Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
Rare disease characterized by COLOBOMA; CHOANAL ATRESIA; and abnormal SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. Mutations in CHD7 protein resulting in disturbed neural crest development are associated with CHARGE Syndrome.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Surgery performed in which part of the STAPES, a bone in the middle ear, is removed and a prosthesis is placed to help transmit sound between the middle ear and inner ear.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The fundamental principles and laws adopted by an organization for the regulation and governing of its affairs.
A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth capsule which can progress toward the STAPES (stapedial fixation) or anteriorly toward the COCHLEA leading to conductive, sensorineural, or mixed HEARING LOSS. Several genes are associated with familial otosclerosis with varied clinical signs.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
The period following a surgical operation.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.

A comparison of language achievement in children with cochlear implants and children using hearing aids. (1/432)

English language achievement of 29 prelingually deaf children with 3 or more years of cochlear implant (CI) experience was compared to the achievement levels of prelingually deaf children who did not have such CI experience. Language achievement was measured by the Rhode Island Test of Language Structure (RITLS), a measure of signed and spoken sentence comprehension, and the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn), a measure of expressive (signed and spoken) English grammar. When the CI users were compared with their deaf age mates who contributed to the norms of the RITLS, it was found that CI users achieved significantly better scores. Likewise, we found that CI users performed better than 29 deaf children who used hearing aids (HAs) with respect to English grammar achievement as indexed by the IPSyn. Additionally, we found that chronological age highly correlated with IPSyn levels only among the non-CI users, whereas length of CI experience was significantly correlated with IPSyn scores for CI users. Finally, clear differences between those with and without CI experience were found by 2 years of post-implant experience. These data provide evidence that children who receive CIs benefit in the form of improved English language comprehension and production.  (+info)

Comparison of three-dimensional visualization techniques for depicting the scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea by using high-resolution MR imaging. (2/432)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cochlear implantation requires introduction of a stimulating electrode array into the scala vestibuli or scala tympani. Although these structures can be separately identified on many high-resolution scans, it is often difficult to ascertain whether these channels are patent throughout their length. The aim of this study was to determine whether an optimized combination of an imaging protocol and a visualization technique allows routine 3D rendering of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani. METHODS: A submillimeter T2 fast spin-echo imaging sequence was designed to optimize the performance of 3D visualization methods. The spatial resolution was determined experimentally using primary images and 3D surface and volume renderings from eight healthy subjects. These data were used to develop the imaging sequence and to compare the quality and signal-to-noise dependency of four data visualization algorithms: maximum intensity projection, ray casting with transparent voxels, ray casting with opaque voxels, and isosurface rendering. The ability of these methods to produce 3D renderings of the scala tympani and scala vestibuli was also examined. The imaging technique was used in five patients with sensorineural deafness. RESULTS: Visualization techniques produced optimal results in combination with an isotropic volume imaging sequence. Clinicians preferred the isosurface-rendered images to other 3D visualizations. Both isosurface and ray casting displayed the scala vestibuli and scala tympani throughout their length. Abnormalities were shown in three patients, and in one of these, a focal occlusion of the scala tympani was confirmed at surgery. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional images of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani can be routinely produced. The combination of an MR sequence optimized for use with isosurface rendering or ray-casting algorithms can produce 3D images with greater spatial resolution and anatomic detail than has been possible previously.  (+info)

Cochlear implantations in Northern Ireland: an overview of the first five years. (3/432)

During the last few years cochlear implantation (CI) has made remarkable progress, developing from a mere research tool to a viable clinical application. The Centre for CI in the Northern Ireland was established in 1992 and has since been a provider of this new technology for rehabilitation of profoundly deaf patients in the region. Although individual performance with a cochlear implant cannot be predicted accurately, the overall success of CI can no longer be denied. Seventy one patients, 37 adults and 34 children, have received implants over the first five years of the Northern Ireland cochlear implant programme, which is located at the Belfast City Hospital. The complication rates and the post-implantation outcome of this centre compare favourably with other major centres which undertake the procedure. This paper aims to highlight the patient selection criteria, surgery, post-CI outcome, clinical and research developments within our centre, and future prospects of this recent modality of treatment.  (+info)

Prevalence of mitochondrial gene mutations among hearing impaired patients. (4/432)

The frequency of three mitochondrial point mutations, 1555A-->G, 3243A-->G, and 7445A-->G, known to be associated with hearing impairment, was examined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in two Japanese groups: (1) 319 unrelated SNHL outpatients (including 21 with aminoglycoside antibiotic injection history), and (2) 140 cochlear implantation patients (including 22 with aminoglycoside induced hearing loss). Approximately 3% of the outpatients and 10% of the cochlear implantation patients had the 1555A-->G mutation. The frequency was higher in the patients with a history of aminoglycoside injection (outpatient group 33%, cochlear implantation group 59%). One outpatient (0.314%) had the 3243A-->G mutation, but no outpatients had the 7445A-->G mutation and neither were found in the cochlear implantation group. The significance of the 1555A-->G mutation, the most prevalent mitochondrial mutation found in this study of a hearing impaired population in Japan, among subjects with specific backgrounds, such as aminoglycoside induced hearing loss, is evident.  (+info)

Functional plasticity of language-related brain areas after cochlear implantation. (5/432)

Using PET, the cerebral network engaged by heard language processing in normal hearing subjects was compared with that in patients who received a cochlear implant after a period of profound deafness. The experimental conditions were words, syllables and environmental sounds, each controlled by a noise baseline. Four categories of effect were observed: (i) regions that were recruited by patients and controls under identical task conditions: the left and right superior temporal cortices and the left insula were activated in both groups in all conditions; (ii) new regions, which were recruited by patients only: the left dorsal occipital cortex showed systematic activation in all conditions versus noise baselines; (iii) regions that were recruited by both groups with a different functional specificity; e.g. Wernicke's area responded specifically to speech sounds in controls but was not specialized in patients; and (iv) regions that were activated in one group more than the other: the precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus (patients more than controls) and the left inferior frontal, left posterior inferior temporal and left and right temporoparietal junction regions (controls more than patients). These data provide evidence for altered functional specificity of the superior temporal cortex, flexible recruitment of brain regions located within and outside the classical language areas and automatic contribution of visual regions to sound recognition in implant patients.  (+info)

Use of audiovisual information in speech perception by prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants: a first report. (6/432)

OBJECTIVE: Although there has been a great deal of recent empirical work and new theoretical interest in audiovisual speech perception in both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired adults, relatively little is known about the development of these abilities and skills in deaf children with cochlear implants. This study examined how prelingually deafened children combine visual information available in the talker's face with auditory speech cues provided by their cochlear implants to enhance spoken language comprehension. DESIGN: Twenty-seven hearing-impaired children who use cochlear implants identified spoken sentences presented under auditory-alone and audiovisual conditions. Five additional measures of spoken word recognition performance were used to assess auditory-alone speech perception skills. A measure of speech intelligibility was also obtained to assess the speech production abilities of these children. RESULTS: A measure of audiovisual gain, "Ra," was computed using sentence recognition scores in auditory-alone and audiovisual conditions. Another measure of audiovisual gain, "Rv," was computed using scores in visual-alone and audiovisual conditions. The results indicated that children who were better at recognizing isolated spoken words through listening alone were also better at combining the complementary sensory information about speech articulation available under audiovisual stimulation. In addition, we found that children who received more benefit from audiovisual presentation also produced more intelligible speech, suggesting a close link between speech perception and production and a common underlying linguistic basis for audiovisual enhancement effects. Finally, an examination of the distribution of children enrolled in Oral Communication (OC) and Total Communication (TC) indicated that OC children tended to score higher on measures of audiovisual gain, spoken word recognition, and speech intelligibility. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships observed between auditory-alone speech perception, audiovisual benefit, and speech intelligibility indicate that these abilities are not based on independent language skills, but instead reflect a common source of linguistic knowledge, used in both perception and production, that is based on the dynamic, articulatory motions of the vocal tract. The effects of communication mode demonstrate the important contribution of early sensory experience to perceptual development, specifically, language acquisition and the use of phonological processing skills. Intervention and treatment programs that aim to increase receptive and productive spoken language skills, therefore, may wish to emphasize the inherent cross-correlations that exist between auditory and visual sources of information in speech perception.  (+info)

Cross-modal plasticity underpins language recovery after cochlear implantation. (7/432)

Postlingually deaf subjects learn the meaning of sounds after cochlear implantation by forming new associations between sounds and their sources. Implants generate coarse frequency responses, preventing place-coding fine enough to discriminate sounds with similar temporal characteristics, e.g., buck/duck. This limitation imposes a dependency on visual cues, e.g., lipreading. We hypothesized that cross-modal facilitation results from engagement of the visual cortex by purely auditory tasks. In four functional neuroimaging experiments, we show recruitment of early visual cortex (V1/V2) when cochlear implant users listen to sounds with eyes closed. Activity in visual cortex evolved in a stimulus-specific manner as a function of time from implantation reflecting experience-dependent adaptations in the postimplant phase.  (+info)

Some measures of verbal and spatial working memory in eight- and nine-year-old hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants. (8/432)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine working memory for sequences of auditory and visual stimuli in prelingually deafened pediatric cochlear implant users with at least 4 yr of device experience. DESIGN: Two groups of 8- and 9-yr-old children, 45 normal-hearing and 45 hearing-impaired users of cochlear implants, completed a novel working memory task requiring memory for sequences of either visual-spatial cues or visual-spatial cues paired with auditory signals. In each sequence, colored response buttons were illuminated either with or without simultaneous auditory presentation of verbal labels (color-names or digit-names). The child was required to reproduce each sequence by pressing the appropriate buttons on the response box. Sequence length was varied and a measure of memory span corresponding to the longest list length correctly reproduced under each set of presentation conditions was recorded. Additional children completed a modified task that eliminated the visual-spatial light cues but that still required reproduction of auditory color-name sequences using the same response box. Data from 37 pediatric cochlear implant users were collected using this modified task. RESULTS: The cochlear implant group obtained shorter span scores on average than the normal-hearing group, regardless of presentation format. The normal-hearing children also demonstrated a larger "redundancy gain" than children in the cochlear implant group-that is, the normal-hearing group displayed better memory for auditory-plus-lights sequences than for the lights-only sequences. Although the children with cochlear implants did not use the auditory signals as effectively as normal-hearing children when visual-spatial cues were also available, their performance on the modified memory task using only auditory cues showed that some of the children were capable of encoding auditory-only sequences at a level comparable with normal-hearing children. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of smaller redundancy gains from the addition of auditory cues to visual-spatial sequences in the cochlear implant group as compared with the normal-hearing group demonstrates differences in encoding or rehearsal strategies between these two groups of children. Differences in memory span between the two groups even on a visual-spatial memory task suggests that atypical working memory development irrespective of input modality may be present in this clinical population.  (+info)

Cochlear implantation is a surgical procedure in which a device called a cochlear implant is inserted into the inner ear (cochlea) of a person with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external component, which includes a microphone, processor, and transmitter, and an internal component, which includes a receiver and electrode array.

The microphone picks up sounds from the environment and sends them to the processor, which analyzes and converts the sounds into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to the receiver, which stimulates the electrode array in the cochlea. The electrodes directly stimulate the auditory nerve fibers, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the inner ear that are responsible for normal hearing.

The brain interprets these electrical signals as sound, allowing the person to perceive and understand speech and other sounds. Cochlear implantation is typically recommended for people who do not benefit from traditional hearing aids and can significantly improve communication, quality of life, and social integration for those with severe to profound hearing loss.

Cochlear implants are medical devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear to help restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. These devices bypass the damaged hair cells in the inner ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve, allowing the brain to interpret sound signals. Cochlear implants consist of two main components: an external processor that picks up and analyzes sounds from the environment, and an internal receiver/stimulator that receives the processed information and sends electrical impulses to the auditory nerve. The resulting patterns of electrical activity are then perceived as sound by the brain. Cochlear implants can significantly improve communication abilities, language development, and overall quality of life for individuals with profound hearing loss.

Deafness is a hearing loss that is so severe that it results in significant difficulty in understanding or comprehending speech, even when using hearing aids. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various causes such as disease, injury, infection, exposure to loud noises, or aging. Deafness can range from mild to profound and may affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). In some cases, deafness may be accompanied by tinnitus, which is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears.

Deaf individuals often use American Sign Language (ASL) or other forms of sign language to communicate. Some people with less severe hearing loss may benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive listening devices. Deafness can have significant social, educational, and vocational implications, and early intervention and appropriate support services are critical for optimal development and outcomes.

Bilateral hearing loss refers to a type of hearing loss that affects both ears equally or to varying degrees. It can be further categorized into two types: sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs due to damage to the inner ear or nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain, while conductive hearing loss happens when sound waves are not properly transmitted through the outer ear canal to the eardrum and middle ear bones. Bilateral hearing loss can result in difficulty understanding speech, localizing sounds, and may impact communication and quality of life. The diagnosis and management of bilateral hearing loss typically involve a comprehensive audiological evaluation and medical assessment to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment options.

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing impairment that occurs due to damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. It can be caused by various factors such as aging, exposure to loud noises, genetics, certain medical conditions (like diabetes and heart disease), and ototoxic medications.

SNHL affects the ability of the hair cells in the cochlea to convert sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. As a result, sounds may be perceived as muffled, faint, or distorted, making it difficult to understand speech, especially in noisy environments.

SNHL is typically permanent and cannot be corrected with medication or surgery, but hearing aids or cochlear implants can help improve communication and quality of life for those affected.

Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear sounds in one or both ears. It can occur due to damage to the structures of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, or nerve pathways that transmit sound to the brain. The degree of hearing loss can vary from mild (difficulty hearing soft sounds) to severe (inability to hear even loud sounds). Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent and may be caused by factors such as exposure to loud noises, genetics, aging, infections, trauma, or certain medical conditions. It is important to note that hearing loss can have significant impacts on a person's communication abilities, social interactions, and overall quality of life.

The round window ( membrana tympani rotunda) is a small, thin membrane-covered opening located in the inner ear between the middle ear and the cochlea. It serves as one of the two openings that lead into the cochlea, with the other being the oval window.

The round window's primary function is to help regulate and dampen the pressure changes within the cochlea that occur when sound waves reach the inner ear. This is accomplished through the movement of the fluid-filled spaces inside the cochlea (the scala vestibuli and scala tympani) caused by vibrations from the stapes bone, which connects to the oval window.

As the stapes bone moves in response to sound waves, it causes a corresponding motion in the perilymph fluid within the cochlea. This movement then creates pressure changes at the round window, causing it to bulge outward or move inward. The flexibility of the round window allows it to absorb and dissipate these pressure changes, which helps protect the delicate structures inside the inner ear from damage due to excessive pressure buildup.

It is important to note that any damage or dysfunction in the round window can negatively impact hearing ability and cause various hearing disorders.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

Pure-tone audiometry is a hearing test that measures a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. During the test, pure tones are presented to the patient through headphones or ear inserts, and the patient is asked to indicate each time they hear the sound by raising their hand, pressing a button, or responding verbally.

The softest sound that the person can hear at each frequency is recorded as the hearing threshold, and a graph called an audiogram is created to show the results. The audiogram provides information about the type and degree of hearing loss in each ear. Pure-tone audiometry is a standard hearing test used to diagnose and monitor hearing disorders.

A hearing test is a procedure used to evaluate a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is performed by a hearing healthcare professional in a sound-treated booth or room with calibrated audiometers. The test measures a person's hearing sensitivity at different frequencies and determines the quietest sounds they can hear, known as their hearing thresholds.

There are several types of hearing tests, including:

1. Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA): This is the most common type of hearing test, where the person is presented with pure tones at different frequencies and volumes through headphones or ear inserts. The person indicates when they hear the sound by pressing a button or raising their hand.
2. Speech Audiometry: This test measures a person's ability to understand speech at different volume levels. The person is asked to repeat words presented to them in quiet and in background noise.
3. Tympanometry: This test measures the function of the middle ear by creating variations in air pressure in the ear canal. It can help identify issues such as fluid buildup or a perforated eardrum.
4. Acoustic Reflex Testing: This test measures the body's natural response to loud sounds and can help identify the location of damage in the hearing system.
5. Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs): This test measures the sound that is produced by the inner ear when it is stimulated by a sound. It can help identify cochlear damage or abnormalities.

Hearing tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring hearing loss, as well as identifying any underlying medical conditions that may be causing the hearing problems.

The Scala Tympani is a part of the inner ear's bony labyrinth, specifically within the cochlea. It is one of the two channels (the other being the Scala Vestibuli) that make up the bony duct of the cochlea, through which sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear.

The Scala Tympani starts at the round window, which is a membrane-covered opening located on the cochlea's outer wall. It runs parallel to the Scala Vestibuli and connects with it at the helicotrema, a small opening at the apex or tip of the cochlea.

When sound waves reach the inner ear, they cause vibrations in the fluid-filled Scala Tympani and Scala Vestibuli, which stimulate hair cells within the organ of Corti, leading to the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical signals that are then transmitted to the brain via the auditory nerve.

It's important to note that any damage or dysfunction in the Scala Tympani or other parts of the inner ear can lead to hearing loss or other auditory disorders.

The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as the 8th cranial nerve, is responsible for transmitting sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in hearing loss, vertigo, and balance problems.

These diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infection, trauma, tumors, or degeneration. Some examples of vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include:

1. Vestibular neuritis: an inner ear infection that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and balance problems.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that affects both the vestibular and cochlear nerves, causing vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
3. Acoustic neuroma: a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, causing hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
4. Meniere's disease: a inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
5. Ototoxicity: damage to the inner ear caused by certain medications or chemicals that can result in hearing loss and balance problems.
6. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that is associated with vertigo, dizziness, and balance problems.

Treatment for vestibulocochlear nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Language development refers to the process by which children acquire the ability to understand and communicate through spoken, written, or signed language. This complex process involves various components including phonology (sound system), semantics (meaning of words and sentences), syntax (sentence structure), and pragmatics (social use of language). Language development begins in infancy with cooing and babbling and continues through early childhood and beyond, with most children developing basic conversational skills by the age of 4-5 years. However, language development can continue into adolescence and even adulthood as individuals learn new languages or acquire more advanced linguistic skills. Factors that can influence language development include genetics, environment, cognition, and social interactions.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

The correction of hearing impairment refers to the various methods and technologies used to improve or restore hearing function in individuals with hearing loss. This can include the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices. Additionally, speech therapy and auditory training may also be used to help individuals with hearing impairment better understand and communicate with others. In some cases, surgical procedures may also be performed to correct physical abnormalities in the ear or improve nerve function. The goal of correction of hearing impairment is to help individuals with hearing loss better interact with their environment and improve their overall quality of life.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "hearing impairment" is defined as "hearing loss greater than 40 decibels (dB) in the better ear in adults or greater than 30 dB in children." Therefore, "Persons with hearing impairments" refers to individuals who have a significant degree of hearing loss that affects their ability to communicate and perform daily activities.

Hearing impairment can range from mild to profound and can be categorized as sensorineural (inner ear or nerve damage), conductive (middle ear problems), or mixed (a combination of both). The severity and type of hearing impairment can impact the communication methods, assistive devices, or accommodations that a person may need.

It is important to note that "hearing impairment" and "deafness" are not interchangeable terms. While deafness typically refers to a profound degree of hearing loss that significantly impacts a person's ability to communicate using sound, hearing impairment can refer to any degree of hearing loss that affects a person's ability to hear and understand speech or other sounds.

Central hearing loss is a type of hearing disorder that occurs due to damage or dysfunction in the central auditory pathways of the brain, rather than in the ear itself. This condition can result from various causes, such as stroke, tumors, trauma, infection, or degenerative diseases affecting the brain.

In central hearing loss, the person may have difficulty understanding and processing speech, even when they can hear sounds at normal levels. They might experience problems with sound localization, discriminating between similar sounds, and comprehending complex auditory signals. This type of hearing loss is different from sensorineural or conductive hearing loss, which are related to issues in the outer, middle, or inner ear.

CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder that is associated with a variety of birth defects and medical issues. The name CHARGE is an acronym that stands for:

* Coloboma of the eye, which is a hole in the structure of the eye that is present at birth.
* Heart defects, which can range from mild to severe.
* Atresia of the choanae, which is the absence or closure of the nasal passages.
* Retardation of growth and/or development.
* Genital and/or urinary abnormalities.
* Ear abnormalities and deafness.

CHARGE syndrome is caused by mutations in the CHD7 gene, which is located on chromosome 8. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the development of the eyes, ears, and other parts of the body. Mutations in the CHD7 gene can lead to the characteristic features of CHARGE syndrome.

CHARGE syndrome is typically diagnosed based on the presence of certain physical characteristics and medical issues. A genetic test can be done to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific mutation that is causing the disorder.

Treatment for CHARGE syndrome depends on the severity of the symptoms and may include surgery, therapy, and other medical interventions. With appropriate care, many people with CHARGE syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives.

The cochlea is a part of the inner ear that is responsible for hearing. It is a spiral-shaped structure that looks like a snail shell and is filled with fluid. The cochlea contains hair cells, which are specialized sensory cells that convert sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain.

The cochlea has three main parts: the vestibular canal, the tympanic canal, and the cochlear duct. Sound waves enter the inner ear and cause the fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn causes the hair cells to bend. This bending motion stimulates the hair cells to generate electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve.

The brain then interprets these signals as sound, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other sounds in our environment. Damage to the hair cells or other structures in the cochlea can lead to hearing loss or deafness.

Unilateral hearing loss is a type of hearing impairment that affects only one ear. This condition can be either sensorineural or conductive in nature. Sensorineural hearing loss results from damage to the inner ear or nerve pathways leading to the brain, while conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are not properly transmitted through the outer or middle ear. Unilateral hearing loss can result in difficulty hearing and understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments, and can also impact communication and quality of life. The cause of unilateral hearing loss can vary and may include factors such as infection, trauma, genetics, or exposure to loud noise. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the hearing loss and may include hearing aids, cochlear implants, or surgical intervention.

The auditory threshold is the minimum sound intensity or loudness level that a person can detect 50% of the time, for a given tone frequency. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and represents the quietest sound that a person can hear. The auditory threshold can be affected by various factors such as age, exposure to noise, and certain medical conditions. Hearing tests, such as pure-tone audiometry, are used to measure an individual's auditory thresholds for different frequencies.

Audiometry, evoked response is a hearing test that measures the brain's response to sound. It is often used to detect hearing loss in infants and young children, as well as in people who are unable to cooperate or communicate during traditional hearing tests.

During the test, electrodes are placed on the scalp to measure the electrical activity produced by the brain in response to sounds presented through earphones. The responses are recorded and analyzed to determine the quietest sounds that can be heard at different frequencies. This information is used to help diagnose and manage hearing disorders.

There are several types of evoked response audiometry, including:

* Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR): measures the electrical activity from the brainstem in response to sound.
* Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR): measures the brain's response to continuous sounds at different frequencies and loudness levels.
* Auditory Middle Latency Response (AMLR): measures the electrical activity from the auditory cortex in response to sound.

These tests are usually performed in a quiet, sound-treated room and can take several hours to complete.

Audiometry is the testing of a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is typically conducted using an audiometer, a device that emits tones at varying volumes and frequencies. The person being tested wears headphones and indicates when they can hear the tone by pressing a button or raising their hand.

There are two main types of audiometry: pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry. Pure-tone audiometry measures a person's ability to hear different frequencies at varying volumes, while speech audiometry measures a person's ability to understand spoken words at different volumes and in the presence of background noise.

The results of an audiometry test are typically plotted on an audiogram, which shows the quietest sounds that a person can hear at different frequencies. This information can be used to diagnose hearing loss, determine its cause, and develop a treatment plan.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Implanted electrodes are medical devices that are surgically placed inside the body to interface directly with nerves, neurons, or other electrically excitable tissue for various therapeutic purposes. These electrodes can be used to stimulate or record electrical activity from specific areas of the body, depending on their design and application.

There are several types of implanted electrodes, including:

1. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes: These are placed deep within the brain to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. DBS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that modulate abnormal neural activity in targeted brain regions.
2. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) electrodes: These are implanted along the spinal cord to treat chronic pain syndromes. SCS electrodes emit low-level electrical pulses that interfere with pain signals traveling to the brain, providing relief for patients.
3. Cochlear Implant electrodes: These are surgically inserted into the cochlea of the inner ear to restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve directly, bypassing damaged hair cells within the cochlea.
4. Retinal Implant electrodes: These are implanted in the retina to treat certain forms of blindness caused by degenerative eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The electrodes convert visual information from a camera into electrical signals, which stimulate remaining retinal cells and transmit the information to the brain via the optic nerve.
5. Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) electrodes: These are placed near the sacral nerves in the lower back to treat urinary or fecal incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. SNS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that regulate the function of the affected muscles and nerves.
6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) electrodes: These are wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck to treat epilepsy and depression. VNS electrodes provide intermittent electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which has connections to various regions of the brain involved in these conditions.

Overall, implanted electrodes serve as a crucial component in many neuromodulation therapies, offering an effective treatment option for numerous neurological and sensory disorders.

The cochlear nerve, also known as the auditory nerve, is the sensory nerve that transmits sound signals from the inner ear to the brain. It consists of two parts: the outer spiral ganglion and the inner vestibular portion. The spiral ganglion contains the cell bodies of the bipolar neurons that receive input from hair cells in the cochlea, which is the snail-shaped organ in the inner ear responsible for hearing. These neurons then send their axons to form the cochlear nerve, which travels through the internal auditory meatus and synapses with neurons in the cochlear nuclei located in the brainstem.

Damage to the cochlear nerve can result in hearing loss or deafness, depending on the severity of the injury. Common causes of cochlear nerve damage include acoustic trauma, such as exposure to loud noises, viral infections, meningitis, and tumors affecting the nerve or surrounding structures. In some cases, cochlear nerve damage may be treated with hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices to help restore or improve hearing function.

Stapes surgery, also known as stapedectomy or stapedotomy, is a surgical procedure performed to correct hearing loss caused by otosclerosis. Otosclerosis is a condition in which the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and unable to vibrate properly, leading to conductive hearing loss.

During stapes surgery, the surgeon makes an incision behind the ear and creates a small opening in the eardrum. The fixed stapes bone is then removed or modified, and a prosthetic device is inserted in its place to allow sound vibrations to be transmitted to the inner ear. In some cases, a piece of tissue or artificial material may be used to fill the space left by the removed bone.

Stapedectomy involves complete removal of the stapes bone, while stapedotomy involves making a small hole in the stapes bone and inserting a prosthetic device through it. Both procedures are typically performed on an outpatient basis and have a high success rate in restoring hearing. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, permanent hearing loss, and balance problems.

Hearing aids are electronic devices designed to improve hearing and speech comprehension for individuals with hearing loss. They consist of a microphone, an amplifier, a speaker, and a battery. The microphone picks up sounds from the environment, the amplifier increases the volume of these sounds, and the speaker sends the amplified sound into the ear. Modern hearing aids often include additional features such as noise reduction, directional microphones, and wireless connectivity to smartphones or other devices. They are programmed to meet the specific needs of the user's hearing loss and can be adjusted for comfort and effectiveness. Hearing aids are available in various styles, including behind-the-ear (BTE), receiver-in-canal (RIC), in-the-ear (ITE), and completely-in-canal (CIC).

Hearing is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations in the air or other mediums and translating them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. In medical terms, hearing is defined as the sense of sound perception, which is mediated by the ear and interpreted by the brain. It involves a complex series of processes, including the conduction of sound waves through the outer ear to the eardrum, the vibration of the middle ear bones, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear, which stimulates hair cells to send electrical signals to the auditory nerve and ultimately to the brain. Hearing allows us to communicate with others, appreciate music and sounds, and detect danger or important events in our environment.

The medical definition of "Education of Hearing Disabled" refers to the specialized education and teaching methods used for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. This type of education is designed to help students with hearing loss develop language, communication, academic, and social skills in a way that meets their unique needs. It can include various approaches such as American Sign Language (ASL), oral/aural methods, cued speech, and cochlear implant rehabilitation. The goal of education for the hearing disabled is to provide students with equal access to learning opportunities and help them reach their full potential.

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain in response to sound stimuli. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and neural processing in individuals, particularly those who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests.

There are several types of AEP tests, including:

1. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) or Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the brainstem in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess the integrity of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory neuropathy and retrocochlear lesions.
2. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (MLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess higher-level auditory processing, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory processing disorders and central auditory dysfunction.
3. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a complex stimulus, such as speech. It is often used to assess language processing and cognitive function, and can help diagnose conditions such as learning disabilities and dementia.

Overall, AEP tests are valuable tools for assessing hearing and neural function in individuals who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests or who have complex neurological conditions.

Speech intelligibility is a term used in audiology and speech-language pathology to describe the ability of a listener to correctly understand spoken language. It is a measure of how well speech can be understood by others, and is often assessed through standardized tests that involve the presentation of recorded or live speech at varying levels of loudness and/or background noise.

Speech intelligibility can be affected by various factors, including hearing loss, cognitive impairment, developmental disorders, neurological conditions, and structural abnormalities of the speech production mechanism. Factors related to the speaker, such as speaking rate, clarity, and articulation, as well as factors related to the listener, such as attention, motivation, and familiarity with the speaker or accent, can also influence speech intelligibility.

Poor speech intelligibility can have significant impacts on communication, socialization, education, and employment opportunities, making it an important area of assessment and intervention in clinical practice.

The spiral ganglion is a structure located in the inner ear, specifically within the cochlea. It consists of nerve cell bodies that form the sensory component of the auditory nervous system. The spiral ganglion's neurons are bipolar and have peripheral processes that form synapses with hair cells in the organ of Corti, which is responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals.

The central processes of these neurons then coalesce to form the cochlear nerve, which transmits these electrical signals to the brainstem and ultimately to the auditory cortex for processing and interpretation as sound. Damage to the spiral ganglion or its associated neural structures can lead to hearing loss or deafness.

The terms "constitution" and "bylaws" refer to the governing documents of an organization, such as a medical association or society. The constitution typically outlines the organization's purpose, objectives, and basic policies, while the bylaws provide more detailed rules and regulations for the internal management and governance of the organization.

The constitution usually includes provisions related to the organization's name, membership, officers, meetings, and decision-making processes. It may also include statements regarding the organization's ethical principles and code of conduct.

The bylaws typically cover issues such as the duties and responsibilities of officers, the election and appointment of board members, the conduct of meetings, and the management of finances. They may also specify procedures for amending the constitution and bylaws, as well as any other rules or regulations that govern the organization's operations.

Together, the constitution and bylaws provide a framework for how the medical association or society is governed and operated, ensuring that its activities are conducted in an orderly and transparent manner.

Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic medication, which means it can help to promote sleep and reduce anxiety. It is a type of compound called a chloral derivative and works by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which has a calming effect on the nervous system.

Chloral hydrate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It is typically used for short-term treatment of insomnia or anxiety, but it may also be used for other purposes as determined by a healthcare provider.

Like all medications, chloral hydrate can have side effects, which can include dizziness, headache, stomach upset, and changes in behavior or mood. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or concerns promptly.

Vestibular diseases are a group of disorders that affect the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. The vestibular system includes the inner ear and parts of the brain that process sensory information related to movement and position.

These diseases can cause symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, imbalance, nausea, and visual disturbances. Examples of vestibular diseases include:

1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): a condition in which small crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and cause brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that can cause sudden onset of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Vestibular neuronitis: inflammation of the vestibular nerve that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and imbalance but typically spares hearing.
4. Meniere's disease: a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
5. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that includes vestibular symptoms such as dizziness, imbalance, and disorientation.
6. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: a condition in which there is a thinning or absence of bone over the superior semicircular canal in the inner ear, leading to vertigo, sound- or pressure-induced dizziness, and hearing loss.
7. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction: reduced function of both vestibular systems, causing chronic imbalance, unsteadiness, and visual disturbances.

Treatment for vestibular diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Otologic surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the ear or its related structures. These procedures are typically conducted by otologists, who are specialists trained in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the ears, balance system, and related nerves. The goal of otologic surgery can vary from repairing damaged bones in the middle ear to managing hearing loss, tumors, or chronic infections. Some common otologic surgical procedures include:

1. Stapedectomy/Stapedotomy: These are procedures used to treat otosclerosis, a condition where the stapes bone in the middle ear becomes fixed and causes conductive hearing loss. The surgeon creates an opening in the stapes footplate (stapedotomy) or removes the entire stapes bone (stapedectomy) and replaces it with a prosthetic device to improve sound conduction.
2. Myringoplasty/Tympanoplasty: These are surgeries aimed at repairing damaged eardrums (tympanic membrane). A myringoplasty involves grafting a piece of tissue over the perforation in the eardrum, while a tympanoplasty includes both eardrum repair and reconstruction of the middle ear bones if necessary.
3. Mastoidectomy: This procedure involves removing the mastoid air cells, which are located in the bony prominence behind the ear. A mastoidectomy is often performed to treat chronic mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, or complications from middle ear infections.
4. Ossiculoplasty: This procedure aims to reconstruct and improve the function of the ossicles (middle ear bones) when they are damaged due to various reasons such as infection, trauma, or congenital conditions. The surgeon uses prosthetic devices made from plastic, metal, or even bone to replace or support the damaged ossicles.
5. Cochlear implantation: This is a surgical procedure that involves placing an electronic device inside the inner ear to help individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external processor and internal components that directly stimulate the auditory nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the cochlea.
6. Labyrinthectomy: This procedure involves removing the balance-sensing structures (vestibular system) inside the inner ear to treat severe vertigo or dizziness caused by conditions like Meniere's disease when other treatments have failed.
7. Acoustic neuroma removal: An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain. Surgical removal of the tumor is necessary to prevent hearing loss, balance problems, and potential neurological complications.

These are just a few examples of the various surgical procedures performed by otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) to treat conditions affecting the ear and surrounding structures. Each procedure has its specific indications, benefits, risks, and postoperative care requirements. Patients should consult with their healthcare providers to discuss the most appropriate treatment options for their individual needs.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Sudden hearing loss, also known as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL), is a type of hearing impairment that occurs suddenly or over a period of up to 3 days. It is typically defined as a hearing reduction of at least 30 decibels in three connected frequencies. The cause of SSHL is often unknown, but it can be associated with viral infections, trauma, neurological disorders, and exposure to certain ototoxic medications. In some cases, the hearing loss may resolve on its own, but prompt medical evaluation and treatment are recommended to improve the chances of recovery. Treatment options include corticosteroids, antiviral medication, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

A language test is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of speech-language pathology, which is a medical discipline. A language test, in this context, refers to an assessment tool used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate an individual's language abilities. These tests typically measure various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Language tests can be standardized or non-standardized and may be administered individually or in a group setting. The results of these tests help speech-language pathologists diagnose language disorders, develop treatment plans, and monitor progress over time. It is important to note that language testing should be conducted by a qualified professional who has experience in administering and interpreting language assessments.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Otosclerosis is a medical condition that affects the bones in the middle ear. It is characterized by the abnormal growth and hardening (sclerosis) of the otosclerotic bone near the stapes footplate, one of the tiny bones in the middle ear (ossicles). This abnormal bone growth can cause stiffness or fixation of the stapes bone, preventing it from vibrating properly and leading to conductive hearing loss. In some cases, otosclerosis may also result in sensorineural hearing loss due to involvement of the inner ear structures. The exact cause of otosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to have a genetic component and can sometimes be associated with pregnancy. Treatment options for otosclerosis include hearing aids or surgical procedures like stapedectomy or stapedotomy to bypass or remove the affected bone and improve hearing.

Child language refers to the development of linguistic abilities in children, including both receptive and expressive communication. This includes the acquisition of various components of language such as phonology (sound system), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social use of language).

Child language development typically follows a predictable sequence, beginning with cooing and babbling in infancy, followed by the use of single words and simple phrases in early childhood. Over time, children acquire more complex linguistic structures and expand their vocabulary to communicate more effectively. However, individual differences in the rate and pace of language development are common.

Clinical professionals such as speech-language pathologists may assess and diagnose children with language disorders or delays in order to provide appropriate interventions and support for typical language development.

Speech discrimination tests are a type of audiological assessment used to measure a person's ability to understand and identify spoken words, typically presented in quiet and/or noisy backgrounds. These tests are used to evaluate the function of the peripheral and central auditory system, as well as speech perception abilities.

During the test, the individual is presented with lists of words or sentences at varying intensity levels and/or signal-to-noise ratios. The person's task is to repeat or identify the words or phrases they hear. The results of the test are used to determine the individual's speech recognition threshold (SRT), which is the softest level at which the person can correctly identify spoken words.

Speech discrimination tests can help diagnose hearing loss, central auditory processing disorders, and other communication difficulties. They can also be used to monitor changes in hearing ability over time, assess the effectiveness of hearing aids or other interventions, and develop communication strategies for individuals with hearing impairments.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

The auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing and analyzing sounds, including speech. It is located in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex, specifically within the Heschl's gyrus and the surrounding areas. The auditory cortex receives input from the auditory nerve, which carries sound information from the inner ear to the brain.

The auditory cortex is divided into several subregions that are responsible for different aspects of sound processing, such as pitch, volume, and location. These regions work together to help us recognize and interpret sounds in our environment, allowing us to communicate with others and respond appropriately to our surroundings. Damage to the auditory cortex can result in hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.

Sound localization is the ability of the auditory system to identify the location or origin of a sound source in the environment. It is a crucial aspect of hearing and enables us to navigate and interact with our surroundings effectively. The process involves several cues, including time differences in the arrival of sound to each ear (interaural time difference), differences in sound level at each ear (interaural level difference), and spectral information derived from the filtering effects of the head and external ears on incoming sounds. These cues are analyzed by the brain to determine the direction and distance of the sound source, allowing for accurate localization.

Delayed embryo implantation is a medical condition that occurs when the fertilized egg (embryo) does not attach to the uterine lining (endometrium) within the expected time frame, typically within 7-10 days after ovulation. In delayed implantation, the embryo may take longer than usual to implant, which can result in a prolonged menstrual cycle or irregular bleeding.

There are several possible reasons for delayed implantation, including hormonal imbalances, uterine abnormalities, immune system dysfunction, and chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo. In some cases, delayed implantation may be a sign of infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss.

Diagnosis of delayed implantation typically involves monitoring hormone levels and tracking menstrual cycles. Imaging tests such as ultrasound or hysteroscopy may also be used to assess the uterine lining and detect any abnormalities that could be contributing to the delay in implantation.

Treatment for delayed implantation depends on the underlying cause. Hormonal therapies, medications to suppress the immune system, or surgery to correct uterine abnormalities may be recommended in some cases. In vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo transfer may also be considered as a treatment option for couples experiencing delayed implantation and infertility.

Tinnitus is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present. It can be described as a sensation of hearing sound even when no actual noise is present. The sounds perceived can vary widely, from a whistling, buzzing, hissing, swooshing, to a pulsating sound, and can be soft or loud.

Tinnitus is not a disease itself but a symptom that can result from a wide range of underlying causes, such as hearing loss, exposure to loud noises, ear infections, earwax blockage, head or neck injuries, circulatory system disorders, certain medications, and age-related hearing loss.

Tinnitus can be temporary or chronic, and it may affect one or both ears. While tinnitus is not usually a sign of a serious medical condition, it can significantly impact quality of life and interfere with daily activities, sleep, and concentration.

Pneumococcal meningitis is a specific type of bacterial meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium is commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and middle ear fluid of healthy individuals. However, under certain circumstances, it can invade the bloodstream and reach the meninges, leading to meningitis.

Pneumococcal meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms may include sudden onset of fever, severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and sensitivity to light (photophobia). In some cases, it can also lead to complications such as hearing loss, brain damage, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against pneumococcus, such as ceftriaxone or vancomycin. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation and prevent complications. Prevention measures include vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which can help protect against pneumococcal infections, including meningitis.

Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs or BAEPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the auditory pathway of the brain in response to sound stimulation. The test involves placing electrodes on the scalp and recording the tiny electrical signals generated by the nerve cells in the brainstem as they respond to clicks or tone bursts presented through earphones.

The resulting waveform is analyzed for latency (the time it takes for the signal to travel from the ear to the brain) and amplitude (the strength of the signal). Abnormalities in the waveform can indicate damage to the auditory nerve or brainstem, and are often used in the diagnosis of various neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, acoustic neuroma, and brainstem tumors.

The test is non-invasive, painless, and takes only a few minutes to perform. It provides valuable information about the functioning of the auditory pathway and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with hearing or balance disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vocabulary" is a term related to language and communication, rather than medicine or healthcare. It refers to the words and phrases that a person knows and uses in their communication. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Auditory perception refers to the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the sounds we hear. It involves the recognition and interpretation of different frequencies, intensities, and patterns of sound waves that reach our ears through the process of hearing. This allows us to identify and distinguish various sounds such as speech, music, and environmental noises.

The auditory system includes the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the auditory nerve, which transmits electrical signals to the brain's auditory cortex for processing and interpretation. Auditory perception is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain working together to identify and make sense of sounds in our environment.

Disorders or impairments in auditory perception can result in difficulties with hearing, understanding speech, and identifying environmental sounds, which can significantly impact communication, learning, and daily functioning.

Auditory hair cells are specialized sensory receptor cells located in the inner ear, more specifically in the organ of Corti within the cochlea. They play a crucial role in hearing by converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain.

These hair cells have hair-like projections called stereocilia on their apical surface, which are embedded in a gelatinous matrix. When sound waves reach the inner ear, they cause the fluid within the cochlea to move, which in turn causes the stereocilia to bend. This bending motion opens ion channels at the tips of the stereocilia, allowing positively charged ions (such as potassium) to flow into the hair cells and trigger a receptor potential.

The receptor potential then leads to the release of neurotransmitters at the base of the hair cells, which activate afferent nerve fibers that synapse with these cells. The electrical signals generated by this process are transmitted to the brain via the auditory nerve, where they are interpreted as sound.

There are two types of auditory hair cells: inner hair cells and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are the primary sensory receptors responsible for transmitting information about sound to the brain. They make direct contact with afferent nerve fibers and are more sensitive to mechanical stimulation than outer hair cells.

Outer hair cells, on the other hand, are involved in amplifying and fine-tuning the mechanical response of the inner ear to sound. They have a unique ability to contract and relax in response to electrical signals, which allows them to adjust the stiffness of their stereocilia and enhance the sensitivity of the cochlea to different frequencies.

Damage or loss of auditory hair cells can lead to hearing impairment or deafness, as these cells cannot regenerate spontaneously in mammals. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of hair cells is essential for developing therapies aimed at treating hearing disorders.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The inner ear is the innermost part of the ear that contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. It consists of a complex system of fluid-filled tubes and sacs called the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation, and the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ that converts sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain.

The inner ear is located deep within the temporal bone of the skull and is protected by a bony labyrinth. The vestibular system includes the semicircular canals, which detect rotational movements of the head, and the otolith organs (the saccule and utricle), which detect linear acceleration and gravity.

Damage to the inner ear can result in hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (a spinning sensation), and balance problems.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

Electric impedance is a measure of opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit or component, caused by both resistance (ohmic) and reactance (capacitive and inductive). It is expressed as a complex number, with the real part representing resistance and the imaginary part representing reactance. The unit of electric impedance is the ohm (Ω).

In the context of medical devices, electric impedance may be used to measure various physiological parameters, such as tissue conductivity or fluid composition. For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses electrical impedance to estimate body composition, including fat mass and lean muscle mass. Similarly, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique that uses electric impedance to create images of internal organs and tissues.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

The first successful robot-assisted cochlear implantation in a person took place in Bern, Switzerland in 2017. Surgical robots ... "Robotic Cochlear Implantation". ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2021 ... Song J (15 March 2017). "Patient is First to Undergo Robot-Assisted Cochlear Implantation". American Association for the ... Panara K, Shahal D, Mittal R, Eshraghi AA (August 2021). "Robotics for Cochlear Implantation Surgery: Challenges and ...
Kral A, Sharma A (February 2012). "Developmental neuroplasticity after cochlear implantation". Trends in Neurosciences. 35 (2 ... First reports on critical periods came from deaf children and animals that received a cochlear implant to restore hearing. ... "A sensitive period for the development of the central auditory system in children with cochlear implants: implications for age ... of implantation". Ear Hear. 23 (6): 532-29. doi:10.1097/00003446-200212000-00004. PMID 12476090. S2CID 14004538. Kral A, ...
Consequently, in prelingually deaf children, early cochlear implantation, as a rule, allows the children to learn the mother ... Kral A, Sharma A (February 2012). "Developmental neuroplasticity after cochlear implantation". Trends in Neurosciences. 35 (2 ... and implantation of a sensory prostheses activating the auditory system has prevented the deficits and induced functional ...
Nogueira, C.; Meehan, T. & O'Donoghue, G. (2014). "Refsum's Disease and Cochlear Implantation". Annals of Otology, Rhinology, ...
"Inception of Cochlear implantation in AIIMS". AIIMS. Retrieved 11 July 2011. "Dr Ramesh C Deka : An outstanding alumnus". ... is one of the pioneers of cochlear implant surgery in India and performed the country's first bilateral cochlear implantation ... He has helped many other centres in India develop the facilities for cochlear implant surgery and rehabilitation of deaf people ... Deka worked in the Cochlear Implant Facility at the ENT department AIIMS, developing rehabilitation activities for patient care ...
Lee, J.; Eddington, D.K.; Nadol, J.B. (2011). "The Histopathology of Revision Cochlear Implantation". Audiology and Neurotology ...
King, J. Freeman (2005). "The Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children". Deaf Studies Today: A Kaleidoscope of Knowledge, ... Therefore, the cochlear implant is not able to give all deaf people hearing and speech. During the mid to late 20th century, a ... The cochlear implant has a microphone, connecting cables, a speech processor, and a battery. The processor converts sounds into ... "Innovations for the Hearing Impaired". Cochlear Implant- Bionic Ear. About.com. Retrieved 2011-11-05. ...
He performed the first operation of cochlear implantation in Poland and Central Europe in 1992, restoring hearing ability to a ... Skarzynski calls this procedure "partial deafness cochlear implantation". He later performed the same procedure on a child in ... Partial deafness cochlear implantation in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 71(9):1407-13 (2007 ... Partial deafness cochlear implantation in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 71(9):1407-13 (2007 ...
Therefore, cochlear implantation was not performed. Published in 1994, this patient was monitored over the course of almost 20 ... Cochlear or auditory brainstem implantation could also be treatment options. Electrical stimulation of the peripheral auditory ... A case published in 2001 describes the patient as 20-year-old man referred for cochlear implants because of bilateral deafness ... cochlear nucleus, superior olive, and inferior colliculus of the brainstem. They typically have a response latency of no more ...
"Cochlear implantation, a boon for the deaf". BioSpectrum. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2020. "JJ performs its 1st ... She is the first woman surgeon in the world to pioneer the Cochlear implant surgery in India and Asia in 1987. Dr. Souza was ... cochlear implant". The Times of India. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2020. "Dr. Sandra Desa Souza". Jaslok Hospital. ...
Thomas, Balkany; Hodges, Annelle V.; Goodman, Kenneth W. (1996). "Ethics of Cochlear Implantation in Young Children". ... for example through pediatric cochlear implantation. Audiological ideologies have shaped curriculum within deaf Education. ... For several decades, cochlear implants have caused disputes within the deaf community regarding the concept of the deaf ... Some deaf activists assert that cochlear implants are a tool of cultural genocide. As many as 95% of deaf children in the US ...
Skarzynski H, Lorens A, Piotrowska A, Anderson I (2006). Partial deafness cochlear implantation provides benefit to a new ... The residual hearing preservation rate in cochlear implantation is influenced surgical factors. The residual median hearing ... Factors affecting residual hearing preservation in cochlear implantation. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital., 35(6), pp.433-441. " ... "Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes". International Journal of Otolaryngology. 2013: 107186. doi ...
Russell JL, Pine HS, Young DL (August 2013). "Pediatric cochlear implantation: expanding applications and outcomes". Pediatric ... "Comparison of the benefits of cochlear implantation versus contra-lateral routing of signal hearing aids in adult patients with ... the cochlear nerve and also within the brainstem. This test can be used to identify delay in the conduction of neural impulses ...
Campbell, R; MacSweeney, M; Woll, B (2014). "Cochlear implantation (CI) for prelingual deafness: the relevance of studies of ... "Early Sign Language Exposure and Cochlear Implantation Benefits". Pediatrics. 140 (1). doi:10.1542/peds.2016-3489. PMC 5495521 ... While most deaf infants who receive cochlear implants and auditory therapy early in life will achieve spoken language skills on ... those with cochlear implants exposed only to spoken language can still show a lack of spoken language ability when compared to ...
"Early Sign Language Exposure and Cochlear Implantation Benefits". Hill, Joseph (2019). Sign Languages: Structures and Contexts ... "American Cochlear Implant Alliance - Supporting Parent Choice for Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing". "Language ... Following an open letter addressed to the American Cochlear Implant Alliance published in February 2019 by the LEAD-K ... and the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACIA). Nyle Dimarco is an American actor, model, dancer, and Deaf community ...
Unfortunately, this may in some cases (late implantation or not sufficient benefit from cochlear implants) bring the risk of ... "Spoken language development in children following cochlear implantation". JAMA. 303 (15): 1498-506. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.451. ... "Sound and Fury - Cochlear Implants - Essay". www.pbs.org. PBS. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-01 ... Hearing loss related to age usually affects both ears and is due to cochlear hair cell loss. In some people, particularly older ...
CDaCI Investigative Team) (2017). "Early sign language exposure and cochlear implantation benefits". Pediatrics. 140 (1): ... First, the FM radio waves can be directly set up with the child's hearing aid or cochlear implant, so the sound is amplified ... Supporters believe that, due to the widely recognized variability in cochlear implant and hearing aid outcomes, sign language ... Cochlear implants), speech-to-text closed captioning, and note-taking services. Students are taught in a self-contained ...
"What is a Cochlear Implant". Archived from the original on 2017-11-21. Sorkin DL (Mar 2013). "Cochlear implantation in the ... Media related to Cochlear implants at Wikimedia Commons Cochlear Implants at Curlie Cochlear Implants information from the ... the cost of cochlear implantation and aftercare is covered by health insurance. In the USA, as cochlear implants have become ... Cochlear Implantation (50.3)". Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Retrieved 2021-11-22. "Cochlear Implants". NIDCD. 24 ...
Niparko Tobey Thal (2010). Spoken language development in children following cochlear implantation. JAMA. pp. 1498-1506. ... Pediatric cochlear implants have become easier in Poland since the 1990s by having modifications of the healthcare system. ... The disappearance of PMJ, cochlear implants and deaf people raises concern for the DHH community. Poland has made many ...
Geers, Anne (July 2017). "Early Sign Language Exposure and Cochlear Implantation Benefits". Pediatrics. 140 (1): e20163489. doi ... Percy-Smith, Lone (December 2008). "Factors that affect the social well-being of children with cochlear implants". Cochlear ... One study compared the English development of deaf children with a cochlear implant versus what the English development might ... With advancements in technology such as cochlear implants and hearing aids, the landscape of deaf education has evolved. While ...
Hathaway B, Hirsch B, Branstetter B (2006). "Successful cochlear implantation in a patient with superficial siderosis". ... Most people do not notice a large improvement after successful implantation, which is most likely due to damage to the ... Alleviation of the most common symptom, hearing loss, has been varyingly successful through the use of cochlear implants. ... Sydlowski SA, Cevette MJ, Shallop J, Barrs DM (June 2009). "Cochlear implant patients with superficial siderosis". Journal of ...
"Cross-modal plasticity underpins language recovery after cochlear implantation". Neuron. 30 (3): 657-63. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273 ... Another way to see cross modal plasticity in the deaf is when looking at the effects of installing cochlear implants. For those ... so they perform better with cochlear implants. It was also found that the visual cortex was activated only when the sounds that ... "Cross-modal reorganization and speech perception in cochlear implant users". Brain. 129 (12): 3376-83. doi:10.1093/brain/awl264 ...
In contrast to cochlear implants, ABI implantation is relatively rare. By 2010, there were only 500 patients worldwide who had ... performed an ABI implantation using a 12-electrode array implant with an audio processor based on the MED-EL C40+ cochlear ... ABI implantation requires a craniotomy and is therefore much more complex than CI surgery. It is normally performed by both a ... With a cochlear implant, the electrodes positioned in the basal end of the cochlea elicit a higher pitch sensation than those ...
"Educational Status in Bilateral Prelingual Deaf Children with Cochlear Implantation". Journal of Audiology and Otology. 23 (3 ... In 2014, the percentage of students with cochlear implants who attended tertiary education was higher than that of the general ... Additionally, 397 of the participants received a cochlear implant surgery. Special education in general was first implemented ... financial support for cochlear implant surgeries, and "medical cost support for premature babies and congenital abnormalities ...
Gaylor JM, Raman G, Chung M, Lee J, Rao M, Lau J, Poe DS (March 2013). "Cochlear implantation in adults: a systematic review ... NAD Cochlear Implant Committee. "NAD Position Statement on Cochlear Implants (2000)". Cochlear Implants %7c National ... Cochlear implants improve outcomes in people with hearing loss in either one or both ears. They work by artificial stimulation ... Cochlear implants as well as bone conduction implants can help with single sided deafness. Middle ear implants or bone ...
Gaylor JM, Raman G, Chung M, Lee J, Rao M, Lau J, Poe DS (March 2013). "Cochlear implantation in adults: a systematic review ... Auditory brainstem implant, which provides a sense of sound to a person who cannot use a cochlear implant due to a damaged or ... In parallel to the development of neuromodulation systems to address motor impairment, cochlear implants were the first ... The approach to electrical stimulation used in cochlear implants was soon modified by one manufacturer, Boston Scientific ...
... "inequalities hinder access to and utilization of hearing related resources in among Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (PCI)". ... "Sociodemographic disparities in pediatric cochlear implantation outcomes: A systematic review". American Journal of ... As part of a campaign initiated in 2019, hearing technologies such as cochlear implants would be offered to children who needed ... These referrals range anywhere from receiving hearing technologies such as cochlear implants or hearing aids to further medical ...
Anatomical Characteristics and their Relevance for Cochlear Implantation". The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative ... The basilar membrane separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani, a cavity within the cochlear labyrinth. The lateral ... The hair cells develop from the lateral and medial ridges of the cochlear duct, which together with the tectorial membrane make ... Beginning in the fifth week of development, the auditory vesicle also gives rise to the cochlear duct, which contains the ...
Jane Smith (2020). "Cued Speech and Cochlear Implantation: A view from two decades" (PDF). Heracleous, P. Beautemps, D. & ... "cochlear implants and Cued Speech are perfect partners". Since cued speech is based on making sounds visible to the hearing ...
"Factors Influencing Spoken Language Outcomes in Children following Early Cochlear Implantation". Cochlear and Brainstem ... Technology such as cochlear implants, hearing aids, and bone-anchored hearing aids can potentially help provide access to ... For example, if in the future the person undergoes surgery to receive a cochlear implant, their language exposure from birth ... Bi-Bi supporters argue because of the variability in cochlear implant and hearing aid outcomes, sign language access is crucial ...
1. Effective for services performed on or after April 4, 2005, cochlear implantation may be covered for treatment of bilateral ... Freedom from middle ear infection, an accessible cochlear lumen that is structurally suited to implantation, and freedom from ... 2. Effective for services performed on or after April 4, 2005, cochlear implantation may be covered for individuals meeting the ... Medicare beneficiaries not meeting all of the coverage criteria for cochlear implantation listed are deemed not eligible for ...
Treatments offered by Arkansas Childrens provides care for pediatric ear-related problems may include a cochlear implant. ... A small wire is inserted directly into the cochlea through the mastoid for the cochlear implantation procedure. This is ...
... aims to bring together studies addressing recent discoveries in the benefits and challenges of Cochlear Implantation. We ... implantation age, duration of use (among others) and, whereas recent studies have largely focused on the effects of CIs on ... Cochlear implants (CI), hearing prostheses that bypass defective sensory hair cells in the cochlea have been shown to improve ... New Discoveries in the Benefits and Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation New Discoveries in the Benefits and Outcomes of Cochlear ...
Cochlear Implantation in Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder : Ear and Hearing. ... Cochlear Implantation in Children with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder. Teagle, Holly F.B.; Roush, Patricia A.; Woodard, ... those who are appropriate candidates for cochlear implantation, and those who, because of bilateral CND, may not be appropriate ... No child with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) in their implanted ear achieved open-set speech perception abilities. In a ...
i,Conclusion,/i,. We report the third case of cochlear implantation in a patient with CMT. SNHL in CMT is hypothesized to ... Left-sided cochlear implantation was performed using a conventional length lateral wall electrode. Intraoperative device ... Our results corroborate two earlier reports that cochlear implantation is a viable option for rehabilitation of SNHL in this ... In patients with CMT, cochlear implantation may reconstitute synchronous neural activity by way of supraphysiological ...
Conclusion: Cochlear implantation in limited resource settings is possible and cost effective if there is enough support from ... Cochlear implantation is considered a rehabilitative measure of choice that positively impacts on the quality of life of ... Cochlear implantation and outcomes in a resource-limited setting: experience from Tanzania ... Introduction: Cochlear Implant is a small medical electronic device that is surgically inserted partially in the cochlear ( ...
Are you aware of all the steps involved in getting a cochlear implant? We will walk you through everything step by step! Enter ... 1. The cochlear implantation centre. If the ENT specialist considers you a suitable candidate for cochlear implantation, you ... The surgeon makes an insertion behind the ear in order to place the cochlear implant under the skin. Next, the implant receiver ... Only your doctor and audiologist can determine whether you are a good candidate for a cochlear implant or a bone anchored ...
Otopathology of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Patients With Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture. Otol Neurotol. 2019 01; 40( ... Otopathology of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Patients With Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture. ... Otopathology of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Patients With Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture. ...
title = "Cochlear implantation",. abstract = "Cochlear implants are the single greatest advancement of the late 20th century ... Cochlear implantation. / Young, Nancy; Nguyen, Tam; Wiet, Richard. In: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck ... Cochlear implantation. In: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2003 ; Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 263-267. ... Young N, Nguyen T, Wiet R. Cochlear implantation. Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2003 Dec;14(4 ...
Kitterick, Pádraig T. and Lucas, Laura (2016) Predicting speech perception outcomes following cochlear implantation in adults ... Preliminary evidence from early-phase studies in adults suggests that cochlear implantation may be effective in reversing some ... Predicting speech perception outcomes following cochlear implantation in adults with unilateral deafness or highly asymmetric ... Unilateral deafness, Single-sided deafness, Asymmetric hearing loss, Cochlear implantation, Binaural hearing, Speech perception ...
Bio Line Troost (23 years old) has been wearing a Cochlear Implant since the age of 1, due to meningitis at the age of 7 months ...
The pre-implantation VEMP test showed significantly higher abnormal rates between first- and second-side CI-implanted children ... In second-side CI-implanted children, PVSQ scores significantly increased at day 3 post-implantation but decreased at day 30 ... Whether age at CI and CI approach (unilateral or sequential bilateral) affect vestibular functions in users with cochlear ... minimize damage to the intra-cochlear structures. The caloric test, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test, video ...
Note: The children will be selected by Regional and State level technical committees for cochlear implantation. ... This scheme envisioned providing free cochlear implantation surgery for children in the age group of 0-5 years, who are hearing ... This scheme envisioned providing free cochlear implantation surgery for children in the age group of 0-5 years, who are hearing ... This scheme envisioned providing free cochlear implantation surgery for children in the age group of 0-5 years, who are hearing ...
HEARO is the worlds first robotic surgical system for high precision and minimally invasive cochlear implantation ... Individualized Cochlear Implantation. Aligning the trajectory angle to the natural anatomy of the cochlea can help to ... Cochlear implantation is one of the most complex microsurgical procedures. The HEARO robotic system enables the surgeon to ... How robotic cochlear implantation leads the way into a new area of otology. ...
In the several decades long debate between the members of the deaf community and scientists who support cochlear implantation, ... In the several decades long debate between the members of the deaf community and scientists who support cochlear implantation, ... In the several decades long debate between the members of the deaf community and scientists who support cochlear implantation, ... Radić-Šestić M, Ostojić S, Đoković S. Attitude of deaf culture toward cochlear implantation. in Specijalna edukacija i ...
Background: Although cochlear implantation has been almost a standard otological procedure worldwide, it may still create a ... Case Report: Three extraordinary cases of cochlear implantation were reported. The first case was a case of Seckel syndrome ... The last case had cochlear implantation in the ear with congenital aural atresia. All cases could be implanted successfully ... The second case had posterior fossa arachnoid cyst that had retrosigmoid cyst removal and cochlear implantation simultaneously ...
In case they are on the list, they can go to the manager of the relevant cochlear implant center and receive the financial ... Families which have undergone cochlear implant surgery in the past years and now have financial problems providing parts or ... in order to obtain a spare part but his/her name is not on the list of the companies and cochlear implant centers, they can ... "Cochlear Implant Centers" or "Khayerin Salamat Assembly" of the companies which provide parts (a percentage of the relevant ...
Cochlear Implantation Candidacy as Part of the Hearing Health Care Continuum - Sweeney, Victoria, Dillon, Margaret T., Park, ... Dont Defer, Please Refer! Cochlear Implantation Candidacy as Part of the Hearing Health Care Continuum. ...
European Symposium on Paediatric Cochlear Implantation: ESPCI 2021. ESPCI 2021 was planned for Budapest in October several ... So, we invite you to the 15th European Symposium on Paediatric Cochlear Implantation (ESPCI 2021), to be held online (Budapest ... 2023 Cochlear Implant International Community of Action (CIICA) Association Internationale Sans But Lucratif (AISBL) BE0798.221 ...
... upgrade and repair routed through empaneled hospitals.cochlear implantation. news impact. ear surgery. hearing problem. Veena ... Kannur: Health Minister Veena George said here that the cochlear implantation surgeries had started in the hospitals empanelled ... The applications for the repair of the cochlear device and the upgrade of the processor would also be taken up soon, the ...
Contrary to unilateral cochlear implantation, however, little is known about the effect of bilateral cochlear implantation on ... Contrary to unilateral cochlear implantation, however, little is known about the effect of bilateral cochlear implantation on ... Contrary to unilateral cochlear implantation, however, little is known about the effect of bilateral cochlear implantation on ... Contrary to unilateral cochlear implantation, however, little is known about the effect of bilateral cochlear implantation on ...
BPCL Supports Cochlear Implantation for 30 Underprivileged Children in Maharashtra - Read full news now on India Frontline ... Cochlear Implantation. The effort is part of BPCLs thrust area of Health & Sanitation, and the surgeries are held in Nashik ... Cochlear implantation is a life-changing technique that improves hearing for people who have inner-ear impairment and cannot ... Home » CSR in India » BPCL Supports Cochlear Implantation for 30 Underprivileged Children in Maharashtra ...
... ... "Hearing-in-noise benefits after bilateral simultaneous cochlear implantation continue to improve 4 years after implantation." ... "Hearing-in-noise benefits after bilateral simultaneous cochlear implantation continue to improve 4 years after implantation." ... Hearing-in-noise benefits after bilateral simultaneous cochlear implantation continue to improve 4 years after implantation. ...
Surgical planning for cochlear implantation. Cochlear implantation involves the insertion of a thin electrode array inside the ... Computational simulation of cochlear implants. Our automatic framework is able to generate patient-specific models for ... In particular, we can simulate the activation of the cochlear implant in different configurations and using specific activation ... Simulation of electrical stimulation protocols for cochlear implants (Ceresa et al., Molecular Neurobiology 2015) ...
Expanding access to Cochlear Implantation. In 2021, the center achieved a 60 percent year-over-year increase in cochlear ... "Successful cochlear implantation requires a multispecialty approach," says Gail Murray, PhD, CCC-A, Co-director of the Cochlear ... COE team members are aligned in offering patients streamlined access to cochlear implantation with excellent outcomes. Patient ... Optimizing the successful outcomes of cochlear implantation involves expert speech and language therapy for listening skills. ...
Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is a safe and reliable procedure in specialized centers and regularly enables successful ... For children, the (obligatory) newborn hearing screening plays a key role, so that a CI (cochlear implantation) fitting should ...
... Rubini A;Bianconi L;Patel ... The IAC was opened through removal of cochlear-vestibular bone. At the end of the dissection a cochlear implant array was ... The IAC was opened through removal of "cochlear-vestibular bone". At the end of the dissection a cochlear implant array was ... A transcanal infrapromontorial approach was also performed in a patient to allow a concurrent cochlear implant placement, with ...
... BERRETTINI, STEFANO;Forli F; ... The issue of cochlear implantation in deaf children with associated disabilities is an emerging subject. Currently, there is no ... The issue of cochlear implantation in deaf children with associated disabilities is an emerging subject. Currently, there is no ... The findings add an additional piece of evidence to support the effectiveness of cochlear implantation in these special cases. ...
Conclusions are drawn regarding the reasons for the observed variations and the future impact of cochlear implantation on ... View more ,The Authors Describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has ... The Authors Describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new ...
We describe a novel and simple technique using a fascia ring placed around the cochlear implantation electrode (Cochlear ... We describe a novel and simple technique using a fascia ring placed around the cochlear implantation electrode (Cochlear ... We describe a novel and simple technique using a fascia ring placed around the cochlear implantation electrode (Cochlear ... We describe a novel and simple technique using a fascia ring placed around the cochlear implantation electrode (Cochlear ...

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