Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Plastic Embedding: The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.

Response of inferior colliculus neurons to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in neonatally deafened cats. (1/451)

Response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) were examined in control and profoundly deafened animals to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Seven adult cats were used: two controls; four neonatally deafened (2 bilaterally, 2 unilaterally); and one long-term bilaterally deaf cat. All control cochleae were deafened immediately before recording to avoid electrophonic activation of hair cells. Histological analysis of neonatally deafened cochleae showed no evidence of hair cells and a moderate to severe spiral ganglion cell loss, whereas the long-term deaf animal had only 1-2% ganglion cell survival. Under barbiturate anesthesia, scala tympani electrodes were implanted bilaterally and the auditory nerve electrically stimulated using 100 micros/phase biphasic current pulses. Single-unit (n = 419) recordings were made through the lateral (LN) and central (ICC) nuclei of the IC; responses could be elicited readily in all animals. Approximately 80% of cells responded to contralateral stimulation, whereas nearly 75% showed an excitatory response to ipsilateral stimulation. Most units showed a monotonic increase in spike probability and reduction in latency and jitter with increasing current. Nonmonotonic activity was seen in 15% of units regardless of hearing status. Neurons in the LN exhibited longer latencies (10-25 ms) compared with those in the ICC (5-8 ms). There was a deafness-induced increase in latency, jitter, and dynamic range; the extent of these changes was related to duration of deafness. The ICC maintained a rudimentary cochleotopic organization in all neonatally deafened animals, suggesting that this organization is laid down during development in the absence of normal afferent input. Temporal resolution of IC neurons was reduced significantly in neonatal bilaterally deafened animals compared with acutely deafened controls, whereas neonatal unilaterally deafened animals showed no reduction. It would appear that monaural afferent input is sufficient to maintain normal levels of temporal resolution in auditory midbrain neurons. These experiments have shown that many of the basic response properties are similar across animals with a wide range of auditory experience. However, important differences were identified, including increased response latencies and temporal jitter, and reduced levels of temporal resolution.  (+info)

Coding of sound pressure level in the barn owl's auditory nerve. (2/451)

Rate-intensity functions, i.e., the relation between discharge rate and sound pressure level, were recorded from single auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl. Differences in sound pressure level between the owl's two ears are known to be an important cue in sound localization. One objective was therefore to quantify the discharge rates of auditory nerve fibers, as a basis for higher-order processing of sound pressure level. The second aim was to investigate the rate-intensity functions for cues to the underlying cochlear mechanisms, using a model developed in mammals. Rate-intensity functions at the most sensitive frequency mostly showed a well-defined breakpoint between an initial steep segment and a progressively flattening segment. This shape has, in mammals, been convincingly traced to a compressive nonlinearity in the cochlear mechanics, which in turn is a reflection of the cochlear amplifier enhancing low-level stimuli. The similarity of the rate-intensity functions of the barn owl is thus further evidence for a similar mechanism in birds. An interesting difference from mammalian data was that this compressive nonlinearity was not shared among fibers of similar characteristic frequency, suggesting a different mechanism with a more locally differentiated operation than in mammals. In all fibers, the steepest change in discharge rate with rising sound pressure level occurred within 10-20 dB of their respective thresholds. Because the range of neural thresholds at any one characteristic frequency is small in the owl, auditory nerve fibers were collectively most sensitive for changes in sound pressure level within approximately 30 dB of the best thresholds. Fibers most sensitive to high frequencies (>6-7 kHz) showed a smaller increase of rate above spontaneous discharge rate than did lower-frequency fibers.  (+info)

Organization of inhibitory frequency receptive fields in cat primary auditory cortex. (3/451)

Based on properties of excitatory frequency (spectral) receptive fields (esRFs), previous studies have indicated that cat primary auditory cortex (A1) is composed of functionally distinct dorsal and ventral subdivisions. Dorsal A1 (A1d) has been suggested to be involved in analyzing complex spectral patterns, whereas ventral A1 (A1v) appears better suited for analyzing narrowband sounds. However, these studies were based on single-tone stimuli and did not consider how neuronal responses to tones are modulated when the tones are part of a more complex acoustic environment. In the visual and peripheral auditory systems, stimulus components outside of the esRF can exert strong modulatory effects on responses. We investigated the organization of inhibitory frequency regions outside of the pure-tone esRF in single neurons in cat A1. We found a high incidence of inhibitory response areas (in 95% of sampled neurons) and a wide variety in the structure of inhibitory bands ranging from a single band to more than four distinct inhibitory regions. Unlike the auditory nerve where most fibers possess two surrounding "lateral" suppression bands, only 38% of A1 cells had this simple structure. The word lateral is defined in this sense to be inhibition or suppression that extends beyond the low- and high-frequency borders of the esRF. Regional differences in the distribution of inhibitory RF structure across A1 were evident. In A1d, only 16% of the cells had simple two-banded lateral RF organization, whereas 50% of A1v cells had this organization. This nonhomogeneous topographic distribution of inhibitory properties is consistent with the hypothesis that A1 is composed of at least two functionally distinct subdivisions that may be part of different auditory cortical processing streams.  (+info)

A possible neurophysiological basis of the octave enlargement effect. (4/451)

Although the physical octave is defined as a simple ratio of 2:1, listeners prefer slightly greater octave ratios. Ohgushi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 1694-1700 (1983)] suggested that a temporal model for octave matching would predict this octave enlargement effect because, in response to pure tones, auditory-nerve interspike intervals are slightly larger than the stimulus period. In an effort to test Ohgushi's hypothesis, auditory-nerve single-unit responses to pure-tone stimuli were collected from Dial-anesthetized cats. It was found that although interspike interval distributions show clear phase-locking to the stimulus, intervals systematically deviate from integer multiples of the stimulus period. Due to refractory effects, intervals smaller than 5 msec are slightly larger than the stimulus period and deviate most for small intervals. On the other hand, first-order intervals are smaller than the stimulus period for stimulus frequencies less than 500 Hz. It is shown that this deviation is the combined effect of phase-locking and multiple spikes within one stimulus period. A model for octave matching was implemented which compares frequency estimates of two tones based on their interspike interval distributions. The model quantitatively predicts the octave enlargement effect. These results are consistent with the idea that musical pitch is derived from auditory-nerve interspike interval distributions.  (+info)

Noninvasive direct stimulation of the cochlear nerve for functional MR imaging of the auditory cortex. (5/451)

We herein present our preliminary experience with functional MR imaging of the direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve using an MR imaging-compatible electrode placed in the external auditory meatus of five patients with binaural sensorineural hearing loss. The stimulator was placed outside the imager's bore, and the electrode produced virtually no susceptibility artifacts. In three of five patients, it was possible to activate the superior temporal gyrus during functional MR imaging. No side effects were observed.  (+info)

Contributions of ion conductances to the onset responses of octopus cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus: simulation results. (6/451)

The onset response pattern displayed by octopus cells has been attributed to intrinsic membrane properties, low membrane impedance, and/or synaptic inputs. Although the importance of a low membrane impedance generally is acknowledged as an essential component, views differ on the role that ion channels play in producing the onset response. In this study, we use a computer model to investigate the contributions of ion channels to the responses of octopus cells. Simulations using current ramps indicate that, during the "ramp-up" stage, the membrane depolarizes, activating a low-threshold K(+) channel, K(LT), which increases membrane conductance and dynamically increases the current required to evoke an action potential. As a result, the model is sensitive to the rate that membrane potential changes when initiating an action potential. Results obtained when experimentally recorded spike trains of auditory-nerve fibers served as model inputs (simulating acoustic stimulation) demonstrate that a model with K(LT) conductance as the dominant conductance produces realistic onset response patterns. Systematically replacing the K(LT) conductance by a h-type conductance (which corresponds to a hyperpolarization-activated inward rectifier current, I(h)) or by a leakage conductance reduces the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential, and the model's response to "acoustic stimulation" becomes more chopper-like. Increasing the h-type conductance while maintaining a large K(LT) conductance causes an increase in threshold to both current steps and acoustic stimulation but does not significantly affect the model's sensitivity to rate of change in membrane potential and the onset response pattern under acoustic stimulation. These findings support the idea that K(LT), which is activated during depolarization, is the primary membrane conductance determining the response properties of octopus cells, and its dynamic role cannot be provided by a static membrane conductance. On the other hand, I(h), which is activated during hyperpolarization, does not play a large role in the basic onset response pattern but may regulate response threshold through its contribution to the membrane conductance.  (+info)

Reduced size of the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve in a child with sensorineural hearing loss. (7/451)

A 12-year-old female patient presented with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission testing failed to reveal any measurable emissions in the affected side. MR imaging did not reveal labyrinthine malformation. Three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in steady-state MR images showed a thin cochlear branch. We speculated that mumps infection or developmental malformation caused the unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.  (+info)

Morphological identification of physiologically characterized afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista. (8/451)

The turtle posterior crista consists of two hemicristae. Each hemicrista extends from the planum semilunatum to the nonsensory torus and includes a central zone (CZ) surrounded by a peripheral zone (PZ). Type I and type II hair cells are found in the CZ and are innervated by calyx, dimorphic and bouton afferents. Only type II hair cells and bouton fibers are found in the PZ. Units were intraaxonally labeled in a half-head preparation. Bouton (B) units could be near the planum (BP), near the torus (BT), or in midportions of a hemicrista, including the PZ and CZ. Discharge properties of B units vary with longitudinal position in a hemicrista but not with morphological features of their peripheral terminations. BP units are regularly discharging and have small gains and small phase leads re angular head velocity. BT units are irregular and have large gains and large phase leads. BM units have intermediate properties. Calyx (C) and dimorphic (D) units have similar discharge properties and were placed into a single calyx-bearing (CD) category. While having an irregular discharge resembling BT units, CD units have gains and phases similar to those of BM units. Rather than any single discharge property, it is the relation between discharge regularity and either gain or phase that makes CD units distinctive. Multivariate statistical formulas were developed to infer a unit's morphological class (B or CD) and longitudinal position solely from its discharge properties. To verify the use of the formulas, discharge properties were compared for units recorded intraaxonally or extracellularly in the half-head or extracellularly in intact animals. Most B units have background rates of 10-30 spikes/s. The CD category was separated into CD-high and CD-low units with background rates above or below 5 spikes/s, respectively. CD-low units have lower gains and phases and are located nearer the planum than CD-high units. In their response dynamics over a frequency range from 0.01-3 Hz, BP units conform to an overdamped torsion-pendulum model. Other units show departures from the model, including high-frequency gain increases and phase leads. The longitudinal gradient in the physiology of turtle B units resembles a similar gradient in the anamniote crista. In many respects, turtle CD units have discharge properties resembling those of calyx-bearing units in the mammalian central zone.  (+info)

  • A flush-tipped, bipolar electrode recording probe was used to directly record responses to monaural click stimuli from the cochlear nerve but not from surrounding tissue. (
  • These limitations are in particular caused by the spread of current induced by each electrode and by the poor efficiency between the electrical pulse and auditory-nerve responses. (
  • INTRODUCTION: In Cochlear Implant (CI) users, the recording of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve represents the most effective way to assess the auditory nerve in response to electrical stimulus and the interaction between the electrode and the neural tissue. (
  • The device, pictured on the right, is also known as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array, a miniature gadget that should allow central nervous system's signals reaching peripheral nerves to be transduced to control the bionic arm. (
  • If the University of Utah interface device ultimately is chosen for the bionic arm, electrode arrays will be implanted in some or all of the four major nerves in the residual limbs of people with upper-arm amputations. (
  • Our results suggest that measures of the effects of noise on ABR wave-V latency can be used to diagnose cochlear synaptopathy in humans. (
  • Although there are suspicions that cochlear synaptopathy affects humans with normal hearing thresholds, no one has yet reported a clinical measure that is a reliable marker of such loss. (
  • Selective blockade of CP-AMPARs prevents excitotoxicity and noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy, while other glutamate receptors continue to mediate neurotransmission and allow hearing. (
  • We propose a role for GluA2-lacking CP-AMPARs in noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy whereby differences among synapses account for differences in excitotoxic susceptibility. (
  • The promontory test is one of the mainstays of the presurgical diagnostic workup of cochlear implant candidates. (
  • This device is commonly used for the preoperative testing of cochlear implant candidates. (
  • Environmental Sound Awareness in Experienced Cochlear Implant Users and Cochlear Implant Candidates. (
  • Imaging plays an important part in the work-up of cochlear implant candidates, and an understanding of imaging evaluation procedures is essential. (
  • It is also imperative to be familiar with the growing number of imaging options (particularly magnetic resonance [MR] imaging pulse sequences) to optimize evaluation of cochlear implant candidates. (
  • Patients who do not have NF2 and are deaf due to abnormalities in their hearing nerves or inner ears from congenital malformations, infection, disease, or injury are not cochlear implant candidates and there are no other options to improve hearing in these cases except for the ABI. (
  • While the neurotrophin production dropped away after a couple of months, Professor Housley says ultimately the changes in the hearing nerve may be maintained by the ongoing neural activity generated by the cochlear implant. (
  • 69%) had evidence of a cochlear microphonic (CM) and absent neural responses in at least one ear. (
  • The neural response telemetry is used in order to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve . (
  • Researchers at other institutions, meanwhile, will develop the prosthetic arm itself and will study other kinds of neural interfaces that could operate the bionic arm, including a device implanted to receive signals from the brain instead of nerves in the residual limb. (
  • Initially patients should undergo schwannoma resection with preservation of the cochlear nerve as the main goal. (
  • Cochlear nerve function is not always preserved in spite of anatomic preservation of the cochlear nerve. (
  • To determine if postlingually deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) users have better environmental sound awareness (ESA) compared with adult patients eligible for CIs who have not yet undergone implantati. (
  • However, a number of recent studies suggest that deaf patients who do not have NF2 and are not eligible for a cochlear implant may also benefit from placement of an ABI. (
  • The cochlear nerve is absent in this patient with normal facial nerve function. (
  • Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy: How Effective Is Rehabilitation? (
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (
  • Bell's palsy is a common disorder of the facial nerve, which causes paralysis on one side of the face and possibly loss of taste sensation. (
  • The use of intraoperative facial nerve monitors has resulted in objectively demonstrable improvement in facial nerve outcome for patients undergoing posterior fossa surgery for tumor removal. (
  • The importance of such monitors is borne out by the devastating complications that can result from facial nerve injury during surgery, including grotesque alteration of facial appearance, exposure of the eye to vision-threatening desiccation and infection, and impairment of competence of the oral sphincter, resulting in drooling and alterations in vocal quality. (
  • Individuals who have had severe facial nerve injury experience degraded self-image and loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. (
  • Consequently, surgeons who operate in the anatomic areas traversed by the facial nerve (see the image below) welcome and accept any adjunctive technique that potentially reduces the incidence of facial paralysis . (
  • The surgical anatomy and landmarks of the facial nerve. (
  • However, although, as stated, intraoperative facial nerve monitoring has resulted in demonstrably improved facial nerve outcomes in posterior fossa tumor surgery, objective documentation of improved results in mastoid and middle ear surgery is not yet forthcoming. (
  • [ 2 ] Nonetheless, many surgeons are convinced, despite the absence of objective data, that the facial nerve monitor is helpful for otologic surgery and regularly use it for routine otologic operations. (
  • Facial nerve monitoring is not a panacea, and it does not substitute for anatomic knowledge. (
  • The facial nerve can be injured by direct mechanical disruption from a rotating burr, transection with a sharp instrument, accidental evulsion (eg, from traction), or a crushing injury. (
  • A rotating surgical burr can produce thermal injury without directly contacting the facial nerve. (
  • In 1979, Delgado became the first person to use electrophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve. (
  • As a practical matter, neurophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve continuously evaluates the electromyographic activity in the monitored facial muscles. (
  • Vascular decompression of the cochlear nerve in tinnitus sufferers. (
  • Arterial compression of the cochleovestibular nerve complex has been suggested as a potential cause of hearing deficit, typewriter tinnitus, and equilibrium disturbance or vertigo. (
  • 6 ⇓ - 8 Typewriter tinnitus is considered the result of dysmyelination and demyelination of the contact point between the arterial loop and the cochlear nerve that transmits an abnormal signal to the auditory cortex. (
  • Tinnitus can also be related to the general impairment of the hearing nerve that occurs with aging, known as presbycusis. (
  • Tinnitus can result from damage to this nerve. (
  • Damage to the ear nerve is one of many causes of tinnitus. (
  • The arrowhead indicates a singular canal containing the nerve of the posterior semicircular canal.D, Oblique sagittal image of the distal IAC shows a solitary nerve within the superior aspect of the small, deformed canal (arrow). (
  • The sooner children are able to hear through an implant, the more likely they will understand when others talk, and learn to speak clearly," says senior author Nancy Young, MD, Medical Director of Audiology and Cochlear Implant Programs at Lurie Children's and Professor at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (
  • This study characterizes the cochlear receptor and auditory nerve potentials in a patient with FRDA who had the clinical profile of auditory neuropathy. (
  • Determine the characteristics of the Cochlear Microphonic in Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony using an integrative review. (
  • The presence of the Cochlear Microphonic is a determining finding in the differential diagnosis of Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony. (
  • The amplitude of the Cochlear Microphonic in Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony shows no significant difference from that of normal individuals. (
  • The duration of the Cochlear Microphonic is longer in individuals with Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony. (