The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.
The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.

Response of inferior colliculus neurons to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in neonatally deafened cats. (1/451)

Response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) were examined in control and profoundly deafened animals to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Seven adult cats were used: two controls; four neonatally deafened (2 bilaterally, 2 unilaterally); and one long-term bilaterally deaf cat. All control cochleae were deafened immediately before recording to avoid electrophonic activation of hair cells. Histological analysis of neonatally deafened cochleae showed no evidence of hair cells and a moderate to severe spiral ganglion cell loss, whereas the long-term deaf animal had only 1-2% ganglion cell survival. Under barbiturate anesthesia, scala tympani electrodes were implanted bilaterally and the auditory nerve electrically stimulated using 100 micros/phase biphasic current pulses. Single-unit (n = 419) recordings were made through the lateral (LN) and central (ICC) nuclei of the IC; responses could be elicited readily in all animals. Approximately 80% of cells responded to contralateral stimulation, whereas nearly 75% showed an excitatory response to ipsilateral stimulation. Most units showed a monotonic increase in spike probability and reduction in latency and jitter with increasing current. Nonmonotonic activity was seen in 15% of units regardless of hearing status. Neurons in the LN exhibited longer latencies (10-25 ms) compared with those in the ICC (5-8 ms). There was a deafness-induced increase in latency, jitter, and dynamic range; the extent of these changes was related to duration of deafness. The ICC maintained a rudimentary cochleotopic organization in all neonatally deafened animals, suggesting that this organization is laid down during development in the absence of normal afferent input. Temporal resolution of IC neurons was reduced significantly in neonatal bilaterally deafened animals compared with acutely deafened controls, whereas neonatal unilaterally deafened animals showed no reduction. It would appear that monaural afferent input is sufficient to maintain normal levels of temporal resolution in auditory midbrain neurons. These experiments have shown that many of the basic response properties are similar across animals with a wide range of auditory experience. However, important differences were identified, including increased response latencies and temporal jitter, and reduced levels of temporal resolution.  (+info)

Coding of sound pressure level in the barn owl's auditory nerve. (2/451)

Rate-intensity functions, i.e., the relation between discharge rate and sound pressure level, were recorded from single auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl. Differences in sound pressure level between the owl's two ears are known to be an important cue in sound localization. One objective was therefore to quantify the discharge rates of auditory nerve fibers, as a basis for higher-order processing of sound pressure level. The second aim was to investigate the rate-intensity functions for cues to the underlying cochlear mechanisms, using a model developed in mammals. Rate-intensity functions at the most sensitive frequency mostly showed a well-defined breakpoint between an initial steep segment and a progressively flattening segment. This shape has, in mammals, been convincingly traced to a compressive nonlinearity in the cochlear mechanics, which in turn is a reflection of the cochlear amplifier enhancing low-level stimuli. The similarity of the rate-intensity functions of the barn owl is thus further evidence for a similar mechanism in birds. An interesting difference from mammalian data was that this compressive nonlinearity was not shared among fibers of similar characteristic frequency, suggesting a different mechanism with a more locally differentiated operation than in mammals. In all fibers, the steepest change in discharge rate with rising sound pressure level occurred within 10-20 dB of their respective thresholds. Because the range of neural thresholds at any one characteristic frequency is small in the owl, auditory nerve fibers were collectively most sensitive for changes in sound pressure level within approximately 30 dB of the best thresholds. Fibers most sensitive to high frequencies (>6-7 kHz) showed a smaller increase of rate above spontaneous discharge rate than did lower-frequency fibers.  (+info)

Organization of inhibitory frequency receptive fields in cat primary auditory cortex. (3/451)

Based on properties of excitatory frequency (spectral) receptive fields (esRFs), previous studies have indicated that cat primary auditory cortex (A1) is composed of functionally distinct dorsal and ventral subdivisions. Dorsal A1 (A1d) has been suggested to be involved in analyzing complex spectral patterns, whereas ventral A1 (A1v) appears better suited for analyzing narrowband sounds. However, these studies were based on single-tone stimuli and did not consider how neuronal responses to tones are modulated when the tones are part of a more complex acoustic environment. In the visual and peripheral auditory systems, stimulus components outside of the esRF can exert strong modulatory effects on responses. We investigated the organization of inhibitory frequency regions outside of the pure-tone esRF in single neurons in cat A1. We found a high incidence of inhibitory response areas (in 95% of sampled neurons) and a wide variety in the structure of inhibitory bands ranging from a single band to more than four distinct inhibitory regions. Unlike the auditory nerve where most fibers possess two surrounding "lateral" suppression bands, only 38% of A1 cells had this simple structure. The word lateral is defined in this sense to be inhibition or suppression that extends beyond the low- and high-frequency borders of the esRF. Regional differences in the distribution of inhibitory RF structure across A1 were evident. In A1d, only 16% of the cells had simple two-banded lateral RF organization, whereas 50% of A1v cells had this organization. This nonhomogeneous topographic distribution of inhibitory properties is consistent with the hypothesis that A1 is composed of at least two functionally distinct subdivisions that may be part of different auditory cortical processing streams.  (+info)

A possible neurophysiological basis of the octave enlargement effect. (4/451)

Although the physical octave is defined as a simple ratio of 2:1, listeners prefer slightly greater octave ratios. Ohgushi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 1694-1700 (1983)] suggested that a temporal model for octave matching would predict this octave enlargement effect because, in response to pure tones, auditory-nerve interspike intervals are slightly larger than the stimulus period. In an effort to test Ohgushi's hypothesis, auditory-nerve single-unit responses to pure-tone stimuli were collected from Dial-anesthetized cats. It was found that although interspike interval distributions show clear phase-locking to the stimulus, intervals systematically deviate from integer multiples of the stimulus period. Due to refractory effects, intervals smaller than 5 msec are slightly larger than the stimulus period and deviate most for small intervals. On the other hand, first-order intervals are smaller than the stimulus period for stimulus frequencies less than 500 Hz. It is shown that this deviation is the combined effect of phase-locking and multiple spikes within one stimulus period. A model for octave matching was implemented which compares frequency estimates of two tones based on their interspike interval distributions. The model quantitatively predicts the octave enlargement effect. These results are consistent with the idea that musical pitch is derived from auditory-nerve interspike interval distributions.  (+info)

Noninvasive direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve for functional MR imaging of the auditory cortex. (5/451)

We herein present our preliminary experience with functional MR imaging of the direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve using an MR imaging-compatible electrode placed in the external auditory meatus of five patients with binaural sensorineural hearing loss. The stimulator was placed outside the imager's bore, and the electrode produced virtually no susceptibility artifacts. In three of five patients, it was possible to activate the superior temporal gyrus during functional MR imaging. No side effects were observed.  (+info)

Contributions of ion conductances to the onset responses of octopus cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus: simulation results. (6/451)

The onset response pattern displayed by octopus cells has been attributed to intrinsic membrane properties, low membrane impedance, and/or synaptic inputs. Although the importance of a low membrane impedance generally is acknowledged as an essential component, views differ on the role that ion channels play in producing the onset response. In this study, we use a computer model to investigate the contributions of ion channels to the responses of octopus cells. Simulations using current ramps indicate that, during the "ramp-up" stage, the membrane depolarizes, activating a low-threshold K(+) channel, K(LT), which increases membrane conductance and dynamically increases the current required to evoke an action potential. As a result, the model is sensitive to the rate that membrane potential changes when initiating an action potential. Results obtained when experimentally recorded spike trains of auditory-nerve fibers served as model inputs (simulating acoustic stimulation) demonstrate that a model with K(LT) conductance as the dominant conductance produces realistic onset response patterns. Systematically replacing the K(LT) conductance by a h-type conductance (which corresponds to a hyperpolarization-activated inward rectifier current, I(h)) or by a leakage conductance reduces the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential, and the model's response to "acoustic stimulation" becomes more chopper-like. Increasing the h-type conductance while maintaining a large K(LT) conductance causes an increase in threshold to both current steps and acoustic stimulation but does not significantly affect the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential and the onset response pattern under acoustic stimulation. These findings support the idea that K(LT), which is activated during depolarization, is the primary membrane conductance determining the response properties of octopus cells, and its dynamic role cannot be provided by a static membrane conductance. On the other hand, I(h), which is activated during hyperpolarization, does not play a large role in the basic onset response pattern but may regulate response threshold through its contribution to the membrane conductance.  (+info)

Reduced size of the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve in a child with sensorineural hearing loss. (7/451)

A 12-year-old female patient presented with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission testing failed to reveal any measurable emissions in the affected side. MR imaging did not reveal labyrinthine malformation. Three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in steady-state MR images showed a thin cochlear branch. We speculated that mumps infection or developmental malformation caused the unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.  (+info)

Morphological identification of physiologically characterized afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista. (8/451)

The turtle posterior crista consists of two hemicristae. Each hemicrista extends from the planum semilunatum to the nonsensory torus and includes a central zone (CZ) surrounded by a peripheral zone (PZ). Type I and type II hair cells are found in the CZ and are innervated by calyx, dimorphic and bouton afferents. Only type II hair cells and bouton fibers are found in the PZ. Units were intraaxonally labeled in a half-head preparation. Bouton (B) units could be near the planum (BP), near the torus (BT), or in midportions of a hemicrista, including the PZ and CZ. Discharge properties of B units vary with longitudinal position in a hemicrista but not with morphological features of their peripheral terminations. BP units are regularly discharging and have small gains and small phase leads re angular head velocity. BT units are irregular and have large gains and large phase leads. BM units have intermediate properties. Calyx (C) and dimorphic (D) units have similar discharge properties and were placed into a single calyx-bearing (CD) category. While having an irregular discharge resembling BT units, CD units have gains and phases similar to those of BM units. Rather than any single discharge property, it is the relation between discharge regularity and either gain or phase that makes CD units distinctive. Multivariate statistical formulas were developed to infer a unit's morphological class (B or CD) and longitudinal position solely from its discharge properties. To verify the use of the formulas, discharge properties were compared for units recorded intraaxonally or extracellularly in the half-head or extracellularly in intact animals. Most B units have background rates of 10-30 spikes/s. The CD category was separated into CD-high and CD-low units with background rates above or below 5 spikes/s, respectively. CD-low units have lower gains and phases and are located nearer the planum than CD-high units. In their response dynamics over a frequency range from 0.01-3 Hz, BP units conform to an overdamped torsion-pendulum model. Other units show departures from the model, including high-frequency gain increases and phase leads. The longitudinal gradient in the physiology of turtle B units resembles a similar gradient in the anamniote crista. In many respects, turtle CD units have discharge properties resembling those of calyx-bearing units in the mammalian central zone.  (+info)

Some examples of vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include:

1. Meniere's disease: A disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
2. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the vestibular nerve and can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance difficulties.
3. Otosclerosis: A condition in which there is abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss and tinnitus.
4. Presbycusis: Age-related hearing loss that affects the inner ear and causes gradual hearing loss over time.
5. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A condition where an individual experiences sudden and significant hearing loss in one or both ears with no known cause.
6. Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, which can affect the vestibulocochlear nerve and cause hearing loss and balance difficulties.
7. Certain medications: Certain antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and aspirin at high doses can damage the inner ear and cause temporary or permanent hearing loss.
8. Trauma to the head or ear: A head injury or a sudden blow to the ear can cause damage to the vestibulocochlear nerve and result in hearing loss or balance difficulties.

These are some of the common examples of vestibulocochlear nerve diseases, but there are other rarer conditions that can also affect the vestibulocochlear nerve. A comprehensive evaluation by an otolaryngologist (ENT specialist) and a hearing specialist is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment.

This type of hearing loss cannot be treated with medication or surgery, and it is usually permanent. However, there are various assistive devices and technology available to help individuals with sensorineural hearing loss communicate more effectively, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and FM systems.

There are several causes of sensorineural hearing loss, including:

1. Exposure to loud noises: Prolonged exposure to loud noises can damage the hair cells in the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss.
2. Age: Sensorineural hearing loss is a common condition that affects many people as they age. It is estimated that one-third of people between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degree of hearing loss, and nearly half of those over the age of 75 have significant hearing loss.
3. Genetics: Some cases of sensorineural hearing loss are inherited and run in families.
4. Viral infections: Certain viral infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can damage the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss.
5. Trauma to the head or ear: A head injury or a traumatic injury to the ear can cause sensorineural hearing loss.
6. Tumors: Certain types of tumors, such as acoustic neuroma, can cause sensorineural hearing loss by affecting the auditory nerve.
7. Ototoxicity: Certain medications, such as certain antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and aspirin at high doses, can be harmful to the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss.

It is important to note that sensorineural hearing loss cannot be cured, but there are many resources available to help individuals with this condition communicate more effectively and improve their quality of life.

There are several types of deafness, including:

1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by problems with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. It is typically permanent and cannot be treated with medication or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of deafness is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Auditory processing disorder (APD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing sounds, even though the ears are functioning normally.
5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by ringing or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of sound. It can be a symptom of deafness or a separate condition.

There are several ways to diagnose deafness, including:

1. Hearing tests: These can be done in a doctor's office or at a hearing aid center. They involve listening to sounds through headphones and responding to them.
2. Imaging tests: These can include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any physical abnormalities in the ear or brain.
3. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: This is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
4. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: This is a test that measures the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.

There are several ways to treat deafness, including:

1. Hearing aids: These are devices that amplify sound and can be worn in or behind the ear. They can help improve hearing for people with mild to severe hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve. They can help restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Speech therapy: This can help people with hearing loss improve their communication skills, such as speaking and listening.
4. Assistive technology: This can include devices such as captioned phones, alerting systems, and assistive listening devices that can help people with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
5. Medications: There are several medications available that can help treat deafness, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or steroids to reduce inflammation.
6. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat deafness, such as when there is a blockage in the ear or when a tumor is present.
7. Stem cell therapy: This is a relatively new area of research that involves using stem cells to repair damaged hair cells in the inner ear. It has shown promising results in some studies.
8. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to repair or replace damaged or missing genes that can cause deafness. It is still an experimental area of research, but it has shown promise in some studies.
9. Implantable devices: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can help restore hearing by bypassing damaged hair cells. Examples include cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants.
10. Binaural hearing: This involves using a combination of hearing aids and technology to improve hearing in both ears, which can help improve speech recognition and reduce the risk of falls.

It's important to note that the best treatment for deafness will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and personal preferences. It's important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.

Synonyms: acoustic neuroma, vestibular schwannoma

Previous term: Necropsy Next term: Neurodegeneration

Types of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Traumatic Nerve Injury: This type of injury occurs due to direct trauma to the nerve, such as a blow or a crush injury.
2. Compression Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or pinched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
3. Stretch Injury: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is stretched or overstretched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
4. Entrapment Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or trapped between two structures, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.

Symptoms of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Weakness or paralysis of specific muscle groups
2. Numbness or tingling in the affected area
3. Pain or burning sensation in the affected area
4. Difficulty with balance and coordination
5. Abnormal reflexes
6. Incontinence or other bladder or bowel problems

Causes of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Trauma, such as a car accident or fall
2. Sports injuries
3. Repetitive strain injuries, such as those caused by repetitive motions in the workplace or during sports activities
4. Compression or entrapment of nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tarsal tunnel syndrome
5. Infections, such as Lyme disease or diphtheria
6. Tumors or cysts that compress or damage nerves
7. Vitamin deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 deficiency
8. Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus
9. Toxins, such as heavy metals or certain chemicals

Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion
2. Medications to manage pain and inflammation
3. Surgery to release compressed nerves or repair damaged nerves
4. Electrical stimulation therapy to promote nerve regeneration
5. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy to stimulate healing
6. Stem cell therapy to promote nerve regeneration
7. Injection of botulinum toxin to relieve pain and reduce muscle spasticity
8. Orthotics or assistive devices to improve mobility and function

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a peripheral nerve injury, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

There are several types of nerve compression syndromes, including:

1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, commonly caused by repetitive motion or injury.
2. Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the posterior tibial nerve in the ankle, similar to carpal tunnel syndrome but affecting the lower leg.
3. Cubital tunnel syndrome: Compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, often caused by repetitive leaning or bending.
4. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the thoracic outlet (the space between the neck and shoulder), often caused by poor posture or injury.
5. Peripheral neuropathy: A broader term for damage to the peripheral nerves, often caused by diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, or other systemic conditions.
6. Meralgia paresthetica: Compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the thigh, commonly caused by direct trauma or compression from a tight waistband or clothing.
7. Morton's neuroma: Compression of the plantar digital nerves between the toes, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repetitive stress on the feet.
8. Neuralgia: A general term for pain or numbness caused by damage or irritation to a nerve, often associated with chronic conditions such as shingles or postherpetic neuralgia.
9. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of sudden, extreme pain in the face, often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve.
10. Neuropathic pain: Pain that occurs as a result of damage or dysfunction of the nervous system, often accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness.

The cochlear nerve (also auditory nerve or acoustic nerve) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Ear anatomy Cochlear nucleus innervated by a branching auditory nerve fibre Terminal nuclei of the vestibular nerve, with their ... There, its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as ... In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ipsilaterally located in the ...
Hopkins, Kathryn (2015). "27 - Deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders". Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier. pp ... The stria vascularis of the cochlear duct is a capillary loop in the upper portion of the spiral ligament (the outer wall of ... The stria vascularis is part of the lateral wall of the cochlear duct. It is a somewhat stratified epithelium containing ... Cummings (2001). "Chapter 140: Cochlear Anatomy and Central Auditory Pathways". Stria vascularis (PDF). Textbook of ...
Signal transmission in the cochlear hair cell-nerve junction". Archives of Otolaryngology. 101 (9): 528-35. doi:10.1001/ ... The discovery of nerve growth factor by Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1954, and epidermal growth factor by Stanley Cohen in 1962, led ... Cowan WM (March 2001). "Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini: the path to the discovery of nerve growth factor". Annual ... Calcium is used in many processes including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, and cell migration ...
Fractal character of the cochlear-nerve-fiber spike train. Fractal shot noise. Quantum Photonics: Entangled-photon properties. ... Computational Neuroscience: Fractal character of the optic-nerve-fiber spike train. Fractal behavior of neurotransmitter ...
Hossain WA, Antic SD, Yang Y, Rasband MN, Morest DK (July 2005). "Where is the spike generator of the cochlear nerve? Voltage- ... Smith L, Gross J, Morest DK (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in the cochlear nucleus of the adult mouse following ... Kim JJ, Gross J, Potashner SJ, Morest DK (September 2004). "Fine structure of degeneration in the cochlear nucleus of the ... Josephson EM, Morest DK (July 2003). "Synaptic nests lack glutamate transporters in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse". Synapse ...
There is no cure or restoration capability if the damage becomes permanent, although cochlear nerve terminal regeneration has ... Cranial nerve VIII is the least affected component of the ear when ototoxicity arises, but if the nerve is affected, the damage ... cite web}}: Missing or empty ,title= (help) Hennig AK, Cotanche DA (1998). "Regeneration of cochlear efferent nerve terminals ... Cochlear implants are sometimes an option to restore hearing. Such treatments are typically taken to comfort the patient, not ...
Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.; Miller, Michael I. (1983-06-01). "SPEECH ENCODING IN THE AUDITORY NERVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ... the early neural codes of complex auditory stimuli forming the basis for modern cochlear implants, and somatosensory codes ... COCHLEAR IMPLANTSa". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 405 (1): 94-113. Bibcode:1983NYASA.405...94S. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Sachs, M.B.; Young, E.D.; Miller, M.I. (June 1983). "Speech Encoding in the Auditory Nerve: Implications for Cochlear Implants ... Miller, M.I.; Sachs, M.B. (1983). "Representation of stop consonants in the discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". The ... "Representation of voice pitch in discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". Hearing Research. 14 (3): 257-279. doi:10.1016/ ... strategy for neuroprosthesis design at the 1982 New York Academy of Science meeting on the efficacy and timeliness of Cochlear ...
Excitation of the cochlear nerve send signals to the brain, which creates the experience of sound. Instead, the devices pick up ... Media related to Cochlear implants at Wikimedia Commons Cochlear Implants at Curlie Cochlear Implants Information from the ... In the past, cochlear implants were only approved for people who were deaf in both ears; as of 2014[update] a cochlear implant ... The electrodes electrically stimulate the cochlear nerve, causing it to send signals to the brain. There are several systems ...
It evaluates the cochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve (CN III). The ENG can be used to determine the origin of various eye ...
The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... At the cochlea, this information is converted into electrical impulses that travel by means of the cochlear nerve, which spans ... Simon, E.; Perrot, E.; Mertens, P. (2009). "Functional anatomy of the cochlear nerve and the central auditory system". ...
Moore EJ (1971). Human cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve action potentials from surface electrodes. Unpublished Ph.D. ... There are at least 3 other potentials generated upon cochlear stimulation: Cochlear microphonic (CM) Summating potential (SP) ... The auditory nerve action potential, also called the compound action potential (CAP), is the most widely studied component in ... 1954). "Exploration of cochlear potentials in guinea pigs with a micro-electrode". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America ...
For hearing, cochlear implants are used to stimulate the auditory nerve directly. The vestibulocochlear nerve is part of the ... Neural implants such as deep brain stimulation and Vagus nerve stimulation are increasingly becoming routine for patients with ...
The cochlear nerve, as well as spiral ganglion is situated inside it. The cochlear nerve conducts impulses from the receptors ...
Gaumond, R P; Molnar, C E; Kim, D O (September 1982). "Stimulus and recovery dependence of cat cochlear nerve fiber spike ... Johnson, Don H.; Swami, Ananthram (1983-08-01). "The transmission of signals by auditory‐nerve fiber discharge patterns". The ... Brillinger, D. R. (1988-08-01). "Maximum likelihood analysis of spike trains of interacting nerve cells". Biological ...
Böttcher's ganglion: Ganglion on the cochlear nerve in the internal auditory meatus. Böttcher's space: Also known as the ... with a dissertation on the nerve supply to the inner ear's cochlea. He furthered his studies with journeys to Germany, France ... particularly studies involving the structure of the reticular lamina and nerve fibers of the organ of Corti. Today his name is ...
The acoustic tubercle is a nucleus on the end of the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nerve is lateral to the root of the ... vestibular nerve. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus, lies immediately in front of the inferior peduncle ... Vestibulocochlear nerve, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
The cochlear nerve transmits information from the cochlea, allowing sound to be heard. When damaged, the vestibular nerve may ... The nerves are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve ( ... glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). Cranial nerves are ... These two nerves only became discrete nerves in the ancestors of amniotes. The very small terminal nerve (nerve N or O) exists ...
Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (November 2009). "Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced ... Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (November 2009). "Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced ... Sergeyenko Y, Lall K, Liberman MC, Kujawa SG (August 2013). "Age-related cochlear synaptopathy: an early-onset contributor to ... Their research has shown that cochlear synapses may be temporarily or permanently damaged from overexposure to intense sound. ...
They then depolarise and send impulses to the brain via the cochlear nerve. This produces the sensation of sound. Interior of ... It is separated from the cochlear duct by the basilar membrane, and it extends from the round window to the helicotrema, where ... This movement is conveyed to the organ of Corti inside the cochlear duct, composed of hair cells attached to the basilar ... Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Diagrammatic longitudinal ...
... may affect the initiation of the nerve impulse in the cochlear nerve or the transmission of the nerve impulse along the nerve ... Profound or total hearing loss may be amenable to management by cochlear implants, which stimulate cochlear nerve endings ... Neural, or "retrocochlear", hearing loss occurs because of damage to the cochlear nerve (CVIII). This damage ... or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). SNHL accounts for about 90% of reported hearing loss[citation needed]. ...
In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), auditory nerve fibers enter the brain via the nerve root in the VCN. The ventral ... The anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) (or accessory), is placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve, and is on ... cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and the posterior ventral (posteroventral) cochlear nucleus (PVCN). In the VCN, auditory nerve fibers ... The anterior cochlear nucleus contains several cell types, which correspond fairly well with different physiological unit types ...
... damage to the auditory nerve). It is part of battery of tests that aim to differentiate between cochlear and retro-cochlear ... A decay of more than 25 decibels is indicative of damage to the vestibulocochlear nerve. A tone at the frequency of 4000 Hz is ... Recruitment is a landmark feature of SNHL of cochlear origin. Reverse Recruitment / Decruitment is a hallmark feature of SNHL ... When recruitment is found to be associated with presence of cochlear pathology then the recruitment is known as complete ...
From the cochlea, peripheral auditory information goes to the cochlear nucleus. From there, through the cochlear nerve, axons ... From the retina, the axons of the optic nerves go directly to the geniculate nuclei. The nasal component of the optic nerves ( ...
Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve ... to the nerve root in the ventral cochlear nucleus. At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear ... The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve ... The cochlear nuclear (CN) complex comprises two cranial nerve nuclei in the human brainstem, the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN ...
"The effect of the acoustic nerve chronic electric stimulation upon the guinea pig cochlear nucleus development". Acta ... "History of the french cochlear implant". Chouard, CH (Dec 2014). "Technical survey of the French role in multichannel cochlear ... the cochlear implant would need several electrodes, so it could stimulate the different frequency regions on the "cochlear ... he observed that the nucleus of the last brachial nerve, the pneumogastric nerve, extended a long way down, undoubtedly causing ...
They project their axons to the ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei as the cochlear nerve, a branch of the vestibulocochlear ... The rudiment of the cochlear nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the ... The axons of neurons in the spiral ganglion travel to the brainstem, forming the cochlear nerve. Diagrammatic longitudinal ... The spiral (cochlear) ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the modiolus, the conical central axis of the cochlea. These ...
In contrast to hearing aids, which amplify sound, cochlear implants are designed to stimulate the auditory nerve. Tubulopathy ... "Cochlear Implants". National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Even though sensorineural deafness is irreversible, one treatment are cochlear implants, which includes a microphone and ... deafness because of problems with the hearing nerve) and salt-wasting renal tubulopathy (salt loss caused by kidney problems). ...
... the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve. Cranial nerve 8, the vestibulocochlear nerve, goes to the middle portion of the ... The vestibulocochlear nerve or auditory vestibular nerve, also known as the eighth cranial nerve, cranial nerve VIII, or simply ... It consists of the cochlear nerve, carrying details about hearing, and the vestibular nerve, carrying information about balance ... and then goes with the 7th nerve through the internal acoustic meatus to the internal ear. The cochlear nerve travels away from ...
Cochlear implants are surgically placed devices that stimulate the cochlear nerve in order to help the person hear. A cochlear ... ". "Cochlear Implant Surgery". 18 July 2022. Baker, Charlotte; Carol Padden (1978). American Sign Language: A Look at Its Story ...
... visceromotor Nuclei present in the Pons Cochlear nuclei (VIII) - sensory Dorsal cochlear nucleus Ventral cochlear nucleus ... All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. In general, motor nuclei ... A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more of the ... This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the ...
... the auditory nerve, brain stem, facial nerve, superior olivary complex, and cochlear nucleus. Consequently, the absence of an ... As the stapedius muscle is innervated by the facial nerve, a measurement of the reflex can be used to locate the injury on the ... Pang, XD; Guinan, JJ (1997). "Effects of stapedius-muscle contractions on the masking of auditory-nerve responses". J Acoust ... the acoustic reflex is integral to the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans model and the Integrated Cochlear Energy ...
... inventor of cochlear ear implant David A. Cooper AO - HIV/AIDS researcher and director of the Kirby Institute Grace Cuthbert- ... proved that nerve terminals on muscles release transmitter molecules, rather than just the noradrenaline and acetylcholine that ... "for discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and ... concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell ...
As well as enabling Jatich to control a computer cursor the signals were also used to drive the nerve controllers embedded in ... 11-4798 (1 March 2011). "Cochlear Implants". National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Miguel Nicolelis ... Neural dust is a term used to refer to millimeter-sized devices operated as wirelessly powered nerve sensors that were proposed ... cochlear implants had been implanted as neuroprosthetic device in approximately 220,000 people worldwide. There are also ...
... corresponding to the vestibular nerve, which joins with the cochlear nerve. It receives its blood supply from the Posterior ... Vestibular nerve Vestibular system This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy ... Cranial nerve nuclei, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
... as via auditory-nerve interspike-interval histograms. Some theories of pitch perception hold that pitch has inherent octave ... appealing to phase shifts between cochlear filters; however, earlier work has shown that certain sounds with a prominent peak ... but the processing seems to be based on an autocorrelation of action potentials in the auditory nerve. However, it has long ...
Perceptual Consequences of Cochlear Damage, Oxford, Oxford University Press Moore, B.C.J. (1998) Cochlear Hearing Loss, London ... These components are then coded independently on the auditory nerve which transmits sound information to the brain. This ...
Cochlear filtering limits the range of AM rates encoded in individual auditory-nerve fibers. In the auditory nerve, the ... Cochlear implants are devices that electrically stimulate the auditory nerve, thereby creating the sensation of sound in a ... Palmer AR, Russell IJ (1986). "Phase-locking in the cochlear nerve of the guinea-pig and its relation to the receptor potential ... Some cochlear implant systems transmit information about TFSp in the channels of the cochlear implants that are tuned to low ...
Efferent Fibers of the Cochlear Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus". In Rasmussen, G. L.; Windle, W. F. (eds.). Neural Mechanisms of ... Its nerve fibres, the olivocochlear bundle (OCB), form part of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIIIth cranial nerve, also known as ... 1985). "Numerical estimations of structures in the cochlear nuclei and cochlear afferents and efferents". Acta Otolaryngol ... Winslow and Sachs (1987) found that stimulating the OCB: "...enables auditory nerve fibres to signal changes in tone level with ...
Tony Harper; Guillermo W. Rougier (2019). "Petrosal morphology and cochlear function in Mesozoic stem therians". PLOS ONE. 14 ( ... sinuses and endocranial nerves and vessels of the periptychid Carsioptychus coarctatus is published by Cameron et al. (2019). ...
The first symptom of DDON syndrome is hearing loss caused by nerve damage in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss), which ... Since hearing loss is prevalent in those with Mohr-Tranebjærg, hearing aids, devices, or cochlear implants are considered for ... but they may develop vision problems due to breakdown of the nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain (optic ...
While vagal nerve stimulation is often a target area for treatment of epileptic seizures, there has been research into the ... Gantz, Bruce J.; Turner, Christopher; Gfeller, Kate E.; Lowder, Mary W. (2005-05-01). "Preservation of Hearing in Cochlear ... Neural dust is a term used to refer to nanometer-sized devices operated as wirelessly powered nerve sensors; it is a type of ... 2015). "Phrenic Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea". JACC: Heart Failure. 3 (5): 360-369. doi:10.1016/j ...
The devices also require a power-plant to be inserted behind the ear, in the manner of a cochlear implant. The pilot-trial of ... The doctorate was for his work on optic-nerve regeneration. As an undergraduate, he also attended courses at Yale University, ... research is undertaken to improve outcomes for conditions relating to the lens and to the optic nerve, such as improved intra- ... or diseases of the optic-nerve, such as glaucoma. The following week, Mr. Jackson, with Prof. MacLaren, operated on Robin ...
Pain can be acute or chronic, and is often described as stabbing, burning, acid, or nerve pain, and is sometimes equated with ... This release of ATP results in pain, sound sensitivity, and cochlear inflammation.[citation needed] The basic diagnostic test ... Liu C, Glowatzki E, Fuchs PA (November 2015). "Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage". Proceedings of ...
An early success in this field is the cochlear implant. A tiny device inserted into the inner ear, it replaces the ... are attached to the severed nerve-endings of the patient. The patient is then taught how to operate the prosthetic, trying to ... Nerve Cells, and Brain"; Nanoelectronics and Information Technology, pp. 781-810, Editor R. Waser, Wiley-VCH, Berlin, 2003 ... an institute working on nerve cell/chip interconnection Wetware Technology (Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2008 ...
In 1972 the cochlear implant, a neurological prosthetic that allowed deaf people to hear was marketed for commercial use. In ... Later Golgi and Cajal stained the ramifying branches of nerve cells; these could only touch, or synapse. The brain now had ... One particular discovery he made was of the importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Originally, he cut through them ... It includes detailed images depicting the ventricles, cranial nerves, pituitary gland, meninges, structures of the eye, the ...
Cochlear replacements Contact lenses Breast implants Drug delivery mechanisms Sustainable materials Vascular grafts Stents ... Nerve conduits Surgical sutures, clips, and staples for wound closure Pins and screws for fracture stabilisation Surgical mesh ...
Diplopia is the most common symptom of cranial nerve dysfunction. Trigeminal sensory or motor loss, cochlear dysfunction, and ... Tumor cell proliferation is observed around nerve roots as well as loss of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal swelling. In ... the afferent sensory root of the spinal nerve) than the ventral roots (the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve).[citation ... Third, there may be a pattern of nodular deposits of tumor on cranial and spinal nerve roots, frequently without tumor cells ...
First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... cranial nerve VIII (auditory) → cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) → LLN → caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The whole ...
Vision loss caused by optic nerve atrophy in early childhood. Peripheral neuropathy. Recurrent infections, especially in the ... Sensorineural hearing loss has been treated with cochlear implantation with good results. Ataxia and visual impairment from ...
... labyrinthine aplasia Evaluation for cochlear implantation in patients who have cochleovestibular nerve and a cochlear remnant. ... An arrest in fifth or sixth week of gestation result in cochlear aplasia or cochlear hypoplasia respectively. Abnormal ... Cochlear implants in infant and children is notably contested by the Deaf community, and frequently results in failure and ... Abnormal course of the facial nerve. Skull base abnormalities Hypoplasia of the petrous temporal bone. Hypoplastic and ...
There are nerve fibres and terminals innervation in the Hensen's cells, these nerve fibers are chemical synapses which located ... Li-dong Z, Jun L, Yin-yan H, Jian-he S, Shi-ming Y (2008). "Supporting Cells-a New Area in Cochlear Physiology Study". Journal ... A high concentration of K+ would lead to depolarization of Hensen's cells and maintain a high level of endo cochlear potential ... Defourny J, Mateo Sánchez S, Schoonaert L, Robberecht W, Davy A, Nguyen L, Malgrange B (April 2015). "Cochlear supporting cell ...
... investigating how neurological impulses are transmitted to the brain via the cochlear nerve. His studies led to the development ...
... claustrum clava clavicle climbing fiber clinoid clitoris clivus cloaca clonus coccyx cochlea cochlear duct cochlear nerve ... cranial cranial autonomic ganglia cranial bone cranial nerve ganglia cranial nerve lesion cranial nerve nuclei cranial nerves ... abducens nerve abducens nucleus abducent abducent nerve abduction accessory bone accessory cuneate nucleus accessory nerve ... palatine canal greater palatine foramen greater palatine nerve greater petrosal nerve greater superficial petrosal nerve ...
... of this procedure is that the vestibular nerve is clearly visible and can be sectioned without harming the cochlear nerve ... A neurectomy is a type of nerve block involving the severing or removal of a nerve. This surgery is performed in rare cases of ... while sparing the cochlear nerve, which contributes to hearing. The procedure has the potential to relieve vertigo, but may ... Nerve tissue that runs to the uterus is interrupted at the sacral promontory; a point at which spine and tailbones meet. This ...
Noggin, also known as NOG, is a protein that is involved in the development of many body tissues, including nerve tissue, ... The inner ear underwent multiple deformations affecting the cochlear duct, semicircular canals, and otic capsule portions. ... related deformity due to the absence of noggin is conductive hearing loss caused by uncontrolled outgrowth of the cochlear duct ...
Cochlear implant Medical device that bypasses damaged structures in the inner ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve, ... This type of implant helps individuals who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant because the auditory nerves are not working. ... Auditory nerve Eighth cranial nerve that connects the inner ear to the brainstem and is responsible for hearing and balance. ... Group of inherited disorders in which noncancerous tumors grow on several nerves that may include the hearing nerve. The ...
He has received the New York League for the Hard of Hearing's Fowler Award for his work in the ethics of cochlear implantation ... repair facial nerves, correct balance disorders and treat chronic ear infections. Balkany succeeded W. Jarrard Goodwin as ... Mosby (1986). Cochlear Implant Surgeons Training Course MOOC, Balkany TJ, Roland P, Luxford W, Zwollan TA, Buchman CA ( ... Balkany was honored by the Prime Minister of the State of Israel for performing the first cochlear implants and helping to ...
MRI is essential to confirm if the nerve is deficient, but because of limitations with resolution, especially when the internal ... of congenital profound deafness cases are due to cochlear nerve (CN) deficiency. ... Audiological characteristics and cochlear implant outcome in children with cochlear nerve deficiency. Ren C, Lin Y, Xu Z, Fan X ... Machine Learning-Based Prediction of the Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Patients With Cochlear Nerve Deficiency and ...
... but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear nerve. Results suggest that noise- ... Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss Sharon G Kujawa 1 , M Charles ... Immunostaining cochlear-nerve terminal swellings suggests that ribbon counts underestimate the degree of IHC denervation. a, b ... Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss Sharon G Kujawa et al. J ...
Audiological evalutation of the cochlear nerve with brainstem evoked response audiometry in patients with COVID-19 ... Results: In patients with COVID-19, the evaluation of the destruction of the cochlear nerve with BERA showed that there was a ... We believe that the BERA test should be considered in the neurological evaluation of cochlear nerve damage in patients with ... Purpose: In this clinical study, it was aimed to prospectively evaluate the cochlear nerve with brainstem evoked response ...
Cochlear aging disrupts the correlation between spontaneous rate- and sound-level coding in auditory nerve fibers. ... A physiologically based cochlear model, adapted for the gerbil, was used to simulate the effects of cochlear degeneration on ... Increasing age leads to degeneration of cochlear tissues, including the sensory hair cells and stria vascularis. Here, we aim ... The spiking activity of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) transmits information about the acoustic environment from the cochlea to ...
On the Anatomical Relations of the Nuclei of Reception of the Cochlear and Vestibular Nerves. Contributor(s):. Johns Hopkins ... Cranial Nerves. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Articles. Abstract:. This article is Florence Sabins first publication, written ... Here she differentiates the tissues of two of the cranial nerves, and demonstrates her painstaking histological technique. ...
On the Anatomical Relations of the Nuclei of Reception of the Cochlear and Vestibular Nerves. Contributor(s):. Johns Hopkins ... Cranial Nerves. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Articles. Abstract:. This article is Florence Sabins first publication, written ... Here she differentiates the tissues of two of the cranial nerves, and demonstrates her painstaking histological technique. ...
This suggests that the increase in adaptation to sound statistics from auditory nerve to midbrain to cortex is an important ... and comparing these responses with a sophisticated model of the auditory nerve. We find that the strength of both forms of ...
This nerve is called the vestibular cochlear nerve. It is behind the ear, right under the brain. ... An acoustic neuroma is a slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... This nerve is called the vestibular cochlear nerve. It is behind the ear, right under the brain. ... Harm the nerves responsible for movement and feeling in the face. *Lead to a buildup of fluid (hydrocephalus) in the brain ( ...
A cochlear implant sends sound signals directly to the hearing nerve.. Persons with severe to profound hearing loss due to an ... Cochlear and Auditory Brainstem Implants. A cochlear implant may help many children with severe to profound hearing loss - even ... Both cochlear and brainstem implants have two main parts. There are the parts that are placed inside the inner ear, the cochlea ... absent or very small hearing nerve or severely abnormal inner ear (cochlea), may not benefit from a hearing aid or cochlear ...
... Information and translations of vestibulocochlear nerve in the most comprehensive ... Definition of vestibulocochlear nerve in the dictionary. Meaning of vestibulocochlear nerve. ... Vestibulocochlear Nerve. The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is ... What does vestibulocochlear nerve mean?. Definitions for vestibulocochlear nerve. vestibu·lo·cochlear nerve. This dictionary ...
... and hypoglossal nerve stimulator implants (an implant that stimulates a nerve in rhythm with the patients breathing to help ... Cochlear Nerve Damage * Cough * Crackling Sound In Ears * Cyst Of Sinuses * Decreased Hearing ...
Vestibular Nerve. 20. Cochlear Nerve. 21. Trigeminal Nerve. 22. Facial Nerve. 23. Ocular Motor Nerves. 24. Reticular Formation ... Nerve Roots. 15. Spinal Cord: Ascending Pathways. 16. Spinal Cord: Descending Pathways. 17. Brainstem. 18. The Lowest Four ... 9. Peripheral Nerves. 10. Innervation of Muscles and Joints. 11. Innervation of Skin. 12. Electrodiagnostic Examination. 13. ...
Categories: Cochlear Nerve Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 7 ...
1985) Similarity of dynamic-range adjustment in auditory-nerve and cochlear nuclei. J Neurophysiol 53:940-958. ... 1994) Nonlinear input-output functions derived from the responses of guinea-pig cochlear nerve-fibers: variations with ... 5A), whereas the cochlear amplifier is thought to have a higher gain in the cochlear base than in the apex (Cooper and Yates, ... 1991) Adaptation and recovery from adaptation in single fiber responses of the cat auditory-nerve. J Acoust Soc Am 90:263-273. ...
During robotic cochlear implantation a trajectory passing the facial nerve at ,0.5 mm is needed. Recently a stimulation probe ... Prospective Validation of Facial Nerve Monitoring to Prevent Nerve Damage During Robotic Drilling ... Facial nerve damage has a detrimental effect on a patients life, therefore safety mechanisms to ensure its preservation are ... A large variety of etiologies is considered to be the cause of nerve root syndrome in dogs. Lateralized disc herniation, ...
Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after "temporary" noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci. 29(45):14077-85. ... Bourien et al (2014) Contribution of auditory nerve fibers to compound action potential of the auditory nerve. J Neurophys 112: ... exposed animals demonstrated extensive loss of synaptic connections between cochlear hair cells and auditory nerve terminals ... What other cochlear insults lead to synaptopathy?. *Do all TTS-inducing noise exposures produce synaptopathy; is synaptopathy ...
The cochlear nerve, which is attached to the cochlea and sends sound information to the brain, and the vestibular nerve, which ... These signals travel to the brain along the cochlear nerve, also known as the auditory nerve. ... The vibrations from the middle ear change into nerve signals in the inner ear. The inner ear includes the cochlea (pronounced: ... The hairs send this position information as signals through the vestibular (pronounced: veh-STIB-yuh-ler) nerve to your brain. ...
... the arrows indicate enhancement of the vestibulo-cochlear nerves. The lower panel displays a coronal CISS sequence image; the ... Similarly, there is sometimes recovery of nerve function in vestibular nerve injuries due to vestibular neuritis; by 6 months ... Studies of the vestibular nerve show that by the age of 80, the number of fibers in the vestibular nerve declines by about 30- ... The temporal bone is the hardest bone in the body; any impact that damages the labyrinth or vestibulocochlear nerve via a ...
Imaging findings of cochlear nerve deficiency.. Glastonbury CM; Davidson HC; Harnsberger HR; Butler J; Kertesz TR; Shelton C. ... Cochlear nerve deficiency in children with CHARGE syndrome.. Holcomb MA; Rumboldt Z; White DR. Laryngoscope; 2013 Mar; 123(3): ... 8. Proportion of bony cochlear nerve canal anomalies in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in children.. Yi JS; Lim HW; Kang ... Congenital malformations of the inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve in children with sensorineural hearing loss: ...
"Acoustic Nerve" changed to "Cochlear Nerve" in MeSH In MeSH, from 1963-1999, the term Acoustic Nerve [This link was removed ... "Cochlear Nerve" [This link was removed because it is no longer valid.]. The cochlear nerve is a branch of the vestibulocochlear ... Today a MEDLINE search using "Acoustic Nerve" will retrieve citations indexed by the Main Heading "Cochlear Nerve." ... "Vestibulocochlear Nerve." To retrieve these citations in MEDLINE, use the term "Vestibulocochlear Nerve." ...
Functional assessment of cochlear nerve and hearing].. Perrot X; Fischer C. Neurochirurgie; 2009 Apr; 55(2):142-51. PubMed ID: ... 6. The relation between the pure-tone audiogram and the click auditory brainstem response threshold in cochlear hearing loss. ... Long-latency evoked acoustic potentials in patients with cochlear implants compared with normally hearing subjects].. Danilkina ...
244, 696 (1941), 245, 764 (1942). Demonstration of traveling waves in the guinea pig cochlea by recording cochlear microphonics ... demonstration of saltatory conduction in the myelinated nerve fiber) Am. J. Physiol., 125, 380 (1939); 127, 211, (1939); ... 2009 Highlights of Ichiji Tasakis Work Development of a method of isolating single vertebrate nerve fibers and of measuring ... Tasaki, I. and Davis, H. Electric responses of individual nerve elements in cochlear nucleus to sound stimulation (guinea pig). ...
... to estimate a loss of nerve functioning in the inner ear that can cause hearing problems. ... The team next combined the data from this study with previous work that examined damage to the cochlear nerve during autopsies ... These cells detect sound waves and communicate with the cochlear nerve, which routes sound information to the brain. Loud noise ... Stéphane Maison from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary have been studying ways to identify cochlear nerve damage, which ...
4. On the Anatomical Relations of the Nuclei of Reception of the Cochlear and Vestibular Nerves Format: Text ...
  • Unlike a hearing aid, cochlear implants do not make sounds louder. (
  • What Are Cochlear Implants? (
  • Cochlear implants bypass damaged parts of the cochlea to stimulate the auditory nerve directly. (
  • How Do Cochlear Implants Work? (
  • But cochlear implants let someone sense sound that they couldn't hear otherwise. (
  • Cochlear implants are considered for children with profound hearing loss who can be as young as 9 months old. (
  • A cochlear implant team will help decide if cochlear implants are a good option. (
  • Depending on a child's hearing, the doctor may recommend getting two cochlear implants, one for each ear. (
  • Children with cochlear implants have a higher risk for some types of meningitis. (
  • Children over 2 years old with cochlear implants also should get the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) to help protect against meningitis. (
  • The personal injury attorneys at Rosenfeld Injury Lawyers, LLC can serve as legal advocates for families filing defective cochlear implant lawsuits involving defective implants. (
  • The parents want to help their children by offering life-changing opportunities, such as Advanced Bionics cochlear implants. (
  • Patients with cochlear implants have faced an extensive history of severe complications for decades. (
  • Medical device manufacturers design cochlear implants for adults and children suffering severe hearing loss where traditional devices are ineffective. (
  • But like retinal implants -- the so-far-unsuccessful attempts to make the blind see -- cochlear implants are downstream tinkering: They use existing nerve bundles to reach the brain, rather than connecting to the brain directly. (
  • Single-unit recordings of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) neurons in live rodents. (
  • Enhancement and distortion in the temporal representation of sounds in the ventral cochlear nucleus of chinchillas and cats. (
  • The model consists of seven blocks: the basilar membrane (BM), the inner hair cell (IHC), the primary auditory nerve (AN), the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB), and the A1 neuron. (
  • Persons with severe to profound hearing loss due to an absent or very small hearing nerve or severely abnormal inner ear (cochlea), may not benefit from a hearing aid or cochlear implant. (
  • The snail-shaped cochlea changes the vibrations from the middle ear into nerve signals. (
  • The cochlear nerve, which is attached to the cochlea and sends sound information to the brain, and the vestibular nerve, which carries balance information from the semicircular canals to the brain, together make up the vestibulocochlear (pronounced: vess-tib-yuh-lo-KOH-klee-er) nerve. (
  • Most tinnitus is "sensorineural," meaning that it's due to hearing loss at the cochlea or cochlear nerve level. (
  • Unlike hearing aids in each ear, a cochlear implant delivers sound directly to the patient's auditory nerves in the inner ear ( cochlea ). (
  • Specifically, the range of sound levels over which firing rates of auditory nerve (AN) fibers grows rapidly with level shifts nearly linearly with the most probable levels in a dynamic sound stimulus. (
  • They are well-circumscribed encapsulated masses that, unlike neuromas, arise from but are separate from nerve fibers 7 , which they usually splay and displace rather than engulf. (
  • The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei ( COCHLEAR NUCLEUS ) of the BRAIN STEM . (
  • We hypothesized that NAD might also protect auditory nerve fibers (ANF) and SGN from Mn injury. (
  • The tongue receives fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve, the facial nerve receives fibers from the chorda tympani, and the trigeminal nerve receives fibers from the lingual branch and vagus nerve posteriorly. (
  • This nerve is called the vestibular cochlear nerve. (
  • Reduced or absent vestibular function on both sides, resulting from deficits in the labyrinths, or vestibular nerves, or their combination, is referred to in the recent consensus statement from the Bárány Society ( 1 ) as "bilateral vestibulopathy. (
  • For example, gentamicin ototoxicity affects the entire labyrinth (with variable degrees of severity), whereas bilateral sequential vestibular neuritis tends to involve the superior divisions of the vestibular nerves (see discussion below). (
  • The hairs send this position information as signals through the vestibular (pronounced: veh-STIB-yuh-ler) nerve to your brain. (
  • Vestibular schwannomas , also known as acoustic neuromas , are relatively common tumors that arise from the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and represent ~80% of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses . (
  • The term vestibular schwannoma is preferred as these tumors most frequently arise from the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve and arise from Schwann cells 13 . (
  • Vestibular schwannomas are benign tumors (WHO grade 1), which usually arise from the intracanalicular segment of the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) 2,4 . (
  • In over 90% of cases, these tumors arise from the inferior division of the vestibular nerve 8 . (
  • Vestibular Schwannoma ) Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows in the internal auditory canal and affects the hearing, facial, and balance nerves. (
  • A cochlear implant may help many children with severe to profound hearing loss - even very young children. (
  • A cochlear implant sends sound signals directly to the hearing nerve. (
  • An auditory brainstem implant directly stimulates the hearing pathways in the brainstem, bypassing the inner ear and hearing nerve. (
  • A cochlear implant is a surgically placed device that helps a person with severe hearing loss hear sounds. (
  • Is Hearing With a Cochlear Implant Like Normal Hearing? (
  • Sound quality from a cochlear implant is different from that in normal hearing. (
  • Who Can Get a Cochlear Implant? (
  • What Happens During Cochlear Implant Surgery? (
  • Cochlear implant surgery is done under general anesthesia . (
  • Are There Risks to Cochlear Implant Surgery? (
  • Are you or your child victims of medical malpractice where the doctor's negligence led to a cochlear implant mistake? (
  • Did the Food and Drug Administration recall your Advanced Bionics cochlear implant due to malfunction? (
  • Call our defective product attorneys at (888) 424-5757 (toll-free phone call) or use the contact form today to schedule a free consultation related to a potential cochlear implant civil lawsuit. (
  • Data from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders ( NIDCD ) revealed tens of thousands of adults and children chose to undergo cochlear implant surgery. (
  • Possibilities include cerebellar and brainstem symptoms (e.g. cranial nerve dysfunction, other than vestibulocochlear), or hydrocephalus due to effacement of the fourth ventricle. (
  • The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve ( VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE ). (
  • Less than 5% cases arise from the cochlear component of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) 13 . (
  • They were classically described as originating near the transition zone between glial and Schwann cells but contemporary data suggests they can originate at any point along the nerve 8,16,17 . (
  • The role of the efferent auditory nervous system in the development of cochlear resistance to noise , and the importance of the crossed olivo cochlear bundle (COCB) were studied in chinchillas. (
  • Few surgeons would remove an acoustic neuroma without a functioning facial nerve monitor. (
  • An acoustic neuroma is a slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. (
  • Removing an acoustic neuroma can damage nerves. (
  • The outcome of cochlear implantation among children with genetic syndromes. (
  • Additional growth of the tumor may make it more difficult to surgically dissect it from the facial nerve or brainstem. (
  • It is surgically more difficult to dissect the tumor from the facial nerve or brainstem after having had radiation treatment. (
  • Individuals who have had severe facial nerve injury experience degraded self-image and loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. (
  • The use of intraoperative facial nerve monitors has resulted in objectively demonstrable improvement in facial nerve outcome for patients undergoing posterior fossa surgery for tumor removal. (
  • The importance of such monitors is borne out by the devastating complications that can result from facial nerve injury during surgery, including grotesque alteration of facial appearance, exposure of the eye to vision-threatening desiccation and infection, and impairment of competence of the oral sphincter, resulting in drooling and alterations in vocal quality. (
  • Consequently, surgeons who operate in the anatomic areas traversed by the facial nerve (see the image below) welcome and accept any adjunctive technique that potentially reduces the incidence of facial paralysis . (
  • The surgical anatomy and landmarks of the facial nerve. (
  • However, although, as stated, intraoperative facial nerve monitoring has resulted in demonstrably improved facial nerve outcomes in posterior fossa tumor surgery, objective documentation of improved results in mastoid and middle ear surgery is not yet forthcoming. (
  • [ 2 ] Nonetheless, many surgeons are convinced, despite the absence of objective data, that the facial nerve monitor is helpful for otologic surgery and regularly use it for routine otologic operations. (
  • Facial nerve monitoring is not a panacea, and it does not substitute for anatomic knowledge. (
  • The facial nerve can be injured by direct mechanical disruption from a rotating burr, transection with a sharp instrument, accidental evulsion (eg, from traction), or a crushing injury. (
  • A rotating surgical burr can produce thermal injury without directly contacting the facial nerve. (
  • consequently, mechanical techniques are less sensitive to facial nerve stimulation than are electrophysiologic techniques. (
  • In 1979, Delgado became the first person to use electrophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve. (
  • As a practical matter, neurophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve continuously evaluates the electromyographic activity in the monitored facial muscles. (
  • In the process, the facial nerve becomes scarred into the tumor. (
  • New evidence indicates that TTS-inducing exposures may cause an irreversible loss of neural synapses and degeneration of the cochlear nerve even after hearing thresholds completely recover. (
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide prevents neuroaxonal degeneration induced by manganese in cochlear organotypic cultures. (
  • Surgery or a type of radiation treatment is done to remove the tumor and prevent other nerve damage. (
  • Since 1972, many individuals with hearing impairments have undergone cochlear device surgery. (
  • Signs of nerve damage such as loss of hearing or weakness of the face may be delayed after radiosurgery. (
  • It turns sound vibrations into electrical signals that travel along the auditory (hearing) nerve. (
  • If the source of the problem remains unclear, you may be sent to an otologist or an otolaryngologist (both ear specialists) or an audiologist (a hearing specialist) for hearing and nerve tests. (
  • A cochlear device does not restore the patient's hearing to normal. (
  • In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is performed primarily by the auditory system: mechanical waves, known as vibrations are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in the temporal lobe). (
  • Cochlear nerve aplasia also appears to be commonly related do unilateral sensorioneural hearing loss 5 . (
  • The deltoid area should be used only if well-developed such as in certain adults and older children, and then only with caution to avoid radial nerve injury. (
  • Neurological disorders include cochlear lesions, brachial plexus neuropathies, paralysis of radial or recurrent nerves, accommodation paresis, EEG disturbances. (
  • Persistent exposures to high atmospheric levels of Mn have deleterious effects on CNS and peripheral nerves including those associated with the auditory system. (
  • Un examen clinique, une évaluation audiométrique ainsi qu'une tomodensitométrie ont été réalisés en préopératoire chez tous les patients. (
  • Because the trigeminal nerve supplies the nasal cavity, patients with inflammatory mucosal contact points and nasal obstruction may develop symptoms in their ears. (
  • [ 9 ] ) The third division of the trigeminal nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve mediate pain, which is often perceived deep within the ear. (
  • Mechanical and chemical damage to the auditory nerve of the guinea pig documented using evoked potentials. (
  • Masking of sounds by a background noise:cochlear mechanical correlates. (
  • Ears adjust thanks to the narrow Eustachian (pronounced: yoo-STAY-she-en) tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose and acts as a sort of pressure valve, so the pressure stays balanced on both sides of the eardrum. (
  • Irritative lesions at any of these sites may mimic stimulation of Arnold and Jacobson nerves. (
  • Over time the tiny hair cells of the inner ear wear out and can no longer convert sound into nerve signals that go to the brain. (
  • In infants and small children the periphery of the upper outer quadrant of the gluteal region should be used only when necessary, in order to minimize the possibility of damage to the sciatic nerve. (
  • However, it can damage several important nerves as it grows. (
  • These signals travel to the brain along the cochlear nerve, also known as the auditory nerve. (
  • While recommending a cochlear medical device, the doctor will likely discuss specific facts about the procedure and what to expect in the days, weeks, and months following the surgical operation. (
  • Sensory hair cells located in the organ of Corti are essential for cochlear mechanosensation. (
  • Here we analyze gene and protein expression of the developing human inner ear in a temporal window spanning from week 8 to 12 post conception, when cochlear hair cells become specified. (
  • Hair cells and their surrounding non-sensory supporting cells derive from SOX2+ progenitors within a region of the developing cochlear duct known as the prosensory domain (PSD) 1 . (
  • The first appearance of hair cells within the human cochlear duct has previously been reported during the 12-13th week of development 12 . (