Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).

Response of inferior colliculus neurons to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in neonatally deafened cats. (1/451)

Response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) were examined in control and profoundly deafened animals to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Seven adult cats were used: two controls; four neonatally deafened (2 bilaterally, 2 unilaterally); and one long-term bilaterally deaf cat. All control cochleae were deafened immediately before recording to avoid electrophonic activation of hair cells. Histological analysis of neonatally deafened cochleae showed no evidence of hair cells and a moderate to severe spiral ganglion cell loss, whereas the long-term deaf animal had only 1-2% ganglion cell survival. Under barbiturate anesthesia, scala tympani electrodes were implanted bilaterally and the auditory nerve electrically stimulated using 100 micros/phase biphasic current pulses. Single-unit (n = 419) recordings were made through the lateral (LN) and central (ICC) nuclei of the IC; responses could be elicited readily in all animals. Approximately 80% of cells responded to contralateral stimulation, whereas nearly 75% showed an excitatory response to ipsilateral stimulation. Most units showed a monotonic increase in spike probability and reduction in latency and jitter with increasing current. Nonmonotonic activity was seen in 15% of units regardless of hearing status. Neurons in the LN exhibited longer latencies (10-25 ms) compared with those in the ICC (5-8 ms). There was a deafness-induced increase in latency, jitter, and dynamic range; the extent of these changes was related to duration of deafness. The ICC maintained a rudimentary cochleotopic organization in all neonatally deafened animals, suggesting that this organization is laid down during development in the absence of normal afferent input. Temporal resolution of IC neurons was reduced significantly in neonatal bilaterally deafened animals compared with acutely deafened controls, whereas neonatal unilaterally deafened animals showed no reduction. It would appear that monaural afferent input is sufficient to maintain normal levels of temporal resolution in auditory midbrain neurons. These experiments have shown that many of the basic response properties are similar across animals with a wide range of auditory experience. However, important differences were identified, including increased response latencies and temporal jitter, and reduced levels of temporal resolution.  (+info)

Coding of sound pressure level in the barn owl's auditory nerve. (2/451)

Rate-intensity functions, i.e., the relation between discharge rate and sound pressure level, were recorded from single auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl. Differences in sound pressure level between the owl's two ears are known to be an important cue in sound localization. One objective was therefore to quantify the discharge rates of auditory nerve fibers, as a basis for higher-order processing of sound pressure level. The second aim was to investigate the rate-intensity functions for cues to the underlying cochlear mechanisms, using a model developed in mammals. Rate-intensity functions at the most sensitive frequency mostly showed a well-defined breakpoint between an initial steep segment and a progressively flattening segment. This shape has, in mammals, been convincingly traced to a compressive nonlinearity in the cochlear mechanics, which in turn is a reflection of the cochlear amplifier enhancing low-level stimuli. The similarity of the rate-intensity functions of the barn owl is thus further evidence for a similar mechanism in birds. An interesting difference from mammalian data was that this compressive nonlinearity was not shared among fibers of similar characteristic frequency, suggesting a different mechanism with a more locally differentiated operation than in mammals. In all fibers, the steepest change in discharge rate with rising sound pressure level occurred within 10-20 dB of their respective thresholds. Because the range of neural thresholds at any one characteristic frequency is small in the owl, auditory nerve fibers were collectively most sensitive for changes in sound pressure level within approximately 30 dB of the best thresholds. Fibers most sensitive to high frequencies (>6-7 kHz) showed a smaller increase of rate above spontaneous discharge rate than did lower-frequency fibers.  (+info)

Organization of inhibitory frequency receptive fields in cat primary auditory cortex. (3/451)

Based on properties of excitatory frequency (spectral) receptive fields (esRFs), previous studies have indicated that cat primary auditory cortex (A1) is composed of functionally distinct dorsal and ventral subdivisions. Dorsal A1 (A1d) has been suggested to be involved in analyzing complex spectral patterns, whereas ventral A1 (A1v) appears better suited for analyzing narrowband sounds. However, these studies were based on single-tone stimuli and did not consider how neuronal responses to tones are modulated when the tones are part of a more complex acoustic environment. In the visual and peripheral auditory systems, stimulus components outside of the esRF can exert strong modulatory effects on responses. We investigated the organization of inhibitory frequency regions outside of the pure-tone esRF in single neurons in cat A1. We found a high incidence of inhibitory response areas (in 95% of sampled neurons) and a wide variety in the structure of inhibitory bands ranging from a single band to more than four distinct inhibitory regions. Unlike the auditory nerve where most fibers possess two surrounding "lateral" suppression bands, only 38% of A1 cells had this simple structure. The word lateral is defined in this sense to be inhibition or suppression that extends beyond the low- and high-frequency borders of the esRF. Regional differences in the distribution of inhibitory RF structure across A1 were evident. In A1d, only 16% of the cells had simple two-banded lateral RF organization, whereas 50% of A1v cells had this organization. This nonhomogeneous topographic distribution of inhibitory properties is consistent with the hypothesis that A1 is composed of at least two functionally distinct subdivisions that may be part of different auditory cortical processing streams.  (+info)

A possible neurophysiological basis of the octave enlargement effect. (4/451)

Although the physical octave is defined as a simple ratio of 2:1, listeners prefer slightly greater octave ratios. Ohgushi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 1694-1700 (1983)] suggested that a temporal model for octave matching would predict this octave enlargement effect because, in response to pure tones, auditory-nerve interspike intervals are slightly larger than the stimulus period. In an effort to test Ohgushi's hypothesis, auditory-nerve single-unit responses to pure-tone stimuli were collected from Dial-anesthetized cats. It was found that although interspike interval distributions show clear phase-locking to the stimulus, intervals systematically deviate from integer multiples of the stimulus period. Due to refractory effects, intervals smaller than 5 msec are slightly larger than the stimulus period and deviate most for small intervals. On the other hand, first-order intervals are smaller than the stimulus period for stimulus frequencies less than 500 Hz. It is shown that this deviation is the combined effect of phase-locking and multiple spikes within one stimulus period. A model for octave matching was implemented which compares frequency estimates of two tones based on their interspike interval distributions. The model quantitatively predicts the octave enlargement effect. These results are consistent with the idea that musical pitch is derived from auditory-nerve interspike interval distributions.  (+info)

Noninvasive direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve for functional MR imaging of the auditory cortex. (5/451)

We herein present our preliminary experience with functional MR imaging of the direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve using an MR imaging-compatible electrode placed in the external auditory meatus of five patients with binaural sensorineural hearing loss. The stimulator was placed outside the imager's bore, and the electrode produced virtually no susceptibility artifacts. In three of five patients, it was possible to activate the superior temporal gyrus during functional MR imaging. No side effects were observed.  (+info)

Contributions of ion conductances to the onset responses of octopus cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus: simulation results. (6/451)

The onset response pattern displayed by octopus cells has been attributed to intrinsic membrane properties, low membrane impedance, and/or synaptic inputs. Although the importance of a low membrane impedance generally is acknowledged as an essential component, views differ on the role that ion channels play in producing the onset response. In this study, we use a computer model to investigate the contributions of ion channels to the responses of octopus cells. Simulations using current ramps indicate that, during the "ramp-up" stage, the membrane depolarizes, activating a low-threshold K(+) channel, K(LT), which increases membrane conductance and dynamically increases the current required to evoke an action potential. As a result, the model is sensitive to the rate that membrane potential changes when initiating an action potential. Results obtained when experimentally recorded spike trains of auditory-nerve fibers served as model inputs (simulating acoustic stimulation) demonstrate that a model with K(LT) conductance as the dominant conductance produces realistic onset response patterns. Systematically replacing the K(LT) conductance by a h-type conductance (which corresponds to a hyperpolarization-activated inward rectifier current, I(h)) or by a leakage conductance reduces the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential, and the model's response to "acoustic stimulation" becomes more chopper-like. Increasing the h-type conductance while maintaining a large K(LT) conductance causes an increase in threshold to both current steps and acoustic stimulation but does not significantly affect the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential and the onset response pattern under acoustic stimulation. These findings support the idea that K(LT), which is activated during depolarization, is the primary membrane conductance determining the response properties of octopus cells, and its dynamic role cannot be provided by a static membrane conductance. On the other hand, I(h), which is activated during hyperpolarization, does not play a large role in the basic onset response pattern but may regulate response threshold through its contribution to the membrane conductance.  (+info)

Reduced size of the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve in a child with sensorineural hearing loss. (7/451)

A 12-year-old female patient presented with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission testing failed to reveal any measurable emissions in the affected side. MR imaging did not reveal labyrinthine malformation. Three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in steady-state MR images showed a thin cochlear branch. We speculated that mumps infection or developmental malformation caused the unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.  (+info)

Morphological identification of physiologically characterized afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista. (8/451)

The turtle posterior crista consists of two hemicristae. Each hemicrista extends from the planum semilunatum to the nonsensory torus and includes a central zone (CZ) surrounded by a peripheral zone (PZ). Type I and type II hair cells are found in the CZ and are innervated by calyx, dimorphic and bouton afferents. Only type II hair cells and bouton fibers are found in the PZ. Units were intraaxonally labeled in a half-head preparation. Bouton (B) units could be near the planum (BP), near the torus (BT), or in midportions of a hemicrista, including the PZ and CZ. Discharge properties of B units vary with longitudinal position in a hemicrista but not with morphological features of their peripheral terminations. BP units are regularly discharging and have small gains and small phase leads re angular head velocity. BT units are irregular and have large gains and large phase leads. BM units have intermediate properties. Calyx (C) and dimorphic (D) units have similar discharge properties and were placed into a single calyx-bearing (CD) category. While having an irregular discharge resembling BT units, CD units have gains and phases similar to those of BM units. Rather than any single discharge property, it is the relation between discharge regularity and either gain or phase that makes CD units distinctive. Multivariate statistical formulas were developed to infer a unit's morphological class (B or CD) and longitudinal position solely from its discharge properties. To verify the use of the formulas, discharge properties were compared for units recorded intraaxonally or extracellularly in the half-head or extracellularly in intact animals. Most B units have background rates of 10-30 spikes/s. The CD category was separated into CD-high and CD-low units with background rates above or below 5 spikes/s, respectively. CD-low units have lower gains and phases and are located nearer the planum than CD-high units. In their response dynamics over a frequency range from 0.01-3 Hz, BP units conform to an overdamped torsion-pendulum model. Other units show departures from the model, including high-frequency gain increases and phase leads. The longitudinal gradient in the physiology of turtle B units resembles a similar gradient in the anamniote crista. In many respects, turtle CD units have discharge properties resembling those of calyx-bearing units in the mammalian central zone.  (+info)

A novel, spatially selective method to stimulate cranial nerves has been proposed: contact free stimulation with optical radiation. The radiation source is an infrared pulsed laser. The Case Report is the first report ever that shows that optical stimulation of the auditory nerve is possible in the human. The ethical approach to conduct any measurements or tests in humans requires efficacy and safety studies in animals, which have been conducted in gerbils. This report represents the first step in a translational research project to initiate a paradigm shift in neural interfaces. A patient was selected who required surgical removal of a large meningioma angiomatum WHO I by a planned transcochlear approach. Prior to cochlear ablation by drilling and subsequent tumor resection, the cochlear nerve was stimulated with a pulsed infrared laser at low radiation energies. Stimulation with optical radiation evoked compound action potentials from the human auditory nerve. Stimulation of the auditory nerve ...
This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivi
Here we show that BOLD value signals exhibit range adaptation in a manner that is consistent with the predictions of the efficient coding hypothesis.. We studied range adaptation as choices were made between immediate and delayed monetary rewards. As in prior work (Kable and Glimcher, 2007, 2010), we used participants preferences to estimate the idiosyncratic SV placed on delayed rewards. For each participant, we constructed two sets of choices, for which the SVs spanned a narrow or wide range. In our primary tests of range adaptation, we analyzed matching sets of choice trials, which were drawn from an overlapping region of the narrow and wide SV distributions.. Following from the efficient coding hypothesis, BOLD sensitivity to SV was predicted to increase as the range of SVs narrowed (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010). The alternative, range expansion hypothesis predicted that the range of BOLD activity would expand as the range of SVs expanded.. Across both Range Conditions, SV ...
Keywords: Communications Biophysics, Electrophysiological State Functions and the Handling of Sensory Information, Steady-State Auditory Nerve Responses to Bursts of Noise at Different Repetition Rates ...
In the article "An Improved Model for the Rate-Level Functions of Auditory-Nerve Fibers" by Peter Heil, Heinrich Neubauer, and Dexter R. F. Irvine, which appeared on pages 15424-15437 of the October 26, 2011 issue, the authors regret a mistake in Equation 7. KAA−1 should have read KAA. The corrected equation is listed below. ...
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The auditory nerve located within the inner ear is responsible for transmitting sound from the middle ear to the auditory centers in the brain. The auditory nerve is composed of two parts. The cochlea located in the inner ear has tiny nerve cells responsible for transmitting sounds from the middle ear. The second part of the auditory nerve is the auditory nerve also referred to as the vestibulocochlear nerve or the eighth cranial nerve. This auditory nerve pathway carries sound and other information to the brain, which translates position and direction of sound origin as well as body position necessary to control balance.. Sensorineural hearing loss is deafness that happens when this nerve is damaged. Unfortunately, nerve deafness is generally permanent. Though there are new research and developments for cochlear implants and other treatment, none fully restores hearing loss due to nerve deafness. Auditory nerve damage can result from infection, disease, trauma, or medications. Though rare, ...
A mathematical model of cochlear processing is developed to account for the nonlinear dependence of frequency selectivity on intensity in inner hair cell and auditory nerve fiber responses. The model describes the transformation from acoustic stimulus to intracellular hair cell potentials in the cochlea. It incorporates a linear formulation of basilar membrane mechanics and subtectorial fluid-cilia displacement coupling, and simplified description of the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process. The analysis at this stage is restricted to low-frequency single tones. The computed responses to single tone inputs exhibit the experimentally observed nonlinear effects of increasing intensity such as the increase in the bandwidth of frequency selectivity and the downward shift of the best frequency. In the model, the first effect is primarily due to the saturating effect of the hair cell nonlinearity. The second results from the combined effects of both the nonlinearity and the inner hair cell ...
Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Verhulstetal2018Model The model code for the Verhulst, Altoè, Vasilkov 2018 Hearing Research publication: Computational modeling of the human auditory periphery: Auditory-nerve responses, evoked potentials and hearing loss. *Hearing Research* 360, 55-75. (found in doc/ folder) The model code and interface was written by Alessandro Altoè and Sarah Verhulst (copyright 2012,2014,2015,2016,2018) and is licensed under the UGent acadamic license (see details in license file that is part of this repository). The Verhulstetal2018Model consists of the following files: tridiag.so, cochlea_utils.c, build.bat, build.sh, run_model2018.py, model2018.m, cochlear_model2017.py, inner_hair_cell2018.py, auditory_nerve2017.py, ic_cn2017.py, ExampleSimulation.m, ExampleAnalysis.m, the HI profiles in the Poles folder. ##################### How to run the model ##################### 1. INSTALL NUMPY AND SCIPY (anaconda), check whether you should install 32 or 64 bit! The model works on python 2.7 and also on 3.6 ...
An audio processing pipeline, for an auditory prosthesis, includes: a common stage, including a common frequency analysis filter bank, configured to generate a common set of processed signals based on an input audio signal; and first and second stimulator-specific stages, responsive to the common set of signals and including first and second frequency-analysis filter banks, configured to generate first and second sets of processed signals adapted for the first and second hearing stimulators, respectively.
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... (CD) is a condition of impaired hearing due to genetic or pregnancy-related causes in infants with a highly variable onset of initial symptoms. Genetic CD is most probably related with pathological gene mutations while acquired CD normally correlates with irregularities during pregnancy. Thorough screening for temporal bone malformations and a detailed family background check in combination with molecular genetic tests yield a reliable diagnosis. A multidisciplinary team of medical professionals and educators is necessary to support infant patients and their parents.… Congenital Deafness: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Rubio, María, Ko Matsui, Yugo Fukazawa, Naomi Kamasawa, Harumi Harada, Makoto Itakura, Elek Molnár, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, and Ryuichi Shigemoto. "The Number and Distribution of AMPA Receptor Channels Containing Fast Kinetic GluA3 and GluA4 Subunits at Auditory Nerve Synapses Depend on the Target Cells." Brain Structure and Function 222, no. 8 (2017): 3375-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1408-0 ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
When I was 10 years old, I swam underwater a lot in a swimming pool. I developed a painful earache. Unfortunately my parents believed it would go away with warm compresses. It did not and a few days later I lost hearing in my left ear. My parents brought me to my allergist first?? and then to an audiologist. All I remember is someone saying that my auditory nerve was probably damaged.It has been 27 years, does anyone know of anything more I could do now? Any technology that could help. It is very difficult in crowded situations with a lot of background noise to follow conversations.If it is indeed your auditory nerve that has sustained damage, then you might want to at very least read this:http://www.ubergizmo.com/15/archives/2007/06/auditory_implant_for_better_hearing.htmlIf you google "auditory nerve implant" youll get a host of returns on the subject outlined above. This technology could eventually return most of your hearing ...
Yes there is - you can speak to your Audiologist. We can do a battery of tests that can give us an indication of each part of the hearing system. If you dont have an Audiologist, please let me know and i will gladly refer you to someone in your area. You can reach me at [email protected] ...
Deafness that is present at or soon after birth may have either an acquired or a hereditary etiology and may occasionally occur in any puppy whether pure bred
Afferent synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea translate sound information into a discrete spike code, providing us the opportunity to directly observe the output of the cochlea. The availability of mutant strains with genetic hearing impairment makes the mouse a valuable species to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cochlear function. In this thesis, mouse was used as a model species to study cochlear sound encoding by recording single unit activities from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in vivo. First, developmental changes of ANF responses before and after hearing onset were characterized as an introduction on how normal ANF responses mature during the early postnatal age. Spontaneous bursting activity from ANFs/cochlear nucleus neurons was observed before hearing onset. After hearing onset, the average spontaneous and evoked spike rates of single ANFs increased, while tuning threshold and frequency selectivity improved between p14-15 to p20-21. ...
In the auditory system of birds and mammals large axosomatic synapses can be found: the giant synaptic terminals of Held. These terminals contain many (hundreds of) active zones and one can say they act as many synapses activated exactly simultaneously. The synaptic currents induced by these terminals are often big enough to individually cause an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. The auditory nerve fibres, which are the axons of neurons in the cochlear ganglion (or spiral ganglion, in mammals) enter, in birds as well as in mammals, the auditory brainstem and bifurcate into two branches: one branch projects towards time-coding parts of the brainstem (birds: nucleus magnocellularis = NM; mammals: anteroventral cochlear nucleus = AVCN), the other branch connects to nuclei where sound intensity and spectral cues are predominantly coded (birds: nucleus angularis = NA; mammals: posteroventral cochlear nucleus and dorsal cochlear nucleus). The very same axon can thus form giant synapses in ...
This paper presents the effects of spontaneous random activity on information transmission in an auditory brain stem neuron model. In computer simulations, the supra-threshold synaptic current stimuli ascending from auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) were modeled by a filtered inhomogeneous Poisson process modulated by sinusoidal functions at a frequency of 220-3520 Hz with regard to the human speech spectrum. The stochastic sodium and stochastic high- and low-threshold potassium channels were incorporated into a single compartment model of the soma in spherical bushy neurons, so as to realize threshold fluctuations or a variation of spike firing times. The results show that the information rates estimated from the entropy of inter-spike intervals of spike trains tend toward a convex function of the spontaneous rates when the intensity of sinusoidal functions decreases. Furthermore, the results show that a convex function of the spontaneous rates tends to disappear as the frequency of the sinusoidal function
Watch The Video: Bionic Ear Delivers DNA To Regrow Auditory Nerve Cells ]. University of New South Wales Researchers at UNSW Australia have for the first time used electrical pulses delivered from a cochlear implant to deliver gene therapy, thereby successfully regrowing auditory nerves.. The research also heralds a possible new way of treating a range of neurological disorders, including Parkinsons disease, and psychiatric conditions such as depression through this novel way of delivering gene therapy.. The research is published today (Thursday 24 April) in the prestigious journal Science Translational Medicine.. "People with cochlear implants do well with understanding speech, but their perception of pitch can be poor, so they often miss out on the joy of music," says UNSW Professor Gary Housley, who is the senior author of the research paper.. "Ultimately, we hope that after further research, people who depend on cochlear implant devices will be able to enjoy a broader dynamic and tonal ...
Scheme of neurones of auditory pathway. 4 neuronal afferent centripetal tract terminating in the primary acoustic cortex of temporal lobe. Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of bipolar neurons of the cochlear ganglion (1. N). Axons of bipolar neurons form the cochlear nerve. Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral lemniscus into the inferior collicle (3. N) in the mesencephalon. Signals interpolate in the inferior collicle and continue to the medial geniculate body (4. N). The last part of the auditory tract - acustic radiation (geniculo-cortical tract) continue into the upper part of the temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyruses (primary acustic cortex). Between the basic neurons of the auditory pathway there are inserted interstitial (relay neurons) which are grouped into independent nuclei : nucleus olivaris superior, ...
Stroke recovery can be improved with a new treatment that creates new nerve synapses - essential for learning - in the brain. Researcher Marcela Pekna explained, "More nerve sprouts and connections between nerve cells are created so that the remaining cells can take over functions that the dead cells once had." The researchers focused on C3a peptide, which is naturally produced in the body and especially as a result of certain conditions. The researchers administered C3a to mice through nasal drops.. Of the 28 mice with stroke, half received C3a peptide while the other half received a placebo. Those mice treated with C3a recovered much better than the mice on a placebo. Although mice are capable of recovering from stroke even without any therapy, C3a sped up the recovery and enabled them to use their stroke-affected paws more easily and effectively. The effects of the treatment remained four weeks after the completion.. Pekna explained, "Say a stroke kills 10 million brain cells. Newly created ...
Get a sneak preview of the Cochlear Nucleus 7 processor! Stay tuned here for breaking news on the N7 from Cochlear. Information distilled by Bob MacPherson from an interview with Jan Janssen, Senior Vice President Research and Development, Cochlear Limited on MedicalResearch.com, dateline july 20, 2017: * The Nucleus® 7 Sound Processor is the worlds first and…
The spatio-temporal pattern in the auditory nerve (AN), i.e. the temporal pattern of AN fiber activity across the tonotopic axis, provides cues to important features in sounds such as pitch, loudness, and spatial location ...
The development of hearing-evaluation equipment for people unable or not wanting to give feedback during a hearing test. Thus the project develops a new device capable of detecting and transforming the magnetic signs emitted by the auditory nerve ...
Although inhibitory inputs were also shown to terminate on the somata of SBC, the poorly understood eponymous bushy dendrite of SBC could play a key role in modulation. Anatomical studies of other labs revealed unexplained complexity: additional auditory nerve synapses, inhibitory synapses of various identities and sources and even non-auditory excitatory inputs are all found on the dendrites. Additionally, anatomical indications of electrical coupling of SBC dendrites were found. Physiological knowledge about all these findings is scarce or non-existent. It is therefore one of the main goals of the Künzel-lab to analyze the SBCs dendritic inputs and better understand their role in SBC signal processing. The main feature of SBC now becomes an experimental advantage: their responses are precisely phase-locked and their output eventually has to suffice for the coding interaural phase differences. Thus we possess an experimentally well-defined functional read-out that will likely reveal even ...
The inner hair cell-cochlear nerve fiber synapse is the primary conduit through which information about the acoustic environment is transmitted to the auditory nervous system. In ears that age normally, e.g., without noise exposure, synapses are lost gradually, throughout life, and are seen throughout the cochlea long before age-related loss of threshold sensitivity or hair cells (Sergeyenko et al 2013, J Neurosci. 33(34):13686-94). Cochlear nerve cell bodies (spiral ganglion cells, SGC) show proportional declines, with losses recorded in aging mice consistent with those observed in age-graded human temporal bones (Makary et al 2011, J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 12(6):711-17).. Noise produces similar synaptic losses, but immediately, and then accelerates aging, even for exposures that produce reversible threshold shifts and no hair cell loss (Kujawa and Liberman 2006, J Neurosci. 26(7):2115-23; Kujawa and Liberman 2009, J Neurosci. 29(45):14077-85). Losses at short post-exposure times are restricted ...
A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic device that can provide a sense of hearing to deaf or profoundly hearing impaired listeners by directly activating auditory nerve fibers. Optimal auditory performance with a CI requires subject-specific adjustments of several system parameters, i.e. the CI needs to be "fitted" to the individual user. A large number of system parameters is available to the clinician in the fitting software. For some of these parameters it is essential that they are individualized prior to switching on the device, since they ensure that sounds are audible without making sounds uncomfortably loud. For other parameters subject-specific optimization is less essential and a one-size-fits-all approach of using default settings results in good performance for the majority of CI users. However, these default settings may not always result in optimal settings for individual CI users and subject-specific fine-tuning of these parameter settings may further improve performance and/or ...
In article ,199512080614.AAA03993 at curly.cc.utexas.edu,, Jeffrey G. Sirianni ,sirianni at UTS.CC.UTEXAS.EDU, wrote: ,Greater decay in the high frequencies indicates a cochlear lesion and not a ,retrocochlear lesion The decay also happened in a promontory stimulation test which was part of an evaluation to see if a cochlear implant would be indicated. Therefore, the cochlea itself is not the cause of the strange symptoms. Its either the auditory nerve or the brain. I wonder if it could somehow be caused by adapting to tinnitus. Since tinnitus tends to sound like a steady tone or other steady sound, could it be that the auditory nerve and/or auditory processing in the brain has learned to filter out all steady tones and other steady sounds that last more than a couple of minutes? The fact that the sound comes back to full loudness instantly if its interrupted for even a fraction of a second seems to support this. An MRI is now scheduled, as you suggested. But so is a cochlear implant, a few ...
Sounds pass from the outer ear through to the inner ear, which contains the cochlea and auditory nerve. The cochlea is a coiled, spiral tube containing a large number of sensitive hair cells. The auditory nerve transmits sound signals to the brain.. If part of the cochlea is damaged, it will stop sending information to your brain. The brain may then actively "seek out" signals from parts of the cochlea that still work. These signals might then become over-represented in the brain, which may cause the sounds of tinnitus.. In older people, damage to the cochlea often occurs naturally with age. In younger people, it can be caused by repeated exposure to excessive noise.. ...
Sounds pass from the outer ear through to the inner ear, which contains the cochlea and auditory nerve. The cochlea is a coiled, spiral tube containing a large number of sensitive hair cells. The auditory nerve transmits sound signals to the brain.. If part of the cochlea is damaged, it will stop sending information to your brain. The brain may then actively "seek out" signals from parts of the cochlea that still work. These signals might then become over-represented in the brain, which may cause the sounds of tinnitus.. In older people, damage to the cochlea often occurs naturally with age. In younger people, it can be caused by repeated exposure to excessive noise.. ...
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/earbud-increases-hidden-hearing-loss-risk-study-article-1.2230945 http://sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140507142804.htm Researchers at Harvard Medical Schools Eaton Peabody Laboratory learned you can lose up to 90 percent of your cochlear nerve fibers from frequent earbud use. Now hear this: Earbud headphones, even at low volume, may be causing permanent damage to your hearing. For decades, scientists have looked, almost exclusively, at the loss of…
In the article that appeared on page 693 of the October 2010 issue of Ear and Hearing, the following should have appeared as the last sentence of the third paragraph in the Introduction:. "Our method is based on a method originally introduced by Wilson and his colleagues in the early 1990s (Wilson et al. 1992; Wilson et al. 1994; Wilson & Dorman 2008, Fig. 6D) as a variation of their virtual channels technique (cf. Wilson & Dorman 2009, pp. 103-108). In turn, Wilson et al.s (1992) technique is related to Townshend, Cotter, Van Campernolled, and Whites (1987) and Townshend and Whites (1987) stimulus sharpening technique.". The following reference entries should have appeared in the References section:. Townshend, B., Cotter, N., Van Campernolled, D., & White R. L. (1987). Pitch perception by cochlear implant subjects. J Acoust Soc Am, 82, 106-115.. Townshend, B., & White, R. L. (1987). Reduction of electrical interaction in auditory prostheses. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 34, 891-897.. Wilson, B. ...
We talk about you every day. You are our patients, friends and family and because you donate, expert researchers push innovation forward. You deserve the best life and we want you to hear what you are missing. The research is moving fast and there couldnt be a better time to give. The more money we raise, the faster we can work. Every dollar matters and every dollar counts toward helping you and people all over the world. Today is the day to put your dollars to work. Read more.. For more information on contributing, please call the Foundation office at (405) 639-2875. ...
Congenital deafness is a health issue that has higher prevalence in certain breeds, including the Dalmatian. Other studies in this breed have found the trait to be inherited in a complex rather than simple Mendelian manner. Using a large number of samples from animals that have been tested for hearing status, Dr. Wade will employ the latest genomic technologies and computational analyses to conduct this study. The ultimate goal is to identify mutations underlying the trait of congenital deafness in the Dalmatian breed and work towards a genetic testing solution for the Dalmatian breeding community. Funding for the research is provided through the efforts and generosity of the Dalmatian Club of America Foundation. The AKC Canine Health Foundation supports the funding of this effort and will oversee administration of funds and scientific progress reports.
Whatever the initial cause, your nerves reacted with the only survival tool they had: they contracted, they lowered their length and volume to maintain themselves, and the gaps between the nerves(synapse) were stretched. A typical sized nerve signal might no longer leap this space. Specialized stimulator then sends out a test signal that represents the most typical waveform for healthy peripheral nerves. These impulses are sent 7.83 times per second because that is how long it takes for the nerve cell to re-polarize (or reset) itself between its transmission of nerve signals. The signals, (as they cross the synaptic junctions in the nerve roots of the lower back to get from one leg to the other), produce a little electro-magnetic field that is picked up by the nerves in your central nervous system (spine) and a signal is submitted to the brain to let click here it know exactly what is taking place in the back location. ...
Health,Scientists pursued the idea of implanting tiny electronic hearing devi...Now however scientists have shown in animals that its possible...If the idea pans out in further animal and human studies profou...In nearly every measure these work better than cochlear implant...The possible auditory nerve implants likely would be suitable fo...,Radical,Idea,of,Implanting,Tiny,Electrodes,,to,the,,Deaf,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Auditory neuropathy is diagnosed when person has normal OAE reading but absent or abnormal Auditory Br ainstem Response. Therefore from OAE and ABR results indicated that hair cell of cochlear is intact but the transmission of auditory nerve to brain is impaired.. Treatment and intervention for auditory neuropathy. There are a few treatment and intervention options for Auditory Neuropathy. However the potential benefit of treatment and intervention are vary to individual.. Frequency modulation (FM) systems. Some professionals reported frequency modulation (FM) systems are helpful for auditory neuropathy with normal hearing. Frequency modulation (FM) system is a device that can transmit sound directly to the listener by sound wave. By using FM system, the listener could concentrate to the speech better and would be useful especially in noisy environment.. ...
Nerve synapse. Computer artwork of of a junction, or synapse, between two nerve cells (neurons). As the electrical signal reaches the presynaptic end of a neuron it triggers the release of neurotransmitters (white) across the gap, or synaptic cleft, between the two cells. The neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, changing the membranes excitability and triggering an electrical impulse. - Stock Image C017/3428
F. Rattay and P. Lutter, "Speech sound representation in the auditory nerve: Computer simulation studies on inner ear mechanisms", ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK UND MECHANIK, vol. 77, 1997, pp. 935-943 ...
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
Hearing loss leads to a reorganization of the pathways in the central auditory system.12,20,22,23 These changes may occur rapidly24 and lead to abnormal interactions between auditory and other central pathways.20Analogous changes in the somatosensory system linked to phantom pain25 led us to suggest that there are similarities between neuropathic pain and tinnitus.12 In patients with gaze-evoked tinnitus, lateral eye movements failto produce the inhibition of the auditory cortex observed in controls.20 The absence of this phenomenon, called cross-modal inhibition, may contribute to the false perception of sounds.. Levine hypothesized that a reduction in auditory-nerve input leads to disinhibition of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and an increase in spontaneous activity in the central auditory system, which is experienced as tinnitus.26 This mechanism could explain the temporary ringing sensation that may follow exposure to noise,27 the effects of some drugs such as furosemide, and spontaneous ...
Looking for online definition of spiral ganglion in the Medical Dictionary? spiral ganglion explanation free. What is spiral ganglion? Meaning of spiral ganglion medical term. What does spiral ganglion mean?
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced;NF-kappa B;Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases;Nerve Degeneration;Cochlear Nerve;Mice;Spiral Ganglion;Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner;Complement Factor B;Mice, Knockout;Transcription Factors;Hair Cells, Auditory; ...
18 yrs old Female asked about Auditory neuropathy, 1 doctor answered this and 67 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
Learn more about Auditory Neuropathy at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Auditory Neuropathy at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
On 10 Dec 1995, Eric Smith wrote: , In article ,199512080614.AAA03993 at curly.cc.utexas.edu,, , Jeffrey G. Sirianni ,sirianni at UTS.CC.UTEXAS.EDU, wrote: , ,Greater decay in the high frequencies indicates a cochlear lesion and not a , ,retrocochlear lesion , The decay also happened in a promontory stimulation test which was part , of an evaluation to see if a cochlear implant would be indicated. , Therefore, the cochlea itself is not the cause of the strange , symptoms. Its either the auditory nerve or the brain. , I wonder if it could somehow be caused by adapting to tinnitus. Since , tinnitus tends to sound like a steady tone or other steady sound, could , it be that the auditory nerve and/or auditory processing in the brain , has learned to filter out all steady tones and other steady sounds that , last more than a couple of minutes? The fact that the sound comes back , to full loudness instantly if its interrupted for even a fraction of a , second seems to support this. I think there is ...
Method and apparatus for optically stimulating neurons of a plurality of auditory nerve pathways of a person to provide auditory sensations for the person by generating a plurality of pulsed light signals having one or more successive pulses. The spectrum of a detected audio signal is divided into M channels. In some embodiments, an N-of-M coding strategy is employed, where, for any given time frame, only N of the M channels are selected and illuminated to stimulate the auditory nerves. In some embodiments, the M channels are organized into bins, where, for any given time frame, only a maximum number of channels are illuminated per bin. This limits the number of illuminated channels-per-length of cochlea and therefore prevents localized heating of the cochlea and reduces power consumption of the device.
Cochlear implants have helped many profoundly deaf individuals regain auditory communication. However, the extent to which hearing is restored is variable, and may depend on fundamental changes to the auditory pathways ...
Is President Negro blocking the claim on what is mine? Does Hughes prefer to watch the Lakers or Clippers? The correct answer is "Clippers," and spies, it does not mean anything, save the fact I like underdogs. Me? Underdog? Mafia(s) with butts bloodied on less than $1,000 in "spare change" over the past 18 months? What if I had the capital? Im never getting what is rightfully mine? No judicial process whatsoever? Not even a lift to the corrupt policemans station? "What do you want?" I ask all day long, and get no mafia! mafia! answer. Would you prefer I take the device pictured above and put it in the club up top? BOOM! My Civil War 2.0 was a screenplay, but you kooks want to make it real? UPS--spyin on me since they got my Social Security Number in 1972. ...
Individuals similar to you, all over the world, have found that their nerves can be rebuilt and complete function restored. It does not matter exactly what the reason for your unpleasant peripheral neuropathy is: idiopathic, diabetic, alcoholic, toxic, or chemotherapy induced. The standard cause is all the exact same. At a long time, portions of your nerves were starved for oxygen. Possibly there was too much sugar in your blood taking up the space for oxygen. Possibly you had some pinching of your nerves someplace. Maybe you were exposed to a toxic substance like black mold, anesthesia, or pesticides. Whatever the original cause, your nerves reacted with the only survival tool they had: they contracted, they reduced their length and volume to protect themselves, and the spaces between the nerves(synapse) were extended. A normal sized nerve signal might no longer leap this gap. Like the space on the stimulate plug in your vehicle or mower, if that gap gets too big, the spark can check here not ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Im researching the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this illness immune cells move from the blood circulation into the brain - which wouldnt be a problem if these immune cells werent incorrectly programmed. Theyre actually supposed to eliminate foreign pathogens, but in the case of MS patients they attack healthy cells in the body. Its crazy, but they only make a beeline for certain parts of the brain like the optic nerve or the spinal cord. By contrast, the auditory nerve, for example, is never affected. And the question we ask ourselves is: why? We assume that the reason is the incorrect programming of the immune cells - and the fact that nerve cells in the regions affected attract these cells. All nerve cells discharge substances, and perhaps the substances in the optic nerve are particularly palatable? This is their way of communicating, and it is precisely these communication paths between nerve cells and immune cells that we want to understand in detail.. ...
Information about the condition, including an article describing the association of congenital deafness with white coat color. ...
SEM of human spiral ganglion. (A) Type I neurons lie close to each other. Surface coat of the bordering cells is exposed. Surface specializations (arrows) are s
Usher syndrome is defined as innate reciprocal congenital deafness and progressing loss of vision due to retinitis pigmentosa. Usually the photoreceptors start to degenerate from the outer periphery to the center of the retina including the macula.
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Looking for online definition of Auditory Neuropathy, Autosomal Dominant 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Auditory Neuropathy, Autosomal Dominant 1 explanation free. What is Auditory Neuropathy, Autosomal Dominant 1? Meaning of Auditory Neuropathy, Autosomal Dominant 1 medical term. What does Auditory Neuropathy, Autosomal Dominant 1 mean?
Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve by cochlear implants has been a successful clinical intervention to treat the sensory neural deafness. In this pathological condition of the cochlea, type-1 spiral ganglion neurons in Rosenthals canal play a vital role in the action potential initiation. Various morphological studies of the human temporal bones suggest that the spiral ganglion neurons are surrounded by heterogeneous structures formed by a variety of cells and tissues. However, the existing simulation models have not considered the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthals canal while studying the electric field interaction with spiral ganglion neurons ...
Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem station to adjust to this modified input from the cochlea. Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that are associated with and may be the origin of the signals that give rise to tinnitus percepts at the cortical level. This chapter summarizes what is known about these disturbances and their relationships to tinnitus. It also summarizes the mechanisms that trigger tinnitus-related disturbances and the anatomical, chemical, neurophysiological, and biophysical defects that underlie them. It concludes by highlighting some major controversies that research findings have generated and discussing the clinical implications the findings have for the future treatment of tinnitus.
Methods for treating otic disorders by local administration of a neurotoxin. A botulinum toxin can be administered to myoclonic middle ear muscles and to inner ear efferent and/or afferent nerves to alleviate otic disorders such as tinnitus, cochlear nerve dysfunction and Menieres disease.
The changes the research team observed had to do with neurotransmitters - chemicals that help send signals from the ear to the brain.. In mice whose ears were blocked, cells in the auditory nerve started to use their supplies of neurotransmitter more freely. They depleted their reserves of these chemicals rapidly each time a new auditory signal came in, and they decreased the amount of space within the cells that housed sac-like structures called vesicles - biological storage tanks where neurotransmitter chemicals are kept.. "When its quiet, the demands on the auditory nerve cells are not as great," Xu-Friedman says. "So it makes sense that you would see these changes: You no longer need as much neurotransmitter, so why invest in a lot of storage? If youre not that active, you dont need a big gas tank. And youre not as afraid to use up what you have. This is one plausible explanation for what we observed.". The changes in cellular structure and behavior were the opposite of what Xu-Friedman ...
The changes the research team observed had to do with neurotransmitters - chemicals that help send signals from the ear to the brain.. In mice whose ears were blocked, cells in the auditory nerve started to use their supplies of neurotransmitter more freely. They depleted their reserves of these chemicals rapidly each time a new auditory signal came in, and they decreased the amount of space within the cells that housed sac-like structures called vesicles - biological storage tanks where neurotransmitter chemicals are kept.. "When its quiet, the demands on the auditory nerve cells are not as great," Xu-Friedman says. "So it makes sense that you would see these changes: You no longer need as much neurotransmitter, so why invest in a lot of storage? If youre not that active, you dont need a big gas tank. And youre not as afraid to use up what you have. This is one plausible explanation for what we observed.". The changes in cellular structure and behavior were the opposite of what Xu-Friedman ...
For the first time, researchers at the University of New South Wales in Australia have used cochlear implants to regenerate auditory nerves through gene therapy, a process where therapeutic DNA is inserted into cells to treat a disease.
Method and apparatus for optically stimulating neurons of a plurality of auditory nerve pathways of a person to provide auditory sensations for the person including generating a plurality of pulsed li
One week until implantation. I keep having to remind myself that getting a cochlear implant is only the beginning of the process. It s important to remember a few things, such as, nothing can restore "normal" hearing. I believe the best that can be expected is the possibility of being able to better understand what is heard. Being able to take part in a group discussion and actually keep up would be like music to my ears - so to speak.. That being said, what is clearly understood about the CI is that when it is activated, no one knows what the recipient will hear. It is highly unusual to be able to hear and understand clear speech at first. The sound is digitally processed and presented to the auditory nerve. The brain may or may not know what to do with that information at first. Based on my personal experience, my brain often does not know what to do with the information it gets, so Ill reserve judgement until activation day - May 31. Thats another long month away. I think that I think too ...
Stem Cell Therapy provides an alternative form of treatment for Tinnitus caused by damage to or loss of auditory hair cells or damage to the auditory nerve.
Looking for CN VIII? Find out information about CN VIII. auditory nerve in man, the eighth pair of cranial nerves.The nerve copsists of two functional parts- the vestibular, which is the conductor of the impulses... Explanation of CN VIII
thersemeaten wonders MartySanchez15: Understanding Your Own Chinchilla And Also The Right Cage www.chinchillacare4u.com/MartySanchez15: Understanding Your Own Chinchil ...
Plasmid pEJS614_pTetR-P2A-BFPnls/sgNS from Dr. Erik Sontheimers lab contains the inserts Non-specific sgRNA and TetR-P2A-BFP and is published in Nature Methods (2018) This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Understanding the molecular basis of how ticks adapt to feed on different animal hosts is central to understanding tick and tick-borne disease (TBD) epidemiology. There is evidence that ticks differentially express specific sets of genes when stimulated to start feeding. This study was initiated to investigate if ticks such as Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum that are adapted to feed on multiple hosts utilized the same sets of proteins to prepare for feeding. We exposed I. scapularis and A. americanum to feeding stimuli of different hosts (rabbit, human, and dog) by keeping unfed adult ticks enclosed in a perforated microfuge in close contact with host skin, but not allowing ticks to attach on host. Our data suggest that ticks of the same species differentially express tick saliva proteins (TSPs) when stimulated to start feeding on different hosts. SDS-PAGE and silver staining analysis revealed unique electrophoretic profiles in saliva of I. scapularis and A. americanum that were stimulated to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of the spontaneous rate of contraction of neonatal cardiac myocytes by protein kinase C isozymes. T2 - A putative role for the ε isozyme. AU - Johnson, John A. AU - Mochly-Rosen, Daria. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes regulate numerous cardiac functions. In the present study, we determined the effects of the PKC-activating drug 4-β phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (4-β PMA) on the rate of contraction and correlated these changes with the distribution and levels of α-, β-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-PKC isozymes by using neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in culture. Treatment with 0.3 to 100 nmol/L 4-β PMA caused negative chronotropic effects on contraction. This effect was maximal at a concentration of 3 nmol/L 4-β PMA and correlated with redistribution of the α- and ε-PKC isozymes from the cytosolic to the particulate cell fraction. After a 1-hour treatment with 100 nmol/L PMA, the α- and β-PKC isozymes and an 80-kD ζ- like PKC isozyme ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nerve growth factor stimulates neurite regeneration but not survival of adult auditory neurons in vitro. AU - Lefebvre, P. P.. AU - Van De Water, T. R.. AU - Staecker, H.. AU - Weber, T.. AU - Galinovic-Schwartz, V.. AU - Moonen, G.. AU - Ruben, Robert J.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Injury to either the peripheral or central nervous system results in the accumulation of growth factors at the wound site. Some of these growth factors have been shown to participate in the neural repair process. Adult auditory neurons grown in dissociated spiral ganglion cell cultures are injured (i.e. bilateral axotomy) as a result of the initial preparation of these cultures. Therefore, cell cultures of dissociated spiral ganglia provide a model for the study of repair processes of adult auditory neurons (e.g. effects of exogenous growth factors on the process of neuritogenesis by injured neurons). Auditory neurons do not survive in these dissociated ganglion cell cultures when only exogenous NGF ...
Peripheral symptoms affect the limbs and include numbness, tingling or burning, reduced ability to diabetic neuropathy nerve block temperature changes, pain and sensitivity to touch, muscle weakness, ulcers and infections. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Each one of these three elements can have a genetic base that influences the phenotype of the disease in each patient. There is fair evidence that improved glucose control will lead to improvement in the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.
This medical illustration series shows the location and extent of various nerves supplying the inner ear. Labeled structures include superior vestibular nerve, inferior vestibular nerve, cochlear nerve, membranous labyrinth, facial nerve, and tympanic membrane (eardrum).
TLTE - Tension Lag Time on Electric Stimulation. Looking for abbreviations of TLTE? It is Tension Lag Time on Electric Stimulation. Tension Lag Time on Electric Stimulation listed as TLTE
The role of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in modulating volume and circulatory homeostasis remains uncertain, and there has been as yet no systematic analysis of the factors promoting ANF release in humans. Since immersion in water to the neck provides a volume stimulus identical to that induced by 2 litres of saline, without plasma compositional change, immersion to the neck was used to assess the ANF response to acute central blood-volume expansion. Using a radio-immunoassay that reliably detected ANF in human plasma extracts, more than 80% of plasma immunoreactive (ir) ANF was shown to elute as a single peak on reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, with a retention time identical to that of the synthetic 28-residue alpha-human (alpha-h) ANF. The response of plasma irANF to 3 h of immersion in water to the neck was evaluated in four sodium-replete normal subjects; the immersion produced a prompt and marked increase in irANF in each subject, and recovery was associated with a prompt
Subject: Postdoctoral position at Northeastern University From: "Kong, Ying-Yee" ,[email protected], Date: Thu, 28 Feb 2013 14:20:58 +0000 List-Archive: --_000_CD53FBC3B613ykongneuedu_ Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Disposition: inline Dear List Members, My laboratory is hiring a post-doc researcher. Please forward the following= ad to anyone who might be interested. Thank you. Postdoctoral position Northeastern University, Department of Speech-Language Pathology & Audiology An NIH-funded post-doctoral research position is available in Ying-Yee Kong= s Auditory Prostheses and Communication Laboratory at Northeastern Univers= ity in Boston, MA. The position is available immediately, for initially 2 y= ears, with the potential for continuation for up to 3 more years. The research will focus on speech perception with combined electric and aco= ustic stimulation. Candidates should ...
Photograph of a receptor cell, known as an outer hair cell (OHC), in the mammalian cochlea with its large nucleus (N) located at the base of the cell. Receptor cells in the cochlea have structures known as stereocilia (S) at their apex. These structures convert the mechanical energy of sound to an electrochemical signal that can be processed by the peripheral and central auditory nerves. Outer hair cells have an additional feature; they can contract and extend in response to hyper- and depolarization of the cell. Their motility is regulated by signals from the brain, thereby allowing for the fine-tuning of mechanical signals that impinge on the cochlea. The photo was taken at a magnification of 7100 X using an electron microscope by Margaret Harvey, Senior Biological Scientist. Check out the link to see an outer hair cells response to music: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c91ubWbScs4 ...
A timing generating circuit with low power consumption and a small layout area, a display apparatus including the timing generating circuit as one peripheral driving circuit, and a portable terminal including the display apparatus as a display output section are provided. In the timing generating circuit, which is formed on an insulating substrate and generates output pulses SRFF1out to SRFFnout having different frequencies based on a master clock MCK, a clock generating circuit (11) generates an operating clock having a lower frequency than the master clock MCK frequency. Then, a counter section (12) operates based on this operating clock and successively outputs shifted pulses S/R1out to S/Rmount from shift registers (121-1) to (121-m). An output pulse generating section (13) generates output pulses SF1out to SFnout based on combinations of the shifted pulses S/R1out to S/Rmount.
Tinnitus is often described as ringing in the ears; often times the sounds heard,are not just confined to ringing. Many times, this condition causes sufferers to hear hissing, roaring, clicking or buzzing sounds. The sounds can vary in volume and pitch, from low to high and can be heard in one or both ears. This year, nearly 24 million Americans have suffered from Tinnitus, having lasted 5 minutes or more; On average 1 in 5 Americans are affected by Tinnitus. It is important to remember that Tinnitus is not a disease it is a symptom that there is something wrong in the auditory system. The auditory system includes our ear, auditory nerve connecting the inner ear to the brain that process sound ...
View Website ». The Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) is focused on developing tools and processes to enable high-rate/high-volume bottom-up, precise assembly of nanoelements (such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles) and polymer nanostructures.. ...
Cochlea - This is a spirally coiled tube containing fluid and the actual organ of hearing, the Organ of Corti. Each organ of Corti contains thousands of hairs that are vibrated by the sound waves. The hairs then initiate nervous impulses in the Auditory Nerve which is connected to the auditory areas on the sides of the brain ...
The importance of the visual system is attested by the magnitude of its representation in the central nervous system (CNS). A large part of the cerebrum is committed to vision, including the visual control of movement and the perception of printed words, and the form and color of objects. The optic nerve, which is a CNS structure, contains more than a million fibers (compared to 50,000 in the auditory nerve). The visual system also has special significance in that study of this system has greatly advanced our knowledge of both the organization of all sensory neuronal systems and the relation of perception to cognition. Indeed, we know more about vision than about any other sensory function. Furthermore, the eyes, because of their diverse composition of epithelial, vascular, neural, and pigmentary tissues, are virtually a medical microcosm, susceptible to many diseases, and its tissues are available for inspection through a transparent medium. ...
The Central Nervous System; The Autonomic Nervous System; The Brain; The Spinal Cord and Special Sensations; Nerve Centers and Ganglionic Systems; The Auditory Nerve (Ears); The Muscular System (Myology); Striated or Skeletal Muscles; Cardiac Muscle; Ciliary Muscle (Eyes); Heart and Circulatory System; Biosynthetic Drugs that Promote Systematic Effects upon the Muscular and Nervous Systems; Plant Drugs that Directly Affect the Nervous System.. ...
(article taken from empresschinchilla.com) Chinchilla, A Cellulose-Splitter Rodent Wendell Bird In the chinchillas native habitat, in which it has lived for many thousands of years, this animal has existed with a minimum of rainfall and other sources of water and has been able to thrive on relatively low protein fibers, dried grasses in a realtively…
The present disclosure relates to an electrosurgical generator which includes a controller configured to generate a first pulse train having at least one first control pulse and at least one first reset pulse. The controller also includes a second pulse train having at least one second control pulse and at least one second reset pulse. The first control pulse(s) and the second control pulse(s) are asynchronous and the reset pulse(s) are synchronous. The electrosurgical generator also includes an RF output stage which includes a first switching element and a second switching element. The control pulses are configured to activate the first switching element and second switching elements, respectively, in an asynchronous fashion to generate a non-continuous RF waveform.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A prevalent founder mutation and genotype-phenotype correlations of OTOF in Japanese patients with auditory neuropathy. AU - Matsunaga, T.. AU - Mutai, H.. AU - Kunishima, S.. AU - Namba, K.. AU - Morimoto, N.. AU - Shinjo, Y.. AU - Arimoto, Y.. AU - Kataoka, Yuko. AU - Shintani, T.. AU - Morita, N.. AU - Sugiuchi, T.. AU - Masuda, S.. AU - Nakano, A.. AU - Taiji, H.. AU - Kaga, K.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function and abnormal neural conduction of the auditory pathway. Aetiology and clinical presentation of congenital or early-onset auditory neuropathy are heterogeneous, and their correlations are not well understood. Genetic backgrounds and associated phenotypes of congenital or early-onset auditory neuropathy were investigated by systematically screening a cohort of 23 patients from unrelated Japanese families. Of the 23 patients, 13 (56.5%) had biallelic mutations in OTOF, whereas ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-term plasticity and modulation of synaptic transmission at mammalian inhibitory cholinergic olivocochlear synapses. AU - Katz, Eleonora. AU - Elgoyhen, Ana Belén. PY - 2014/12/2. Y1 - 2014/12/2. N2 - The organ of Corti, the mammalian sensory epithelium of the inner ear, has two types of mechanoreceptor cells, inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). In this sensory epithelium, vibrations produced by sound waves are transformed into electrical signals. When depolarized by incoming sounds, IHCs release glutamate and activate auditory nerve fibers innervating them and OHCs, by virtue of their electromotile property, increase the amplification and fine tuning of sound signals. The medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, an efferent feedback system, inhibits OHC activity and thereby reduces the sensitivity and sharp tuning of cochlear afferent fibers. During neonatal development, IHCs fire Ca2+ action potentials which evoke glutamate release promoting activity in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central compensation in auditory brainstem after damaging noise exposure. AU - Schrode, Katrina M.. AU - Muniak, Michael. AU - Kim, Ye Hyun. AU - Lauer, Amanda M.. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Noise exposure is one of the most common causes of hearing loss and peripheral damage to the auditory system. A growing literature suggests that the auditory system can compensate for peripheral loss through increased central neural activity. The current study sought to investigate the link between noise exposure, increases in central gain, synaptic reorganization, and auditory function. All axons of the auditory nerve project to the cochlear nucleus, making it a requisite nucleus for sound detection. As the first synapse in the central auditory system, the cochlear nucleus is well positioned to respond plastically to loss of peripheral input. To investigate noise-induced compensation in the central auditory system, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and auditory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic firing properties of type I spiral ganglion neurons. AU - Davis, Robin. AU - Crozier, Robert A.. PY - 2015/7/2. Y1 - 2015/7/2. N2 - Spiral ganglion neurons, the first neural element in the auditory system, possess complex intrinsic properties, possibly required to process frequency-specific sensory input that is integrated with extensive efferent regulation. Together with their tonotopically-graded sizes, the somata of these neurons reveal a sophisticated electrophysiological profile. Type I neurons, which make up ~95 % of the ganglion, have myriad voltage-gated ion channels that not only vary along the frequency contour of the cochlea, but also can be modulated by regulators such as voltage, calcium, and second messengers. The resultant developmentally- and tonotopically-regulated neuronal firing patterns conform to three distinct response modes (unitary, rapid, and slow) based on threshold and accommodation. This phenotype, however, is not static for any individual type ...
Cochlear implants were created for adults and children that suffer from a form of hearing loss known as sensorineural hearing loss. In sensorineural hearing loss there is usually damage to the tiny hair like cells in the cochlea. The cochlea is the tiny snail shaped coil in your inner ear that transmits sound signals to the auditory nerve. When the tiny hair like cells in your cochlea are damaged they are unable to transmit the sound signals to the auditory nerve. The cochlear implant circumvents the cochleas tiny hair like cells and directly stimulates the auditory nerve.. So how does the cochlear implant work? First a tiny receiver is implanted just under your skin behind the ear. This receiver is then connected to tiny electrodes that have been placed in the cochlea. You are then fitted with an external auditory speech processor, a transmitter and a battery pack. The microphone looks like a hearing aid and is worn behind the ear or it can be worn somewhere else on your body depending on your ...
The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI) has been developed for individuals with high frequency hearing loss who retain good low frequency hearing. Outcomes have been encouraging but individual variability is high; the health of the cochlea and the auditory nerve may be important factors driving outcome. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) reflect the response of the auditory nerve to electrical stimulation while electrocochleography (ECochG) reflects the response of the cochlear hair cells and auditory nerve to acoustic stimulation. In this study both ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from Nucleus Hybrid L24 CI users. Correlations between these two measures of peripheral auditory function and speech perception are reported. This retrospective study includes data from 25 L24 CI users. ECAPs and ECochG responses were recorded from an intracochlear electrode using stimuli presented at or near maximum acceptable loudness levels. Speech perception was assessed using Consonant-Nucleus

*Signal transduction

Signal transmission in the cochlear hair cell-nerve junction". Archives of Otolaryngology. 101 (9): 528-35. doi:10.1001/ ... The discovery of nerve growth factor by Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1954, and epidermal growth factor by Stanley Cohen in 1962, led ... Cowan, W. Maxwell (March 2001). "Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini: the path to the discovery of nerve growth factor". ... Calcium is used in many processes including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, and cell migration ...

*D. Kent Morest

Hossain WA, Antic SD, Yang Y, Rasband MN, Morest DK (July 2005). "Where is the spike generator of the cochlear nerve? Voltage- ... Smith L, Gross J, Morest DK (July 2002). "Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in the cochlear nucleus of the adult mouse following ... Kim JJ, Gross J, Potashner SJ, Morest DK (September 2004). "Fine structure of degeneration in the cochlear nucleus of the ... Josephson EM, Morest DK (July 2003). "Synaptic nests lack glutamate transporters in the cochlear nucleus of the mouse". Synapse ...

*Ototoxicity

"Regeneration of Cochlear Efferent Nerve Terminals after Gentamycin Damage". Retrieved 15 November 2014. Ototoxic Medications ... There is no cure or restoration capability if the damage becomes permanent, although cochlear nerve terminal regeneration has ... Cranial nerve VIII, is the least affected component of the ear when ototoxicity arises, but if the nerve is affected, the ... Cochlear implants are sometimes an option to restore hearing. Such treatments are typically taken to comfort the patient, not ...

*Johns Hopkins Biomedical Engineering

Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.; Miller, Michael I. (1983-06-01). "SPEECH ENCODING IN THE AUDITORY NERVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ... the early neural codes of complex auditory stimuli forming the basis for modern cochlear implants, and somatosensory codes ... COCHLEAR IMPLANTSa". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 405 (1): 94-113. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1983.tb31622.x. ISSN ...

*Biomedical engineering

... were one of the first to derive primary auditory nerve population codes that became the basis of the modern cochlear implant. ... Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.; Miller, Michael I. (1983-06-01). "SPEECH ENCODING IN THE AUDITORY NERVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ... In some cases, implants contain electronics, e.g. artificial pacemakers and cochlear implants. Some implants are bioactive, ... cochlear implants, ocular prosthetics, facial prosthetics, somato prosthetics, and dental implants. Stereolithography is a ...

*Michael I. Miller

Sachs, M.B.; Young, E.D.; Miller, M.I. (June 1983). "Speech Encoding in the Auditory Nerve: Implications for Cochlear Implants ... Miller, M.I.; Sachs, M.B. (1983). "Representation of stop consonants in the discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". JASA ... "Representation of voice pitch in discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". Hearing Research. 14 (3): 257-279. doi:10.1016/ ... formed the basis for the discussions at the 1982 New York Academy of Science meeting on the efficacy and timeliness of Cochlear ...

*Binaural fusion

The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... At the cochlea, this information is converted into electrical impulses that travel by means of the cochlear nerve, which spans ... Simon, E.; Perrot, E.; Mertens, P. (2009). "Functional anatomy of the cochlear nerve and the central auditory system". ...

*Electrocochleography

Moore EJ (1971). Human cochlear microphonics and auditory nerve action potentials from surface electrodes. Unpublished Ph.D. ... There are at least 3 other potentials generated upon cochlear stimulation: Cochlear microphonic (CM) Summating potential (SP) ... The auditory nerve action potential is the most widely studied component in ECochG. The AP represents the summed response of ... 1954). "Exploration of cochlear potentials in guinea pigs with a micro-electrode". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America ...

*Neuroscience of music

Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ... "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba". ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. ...

*Arthur Böttcher

Böttcher's ganglion: Ganglion on the cochlear nerve in the internal auditory meatus. Böttcher's space: Also known as the ... with a dissertation on the nerve supply to the inner ear's cochlea. He furthered his studies with journeys to Germany, France ... particularly studies involving the structure of the reticular lamina and nerve fibers of the organ of Corti. Today his name is ...

*Acoustic tubercle

The acoustic tubercle is a nuclei on the end of the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nerve is lateral to the root of the vestibular ... nerve. Its fibers end in two nuclei: one, the accessory nucleus, lies immediately in front of the inferior peduncle; the other ...

*Auditory brainstem implant

... and/or cochlear nucleus. In addition, physical compression by the tumor of the nerve and brainstem might impair neural ... due to illness or injury damaging the cochlea or auditory nerve, and so precluding the use of a cochlear implant). The auditory ... "Hearing habilitation with auditory brainstem implantation in two children with cochlear nerve aplasia". Int J Pediatr ... A 12 electrode array implant with a speech processor based on the C40+ cochlear implant (Med-El) The first Combi 40+ ABI ...

*Tympanic duct

They then depolarise and send impulses to the brain via the cochlear nerve. This produces the sensation of sound. Interior of ... It is separated from the cochlear duct by the basilar membrane, and it extends from the round window to the helicotrema, where ... This movement is conveyed to the organ of Corti inside the cochlear duct, composed of hair cells attached to the basilar ... Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Diagrammatic longitudinal ...

*Hearing loss

... and their movement generates nerve impulses which are then taken to the brain by the cochlear nerve.[68][69] The auditory nerve ... NAD Cochlear Implant Committee. "NAD Position Statement on Cochlear Implants (2000)". Cochlear Implants %7c National ... Recent research, reported in 2012 achieved growth of cochlear nerve cells resulting in hearing improvements in gerbils,[121] ... and cochlear nerve are intact.[46][47] People with auditory neuropathy may have normal hearing or hearing loss ranging from ...

*Internal auditory meatus

The cochlear nerve runs antero-inferiorly and the inferior vestibular nerve runs postero-inferiorly. Internal acoustic meatus ... The internal auditory meatus provides a passage through which the vestibulocochlear nerve, the facial nerve, and the ... The facial nerve travels through the facial canal, eventually exiting the skull at the stylomastoid foramen. The antero- ... which transmits the superior vestibular nerve, by Bill's bar (named by William F. House). The falciform crest or transverse ...

*Sensorineural hearing loss

... may affect the initiation of the nerve impulse in the cochlear nerve or the transmission of the nerve impulse along the nerve ... Profound or total hearing loss may be amenable to management by cochlear implants, which stimulate cochlear nerve endings ... Neural, or "retrocochlear", hearing loss occurs because of damage to the cochlear nerve (CVIII). This damage ... or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) or neural part. SNHL accounts for about 90% of hearing loss reported. SNHL ...

*Startle response

First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... cranial nerve VIII (auditory) -> cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) -> LLN -> caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The ...

*Isothalamus

From the cochlea, peripheral auditory information goes to the cochlear nucleus. From there, through the cochlear nerve, axons ... From the retina, the axons of the optic nerves go directly to the geniculate nuclei. The nasal component of the optic nerves ( ...

*Spiral ganglion

The spiral (cochlear) ganglion is the group of nerve cells that serve the sense of hearing by sending a representation of sound ... The fibers connecting the spiral ganglion with the central nervous system form the cochlear nerve. Diagrammatic longitudinal ... The rudiment of the acoustic nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the ... and their axons are bundled together to form the auditory portion of eighth cranial nerve. The number of neurons in the spiral ...

*EAST syndrome

In contrast to hearing aids, which amplify sound, cochlear implants are designed to stimulate the auditory nerve. Tubulopathy ... "Cochlear Implants". National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Even though sensorineural deafness is irreversible, one treatment are cochlear implants, which includes a microphone and ... deafness because of problems with the hearing nerve) and salt-wasting renal tubulopathy (salt loss caused by kidney problems). ...

*Auditory

... nerve, also known as the cochlear nerve is one of two parts of a cranial nerve. Auditory ossicles, three bones in the ...

*Vestibular schwannoma

First, the tumor usually arises from the vestibular division of the vestibulocochlear nerve, rather than the cochlear division ... and cranial nerve VII (controls facial expression and taste). Cranial nerve VIII, along with these two nerves, also passes ... Large tumors that compress the adjacent brainstem may affect other local cranial nerves. The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves ... portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). ARs are slow-growing local, benign and non-invasive. Progression ...

*Auditory system

... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the ... Cochlear nerve fibers (30,000+) each have a most sensitive frequency and respond over a wide range of levels. Simplified, nerve ... which in turn joins the vestibular nerve to form the vestibulocochlear nerve, or cranial nerve number VIII. The region of the ... Its hair cells transform the fluid waves into nerve signals. The journey of countless nerves begins with this first step; from ...

*Hearing

The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... However, the nerve pulses delivered to the brain contain both rate-versus-place and fine temporal structure information, so the ... known as vibrations are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in ... they release neurotransmitter at synapses with the fibers of the auditory nerve, which does produce action potentials. In this ...

*Brainstem auditory evoked potential

They reflect neuronal activity in the auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus, superior olive, and inferior colliculus of the ...

*Neuronal encoding of sound

There are two types of afferent neurons found in the cochlear nerve: Type I and Type II. Each type of neuron has specific cell ... The fluid found in these two cochlear chambers is perilymph, while scala media, or the cochlear duct, is filled with endolymph ... Cochlear hair cells are organized as inner hair cells and outer hair cells; inner and outer refer to relative position from the ... The release of neurotransmitter at a ribbon synapse, in turn, generates an action potential in the connected auditory-nerve ...

*Audiology

They dispense, manage, and rehabilitate hearing aids and assess candidacy for and map cochlear implants. They counsel families ... auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is ... Audiologists have training in anatomy and physiology, hearing aids, cochlear implants, electrophysiology, acoustics, ... cochlear implant users and/or hearing aid users), from pediatric populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus ...

*Glossary of communication disorders

Cochlear implant Medical device that bypasses damaged structures in the inner ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve, ... This type of implant helps individuals who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant because the auditory nerves are not working. ... Auditory nerve Eighth cranial nerve that connects the inner ear to the brainstem and is responsible for hearing and balance. ... Group of inherited disorders in which noncancerous tumors grow on several nerves that may include the hearing nerve. The ...

Auditory neuropathy characteristics in children with cochlear nerve deficiency.  - PubMed - NCBIAuditory neuropathy characteristics in children with cochlear nerve deficiency. - PubMed - NCBI

Although children with cochlear nerve deficiency who have a small nerve may benefit from cochlear implantation or amplification ... cochlear nerves on MRI.. RESULTS: Of the nine children with cochlear nerve deficiency, five (56%) were affected unilaterally ... who were subsequently identified as having absent or small cochlear nerves (i.e., cochlear nerve deficiency). ... all ears without cochlear nerves were identified as having a profound hearing loss. Only 4 (31%) of the 13 ears with cochlear ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16825889?dopt=Abstract

SURG.00014 Cochlear Implants and Auditory Brainstem ImplantsSURG.00014 Cochlear Implants and Auditory Brainstem Implants

... bilateral traumatic cochlear nerve disruption, cochlear nerve aplasia, cochlear otosclerosis, temporal bone fractures, and ... The investigators suggested that ABIs hold promise for individuals with cochlear and cochlear nerve abnormalities when cochlear ... Hybrid Cochlear Implants The Nucleus Hybrid L24 Cochlear Implant System (also referred to as "Hybrid L24") is a cochlear ... Complete bilateral disruption of the cochlear nerve from trauma did not exist in the literature and cochlear malformation did ...
more infohttps://www.unicare.com/medicalpolicies/policies/mp_pw_a050199.htm

Auditory Brainstem Implants | ASHA News Leader | ASHA PublicationsAuditory Brainstem Implants | ASHA News Leader | ASHA Publications

... deaf children with inner ear malformations including severe stenosis of the cochlear aperture and aplasia of the cochlear nerve ... Other causes of VIII nerve loss are temporal bone fracture, congenital aplasia of the cochlea and/or nerve, and severe ... deaf children with inner ear malformations including severe stenosis of the cochlear aperture and aplasia of the cochlear nerve ... Hearing habilitation with auditory brainstem implantation in two children with cochlear nerve aplasia. International Journal of ...
more infohttps://leader.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2279011

1910-NF2 (Neurofibromatosis type 2) - risk management | eviQ1910-NF2 (Neurofibromatosis type 2) - risk management | eviQ

... such as loss of cochlear, vestibular, bulbar and facial nerve function.rrr ... using a cochlear implant or auditory brain stem implant) or other treatment (e.g. stereotactic radiosurgery), and the possible ... characterised by the development of nerve cell tumours such as schwannomas and meningiomas, ophthalmological and skin lesions, ...
more infohttps://www.eviq.org.au/cancer-genetics/adult/risk-management/1910-nf2-neurofibromatosis-type-2-risk-managem

Medical Home Portal - Auditory Brainstem ImplantsMedical Home Portal - Auditory Brainstem Implants

Cochlear implants require a functioning auditory nerve to transmit impulses from the cochlea to the auditory processing centers ... ABI components are similar to those found in cochlear implants and consist of an external speech processor and receiver that ... In contrast, auditory brainstem implants (ABI) bypass the need for a functioning auditory nerve by directly stimulating the ... The first generation of auditory brainstem implants were designed to stimulate the surface of the ventral cochlear nucleus in ...
more infohttps://www.medicalhomeportal.org/issue/auditory-brainstem-implants

Auditory Neuropathy - Causes of Hearing Loss - My Babys HearingAuditory Neuropathy - Causes of Hearing Loss - My Baby's Hearing

Cochlear Implants for Children with ANSD. Many children with the disorder benefit more from a cochlear implant than hearing ... This shows poor responses from the hearing nerve. Depending upon what method is used for newborn hearing screening (OAEs or ... In cases where the site of the hearing problem actually involves the auditory nerve, outcomes with the implant may be more ... Many children with ANSD perform as well with cochlear implants as children with typical sensorineural hearing loss. ...
more infohttps://www.babyhearing.org/auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder

Auditory Brainstem Implants | NYU Langone HealthAuditory Brainstem Implants | NYU Langone Health

An auditory brainstem implant at NYU Langones Cochlear Implant Center can help people with hearing loss caused by ... is used to stimulate the cochlear nucleus in people with neurofibromatosis type 2 whose hearing nerves dont function. The ... but who have absent or compromised hearing nerves or for any reason cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. ... When the tumors are removed, the auditory nerve usually must be cut. As a result, a connection no longer exists between the ...
more infohttps://nyulangone.org/locations/cochlear-implant-center/auditory-brainstem-implants

Medifocus Guidebook on Acoustic NeuromaMedifocus Guidebook on Acoustic Neuroma

Hearing loss, which occurs in approximately 90-95% of patients, is usually caused either by compression of the cochlear nerve ... One group of nerves is known as the cranial nerves. There are twelve cranial nerves but the one of interest for acoustic ... The auditory nerve cells, like many nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, are wrapped or insulated by layers of specialized ... It takes on a pear-like shape and may begin to press on the 5th cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, which is responsible for ...
more infohttp://abdominalaneurysm-info.com/landing.php?gid=TL001&a=a

Ophthalmic nerve | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks onlineOphthalmic nerve | Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online

Ophthalmic nerve, , , , , ,,... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and ... The ophthalmic nerve (CN V: V1) is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve. The ophthalmic ... The ophthalmic nerve supplies branches to the cornea, ciliary body, and iris; to the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva; to the ... The lacrimal nerve passes through the orbit superiorly to innervate the lacrimal gland. The nasociliary branch gives off ...
more infohttp://self.gutenberg.org/articles/eng/Ophthalmic_nerve

Cochlear nerve - WikipediaCochlear nerve - Wikipedia

The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Cochlear nuclear complex[edit]. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... In humans, there are on average 30,000 nerve fibers within the cochlear nerve.[1] The number of fibers varies significantly ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochlear_nerve

Cochlear nerve | anatomy | Britannica.comCochlear nerve | anatomy | Britannica.com

Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII or 8): Auditory receptors of the cochlear division are located in the organ of Corti and ... Other articles where Cochlear nerve is discussed: human nervous system: ... part of vestibulocochlear nerve. * In vestibulocochlear nerve. …and functionally distinct parts: the cochlear nerve, ... trunk of fibres of the cochlear nerve. This nerve, a division of the very short vestibulocochlear nerve, enters the base of the ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/cochlear-nerve

Cochlear nerve | Define Cochlear nerve at Dictionary.comCochlear nerve | Define Cochlear nerve at Dictionary.com

Cochlear nerve definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... cochlear nerve in Medicine Expand. cochlear nerve n. The cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve peripheral to the ... To destroy the cochlear nerve, the whole of the cochlea should be removed. ... cochlear root, composed of nerve processes with terminals on the four rows of hair cells and the bipolar neurons of the spiral ...
more infohttp://www.dictionary.com/browse/cochlear-nerve

Existing Cochlear Technology Used To Re-grow Auditory Nerves - RedorbitExisting Cochlear Technology Used To Re-grow Auditory Nerves - Redorbit

The work centers on regenerating surviving nerves after age-related or environmental hearing loss, using existing cochlear ... "People with cochlear implants do well with understanding speech, but their perception of pitch can be poor, so they often miss ... The cochlear implants are "surprisingly efficient" at localized gene therapy in the animal model, when a few electric pulses ... says ultimately the changes in the hearing nerve may be maintained by the ongoing neural activity generated by the cochlear ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1113129248/cochlear-technology-used-re-grow-auditory-nerves-042414/

WikiGenes - Cochlear NerveWikiGenes - Cochlear Nerve

Gene context of Cochlear Nerve. *FGF1 and FGF2 act as trophic factors for the developing cochlear nerve fibres [26]. ... High impact information on Cochlear Nerve. *Kainic acid injections result in degeneration of cochlear nucleus cells innervated ... Psychiatry related information on Cochlear Nerve. *However, the effect of sensorineural hearing losses on auditory nerve ... We have studied the morphological and cellular changes in the cochlear nucleus (CN) after cochlear nerve degeneration and ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/7542.html

Vascular decompression of the cochlear nerve in tinnitus sufferers.Vascular decompression of the cochlear nerve in tinnitus sufferers.

Cochlear Nerve*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Compression Syndromes / complications*, surgery. Tinnitus / etiology*. ... that these patients may be suffering from vascular loop compression of the cochlear division of the eighth cranial nerve. When ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Vascular-decompression-cochlear-nerve-in/3374234.html

Cochlear nerve - Biology-Online DictionaryCochlear nerve - Biology-Online Dictionary

Cochlear nerve (Science: anatomy, nerve) The cochlear part of the acoustic (8th cranial) nerve. The cochlear nerve fibres ... originate from neurons of the spiral ganglion and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Cochlear_nerve&oldid=66786" ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Cochlear_nerve

Speech Representation in the Auditory Nerve and Ventral Cochlear Nucleus | Springer for Research & DevelopmentSpeech Representation in the Auditory Nerve and Ventral Cochlear Nucleus | Springer for Research & Development

The representation of speech-like stimuli in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus have been the subject of numerous studies ... Auditory Nerve Cochlear Nucleus Good Frequency Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Selective Listening These keywords were added by ... May B.J., Le Prell G.S., Hienz R.D., Sachs M.B. (1997) Speech Representation in the Auditory Nerve and Ventral Cochlear Nucleus ... The representation of speech-like stimuli in the auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus have been the subject of numerous studies ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-8712-9_38

Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus | Philosophical Transactions of the...Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus | Philosophical Transactions of the...

Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. Xiaoqin Wang, Murray B. Sachs ... We have investigated responses of the auditory nerve fibres (ANFS) and anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) units to narrow ... Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus ... Coding of envelope modulation in the auditory nerve and anteroventral cochlear nucleus. ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/336/1278/399

Frontiers | Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal...Frontiers | Cell-type specific short-term plasticity at auditory nerve synapses controls feed-forward inhibition in the dorsal...

In the cochlear nucleus, the auditory nerve provides excitation to both principal neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Here, we ... Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven feed-forward inhibition (FFI) onto FCs. We find that ... Therefore, we examined the timing and plasticity of auditory nerve driven feed-forward inhibition (FFI) onto FCs. We find that ... In addition we find that during repetitive activation, synapses formed by the auditory nerve onto TVCs and FCs exhibit distinct ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncir.2014.00078/full

FARA - Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber ActivityFARA - Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreich's Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity

Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity Details ... Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity ... This study characterizes the cochlear receptor and auditory nerve potentials in a patient with FRDA who had the clinical ... Read More: Abnormal Cochlear Potentials in Friedreichs Ataxia Point to Disordered Synchrony of Auditory Nerve Fiber Activity ...
more infohttps://www.curefa.org/scientific-news/abnormal-cochlear-potentials-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-point-to-disordered-synchrony-of-auditory-nerve-fiber-activity

The Role of MRI in Diagnosing Neurovascular Compression of the Cochlear Nerve Resulting in Typewriter Tinnitus | American...The Role of MRI in Diagnosing Neurovascular Compression of the Cochlear Nerve Resulting in Typewriter Tinnitus | American...

... presence of neurovascular cross-compression of the cochlear nerve to investigate whether radiologic evidence of cochlear nerve ... syndrome of vestibulo-cochlear organ impairment during vascular compression of the vestibulo-cochlear nerve (VCS) [in Polish]. ... Radiographic analysis of cochlear nerve vascular compression. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2009;118:356-61 doi:10.1177/ ... The Role of MRI in Diagnosing Neurovascular Compression of the Cochlear Nerve Resulting in Typewriter Tinnitus. Y.J. Bae, Y.J. ...
more infohttp://www.ajnr.org/content/38/6/1212

Cochlea | anatomy | Britannica.comCochlea | anatomy | Britannica.com

location of cochlear nerve. *. In human nervous system: Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII or 8). 5 turns) of the cochlea. Air ... This stimulates the sensory cells of the organ of Corti, atop the basilar membrane, to send nerve impulses to the brain.. ... This fluid movement is converted by the organ of Corti into nerve impulses that are interpreted as auditory information. The… ... and the cochlear duct, which is the only part of the inner ear involved in… ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/cochlea

Cochlear NerveCochlear Nerve

The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and ... centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing. ... The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). ... Cochlear Nerve. The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from ...
more infohttp://atlas.centralx.com/p/image/nervous-system/peripheral-nervous-system/peripheral-nerves/cranial-nerves/vestibulocochlear-nerve/cochlear-nerve/

Pediatric Cochlear Implantation | SpringerLinkPediatric Cochlear Implantation | SpringerLink

This book will move the field of pediatric cochlear implantation forward by educating clinicians in the field as to current and ... Cochlear Nerve Deficiency Claire Iseli, Oliver Adunka, Craig Buchman. Pages 227-235 ... Cochlear Implants as Treatment of Single-Sided Deafness in Children David R. Friedmann, J. Thomas Roland Jr., Susan B. Waltzman ... Focusing exclusively on cochlear implantation as it applies to the pediatric population, this book also discusses music therapy ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-2788-3

Ear, Nose & Throat (Otolaryngology) ServicesEar, Nose & Throat (Otolaryngology) Services

Hearing Without Cochlear Nerves Auditory brainstem implant devices may help young children with sensorineural hearing loss.. ... Cochlear Implants: Myths and Candidacy. This webinar provides a general overview of cochlear implants and the evaluation ...
more infohttps://www.nationwidechildrens.org/specialties/ear-nose-throat-ent-services-otolaryngology
  • When the tumors are removed the auditory nerve is usually cut and no connection exists between the still-functioning cochlea and the brain. (asha.org)
  • Other causes of VIII nerve loss are temporal bone fracture, congenital aplasia of the cochlea and/or nerve, and severe ossification from congenital or post-meningitic growth. (asha.org)
  • Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) is a hearing disorder in which the inner ear (or cochlea) seems to receive sounds normally, but the signals leaving the cochlea are disorganized or the hearing nerve itself does not process sound normally. (babyhearing.org)
  • A unilateral hybrid cochlear implant is intended to restore a level of auditory sensation to an individual with residual low-frequency hearing sensitivity and bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. (unicare.com)
  • Only 4 (31%) of the 13 ears with cochlear nerve deficiency had a small internal auditory canal on MRI. (nih.gov)
  • Although people with neurofibromatosis type 2 tend to be completely deaf, and the benefit of an ABI is not as high as that of the cochlear implant , most recipients experience substantial improvement in hearing. (nyulangone.org)
  • In children with appropriate available behavioral testing results, all ears without cochlear nerves were identified as having a profound hearing loss. (nih.gov)
  • 69%) had evidence of a cochlear microphonic (CM) and absent neural responses in at least one ear. (nih.gov)
  • Candidates are children without neurofibromatosis type 2, but who have absent or compromised hearing nerves or for any reason cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. (nyulangone.org)
  • To describe a group of children exhibiting electrophysiologic responses characteristic of auditory neuropathy (AN) who were subsequently identified as having absent or small cochlear nerves (i.e., cochlear nerve deficiency). (nih.gov)
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