National ... Cochlear implants as well as bone conduction implants can help with single sided deafness. Middle ear implants or bone ... Many in the deaf community strongly object to a deaf child being fitted with a cochlear implant (often on the advice of an ...
... and cochlear nerve are intact. People with auditory neuropathy may have normal hearing or hearing loss ranging from mild to ... a covering that protects the nerves. If the auditory nerve becomes damaged, the affected person will become completely deaf in ... Measles may cause auditory nerve damage but usually gives rise to a chronic middle ear problem giving rise to a mixed hearing ... Autoimmune disease is recognized as a cause for cochlear damage. Although rare, it is possible for autoimmune processes to ...
First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... cranial nerve VIII (auditory) → cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) → LLN → caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The whole ...
They dispense, manage, and rehabilitate hearing aids and assess candidacy for and map cochlear implants. They counsel families ... auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is ... Audiologists have training in anatomy and physiology, hearing aids, cochlear implants, electrophysiology, acoustics, ... cochlear implant users and/or hearing aid users), from pediatric populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus ...
No cure; can utilize cochlear implants or hearing aids Kyphoscoliosis. Abnormal curvature of the spine in 2 planes, outward ... and the survival of nerve cells. The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some ...
... as via auditory-nerve interspike-interval histograms.[20] Some theories of pitch perception hold that pitch has inherent octave ... appealing to phase shifts between cochlear filters;[18] however, earlier work has shown that certain sounds with a prominent ... but the processing seems to be based on an autocorrelation of action potentials in the auditory nerve.[17] However, it has long ...
Nerve. Trigeminal nerve, Great auricular nerve, Lesser occipital nerve. Lymph. To pre- and post-auricular nodes, nodes of ... Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ... Cutaneous sensation to these areas is via the trigeminal nerve, the attendant nerve of the 1st branchial arch. The final three ... These portions of the ear are supplied by the cervical plexus and a small portion by the facial nerve. This explains why ...
An early success in this field is the cochlear implant. A tiny device inserted into the inner ear, it replaces the ... Fromherz, Peter; "Neuroelectronic Interfacing: Semiconductor Chips with Ion Channels, Nerve Cells, and Brain"; Nanoelectronics ... are attached to the severed nerve-endings of the patient. The patient is then taught how to operate the prosthetic, trying to ... an institute working on nerve cell/chip interconnection Wetware Technology. ...
... functional integrity of the cochlear and facial nerves, degree of eventual sensory hearing loss). In addition, the assumption ... 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.[edit]. The use of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for the assessment of ICP dates back to ... 8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal venous outflow pressure (VOP ... While the ONSD can at any given point along the optic nerve be measured with a precision of ,1mm, reliability of derived ICP ...
Dorsal cochlear nucleus granule cell[edit]. The granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus are small neurons with two or ... Dorsal cochlear granule cells. Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. ... Granule cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus play a role in the perception and response to sounds in our environment. ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ...
Cochlear NMDARs are the target of intense research to find pharmacological solutions to treat tinnitus. NMDARs are associated ... Glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells. .mw-parser-output .hatnote{font-style:italic;padding-left:1.6 ...
The corresponding subtypes of MD are called vestibular MD, showing symptoms of vertigo, and cochlear MD, showing symptoms of ... The surgeon can also cut the nerve to the balance portion of the inner ear in a vestibular neurectomy. The hearing is often ... cochlear (without vertigo) and vestibular (without deafness).[39] ...
The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. ... The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which contain the special somatic afferent column. ... The word bulbar can refer to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to those muscles ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers. ...
... where it is converted to a nervous signal in the cochlear and transmitted along the vestibulocochlear nerve. ... The great auricular nerve, auricular nerve, auriculotemporal nerve, and lesser and greater occipital nerves of the cervical ... The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct, the cochlear duct, and the tympanic duct.[3] Hair cells ... As the cochlear duct's mesenchyme begins to differentiate, three cavities are formed: the scala vestibuli, the scala tympani ...
Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ... 722- This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, ... The central mechanisms include the convergence of olfactory nerve axons into glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, where the signal ...
The hair cells convert this pattern of stimulation to nerve signals, and the brain is thus advised of changes in your linear ... Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ... it receives the utricular filaments of the acoustic nerve. ... velocity.[5] This signal to the vestibular nerve (which takes ...
However, one of the ten traits was found in Euparkeria (an abducens nerve exit foramen only present in the prootic) and another ... Four of the traits (well-developed palatal processes of the maxilla which meet at the midline, an elongated cochlear recess, a ...
Treatments are also in clinical trials to repair and regenerate peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are more likely to be ... Cochlear hair cell regrowth[edit]. Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem ... Stem cells induced to a neural fate injected in to a severed nerve. Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem ... Park BW, Kang DH, Kang EJ, Byun JH, Lee JS, Maeng GH, Rho GJ (2012). "Peripheral nerve regeneration using autologous porcine ...
... which carry the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers for mucous secretion from the facial nerve. ... The ethmoidal air cells receive sensory fibers from the anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves, and the orbital branches of ...
High-Power BTEs, Cochlear Implants. IEC: PR44, ANSI: 7003ZD. 675, 675A, 675AE, 675AP, 675CA, 675CP, 675HP, 675HPX, 675 Implant ... Once the sound is able to reach the cochlea at normal or near-normal levels, the cochlea and auditory nerve are able to ... J., Moore, Brian C. (2007). Cochlear hearing loss : physiological, psychological and technical issues (2nd ed.). Chichester: ... In 2003, the FCC adopted rules to make digital wireless telephones compatible with hearing aids and cochlear implants. Although ...
The meningeal branch of vagus nerve (dural branch) is a recurrent filament given off from the jugular ganglion; it is ... Retrieved from "" ...
"The Nerve Center of Pathology". Stanford University.. [not in citation given]. *^ "Chapter 9: Degenerative diseases". www. ... In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed deaf people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In ... Laminectomy is the removal of the lamina portion of the vertebrae of the spine in order to make room for the compressed nerve ... peripheral nerve surgery. *pediatric neurosurgery (for cancer, seizures, bleeding, stroke, cognitive disorders or congenital ...
Nerve growth factor[edit]. Main article: Nerve growth factor. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a ... cochlear ganglia and superior cervival ganglia and moderate losses of nodose petrosal ganglia and vestibular ganglia.[23][29] ... and maintenance of nerve cells. They are small proteins that secrete into the nervous system to help keep nerve cells alive. ... Main article: Nerve growth factor receptor. There are two classes of receptors for neurotrophins: p75 and the "Trk" family of ...
The anterior canal transmits the nasociliary nerve and anterior ethmoidal vessels,. *the posterior, the posterior ethmoidal ...
Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage. ...
The implant vibrates the skull and inner ear, which stimulate the nerve fibers of the inner ear, allowing hearing. ... Cochlear Implants International. 10 Suppl 1: 43-7. doi:10.1179/cim.2009.10.Supplement-1.43. PMID 19195004.. ... and when the sound has problems in reaching the nerve cells of the inner ear. Example of the first include age-related hearing ... Collins syndrome patients may have significant malformations with ossicular defects and an abnormal route of the facial nerve. ...
Nerve. auriculotemporal nerve, great auricular nerve, auricular branch of vagus nerve. Lymph. superficial cervical lymph nodes ... Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ...
Auditory nerve fibers take this slightly-processed sensory information to the cochlear nucleus where information either ... was the discoverer of the frequency code-the observation that sensory nerves convey signal intensity though the frequency of ... "The impulses produced by sensory nerve-endings: Part II. The response of a Single End-Organ". The Journal of Physiology. 61 (2 ...
inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ... Neurons are connected by a single axon, or by a bundle of axons known as a nerve tract, or fasciculus.[1] Shorter neural ... A bundle of nerve fibers (axons) connecting neighboring or distant nuclei of the CNS is a tract.. ...
Complementing this, afferent nerve fibres have been found that project to early visual areas such as the lingual gyrus from ... increasing activation of the auditory association cortex as previously deaf participants gain hearing experience via a cochlear ... however a similar study to that presented above was performed on cats whose optic nerves had been severed. These cats displayed ...
In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei ... Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. ...
Hoxb-1 is expressed in rhombomere 4 and gives rise to the facial nerve. Without this Hoxb-1 expression, a nerve similar to the ... spontaneous activity is thought to be involved in tonotopic map formation by segregating cochlear neuron axons tuned to high ... Nerve Growth Factor (NGF): Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen purified the first trophic factor, Nerve Growth Factor (NGF ... They also showed that the synaptogenic signal is produced by the nerve, and they identified the factor as Agrin. Agrin induces ...
The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Cochlear nuclear complex[edit]. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ...
Synonyms: auditory nerve cochlear root of eighth cranial nerve cochlear root of acoustic nerve vestibulocochlear VIII nerve ... nerve and innervates some cochlea and branching_part_of some vestibulocochlear nerve and extends_fibers_into some cochlear ... The cochlear nerve is a sensory nerve, one which conducts to the brain information about the environment, in this case acoustic ... The cochlear nerve arises from within the cochlea and extends to the brainstem, where its fibers make contact with the cochlear ...
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII or 8): Auditory receptors of the cochlear division are located in the organ of Corti and ... Other articles where Cochlear nerve is discussed: human nervous system: ... part of vestibulocochlear nerve. * In vestibulocochlear nerve. …and functionally distinct parts: the cochlear nerve, ... trunk of fibres of the cochlear nerve. This nerve, a division of the very short vestibulocochlear nerve, enters the base of the ...
Cochlear nerve definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... cochlear nerve in Medicine Expand. cochlear nerve n. The cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve peripheral to the ... To destroy the cochlear nerve, the whole of the cochlea should be removed. ... cochlear root, composed of nerve processes with terminals on the four rows of hair cells and the bipolar neurons of the spiral ...
The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Cochlear nuclear complexEdit. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ... The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain. The other ...
The work centers on regenerating surviving nerves after age-related or environmental hearing loss, using existing cochlear ... "People with cochlear implants do well with understanding speech, but their perception of pitch can be poor, so they often miss ... The cochlear implants are "surprisingly efficient" at localized gene therapy in the animal model, when a few electric pulses ... says ultimately the changes in the hearing nerve may be maintained by the ongoing neural activity generated by the cochlear ...
Although children with cochlear nerve deficiency who have a small nerve may benefit from cochlear implantation or amplification ... cochlear nerves on MRI.. RESULTS: Of the nine children with cochlear nerve deficiency, five (56%) were affected unilaterally ... who were subsequently identified as having absent or small cochlear nerves (i.e., cochlear nerve deficiency). ... all ears without cochlear nerves were identified as having a profound hearing loss. Only 4 (31%) of the 13 ears with cochlear ...
University of Michigan Medical School researchers are showing promising results with auditory nerve implants, which bypass the ... Auditory Nerve Implants Improve on Cochlear Implants. June 19th, 2007 Tim Odell Neurosurgery ... The possible auditory nerve implants likely would be suitable for the same people who are candidates today for cochlear ... But their location, separated from auditory nerve fibers by fluid and a bony wall, is a limitation.. "Access to specific nerve ...
Gene context of Cochlear Nerve. *FGF1 and FGF2 act as trophic factors for the developing cochlear nerve fibres [26]. ... High impact information on Cochlear Nerve. *Kainic acid injections result in degeneration of cochlear nucleus cells innervated ... Psychiatry related information on Cochlear Nerve. *However, the effect of sensorineural hearing losses on auditory nerve ... We have studied the morphological and cellular changes in the cochlear nucleus (CN) after cochlear nerve degeneration and ...
Cochlear Nerve*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Compression Syndromes / complications*, surgery. Tinnitus / etiology*. ... that these patients may be suffering from vascular loop compression of the cochlear division of the eighth cranial nerve. When ...
Cochlear nerve (Science: anatomy, nerve) The cochlear part of the acoustic (8th cranial) nerve. The cochlear nerve fibres ... originate from neurons of the spiral ganglion and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear ... Retrieved from "" ...
... cochlear nerve terminals and SGCs suggests a different view, i.e., that the acute noise-induced damage to cochlear nerve ... 4 a) to count synaptic ribbons in five cochlear regions (from apex to base), converting cochlear location to cochlear frequency ... but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear nerve. Results suggest that noise- ... Immunostaining cochlear-nerve terminal swellings suggests that ribbon counts underestimate the degree of IHC denervation. a , b ...
The effect of direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve with a ring electrode was evaluated, but appeared to be not a viable ... Neurosurgical interventions at the cochlear nerve & nucleus for treatment of tinnitus. van den Berge, M., 2020, [Groningen]: ... Tinnitus can be the result of compression of the cochlear nerve with a blood vessel (neurovascular conflict). In this thesis, ... Our research showed that the type of compression, e.g. causing a dimple in the nerve, is not a good indicator for a symptomatic ...
The representation of speech-like stimuli in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus have been the subject of numerous studies ... Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Good Frequency Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Selective Listening These keywords were added by ... May B.J., Le Prell G.S., Hienz R.D., Sachs M.B. (1997) Speech Representation in the Auditory Nerve and Ventral Cochlear Nucleus ... The representation of speech-like stimuli in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus have been the subject of numerous studies ...
Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Xiaoqin Wang, Murray B. Sachs ... We have investigated responses of the auditory nerve fibres (ANFS) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) units to narrow ... Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus ... Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. ...
In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we ... Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven feed-forward inhibition (FFI) onto FCs. We find that ... Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven feed-forward inhibition (FFI) onto FCs. We find that ... In addition we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct ...
Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity Details ... Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity ... This study characterizes the cochlear receptor and auditory nerve potentials in a patient with FRDA who had the clinical ... Read More: Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity ...
Noninvasive Direct Stimulation of the Cochlear Nerve for Functional MR Imaging of the Auditory Cortex. Erich Hofmann, Christine ... Noninvasive Direct Stimulation of the Cochlear Nerve for Functional MR Imaging of the Auditory Cortex ... Noninvasive Direct Stimulation of the Cochlear Nerve for Functional MR Imaging of the Auditory Cortex ... Noninvasive Direct Stimulation of the Cochlear Nerve for Functional MR Imaging of the Auditory Cortex ...
... presence of neurovascular cross-compression of the cochlear nerve to investigate whether radiologic evidence of cochlear nerve ... syndrome of vestibulo-cochlear organ impairment during vascular compression of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve (VCS) [in Polish]. ... Radiographic analysis of cochlear nerve vascular compression. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2009;118:356-61 doi:10.1177/ ... The Role of MRI in Diagnosing Neurovascular Compression of the Cochlear Nerve Resulting in Typewriter Tinnitus. Y.J. Bae, Y.J. ...
... cochlear nerve explanation free. What is cochlear nerve? Meaning of cochlear nerve medical term. What does cochlear nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of cochlear nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... See also: cochlear root of cranial nerve VIII. Synonym(s): nervus cochlearis [TA], auditory nerve, cochlear part of ... cochlear nerve. The branch of the 8th cranial nerve (ACOUSTIC NERVE) concerned with hearing.. Collins Dictionary of Medicine © ...
... the spatial distribution of functional auditory nerve fibers and the spatial distribution of electrically excited nerve fibers ... Multi channel cochlear prostheses noninvasive recording methods for estimating ... Microstimulation of auditory nerve for estimating cochlear place of single fibers in a deaf ear. Hearing Research. 113(1-2): ... Temporal and spatial sequence of anterograde degeneration in the cochlear nerve fibers of the cat. A light microscopic study. ...
Cochlear Nerve. Home » Cochlear Nerve Cochlear Nerve Definition Function And Pictures Body Terms ...
location of cochlear nerve. *. In human nervous system: Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII or 8). 5 turns) of the cochlea. Air ... This stimulates the sensory cells of the organ of Corti, atop the basilar membrane, to send nerve impulses to the brain.. ... This fluid movement is converted by the organ of Corti into nerve impulses that are interpreted as auditory information. The… ... and the cochlear duct, which is the only part of the inner ear involved in… ...
The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and ... centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing. ... The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). ... Cochlear Nerve. The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from ...
... these neurons then project to the cochlear nuclei via the cochlear nerve. · The cochlear nerve travels through the IAM with the ... Remember that cochlear nerve arises from bipolar cells from the spiral ganglion.. · The ventral cochlear nucleus receives low ... Lesions of vestibular nerve = dizziness, nystagmus, vertigo, and postural deficiencies. · Lesions of cochlear nerve = ... COCHLEAR NUCLEI. Neurons of spiral ganglion (Glut) → VIII→ dorsal & ventral cochlear N. Projections are tonotopic- high ...
This book will move the field of pediatric cochlear implantation forward by educating clinicians in the field as to current and ... Cochlear Nerve Deficiency Claire Iseli, Oliver Adunka, Craig Buchman. Pages 227-235 ... Cochlear Implants as Treatment of Single-Sided Deafness in Children David R. Friedmann, J. Thomas Roland Jr., Susan B. Waltzman ... Focusing exclusively on cochlear implantation as it applies to the pediatric population, this book also discusses music therapy ...
Hearing Without Cochlear Nerves Auditory brainstem implant devices may help young children with sensorineural hearing loss.. ... Cochlear Implants: Myths and Candidacy. This webinar provides a general overview of cochlear implants and the evaluation ...
What is ampullar nerve, inferior? Meaning of ampullar nerve, inferior medical term. What does ampullar nerve, inferior mean? ... Looking for online definition of ampullar nerve, inferior in the Medical Dictionary? ampullar nerve, inferior explanation free ... Synonym: acoustic nerve; cochlear nerve. auricular nerve. Any of three nerves, the great auricular nerve, the posterior ... fifth cranial nerve See trigeminal nerve.. fourth cranial nerve See trochlear nerve.. frontal nerve See ophthalmic nerve.. ...
... cochlear nerve: it transmit impulses from the spiral organ to the cerebral cortex., outer ear , auditory ossicles: the ... cochlear nerve: it transmit impulses from the spiral…: ear sound travels ( ... the cochlear nerve pathway to the brain: the ascending pathway transmits impulses from the spinal organ of the corti to the ... cochlear nerve: it transmit impulses from the spiral organ to the cerebral cortex. ...
  • In this respect, auditory nerve fibers are somewhat unusual in that action potentials pass through the soma. (
  • In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve. (
  • The peripheral axons of auditory nerve fibers form synaptic connections with the hair cells of the cochlea via ribbon synapses using the neurotransmitter glutamate . (
  • There, its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus . (
  • In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as either type I or type II. (
  • Each type I axon innervates only a single inner hair cell, but each inner hair cell is innervated by up to 30 such nerve fibers, depending on species and location within the cochlea. (
  • The cochlear nerve arises from within the cochlea and extends to the brainstem, where its fibers make contact with the cochlear nucleus, the next stage of neural processing in the auditory system[WP]. (
  • But their location, separated from auditory nerve fibers by fluid and a bony wall, is a limitation. (
  • Access to specific nerve fibers is blunted," Middlebrooks says. (
  • The intimate contact of the array with the nerve fibers achieves more precise activation of fibers signaling specific frequencies, reduced electrical current requirements and dramatically reduced interference among electrodes when they are stimulated simultaneously," Middlebrooks says. (
  • Hair cells normally transduce sound-evoked mechanical motion into receptor potentials, which lead to transmitter release at their glutamatergic synapses with cochlear afferent fibers (see Fig. 1 ). (
  • The central projections of intrecellularly labeled auditory nerve fibers in cats. (
  • The relationship between spike rate and synchrony in responses of auditory-nerve fibers to single tones. (
  • Tails of tuning curves of auditory nerve fibers. (
  • Representation of vowel-like spectra by discharge rate responses of individual auditory-nerve fibers. (
  • Here, we investigated the synaptic circuit associated with fusiform cells (FCs), principal neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) that receive excitation from auditory nerve fibers and inhibition from tuberculoventral cells (TVCs) on their basal dendrites in the deep layer of DCN. (
  • Excitatory inputs onto basal dendrites are conveyed via auditory nerve fibers that carry precisely timed, tonotopically organized acoustic information. (
  • The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. (
  • a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. (
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once. (
  • The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles of the internal organs. (
  • mixed nerve ( nerve of mixed fibers ) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (
  • Like somatic C fibers, unmyelinated type II cochlear afferents differ in size, number, and innervation pattern from type I afferents that encode sound. (
  • Any of the bundles of fibers made up of nerve cells that carry information in the form of electrical impulses throughout the body. (
  • either one of the eighth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the organs of hearing and from the semicircular canals to the brain. (
  • Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers. (
  • Specialized olfactory neurons and nerve fibers meet with other nerves, which pass into the olfactory tract. (
  • Most of the fibers of the optic nerve cross into a structure called the optic chiasm. (
  • AP1 is nearly synchronous with the negative-to-positive transition of round window microphonics and with the excitation of fibers innervating apical-to-middle cochlear regions. (
  • It has been known for decades that loss of auditory nerve fibers, the primary sensory neurons connecting the hair cells to the auditory brainstem, need not affect threshold sensitivity when the degeneration is diffusely distributed along the cochlear spiral ( Schuknecht and Woellner, 1953 ). (
  • Because the extra-cochlear single-channel system stimulates all cochlear nerve fibers simultaneously, it cannot replicate fine frequency structure, and thus this system is less capable of restoring speech perception compared with the multi-channel system. (
  • The nerve fibers from the hair cells lead to which ganglion? (
  • the spiral ganglion has fibers that make up which nerve? (
  • After nerve fibers from the spiral ganglion of Corti enter the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, where do they synapse? (
  • The spiral ganglion fibers create the cochlear nerve. (
  • As a consequence, each intracochlear electrode activates an inappropriately broad range of auditory nerve fibers and the number of independent channels that a CI user can perceive is thus reduced from a maximum of 22 physical electrodes to about 6-8 1 . (
  • Morphological studies of inner hair cell (IHC) synapses with cochlear nerve terminals have suggested that high- and low-threshold fibers differ in the sizes of their pre- and postsynaptic elements as well as the position of their synapses around the hair cell circumference. (
  • Noise-induced cochlear neuropathy is selective for fibers with low spontaneous rates. (
  • Nerve fibers from the spiral ganglion of Corti go to the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, which are located in the upper portion of the medulla. (
  • In the cochlea the sound waves are transduced into coded patterns of impulses transmitted along the afferent cochlear fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve for analysis in the central auditory pathways of the brain. (
  • Each of the 100 electrodes would selectively "listen" or "talk" to a small number of fibers in a nerve. (
  • The cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve peripheral to the cochlear root, composed of nerve processes with terminals on the four rows of hair cells and the bipolar neurons of the spiral ganglion. (
  • It has long been established that the auditory nerve endings regenerate if neurotrophins - a naturally occurring family of proteins crucial for the development, function and survival of neurons - are delivered to the auditory portion of the inner ear, the cochlea . (
  • The cochlear nerve fibres originate from neurons of the spiral ganglion and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei of the brainstem . (
  • In contrast, noise-induced loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), the cell bodies of the cochlear afferent neurons contacting these hair cells, is delayed by months and can progress for years ( Kujawa and Liberman, 2006 ). (
  • We show rapid, extensive, and irreversible loss of synapses within 24 h postexposure, and delayed and progressive loss of cochlear neurons over many months, although hair cells remain and recover normal function. (
  • The representation of the steady-state vowel /eh/ in the discharge pat-terns of cat anteroventral cochlear nucleus neurons. (
  • In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. (
  • composed of the central nerve processes of the bipolar neurons of the spiral ganglion, which have their peripheral processes on the four rows of neuroepithelial cells (hair cells) of the spiral organ. (
  • In the cochlea (the specialized auditory end organ of the inner ear), the frequency of a pure tone is reported by the location of the reacting neurons in the basilar membrane, and the loudness of the sound is reported by the rate of discharge of nerve impulses. (
  • Neurons of spiral ganglion (Glut) → VIII→ dorsal & ventral cochlear N. (
  • This benefit, however, has been gained at a significant cost in the metabolic and mechanical vulnerability of cochlear hair cells and neurons. (
  • Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs, the secondary sensory neurons making up the auditory nerve) are continuously firing cells in a healthy ear (they fall silent when the hair cells degenerate, leading to deafness). (
  • Other transformations as information ascended included an increased variety in the shapes of the recovery functions in structures subsequent to the nerve, and neurons "tuned" to particular conditioner-probe intervals in the auditory cortex. (
  • Tet1 peptide specifically binds to the trisialoganglioside clostridial toxin receptor on neurons and was expected to target the polymersomes toward the cochlear nerve. (
  • Immunostained cochlear whole mounts and plastic-embedded sections were studied by confocal and conventional light microscopy to quantify hair cells, cochlear neurons, and synaptic structures, i.e., presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptors. (
  • Exposure to loud sound damages the postsynaptic terminals of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) on cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs), resulting in loss of synapses, a process termed synaptopathy. (
  • Afterwards, single unit recordings were made from cochlear ganglion neurons at various times post-treatment. (
  • The central axons form synaptic connections with cells in the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem. (
  • The cochlear nucleus is the first 'relay station' of the central auditory system and receives mainly ipsilateral afferent input. (
  • The axons from the low-frequency region of the cochlea project to the ventral portion of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the ventrolateral portions of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (
  • The axons from the high-frequency region project to the dorsal portion of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus and the uppermost dorsal portions of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. (
  • The three major components of the cochlear nuclear complex are (see figure below): the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) Each of the three cochlear nuclei are tonotopically organized. (
  • Ear anatomy Cochlear nucleus innervated by a branching auditory nerve fibre Terminal nuclei of the vestibular nerve, with their upper connections. (
  • Another novel option is neurostimulation of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem with an auditory brainstem implant (ABI). (
  • Regularity analysis in a compartmental model of chopper units in the an-teroventral cochlear nucleus. (
  • Classification of unit types in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus: post-stimulus time histograms and regularity analysis. (
  • Bourk, T. R. (1976) Electrical Responses of Neural Units in the Anteroventral Cochlear nucleus of the Cat . (
  • The fine structure of two types of stellate cells in the anterior division of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. (
  • Pitch-tagged spectral representations in the cochlear nucleus. (
  • The functional role of excitatory and inhibitory interactions in chopper cells of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (
  • A model of selective processing of auditory-nerve inputs by stellate cells of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (
  • We have investigated responses of the auditory nerve fibres (ANFS) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) units to narrow band 'single-form ant' stimuli (SFSS). (
  • Direct projections from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) mediate a high-speed transfer of acoustic information to the auditory thalamus. (
  • The first experimental evidence for a direct projection from the cochlear nucleus (CN) to the medial geniculate body (MG) was published over 70 years ago, when Woollard and Harpman (1940) described a few degenerating axons entering the MG after lesioning the CN in a guinea pig. (
  • Kelsall DCShallop JKBrammeier TGPrenger EC Facial nerve stimulation after Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implantation. (
  • Cohen NLHoffman RAStorschein M Medical or surgical complications related to the nucleus multichannel cochlear implant. (
  • The ABI is a surgically placed bionic implant that converts sounds into electrical signals that are directly transmitted to the cochlear nucleus, the first auditory center of the brain. (
  • The structures tested were the auditory nerve, anteroventral cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, and primary auditory cortex. (
  • A somatic motor nerve originating in the abducens nucleus in the pons. (
  • The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron ) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve , a cranial nerve present in amniotes , the other part being the vestibular nerve. (
  • The other portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the vestibular nerve , which carries spatial orientation information to the brain from the semicircular canals , also known as semicircular ducts. (
  • Terminal nuclei of the vestibular nerve, with their upper connections. (
  • the other portion of the 8th cranial nerve is the vestibular nerve which carries spatial orientation information from the semicircular canals. (
  • and functionally distinct parts: the cochlear nerve, which innervates the organ of hearing, and the vestibular nerve, which innervates the organs of equilibrium. (
  • and functionally distinct parts: the cochlear nerve, distributed to the hearing organ, and the vestibular nerve, distributed to the organ of equilibrium. (
  • 3,4) Recent reviews of the histology and surgery literature have demonstrated that most schwannomas arise from the covering cells (Schwann cells) of the inferior vestibular nerve (5,6) Schwannomas that arise from the cochlear nerve and are limited to the internal auditory canal are rare. (
  • The vestibular nerve communicates information about body position and movement, assisting the brain in maintaining balance. (
  • A more common cause is vestibular neuritis, an inflammation of the vestibular nerve. (
  • According to NIDCD, acoustic neuritis may be caused by a viral infection that temporarily damages the vestibular nerve. (
  • The vestibular nerve projects to the vestibular nuclei in the medulla oblongata and into the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (
  • An acoustic neuroma is a type of benign (noncancerous) brain tumor that grows on the vestibular nerve as it travels from the inner ear to the brainstem. (
  • The cochleo-vestibular nerve (also called the eighth cranial nerve) is made up of three nerves that connect the inner ear to the brain. (
  • This travels in parallel with the vestibular nerves through the internal auditory canal , through which it connects to the brainstem. (
  • In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ipsilaterally located in the medulla of the brainstem. (
  • This nerve, a division of the very short vestibulocochlear nerve, enters the base of the modiolus from the brainstem through an opening in the petrous portion of the temporal bone called the internal meatus. (
  • Lesions in the CPA-IAC can compress the cochlear nerve as it travels from the brainstem to the cochlea resulting in SNHL. (
  • We think that the presence of wave V in our study may reflect the functional integrity of the cochlear nerve and auditory brainstem potentials were evoked in all subjects with a simple and reproducible technique without being aggressive with the cochlea. (
  • Auditory Brainstem Response Latency in Noise as a Marker of Cochlear Synaptopathy. (
  • By combining human and animal data, we demonstrate that the latency of auditory brainstem response wave-V in noise reflects auditory nerve loss. (
  • This is the first study of human listeners with normal hearing thresholds that links individual differences observed in behavior and auditory brainstem response timing to cochlear synaptopathy. (
  • The purpose of this research study is to determine whether Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI) can improve hearing in children who are deaf and cannot receive a cochlear implants. (
  • The components of the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII) carrying axons that convey information regarding sound and balance between the spiral ganglion in the inner ear and the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem. (
  • The abducens nerve starts in the pons of the brainstem, enters an area called Dorello's canal, travels through the cavernous sinus, and ends at the lateral rectus muscle within the bony orbit. (
  • Cochlear hair cell and neuronal function was assessed via distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses, respectively. (
  • An auditory brainstem implant directly stimulates the hearing pathways in the brainstem, bypassing the inner ear and hearing nerve. (
  • Both cochlear and brainstem implants have two main parts - the parts that are placed inside the inner ear, the cochlea, or base of the brain, the brainstem ear during surgery, and the parts that are worn outside the ear after surgery. (
  • Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA) is an objective test to understand the transmission of electrical waves from the VIIIth cranial nerve to the brainstem, in response to click sounds given through the ear. (
  • Signals for hearing and balance from the inner ear are carried by the 8th cranial nerve, also called the vestibulocochlear nerve, to a vital part of the brain called the brainstem. (
  • BERA is generally used to identify any pathology in the vestibulocochlear nerve or the brainstem. (
  • The test detects pathologies from the vestibulocochlear nerve up to the brainstem. (
  • Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony is a disorder characterized by the presence of Otoacoustic Emissions and Cochlear Microphonic Potentials, an absence or severe alteration of Brainstem Evoked Auditory Potential, auditory thresholds incompatible with speech thresholds and altered acoustic reflexes. (
  • One of two divisions of the vestibulocochlear nerve that facilitate hearing by conducting stimuli to the brain. (
  • High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as an important part of preimplantation evaluation for children with SNHL, could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, so as to select suitable candidate for cochlear implantation (CI). (
  • High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, which could help to select suitable candidate for CI and to predict whether CI would be beneficial or not. (
  • Till now, several studies had clarified the incidence of the inner ear malformation or vestibulocochlear nerve deficiency and their influence on CI [ 6 ]. (
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve is involved with a person's hearing and balance. (
  • The ear nerve is known by several names including the vestibulocochlear nerve, the auditory nerve, the acoustic nerve, and the eighth cranial nerve. (
  • Toxins, medications, injuries, tumors, infections or other conditions that damage the vestibulocochlear nerve may involve one or both functional parts of the nerve. (
  • Acoustic neuroma, also known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a noncancerous tumor of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (
  • Tumors that exert pressure on the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve can precipitate vertigo. (
  • ✔ Trusted Source Neuroanatomy, Cranial Nerve 8 (Vestibulocochlear) Go to source " data-original-title="" title="">5 ✔ ) Signals then pass on to the part of the brain where they are interpreted. (
  • Each of the three cochlear nuclei are tonotopically organized. (
  • The axons from the intermediate frequency region project to intermediate targets, such that tonotopy is preserved between the cochlea and the cochlear nuclei. (
  • low freq sounds can cause volleys of nerve impulses synchronized at the same frequencies, and these volleys are transmitted by the cochlear nerve to the cochlear nuclei of the brain. (
  • The cochlear nerve projects to the cochlear nuclei. (
  • Therefore the 8th cranial nerve consists of 2 functional divisions, equilibrium and hearing, which have a close relation to their respective nuclei in the medulla. (
  • The effect of direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve with a ring electrode was evaluated, but appeared to be not a viable treatment option as damage of the nerve lead to increase in hearing loss in the majority of patients. (
  • Summary: We herein present our preliminary experience with functional MR imaging of the direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve using an MR imaging-compatible electrode placed in the external auditory meatus of five patients with binaural sensorineural hearing loss. (
  • The test is conducted by electrical stimulation of the cochlear promontory after transtympanic insertion of a needle electrode with the patient under local anesthesia. (
  • Experimental setup and the different stimulation schemes used for the electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve during functional MR imaging. (
  • 2. an afferent nerve whose stimulation causes a fall in blood pressure. (
  • secretory nerve an efferent nerve whose stimulation increases vascular activity. (
  • Despite undergoing numerous alterations in his implant programming, facial nerve stimulation (FNS) persisted. (
  • After increasing the pulse width and changing the stimulation mode, there was no facial nerve stimulation. (
  • Nyxoah has raised another €15 million (about $17 million) in financing to help commercialize its nerve stimulation treatment for sleep apnea. (
  • action potential - A brief electrical signal transmitted along a nerve or muscle fiber following stimulation. (
  • Niparko JKOviatt DLCoker NJSutton LWaltzman SBCohen NL Facial nerve stimulation with cochlear implantation: VA Cooperative Study Group on Cochlear Implantation. (
  • Muckle RPLevine SC Facial nerve stimulation produced by cochlear implants in patients with cochlear otosclerosis. (
  • Rayner MGKing TDjalilian HRSmith SLevine SC Resolution of facial stimulation in otosclerotic cochlear implants. (
  • Bigelow DCKay DJRafter KOMontes MKnox GWYousem DM Facial nerve stimulation from cochlear implants. (
  • Otosclerosis and facial nerve stimulation. (
  • Determinants of the effectiveness of electric stimulation of the auditory nerve with cochlear implants: II. (
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Determinants of the effectiveness of electric stimulation of the auditory nerve with cochlear implants: II. (
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a speech encoding scheme for the extra-cochlear stimulation system to convey intelligible speech. (
  • A click-modulated speech sound (CMS) was created as a simulation of the extra-cochlear stimulation system. (
  • In all, the speech encoding scheme could be applied to the extra-cochlear stimulation system to restore speech perception. (
  • By restoring tonotopicity, the cochlear implant can produce detailed frequency information, and many cochlear implant users perceive electrical stimulation produced by the system as speech sounds. (
  • We therefore assumed that single-pulse electrical stimulation by an extra-cochlear electrode creates a perception similar to a clicking sound, and that continuous electrical stimulation is perceived as a series of clicks. (
  • Thus, we reasonably expected the CMS to be intelligible as a speech sound, and that the speech encoding scheme will revitalize clinical use of the extra-cochlear stimulation system. (
  • The auditory-verbal program teaches babies and young children who are deaf or hard of hearing to use their amplified residual hearing or hearing through electrical stimulation ( Cochlear Implants ) to listen, to understand spoken language, and to speak. (
  • In all commercial cochlear implant (CI) devices, the electric stimulation is performed with a rectangular pulse that generally has two phases of opposite polarity. (
  • consequently, mechanical techniques are less sensitive to facial nerve stimulation than are electrophysiologic techniques. (
  • The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain . (
  • The cochlear nerve is a sensory nerve, one which conducts to the brain information about the environment, in this case acoustic energy impinging on the tympanic membrane. (
  • Here, we show, using cochlear functional assays and confocal imaging of the inner ear in mouse, that acoustic overexposures causing moderate, but completely reversible, threshold elevation leave cochlear sensory cells intact, but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear nerve. (
  • Permanent NIHL is due to destruction of cochlear hair cells or damage to their mechano-sensory hair bundles ( Liberman and Dodds, 1984 ). (
  • This stimulates the sensory cells of the organ of Corti, atop the basilar membrane, to send nerve impulses to the brain. (
  • Sensory nerves, sometimes called afferent nerves, carry information from the outside world, such as sensations of heat, cold, and pain, to the brain and spinal cord. (
  • afferent nerve any nerve that transmits impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system, such as a sensory nerve. (
  • sensory nerve a peripheral nerve that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the spinal cord or brain. (
  • somatic n's the sensory and motor nerves supplying skeletal muscle and somatic tissues. (
  • Nerves send sensory information to the brain and spinal cord and carry impulses to the muscles, organs, and glands. (
  • Either of the eighth pair of cranial nerves that carries sensory impulses from the ear to the brain. (
  • How does different sensory stimuli differ in nerve signal? (
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (
  • Sensory cranial nerves help a person to see, smell, and hear. (
  • The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both motor and sensory functions. (
  • The facial nerve also has both motor and sensory functions. (
  • Noise can cause excitotoxic trauma to cochlear synapses by triggering excessive release of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the auditory sensory hair cells. (
  • Aran JM, Dulon D, Hiel H, Aurousseau CA, Erre J-P (1992b) Persistence of gentamicin in cochlear sensory and supporting cells. (
  • Feed-forward inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in FCs exhibit short-term depression because of prominent synaptic depression at the auditory nerve-TVC synapse. (
  • Depression of this feedforward inhibitory input causes a shift in the balance of fusiform cell synaptic input towards greater excitation and suggests that fusiform cell spike output will be enhanced by physiological patterns of auditory nerve activity. (
  • This finding, together with previous evidence that type II afferents respond weakly to synaptic transmission from cochlear hair cells, and normally are insensitive to sound, supports the identification of type II afferents as cochlear nociceptors, mediating the sensation of painfully loud sound. (
  • Here, we characterize age-related cochlear synaptic and neural degeneration in CBA/CaJ mice never exposed to high-level noise. (
  • Cochlear synaptic loss progresses from youth (4 weeks) to old age (144 weeks) and is seen throughout the cochlea long before age-related changes in thresholds or hair cell counts. (
  • Cochlear nerve loss parallels the synaptic loss, after a delay of several months. (
  • Early findings suggest that these patients may be suffering from vascular loop compression of the cochlear division of the eighth cranial nerve. (
  • Present techniques, including monitoring eighth nerve action potentials, help the surgeon identify those maneuvers that increase the risk of nerve injury but do not help in the anatomic identification of the cochlear nerve or the cochlear-vestibular cleavage plane. (
  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate an electrophysiologic method of identifying the cochlear portion of the eighth cranial nerve. (
  • Central processes from the spiral ganglion cells form the cochlear nerve (auditory part of the eighth cranial nerve). (
  • The vestibulo-cochlear nerve, or eighth cranial nerve, carries signals from the inner ear to the brain. (
  • This fluid movement is converted by the organ of Corti into nerve impulses that are interpreted as auditory information. (
  • Motor nerves, or efferent nerves, transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles. (
  • excitor nerve one that transmits impulses resulting in an increase in functional activity. (
  • inhibitory nerve one that transmits impulses resulting in a decrease in functional activity. (
  • Nerves with axons that conduct electrochemical impulses toward the central nervous system (CNS) are afferent, nerves with axons that conduct impulses away from the CNS are efferent, and nerves with both afferent and efferent axons are mixed. (
  • A sympathetic nerve to the heart that carries impulses that speed the heart rate. (
  • A nerve that conducts impulses toward the brain or spinal cord. (
  • These photoreceptors carry signal impulses along nerve cells to form the optic nerve. (
  • protons when working as ATPsynthase, which could trigger nerve impulses. (
  • University of Utah researchers will focus on developing and testing a "peripheral nerve interface" - an implanted device that would relay nerve impulses from nerves in the residual limb to a small computer worn on a belt and then to the bionic arm. (
  • Vascular decompression of the cochlear nerve in tinnitus sufferers. (
  • Tinnitus can be the result of compression of the cochlear nerve with a blood vessel (neurovascular conflict). (
  • Typewriter tinnitus, a symptom characterized by paroxysmal attacks of staccato sounds, has been thought to be caused by neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve, but the correlation between radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve and symptom presentation has not been thoroughly investigated. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve is pathognomonic in typewriter tinnitus. (
  • However, considerable false-positive (no symptoms with neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve on MR imaging) and false-negative (typewriter tinnitus without demonstrable neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve) findings were also observed. (
  • Neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve was more frequently detected on the symptomatic side of patients with typewriter tinnitus compared with the asymptomatic side of these patients or on both sides of control subjects on MR imaging. (
  • Arterial compression of the cochleovestibular nerve complex has been suggested as a potential cause of hearing deficit, typewriter tinnitus, and equilibrium disturbance or vertigo. (
  • 6 ⇓ - 8 Typewriter tinnitus is considered the result of dysmyelination and demyelination of the contact point between the arterial loop and the cochlear nerve that transmits an abnormal signal to the auditory cortex. (
  • Tinnitus can also be related to the general impairment of the hearing nerve that occurs with aging, known as presbycusis. (
  • Tinnitus can result from damage to this nerve. (
  • Damage to the ear nerve is one of many causes of tinnitus. (
  • Furthermore, not everyone with damaged cochlear nerves or cortical auditory circuits experiences tinnitus. (
  • A botulinum toxin can be administered to myoclonic middle ear muscles and to inner ear efferent and/or afferent nerves to alleviate otic disorders such as tinnitus, cochlear nerve dysfunction and Meniere's disease. (
  • To preserve hearing during vestibular neurectomy and acoustic neuroma removal, the cochlear nerve must be identified. (
  • An acoustic neuroma is a slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. (
  • Removing an acoustic neuroma can damage nerves. (
  • Such damage can be caused by an acoustic neuroma , also known as a vestibular schwannoma (benign tumor on the vestibular portion of the nerve), vestibular neuritis (viral infection of the nerve), or microvascular compression syndrome (irritation of the nerve by a blood vessel). (
  • Nervous system abnormalities and suspected acoustic neuroma , which is a benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve. (
  • Few surgeons would remove an acoustic neuroma without a functioning facial nerve monitor. (
  • A nerve in the head that carries signals from the cochlea of the inner ear to the brain. (
  • The nerve that connects the inner ear with the brain . (
  • Acute hearing depends on the microscopic endings of the hearing nerve in the inner ear. (
  • Applications include improved cochlear implant development, inner ear regenerative techniques, inner ear surgery, and auditory physiology. (
  • Persons with severe to profound hearing loss due to an absent or very small hearing nerve or severely abnormal inner ear (cochlea), may not benefit from a hearing aid or cochlear implant. (
  • Hearing nerve) This nerve carries electrical signals from the cochlea in the inner ear to the brain. (
  • While the neurotrophin production dropped away after a couple of months, Professor Housley says ultimately the changes in the hearing nerve may be maintained by the ongoing neural activity generated by the cochlear implant. (
  • 69%) had evidence of a cochlear microphonic (CM) and absent neural responses in at least one ear. (
  • The neural response telemetry is used in order to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve . (
  • To analyze the electrically evoked compound action potential , through the neural response telemetry , in children with bilateral cochlear implants . (
  • The electrically evoked compound action potential measurement using neural response telemetry in children with bilateral cochlear implants during the first year of follow-up was effective in demonstrating the synchronized bilateral development of the peripheral auditory pathways in the studied population . (
  • INTRODUCTION: In Cochlear Implant (CI) users, the recording of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve represents the most effective way to assess the auditory nerve in response to electrical stimulus and the interaction between the electrode and the neural tissue. (
  • Researchers at other institutions, meanwhile, will develop the prosthetic arm itself and will study other kinds of neural interfaces that could operate the bionic arm, including a device implanted to receive signals from the brain instead of nerves in the residual limb. (
  • Auditory neuropathy characteristics in children with cochlear nerve deficiency. (
  • Of the nine children with cochlear nerve deficiency, five (56%) were affected unilaterally and four (44%) bilaterally. (
  • Children with cochlear nerve deficiency can present with electrophysiologic evidence of AN. (
  • Although children with cochlear nerve deficiency who have a small nerve may benefit from cochlear implantation or amplification, these interventions are obviously contraindicated in children with completely absent cochlear nerves. (
  • On the other hand, the cochlear nerve cells transmit action potentials to the brain. (
  • Effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials evoked by electric pulse trains. (
  • This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. (
  • Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk in response to electric pulse trains both during and after the presentation of acoustic white noise. (
  • Groups 1 (16 symptomatic sides), 2 (14 asymptomatic sides), and 3 (16 control sides) were compared with regard to the anatomic relation between the vascular loop and the internal auditory canal and the presence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve with/without angulation/indentation. (
  • 05). Meanwhile, neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve on MR imaging was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 3 ( P = .032). (
  • However, considering false-positive and false-negative findings, meticulous history-taking and the response to the initial carbamazepine trial should be regarded as more reliable diagnostic clues than radiologic evidence of neurovascular compression of the cochlear nerve. (
  • The cell bodies of the cochlear nerve lie within the cochlea and collectively form the spiral ganglion , named for the spiral shape it shares with the cochlea. (
  • Our results suggest that measures of the effects of noise on ABR wave-V latency can be used to diagnose cochlear synaptopathy in humans. (
  • Although there are suspicions that cochlear synaptopathy affects humans with normal hearing thresholds, no one has yet reported a clinical measure that is a reliable marker of such loss. (
  • Selective blockade of CP-AMPARs prevents excitotoxicity and noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy, while other glutamate receptors continue to mediate neurotransmission and allow hearing. (
  • We propose a role for GluA2-lacking CP-AMPARs in noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy whereby differences among synapses account for differences in excitotoxic susceptibility. (
  • The promontory test is one of the mainstays of the presurgical diagnostic workup of cochlear implant candidates. (
  • This device is commonly used for the preoperative testing of cochlear implant candidates. (
  • Environmental Sound Awareness in Experienced Cochlear Implant Users and Cochlear Implant Candidates. (
  • Imaging plays an important part in the work-up of cochlear implant candidates, and an understanding of imaging evaluation procedures is essential. (
  • It is also imperative to be familiar with the growing number of imaging options (particularly magnetic resonance [MR] imaging pulse sequences) to optimize evaluation of cochlear implant candidates. (
  • Patients who do not have NF2 and are deaf due to abnormalities in their hearing nerves or inner ears from congenital malformations, infection, disease, or injury are not cochlear implant candidates and there are no other options to improve hearing in these cases except for the ABI. (
  • Like the new device, cochlear implants are small electrode arrays that receive signals from an external sound processor… They are designed to stimulate the auditory nerve and other cells to produce a sensation of hearing. (
  • A flush-tipped, bipolar electrode recording probe was used to directly record responses to monaural click stimuli from the cochlear nerve but not from surrounding tissue. (
  • These limitations are in particular caused by the spread of current induced by each electrode and by the poor efficiency between the electrical pulse and auditory-nerve responses. (
  • The device, pictured on the right, is also known as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array, a miniature gadget that should allow central nervous system's signals reaching peripheral nerves to be transduced to control the bionic arm. (
  • If the University of Utah interface device ultimately is chosen for the bionic arm, electrode arrays will be implanted in some or all of the four major nerves in the residual limbs of people with upper-arm amputations. (
  • Only one ear with cochlear nerve deficiency had present otoacoustic emissions as measured by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. (
  • During surgery, facial nerve malposition is to be expected due to associated semicircular abnormalities (particularly lateral SCC). (
  • After 4 years from implantation, the patient started to complaint of right facial twitching when his cochlear implant was active. (
  • Vanpoucke FZarowski ACasselman JFrijins JPeeters S The facial nerve canal: an important cochlear conduction path revealed by clarion electrical field imaging. (
  • The CI Surgeon must be familiar with imaging findings that contraindicate implantation (absence of the cochlea or cochlear nerve) and with those that could significantly alter surgery (facial nerve dehiscence, cochlear ossification). (
  • The cochlear nerve is absent in this patient with normal facial nerve function. (
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder of the trigeminal nerve that can cause intense pain and facial tics. (
  • Bell's palsy is a common disorder of the facial nerve, which causes paralysis on one side of the face and possibly loss of taste sensation. (
  • Facial palsy following cochlear implantation. (
  • Facial nerve function was preserved in all patients and hearing preserved in four of five patients with cochlear nerve function prior to radiosurgery. (
  • The use of intraoperative facial nerve monitors has resulted in objectively demonstrable improvement in facial nerve outcome for patients undergoing posterior fossa surgery for tumor removal. (
  • The importance of such monitors is borne out by the devastating complications that can result from facial nerve injury during surgery, including grotesque alteration of facial appearance, exposure of the eye to vision-threatening desiccation and infection, and impairment of competence of the oral sphincter, resulting in drooling and alterations in vocal quality. (
  • Individuals who have had severe facial nerve injury experience degraded self-image and loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. (
  • Consequently, surgeons who operate in the anatomic areas traversed by the facial nerve (see the image below) welcome and accept any adjunctive technique that potentially reduces the incidence of facial paralysis . (
  • The surgical anatomy and landmarks of the facial nerve. (
  • However, although, as stated, intraoperative facial nerve monitoring has resulted in demonstrably improved facial nerve outcomes in posterior fossa tumor surgery, objective documentation of improved results in mastoid and middle ear surgery is not yet forthcoming. (
  • [ 2 ] Nonetheless, many surgeons are convinced, despite the absence of objective data, that the facial nerve monitor is helpful for otologic surgery and regularly use it for routine otologic operations. (
  • Facial nerve monitoring is not a panacea, and it does not substitute for anatomic knowledge. (
  • The facial nerve can be injured by direct mechanical disruption from a rotating burr, transection with a sharp instrument, accidental evulsion (eg, from traction), or a crushing injury. (
  • A rotating surgical burr can produce thermal injury without directly contacting the facial nerve. (
  • In 1979, Delgado became the first person to use electrophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve. (
  • As a practical matter, neurophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve continuously evaluates the electromyographic activity in the monitored facial muscles. (
  • Mice of the CBA/CaJ strain were used in this study, because they show excellent cochlear sensitivity and limited age-related elevation in cochlear thresholds. (
  • However, previous work has uncovered widespread loss of cochlear afferent synapses and progressive cochlear nerve degeneration in noise-exposed ears with recovered thresholds and no hair cell loss ( Kujawa and Liberman 2009 ). (
  • Together, the nerves make up the peripheral nervous system, as distinguished from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). (
  • The neuronal cell bodies of a nerve's axons are in the brain, the spinal cord, or ganglia, but the nerves run only in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain. (
  • The olfactory nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's sense of smell. (
  • The optic nerve transmits information to the brain regarding a person's vision. (
  • The vibration moves the waves farther into the ear, where it triggers nerve cells to send sound information to your brain. (
  • Hearing loss happens when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear, the nerves inside the ear, or the part of the brain that controls hearing. (
  • Both the vestibular and cochlear nerves join at the internal auditory meatus to form the 8th cranial nerve, which enters the brain stem at the cerebellopontine angle (Fig 5). (
  • The other two branches - the inferior and superior vestibular nerves - carry balance information to the brain. (
  • Sensors in the artificial arm would send signals to the computer and on to the interface device, which would relay the signals to nerves in the remainder of the amputated arm and then to the brain, allowing the person using it to sense the arm's motion and location, and to feel objects with the mechanical hand and fingers. (
  • Only 4 (31%) of the 13 ears with cochlear nerve deficiency had a small internal auditory canal on MRI. (
  • The right cochlear nerve (VIII) was subsequently cut under intraoperative neuromonitoring. (
  • This study characterizes the cochlear receptor and auditory nerve potentials in a patient with FRDA who had the clinical profile of auditory neuropathy. (
  • A transection of the cochlear nerve in the cerebellopontine angle was performed in adult rats with a consequent electrophysiological verification of the lesion with acustic evoked potentials (AEP) (n=80). (
  • anatomy , nerve ) The cochlear part of the acoustic (8th cranial) nerve . (
  • Cochlear Gross Anatomy 16 3 the Cranial Nerve Exam - Anatomy and Physiology - Anytime standing, relocating, together with jogging, any ankle will become these a part that has crucial part. (
  • The possible auditory nerve implants likely would be suitable for the same people who are candidates today for cochlear implants: the profoundly deaf, who can't hear at all, and the severely deaf, whose hearing ability is greatly reduced. (
  • The book discusses communication practices, including sign language for deaf children with cochlear implants and the role of augmentative/alternative communication for children with multiple disabilities. (
  • Cochlear Implants in Children is aimed at clinicians, including neurotologists, pediatric otolaryngologists, audiologists and speech-language pathologists, as well as clinical scientists and educators of the deaf. (
  • When singing with cochlear implants, are two ears worse than one for perilingually/postlingually deaf individuals? (
  • To determine if postlingually deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) users have better environmental sound awareness (ESA) compared with adult patients eligible for CIs who have not yet undergone implantati. (
  • However, a number of recent studies suggest that deaf patients who do not have NF2 and are not eligible for a cochlear implant may also benefit from placement of an ABI. (
  • Otolaryngologists Blair Simmons and John Epley electrically stimulate nerve cells in the ear of a 61-year-old deaf man by implanting six tiny wires in his auditory nerve, paving the way for cochlear implants. (
  • We call for the FDA (and similar agencies in other countries) to review its approval of cochlear implantation in prelingually deaf children who are within the sensitive period for language acquisition. (
  • Comparison of intelligence quotients of first- and second-generation deaf children with cochlear implants. (
  • Cochlear implants (CIs) can provide deaf people with a sense of hearing by directly stimulating the auditory nerve. (
  • To describe a group of children exhibiting electrophysiologic responses characteristic of auditory neuropathy (AN) who were subsequently identified as having absent or small cochlear nerves (i.e., cochlear nerve deficiency). (
  • Given that 9 (18%) of 51 children with available MRI and electrophysiologic characteristics of AN in our program have been identified as having cochlear nerve deficiency makes this a relatively common diagnosis. (
  • The auditory and speech capabilities of children with auditory neuropathy and cochlear nerve deficiency can can get benefits from cochlear implants as children with sensorineural hearing loss , however not achieve the level of those with normal hearing after cochlear implantation . (
  • see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices. (
  • Cochlear nerve function is not always preserved in spite of anatomic preservation of the cochlear nerve. (
  • Opposing gradients of ribbon size and AMPA receptor expression underlie sensitivity differences among cochlear-nerve/hair-cell synapses. (
  • Because cochlear synapses are heterogenous with respect to glutamate receptors, the observation that a specific class is responsible might explain the variability in susceptibility to noise among synapses. (
  • The fibres of the cochlear nerve originate from an aggregation of nerve cell bodies, the spiral ganglion, located in the modiolus of the cochlea. (
  • Remember that cochlear nerve arises from bipolar cells from the spiral ganglion. (
  • The spiral ganglion is one of the two ganglion parts that make up the acoustic nerve complex (a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the cranial edge of the auditory vesicle). (
  • A motor branch derived from the nerve to the medial pterygoid (mandibular division of the V, parasympathetic, trigeminal nerve) passes through the otic (a peripheral, parasympathetic cholinergic) ganglion to the tensor tympani. (
  • Cochlear implants are widely used to compensate for sensorineural hearing loss. (
  • Bilateral vestibular schwannomas in a NF2 patient can invade and grow within the cochlear nerve, while unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) only compresses it [ 11 ]. (
  • Many individuals with bilateral cochlear implants hear different pitches when listening with their left versus their right cochlear implant. (
  • Bimodal Hearing or Bilateral Cochlear Implants? (
  • The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of various measures of speech understanding in distinguishing performance differences between adult bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant. (
  • Six children , aged 1-4 years, with bilateral cochlear implant were assessed at five different intervals during their first year of cochlear implant use. (
  • The arrowhead indicates a singular canal containing the nerve of the posterior semicircular canal.D, Oblique sagittal image of the distal IAC shows a solitary nerve within the superior aspect of the small, deformed canal (arrow). (
  • the inferior alveolar nerves innervate the lower teeth and gingivae. (
  • The inferior alveolar nerve (from CN V3) runs in the mandibular canal, giving off branches to the lower teeth and gingivae as it passes. (
  • ABI was designed to restore hearing in patients with nonfunctional cochlear nerves who were not candidates for cochlear implantation [ 3 ]. (
  • The aim of this study is to assess of cochlear implantation in children with auditory neuropathy and cochlear nerve aplasia by using Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR). (
  • To examine the cochlear nerve, hearing tests are used to determine the patient's overall acuity to the whispered voice. (
  • The work centers on regenerating surviving nerves after age-related or environmental hearing loss, using existing cochlear technology. (
  • In children with appropriate available behavioral testing results, all ears without cochlear nerves were identified as having a profound hearing loss. (
  • To predict the outcome of a cochlear implant for a patient with severe hearing loss, the clinician needs a reliable and objective method to assess the intactness of the cochlear nerve. (
  • The branch of the 8th cranial nerve ( ACOUSTIC NERVE ) concerned with hearing. (
  • The close relationship between the cochlear nerve and the greater potential for tumor extension under the transverse crest is considered responsible for the low rate of hearing preservation associated with schwannomas originating from the IVN. (
  • Cochlear implants are a new surgical option in the hearing rehabilitation of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) in the only hearing ear. (
  • In this study we reviewed cochlear implantation as hearing rehabilitation in patients with NF2 and in patients with VS in the only hearing ear. (
  • Results in Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients With Varied Asymmetric Hearing: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Speech Recognition, Localization, and Participant Report. (
  • Although a cochlear implant (CI) is the only treatment that can restore hearing to an ear with SPHL, current candidacy criteria often disallows this option for patients with asymmetric hearing. (
  • To study postoperative hearing outcomes in older adult cochlear implant recipients who did not meet Medicare candidacy criteria by sentence testing in quiet. (
  • This longitudinal study evaluates the possible benefit of cochlear implantation in the poor ear of adults with asymmetric hearing loss who continue to use a hearing aid in the better heari. (
  • A cochlear implant is a device for the rehabilitation of severe to profound hearing loss. (
  • Axial and oblique sagittal T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR images of a 5-year-old girl with profound unilateral hearing loss (patient C8).A, Image of the normal left side shows the normal contours of the cochlea and other labyrinthine structures.B, IAC is of normal size and contains four nerves of comparative size. (
  • All children had hearing aid trial and hearing and speech rehabilitation before surgery at least three months.Nine children (7 male , 2 female ) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy, twelve (7 male , 5 female ) with cochlear nerve aplasia. (
  • Exposure to sounds at high levels can destroy cochlear hair cells, resulting in permanent elevation of the hearing threshold. (
  • Because very few individuals have extra-cochlear implants, the intelligibility of simulated sounds was tested in subjects with normal hearing. (
  • Signs of nerve damage such as loss of hearing or weakness of the face may be delayed after radiosurgery. (
  • Exposure to loud noise can injure these nerve endings and result in hearing loss. (
  • This type of hearing loss is caused by a problem with the structure of the ear and/or with the nerves that control hearing. (
  • A cochlear implant may help many children with severe to profound hearing loss - even very young children. (
  • Unlike a hearing aid, cochlear implants do not make sounds louder. (
  • A cochlear implant sends sound signals directly to the hearing nerve. (
  • The ear nerve is responsible for hearing and motion detection. (
  • The cochlear nerve is responsible for hearing. (
  • Similarly, symptoms of ear nerve damage can reflect abnormalities in the hearing or balance functions of the nerve. (
  • Damage to the acoustic portion of the ear nerve can cause partial or complete hearing loss. (
  • The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals" notes the possible causes of nerve-related hearing loss include benign and cancerous tumors and multiple sclerosis. (
  • One branch - the cochlear nerve - carries hearing information. (
  • This research breakthrough is important because while we have had very good outcomes with our cochlear implants so far, if we can get the nerves to grow close to the electrodes and improve the connections between them, then we'll be able to have even better outcomes in the future," says Jim Patrick, Chief Scientist and Senior Vice-President, Cochlear Limited . (
  • Professor Housley and his team at UNSW developed a way of using electrical pulses delivered from the cochlear implant to deliver the DNA to the cells close to the array of implanted electrodes. (
  • In the first return, recovery time of the refractory state of the auditory nerve was in most subjects equals to 1000 Mius for E5, and equals to 2000 Mius for electrodes E5, E10 and E15. (