A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
A syndrome characterized by facial palsy in association with a herpetic eruption of the external auditory meatus. This may occasionally be associated with tinnitus, vertigo, deafness, severe otalgia, and inflammation of the pinna. The condition is caused by reactivation of a latent HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN infection which causes inflammation of the facial and vestibular nerves, and may occasionally involve additional cranial nerves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p757)
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.
A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.
Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.

Altered cochlear fibrocytes in a mouse model of DFN3 nonsyndromic deafness. (1/43)

DFN3, an X chromosome-linked nonsyndromic mixed deafness, is caused by mutations in the BRN-4 gene, which encodes a POU transcription factor. Brn-4-deficient mice were created and found to exhibit profound deafness. No gross morphological changes were observed in the conductive ossicles or cochlea, although there was a dramatic reduction in endocochlear potential. Electron microscopy revealed severe ultrastructural alterations in cochlear spiral ligament fibrocytes. The findings suggest that these fibrocytes, which are mesenchymal in origin and for which a role in potassium ion homeostasis has been postulated, may play a critical role in auditory function.  (+info)

Essential role of BETA2/NeuroD1 in development of the vestibular and auditory systems. (2/43)

BETA2/NeuroD1 is a bHLH transcription factor that is expressed during development in the mammalian pancreas and in many locations in the central and peripheral nervous systems. During inner ear ontogenesis, it is present in both sensory ganglion neurons and sensory epithelia. Although studies have shown that BETA2/NeuroD1 is important in the development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the cerebellum, its functions in the peripheral nervous system and in particular in the inner ear are unclear. Mice carrying a BETA2/NeuroD1 null mutation exhibit behavioral abnormalities suggestive of an inner ear defect, including lack of responsiveness to sound, hyperactivity, head tilting, and circling. Here we show that these defects can be explained by a severe reduction of sensory neurons in the cochlear-vestibular ganglion (CVG). A developmental study of CVG formation in the null demonstrates that BETA2/NeuroD1 does not play a primary role in the proliferation of neuroblast precursors or in their decision to become neuroblasts. Instead, the reduction in CVG neuron number is caused by a combination both of delayed or defective delamination of CVG neuroblast precursors from the otic vesicle epithelium and of enhanced apoptosis both in the otic epithelium and among those neurons that do delaminate to form the CVG. There are also defects in differentiation and patterning of the cochlear duct and sensory epithelium and loss of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. BETA2/NeuroD1 is, thus, the first gene to be shown to regulate neuronal and sensory cell development in both the cochlear and vestibular systems.  (+info)

Spiral ligament pathology: a major aspect of age-related cochlear degeneration in C57BL/6 mice. (3/43)

Data from systematic, light microscopic examination of cochlear histopathology in an age-graded series of C57BL/6 mice (1.5-15 months) were compared with threshold elevations (measured by auditory brain stem response) to elucidate the functionally important structural changes underlying age-related hearing loss in this inbred strain. In addition to quantifying the degree and extent of hair cell and neuronal loss, all structures of the cochlear duct were qualitatively evaluated and any degenerative changes were quantified. Hair cell and neuronal loss patterns suggested two degenerative processes. In the basal half of the cochlea, inner and outer hair cell loss proceeded from base to apex with increasing age, and loss of cochlear neurons was consistent with degeneration occurring secondary to inner hair cell loss. In the apical half of the cochlea with advancing age, there was selective loss of outer hair cells which increased from the middle to the extreme apex. A similar gradient of ganglion cell loss was noted, characterized by widespread somatic aggregation and demyelination. In addition to these changes in hair cells and their innervation, there was widespread degeneration of fibrocytes in the spiral ligament, especially among the type IV cell class. The cell loss in the ligament preceded the loss of hair cells and/or neurons in both space and time suggesting that fibrocyte pathology may be a primary cause of the hearing loss and ultimate sensory cell degeneration in this mouse strain.  (+info)

Transcript profiling of functionally related groups of genes during conditional differentiation of a mammalian cochlear hair cell line. (4/43)

We have used Affymetrix high-density gene arrays to generate a temporal profile of gene expression during differentiation of UB/OC-1, a conditionally immortal cell line derived from the mouse cochlea. Gene expression was assessed daily for 14 days under differentiating conditions. The experiment was replicated in two separate populations of cells. Profiles for selected genes were correlated with those obtained by RT-PCR, TaqMan analysis, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence. The results suggest that UB/OC-1 is derived from a population of nonsensory epithelial cells in the greater epithelial ridge that have the potential to differentiate into a hair-cell-like phenotype, without the intervention of Math1. Elements of the Notch signaling cascade were identified, including the receptor Notch3, with a transient up-regulation that suggests a role in hair cell differentiation. Several genes showed a profile similar to Notch3, including the transcriptional co-repressor Groucho1. UB/OC-1 also expressed Me1, a putative partner of Math1 that may confer competence to differentiate into hair cells. Cluster analysis revealed expression profiles for neural guidance genes associated with Gata3. The temporal dimension of this analysis provides a powerful tool to study genetic mechanisms that underlie the conversion of nonsensory epithelial cells into hair cells.  (+info)

Forced activation of Wnt signaling alters morphogenesis and sensory organ identity in the chicken inner ear. (5/43)

Components of the Wnt signaling pathway are expressed in the developing inner ear. To explore their role in ear patterning, we used retroviral gene transfer to force the expression of an activated form of beta-catenin that should constitutively activate targets of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. At embryonic day 9 (E9) and beyond, morphological defects were apparent in the otic capsule and the membranous labyrinth, including ectopic and fused sensory patches. Most notably, the basilar papilla, an auditory organ, contained infected sensory patches with a vestibular phenotype. Vestibular identity was based on: (1) stereociliary bundle morphology; (2) spacing of hair cells and supporting cells; (3) the presence of otoliths; (4) immunolabeling indicative of vestibular supporting cells; and (5) expression of Msx1, a marker of certain vestibular sensory organs. Retrovirus-mediated misexpression of Wnt3a also gave rise to ectopic vestibular patches in the cochlear duct. In situ hybridization revealed that genes for three Frizzled receptors, c-Fz1, c-Fz7, and c-Fz10, are expressed in and adjacent to sensory primordia, while Wnt4 is expressed in adjacent, nonsensory regions of the cochlear duct. We hypothesize that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling specifies otic epithelium as macular and helps to define and maintain sensory/nonsensory boundaries in the cochlear duct.  (+info)

Distribution of gentamicin in the guinea pig inner ear after local or systemic application. (6/43)

Uptake and retention of gentamicin by cells in the guinea pig inner ear after a single peritoneal injection or local application on the round window were investigated using immunocytochemistry to localize the drug. The cells that accumulated the drug under the two conditions were the same, but staining for the drug was more intense and was often accompanied by widespread cochlear degeneration following local application. Soon after drug administration by either route, there was diffuse staining for the drug throughout all tissue within the labyrinth, including bone. At later times when distinct cell staining became evident, virtually all cell types were found to be positive, with several cell types staining more darkly for the drug than hair cells, indicating that hair cells were not the most avid in accumulating gentamicin. The infracuticular portion of auditory and vestibular hair cells as well as type III fibrocytes of the spiral ligament were positively stained in almost all cases and these sites were found to be positive for as long as six months post administration. In animals with loss of the organ of Corti, there was unusually intense staining for gentamicin in root cells of the spiral ligament, in marginal cells of the stria vascularis, and in cells of the spiral limbus. Dark staining of surviving cells in cases with overt tissue destruction suggests that variability in the extent of damage caused by the drug was determined more by the degree of its local uptake than by differences in animals' capacities to metabolize the drug systemically. The present results show that gentamicin may damage or destroy all cochlear cells following a single round window application. The findings broaden the scope of our knowledge of cochlear gentamicin uptake and damage and have implications for treatment of patients with vestibular disorders by infusion of aminoglycosides into the middle ear, as well as implications for prospects of rehabilitating patients that have been deafened by aminoglycosides.  (+info)

Changes in cytochemistry of sensory and nonsensory cells in gentamicin-treated cochleas. (7/43)

Effects of a single local dose of gentamicin upon sensory and nonsensory cells throughout the cochlea were assessed by changes in immunostaining patterns for a broad array of functionally important proteins. Cytochemical changes in hair cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cells of the stria vascularis, spiral ligament, and spiral limbus were found beginning 4 days post administration. The extent of changes in immunostaining varied with survival time and with cell type and was not always commensurate with the degree to which individual cell types accumulated gentamicin. Outer hair cells, types I and II fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, and fibrocytes in the spiral limbus showed marked decreases in immunostaining for a number of constituents. In contrast, inner hair cells, type III fibrocytes and root cells of the spiral ligament, cells of the stria vascularis, and interdental cells in the spiral limbus showed less dramatic decreases, and in some cases they showed increases in immunostaining. Results indicate that, in addition to damaging sensory cells, local application of gentamicin results in widespread and disparate disruptions of a variety of cochlear cell types. Only in the case of ganglion cells was it apparent that the changes in nonsensory cells were secondary to loss or damage of hair cells. These results indicate that malfunction of the ear following gentamicin treatment is widespread and far more complex than simple loss of sensory elements. The results have implications for efforts directed toward detecting, preventing, and treating toxic effects of aminoglycosides upon the inner ear.  (+info)

Synchronization of a nonlinear oscillator: processing the cf component of the echo-response signal in the cochlea of the mustached bat. (8/43)

Cochlear microphonic potential (CM) was recorded from the CF2 region and the sparsely innervated zone (the mustached bat's cochlea fovea) that is specialized for analyzing the Doppler-shifted echoes of the first-harmonic (approximately 61 kHz) of the constant-frequency component of the echolocation call. Temporal analysis of the CM, which is tuned sharply to the 61 kHz cochlear resonance, revealed that at the resonance frequency, and within 1 msec of tone onset, CM is broadly tuned with linear magnitude level functions. CM measured during the ongoing tone and in the ringing after tone offset is 50 dB more sensitive, is sharply tuned, has compressive level functions, and the phase leads onset CM by 90 degrees: an indication that cochlear responses are amplified during maximum basilar membrane velocity. For high-level tones above the resonance frequency, CM appears at tone onset and after tone offset. Measurements indicate that the two oscillators responsible for the cochlear resonance, presumably the basilar and tectorial membranes, move together in phase during the ongoing tone, thereby minimizing net shear between them and hair cell excitation. For tones within 2 kHz of the cochlear resonance the frequency of CM measured within 2 msec of tone onset is not that of the stimulus but is proportional to it. For tones just below the cochlear resonance region CM frequency is a constant amount below that of the stimulus depending on CM measurement delay from tone onset. The frequency responses of the CM recorded from the cochlear fovea can be accounted for through synchronization between the nonlinear oscillators responsible for the cochlear resonance and the stimulus tone.  (+info)

Looking for basilar membrane of cochlear duct? Find out information about basilar membrane of cochlear duct. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of basilar membrane of cochlear duct
In addition, mutations in zipper (Drosophila myosin II) have been shown to lead to disruptions in the formation of boundaries in the imaginal disc and ommatidia (Major and Irvine, 2006; Fiehler and Wolff, 2007), and mutations in Myh10 in mice lead to hydrocephalus as a result of disruptions in the ventricular layer boundary (Ma et al., 2007). MYH10 and MYH14 are distributed at boundaries between different cell types within the OC, and the alignments of these cell types was affected in blebbistatin-treated explants and, to a lesser extent, in Myh10DN mutants. The specific role of myosin II in boundary formation is unclear. However, its ability to regulate contractile tension along F-actin cables through crosslinking has been implicated (Major and Irvine, 2006; Ma et al., 2007).. Myosin II has also been shown to regulate CE during germband extension in Drosophila through modulation of junctional remodeling (Bertet et al., 2004; Zallen and Wieschaus, 2004). In particular, cell-cell junctions ...
Neurosensory development requires the sequential, coordinated activation and cross-regulation of numerous transcription factors (TFs) to define precursors and initiate differentiation of the various cell types of the nervous and sensory system (Fritzsch et al., 2015; Imayoshi and Kageyama, 2014; Reiprich and Wegner, 2015). Molecularly dissecting these interactions requires model systems with limited cellular diversity and stereotyped cellular patterning. The organ of Corti (OC) is such a model system, with hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs) organized into the most stereotyped cell assembly of vertebrates (Slepecky, 1996), and is suited to detect minute aberrations (Jahan et al., 2013). The stereotyped cellular pattern may allow the molecular dissection of the intricate interaction of multiple basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins (Benito-Gonzalez and Doetzlhofer, 2014; Fritzsch et al., 2010b) to define HCs/SCs.. Targeted deletion studies in mice have demonstrated that three bHLH TFs ...
The data presented here demonstrate previously unreported roles for HH signaling in the development and function of the mammalian cochlea. All of the structures within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear are derived from the epithelial cell-lined otocyst. The factors that specify some regions of the otocyst to develop as prosensory cells, whereas other regions develop as nonsensory, remain mostly unknown. This is a particularly intriguing question for the mammalian cochlear duct. Normally, only a limited percentage of cells within the duct become prosensory cells; however, several previous studies have demonstrated that cells in other regions of the duct possess the ability to develop as sensory cell types, including hair cells (Zheng and Gao, 2000; Kawamoto et al., 2003; present study) and supporting cells (Zheng and Gao, 2000; Kawamoto et al., 2003; Woods et al., 2004). Although activation of the Notch pathway and expression of Sox2 have been implicated as important regulators of ...
Scheme of neurones of auditory pathway. 4 neuronal afferent centripetal tract terminating in the primary acoustic cortex of temporal lobe. Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of bipolar neurons of the cochlear ganglion (1. N). Axons of bipolar neurons form the cochlear nerve. Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral lemniscus into the inferior collicle (3. N) in the mesencephalon. Signals interpolate in the inferior collicle and continue to the medial geniculate body (4. N). The last part of the auditory tract - acustic radiation (geniculo-cortical tract) continue into the upper part of the temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyruses (primary acustic cortex). Between the basic neurons of the auditory pathway there are inserted interstitial (relay neurons) which are grouped into independent nuclei : nucleus olivaris superior, ...
Looking for online definition of cupular cecum of the cochlear duct in the Medical Dictionary? cupular cecum of the cochlear duct explanation free. What is cupular cecum of the cochlear duct? Meaning of cupular cecum of the cochlear duct medical term. What does cupular cecum of the cochlear duct mean?
Comment on Distribution of neurosensory progenitor pools during inner ear morphogenesis unveiled by cell lineage reconstruction, eLife 2017; 6:e22268 Sylvia Dyballa and Cristina Pujades Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain Reconstructing the lineage relationships and dynamic event histories of individual cells within their native context is central to understanding how the[…] ...
Cialis drug manufacturers and companies such as Eli Lilly. Cialis active ingredients, usages, indications, composition, dosages and other pharmaceutical product information.
Institutions: MRC Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mouse Genome Centre, MRC Institute of Hearing Research Genetic deafness is highly prevalent in the human population, affecting 1 in 2000 births. Many of these show primary abnormalities of the sensory epithelia of the inner ear, as do several mouse mutants. In the whirler (wi) mutant the stereocilia of the inner hair cells of the cochlear duct are considerably shorter than wild-type while outer hair cell stereocilia take on a more rounded U shape compared to the normal V or W shape. Cloning of the defective gene underlying wi will provide insight into the molecular processes involved in normal development of stereocilia as well as providing valuable insights into the causes of neuroepithelial deafness. The wi non-recombinant region is contained within a minimal tiling path consisting of 2 BACs and a PAC. One of the BACs has been used in transgenic rescue experiments and been shown to rescue the inner hair cell phenotype of wi mutant mice, while there ...
Here, we used genetic analysis in mice to compare and contrast the effects of Lrig2 and Lrig3 to the founding member of the family, Lrig1. By analyzing multiple aspects of inner ear development and function, we found that Lrig1 and Lrig3 cooperate to control inner ear morphogenesis, whereas Lrig1 and Lrig2 appear to affect largely distinct aspects of inner ear function. Our results highlight the biological significance of all three Lrig genes in vivo and provide insights into the functional diversity of the LRR-Ig superfamily of proteins.. Our findings add to a growing body of work underscoring the similarities between Lrig1 and Lrig3. At the molecular level, both Lrig1 and Lrig3 can bind multiple members of the EGF receptor family and show a similar subcellular distribution, with expression on the cell surface and in intracellular vesicles [25], [41]. Moreover, both family members also interact with other rTKs [23], [24], [27], indicating that the Lrig ectodomain does not mediate selective ...
Neurosensory Disorders: Passing Nclex Sata (Select All That Applies). #1 source of information for nurses all over the world. NurseReview.Org - Free Online Review for Nurses
Located in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, the cochlea is a spiral tube which is a part of the inner ear, resembling a snail shell. The inner walls of the cochlea are lined with a fine layer of epithelium tissue as a thin membrane divides the spiralled tube along its length into two spaces which are filled with fluids; these tubes are the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. In between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani, there is a third yet smaller spiraling tube called scala media or cochlear duct, contains the organ of Corti. This special sensitive organ lies along the length of the membrane and is composed of neuroepithelial hair cells, which are special sensory receptor for hearing. The cochlea and the vestibular system make up the labyrinth of the inner ear. ...
Menieres disease (MD) is a rare disorder characterized by episodic vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and aural fullness. It is associated with a fluid imbalance between the secretion of endolymph in the cochlear duct and its reabsorption into the subarachnoid space, leading to an accumulation of endolymph in the inner ear. Epidemiological evidence, including familial aggregation, indicates a genetic contribution and a consistent association with autoimmune diseases. We conducted a case-control study in two phases using an immune genotyping array in a total of 420 patients with bilateral MD and 1630 controls. We have identified the first locus, at 6p21.33, suggesting an association with bilateral MD (meta-analysis leading signal rs4947296, OR= 2.089 (1.661-2.627); p= 1.39x 10-09). Gene expression profiles of homozygous genotype-selected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) demonstrated that this region is a trans-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) in PBMCs. Signaling analysis
The vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles during the development of chordate animals. The Aldh1a-family of RA-synthesizing enzymes consists of three members, Aldh1a1-3 (Raldh1-3), that are dynamically expressed throughout development. We have searched the known teleost genomes for the presence of Raldh family members and have found that teleost fish possess orthologs of Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 only. Here we describe the expression of aldh1a3 in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Whole mount in situ hybridization shows that aldh1a3 is expressed during eye development in the retina flanking the optic stalks and later is expressed ventrally, opposite the expression domain of aldh1a2. During inner ear morphogenesis, aldh1a3 is expressed in developing sensory epithelia of the cristae and utricular macula and is specifically up-regulated in epithelial projections throughout the formation of the walls of the semicircular canals and endolymphatic duct. In contrast to the mouse inner ...
View Notes - 2432TBIbrainTumnotes09_001-1 from RNSG 2431 at Austin Community College. Module11:Neurosensory:TraumaticBrainInjury(TBI)andBrainTumors MarnieQuick,RN,MSN,CNRN TRUMATICBRAININJURY(TBI) Eti
The purpose of this case report is to describe a case in which early detection and proper follow-up of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection led to satisfactory outcomes.. A 34-year old white woman reported to a chiropractic clinic with a constant burning pain at the right side of her neck and shoulder with a limited ability to turn her head from side to side, periods of blurred vision, and muffled hearing. Dizziness, visual and auditory disturbances, and balance difficulty abated within 1 hour of onset and were not present at the time of evaluation. A pain drawing indicated burning pain in the suboccipital area, neck, and upper shoulder on the right and a pins and needles sensation on the dorsal surface of both forearms. Turning her head from side-to-side aggravated the pain, and the application of heat brought temporary relief. The Neck Disability Index score of 44 placed the patients pain in the most severe category.. The patient was not treated on the initial visit but was advised of the ...
The structural characterization of the olfactory epithelium in Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858 was studied with the help of light as well as scanning and transmission electron microscope. The oval shaped olfactory rosette consisted of 26-28 primary lamellae radiated from midline raphe. The olfactory epithelium of each lamella was well distributed by sensory and non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium contained morphologically distinct ciliated and microvillous receptor cells, supporting cells and basal cells. The non-sensory epithelium was made up of labyrinth cells, mucous cells and stratified epithelial cells. According to TEM investigation elongated rod emerging out from dendrite end of the receptor cells in the free space. The dendrite process of microvillous receptor cells contained microvilli. The supporting cells had lobular nucleus with clearly seen electron dense nucleolus. The apex of the ciliated non-sensory cells was broad and provided with plenty of kinocilia. Basal cells ...
Impaired stria vascularis integrity upon loss of E cadherin in basal cells is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Can. J. Bot. 44: 609. 1966. -- Merceya latifoia Kindb. in Mac., Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 16: 94. 1889. -- Scopelophila latifolia (Kindb.) Ren. & Card., Rev. Bryol. 19: 92. 1892. Plants in thick turfs or as scattered tufts to 2.5 cm high, dark-green mostly with a reddish-brown cast. Leaves in a comose apical cluster, spreading when moist but keeled along costa and loosely reflexed near margins when dry, obovate to spatulate, 3.5-4.5 mm long, about 2.5: 1. Median laminal cells pluripapillose with low and inconspicuous punctiform papillae, to 16 µm broad, in straight rows radiating from costa to leaf margin, with lumen/wall ratio 4-8: 1, quadrate to hexagonal with angular lumens and without corner thickenings. Basal juxtacostal cells rectangular with straight and thin lateral walls, to 30 µm broad, 2-5: 1, smooth. Marginal cells abruptly larger than median cells, about twice as deep as wide, mostly reddish pigmented, less papillose and thicker-walled than adjacent laminal cells. Basal marginal cells ...
Plants to 1.5 cm high, in hoary green to gray-green cushions, opaque-green to nearly black below. Leaves loosely imbricate when dry, loosely erect-spreading when moist, somewhat concave but not at all keeled, to 3 mm long with the awn constituting nearly 1/2 of that length, ovate-lanceolate from a loosely sheathing somewhat expanded base, 2.5-3.5: 1. Median leaf cells in regular longitudinal rows, unistratose in the expanded base but uniformly bistratose in the limb, smooth, to 7 µm wide, isodiametric with lumens irregular but without corner thickenings. Marginal cells not differentiated. Basal juxtacostal cells elliptical, to 3: 1, to 15 µm wide, with irregularly thickened lateral walls. Basal marginal cells transversely elongate, 0.5-0.7: 1, to 15 µm wide. Costa flared at the base and filling 1/3-1/4 of immediate leaf base, narrowed and obscure above, percurrent in the somewhat acuminate awn. Costa cross-section at leaf middle broad and flattened, less than 1.5 times as thick as the ...
Reprinted with permission from Elsevier from 10.1016/j.mod.2004.12.011 Mech Dev 122: 625-34, Friedman RA; Makmura L; Biesiada E; Wang X; Keithley EM, Eya1 acts upstream of Tbx1, Neurogenin 1, NeuroD and the neurotrophins BDNF and NT-3 during inner ear development. Copyright 2005 ...
Conchae is a snail shaped organ which has 2 1/2 (2S) turns. The oval window opens into the vestibule to cochlea through the scala vestibule.The bony part of the cochlea make turns around a central pillar called modiolus. The modiolus at its upper end diverge into Y shaped membranes called vestibular membrane and basilar membrane. On the one side of the modiolus and vestibular membrane lie the scala vestibuli. On the other side of modiolus and basilar membrane lies the scala tympani. Scala vestibuli and tympani communicates with each other only at the apex of cochlea which is helicotrema. Between the vestibular membrane and basilar membrane lies the membranous cochlea which is called scala media (cochlear duct). On the internal surface of basilar membrane lies coiled and arranged in coiled form cells called hair cells and supporting cells. Hair cells are further divided into inner and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are arranged in 1 layer, while outer hair cells are arranged in 3 layers. ...
Conchae is a snail shaped organ which has 2 1/2 (2S) turns. The oval window opens into the vestibule to cochlea through the scala vestibule.The bony part of the cochlea make turns around a central pillar called modiolus. The modiolus at its upper end diverge into Y shaped membranes called vestibular membrane and basilar membrane. On the one side of the modiolus and vestibular membrane lie the scala vestibuli. On the other side of modiolus and basilar membrane lies the scala tympani. Scala vestibuli and tympani communicates with each other only at the apex of cochlea which is helicotrema. Between the vestibular membrane and basilar membrane lies the membranous cochlea which is called scala media (cochlear duct). On the internal surface of basilar membrane lies coiled and arranged in coiled form cells called hair cells and supporting cells. Hair cells are further divided into inner and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are arranged in 1 layer, while outer hair cells are arranged in 3 layers. ...
Mechanosensitive hair cells and encouraging cells comprise the physical epithelia of the internal ear. particular to locks cells and 103 protein that had been just detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical studies Kaempferol prolonged these organizations by 53 protein that are highly upregulated in locks cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 protein. Our outcomes demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl Kaempferol dye-labeled physical locks cells and non-sensory cells is usually a valid technique to generate real plenty of cell populations for circulation cytometry and following molecular studies. Intro Molecular studies of the internal ears specific cell types are impeded by the paucity of these cells. This truth might become one of the factors why hearing and stability are among the feelings that are still just partly elucidated at the molecular level. Although a solitary internal hearing consists of many thousand physical locks cells, the cells are spread into five ...
THAOS is a global, multi-center, longitudinal observational survey open to all patients with transthyretin-associated amyloidoses (ATTR), including ATTR-PN (polyneuropathy), ATTR-CM (cardiomyopathy) and wild-type ATTR-CM. It is open-ended with a minimum duration of 10 years. Patients will be followed as long as they are able to participate.. The principal aims of this outcome survey are to better understand and characterize the natural history of the disease by studying a large and heterogenous patient population. Survey data may be used to develop new treatment guidelines and recommendations, and to inform and educate clinicians about the management of this disease. ...
The avian basilar papilla is composed of hair and supporting cells arranged in a regular pattern in which the hair cells are surrounded and isolated from each other by supporting cell processes. This arrangement of cells, in which the apical borders of hair cells do not contact one another, may be generated by contact-mediated lateral inhibition. Little is known, however, about the way in which hair and supporting cells are organized during development. Whole mounts double-labeled with antibodies to the 275 kDa hair-cell antigen and the tight junction protein cingulin were therefore used to examine the development of cell patterns in the basilar papilla. Hair cells that contact each other at their apical borders are seen during early development, especially on embryonic days (E) 8 and 9, but are no longer observed after E12. Hair and supporting cell patterns were analyzed in three different areas of the papilla at E9 and E12. In two of these regions between E9 and E12, the ratio of supporting ...
3D surface reconstruction from histology slides of the cochlea (scala vestibuli, scala tympani and scala media) of a Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) using AMIRA® Visualization Software. Specimen courtesy of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI).
FGF signaling is required during multiple stages of inner ear development in many different vertebrates, where it is involved in induction of the otic placode, in formation and morphogenesis of the otic vesicle as well as for cellular differentiation within the sensory epithelia. In this study we have looked to define the redundant and conserved roles of FGF3, FGF8 and FGF10 during the development of the murine and avian inner ear. In the mouse, hindbrain-derived FGF10 ectopically induces FGF8 and rescues otic vesicle formation in Fgf3 and Fgf10 homozygous double mutants. Conditional inactivation of Fgf8 after induction of the placode does not interfere with otic vesicle formation and morphogenesis but affects cellular differentiation in the inner ear. In contrast, inactivation of Fgf8 during induction of the placode in a homozygous Fgf3 null background leads to a reduced size otic vesicle or the complete absence of otic tissue. This latter phenotype is more severe than the one observed in ...
During the Late Antiquity and Middle Ages periods, there was no Rome of the kind that ruled the Mediterranean for centuries and spawned the culture that produced twenty-eight public libraries in the urbs Roma.[28] The empire had been divided then later re-united again under Constantine the Great who moved the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD to the city of Byzantium which was renamed Constantinople.[29] The Roman intellectual culture that flourished in ancient times was undergoing a transformation as the academic world moved from laymen to Christian clergy.[30] As the West crumbled, books and libraries flourished and flowed east toward the Byzantine Empire.[31] There, four different types of libraries were established: imperial, patriarchal, monastic, and private.[32] Each had its own purpose and, as a result, their survival varied.. Christianity was a new force in Europe and many of the faithful saw Hellenistic culture as pagan. As such, many classical Greek works, written on scrolls, were ...
These three fluid-filled cavities are known as scalae (from the Latin meaning a stairway)-the scala vestibuli, the scala media, and the scala tympani. The scala vestibuli and scala tympani are connected via a duct at the apex of the cochlea (the helicotremma). The scala media is suspended between the scala vestibuli and scala tympani. There are two different fluids that fill the scalae of the cochlea: perilymph and endolymph. The perilymph is contained within the two continuous scalae (i.e., the scala vestibuli and scala tympani). Perilymph is very similar in composition to extracellular fluid in the human body (high sodium concentration and low potassium concentration). Endolymph is contained within the scala media and is similar in composition to intracellular fluid (high potassium content and low sodium content) (Pasha, 2006, p. 302).. If you could enter the scala vestibuli at the base of the cochlea (through a structure known as the oval window) and swim upward through the perilymph in a ...
The Snail/Gfi1 (SNAG) family of zinc finger proteins is a group of transcriptional repressors. Gfi1 is expressed in the hematopoietic and nervous system. Consequently, mutations of Gfi1 cause defects in hematopoiesis and inner ear development. In the Gfi1P2A/P2A mouse strain, a point mutation has been inserted in the SNAG domain that replaces a proline at amino acid position 2 by alanine (P2A). This completely abrogates the activity of Gfi1 as transcriptional repressor. Commercial Opportunities Gfi1 and its paralogue Gfi1b have overlapping, however differential functions in hematopoiesis. Loss of Gfi1 in mice affects pre-T-cell differentiation, the development of neutrophil granulocytes and inner ear hair cells, whereas in contrast loss of Gfi1b impairs the development of erythroid cells and megacaryocytes. Therefore, Gfi1P2A/P2A mice can be used as a model to study and treat deafness as a consequence of defects of inner ear development as well as defects of hematopoiesis in immunological ...
The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is an ototoxic drug and has been used experimentally to investigate cochlear damage induced by noise. We have investigated the changes in the protein profile associated with caveolae in gentamicin treated and untreated spiral ligament (SL) pericytes, specialized cells in the blood labyrinth barrier of the inner ear microvasculature. Pericytes from various microvascular beds express caveolae, protein and cholesterol rich microdomains, which can undergo endocytosis and transcytosis to transport small molecules in and out the cells. A different protein profile in transport-specialized caveolae may induce pathological changes affecting the integrity of the blood labyrinth barrier and ultimately contributing to hearing loss. Caveolae isolation from treated and untreated cells is achieved through ultracentrifugation of the lysates in discontinuous gradients. Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis identifies the proteins in the two groups. Proteins segregating with
Our main research interest lies in elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing normal development and function of neurosensory systems. In particular, we focus on the auditory neurosensory system that is responsible for detecting sounds and balance. Building a functional inner ear requires a variety of developmental processes including cell fate specification, morphogenesis, and cellular differentiation. Defects in any of the processes will lead to hearing impairments, which can affect our verbal communications and daily activities, and thus the quality of life. In order to understand detailed mechanisms underlying the inner ear development and function, we mainly utilize genetically-modified mouse models. Following is a couple of examples that our laboratory is currently asking. How does the inner ear acquire its ability to discriminate different frquencies of sound? ...
Looking for online definition of SNHL or what SNHL stands for? SNHL is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
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Plants annual or biannual, small to medium-sized, terrestrial, green to yellowish green, in gregarious or dense tufts. Stems short, slender, often simple or sparsely branched at base. Leaves usually small, sparse below, larger and clustered, budlike at stem tips, ovate, lingulate, oblong-ovate to broadly obovate or ovate-lanceolate, concave, acute to acuminate at apex; margins plane, entire or denticulate above, sometimes marginal cells differentiated, forming a distinct border; costa percurrent or shortly excurrent; leaf cells large, lax, thin-walled, oblong-hexagonal above, rectangular below; alar cells not differentiated. Autoicous. Perigonia budlike, terminal; perichaetia located on short lateral branches just below perigonia, the short branches becoming main branches after perigonia dissolve. Setae elongate, slender; capsules long-exserted, suberect to pendulose, broadly pyriform, usually very asymmetric, curved, sulcate or plicate when dry, necks often distinctly developed; opercula nearly ...
Plants small to large and robust, forming loose to dense tufts, pale to dark green, reddish-brown or -yellow to golden. Stems erect, few to several branched by innovations, in cross-section central strand present, radiculose, occasionally densely tomentose. Leaves distant to more commonly crowded, plane to contorted or crispate, erect-appressed to erect, often erect-spreading when wet, ovate, lanceolate, ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, or elliptical, apex acute to acuminate, base occasionally decurrent; margins usually reflexed to recurved, less often plane, entire to more commonly serrulate or serrate at mid-leaf or above; costae single, subpercurrent to ± long excurrent; laminal cells smooth, upper and median cells rhomboidal-hexagonal or hexagonal, rarely linear-rhomboidal; lower and basal cells short to long oblong or rectangular, thin to ± thick-walled, occasionally lax; marginal cells usually forming a distinct border of long linear cells, rarely unbordered. Dioicous, autoicous, or ...
This is not a cure, magic bullet, nor a quick treatment approach. It takes commitment and long term care but the results can be profound and greatly increase quality of life for those affected with neurosensory issues. If youd like to discuss how we can help you or a loved one, please reach out to us!! Wed be happy to meet with you and answer any questions you may have. ...
Planhigyn blodeuol Monocotaidd a math o wair yw Peiswellt coch syn enw gwrywaidd. Maen perthyn ir teulu Poaceae. Yr enw gwyddonol (Lladin) yw Festuca rubra ar enw Saesneg yw Red fescue.[1] Ceir enwau Cymraeg eraill ar y planhigyn hwn gan gynnwys Peisgwellt Coch, Peisgwellt Rhedegog, Peisgwellt Ymdaenol. Gall dyfu bron mewn unrhyw fan gan gynnwys gwlyptiroedd, coedwigoedd a thwndra. Dofwyd ac addaswyd y planhigyn gan ffermwyr dros y milenia; chwiorydd ir planhigyn hwn yw: india corn, gwenith, barlys, reis ac ŷd. ...
The cochlear stria vascularis produces the positive endocochlear potential (EP) and the endolymph. Both the EP and the endolymph are essential for the physiological function of hair cells. The interme
Hem-fehérjék okozta lipoprotein modifikációk: Oxidatív vascularis károsodások kialakulása és az endothelialis adaptáció indukciója
Advin Health Care is a Indias Largest and Leading Manufacturer and Exporter of Medical Equipment, Surgical Instrument, Medical Devices, Hospital Furniture, Surgical Disposables, Medical Consumables. Advin Health Care is One Stop Solution For All Hospital Needs. ADVIN Brand Presents More Than 85 Countries. ...
Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea. This article ...
Specifically, the cochlear duct growth and the formation of hair cells within the organ of Corti. Mutations in the genes ... Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea Floor of ductus ... develops after the formation and growth of the cochlear duct. The inner and outer hair cells then differentiate into their ... The organ of Corti is located in the scala media of the cochlea of the inner ear between the vestibular duct and the tympanic ...
It connects the lower part of the saccule to the cochlear duct near its vestibular extremity. Victor Hensen This article ...
The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct, the cochlear duct, and the tympanic duct. Hair cells ... Part of the saccule will eventually give rise and connect to the cochlear duct. This duct appears approximately during the ... membrane and the basilar membrane develop to separate the cochlear duct from the vestibular duct and the tympanic duct, ... As the cochlear duct's mesenchyme begins to differentiate, three cavities are formed: the scala vestibuli, the scala tympani ...
The basilar membrane separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani, a cavity within the cochlear labyrinth. The lateral ... The hair cells develop from the lateral and medial ridges of the cochlear duct, which together with the tectorial membrane make ... Beginning in the fifth week of development, the auditory vesicle also gives rise to the cochlear duct, which contains the ... An endolymphatic duct runs from the saccule up through the head and ending close to the brain. In cartilaginous fish, this duct ...
The cochlear duct is almost as complex on its own as the ear itself. The cochlear duct is bounded on three sides by the basilar ... The perilymph in the vestibular duct and the endolymph in the cochlear duct act mechanically as a single duct, being kept apart ... which lies inferior to the cochlear duct and terminates at the round window the cochlear duct or scala media (containing ... separates the cochlear duct from the tympanic duct and determines the mechanical wave propagation properties of the cochlear ...
The fluid found in these two cochlear chambers is perilymph, while scala media, or the cochlear duct, is filled with endolymph ... Cochlear hair cells are organized as inner hair cells and outer hair cells; inner and outer refer to relative position from the ... The apical surface of each cochlear hair cell contains a hair bundle. Each hair bundle contains approximately 300 fine ... Encoding shifts from synchronous responses in the cochlear nucleus and later becomes dependent on rate encoding in the inferior ...
The semicircular canals are filled with endolymph due to its connection with the cochlear duct via the saccule, which also ... as well as the cochlear duct, which is involved in the special sense of hearing. ... The receptor cells located in the semicircular ducts are innervated by the eighth cranial nerve, the vestibulocochlear nerve ( ... Upon angular acceleration (rotation), the endolymph within the semicircular duct deflects the cupula against the hair cells of ...
The elongated cochlear ducts in the more advanced ankylosaurines seem to indicate that these traits were adapted for enhanced ... In addition, the length of the cochlear ducts in the inner ear suggests that Bissektipelta, and many other ankylosaurs, were ...
Paum PB, Pollak AM & Fisch U., "Utricle, saccule and cochlear duct in relation to stapedotomy: A histologic temporal bone study ... Poor cochlear reserve as shown by poor speech discrimination scores Patient with tinnitus and vertigo Presence of active ... Presence of Carhart's notch in the audiogram of a patient with conductive hearing loss (relative) Good cochlear reserve as ... In particular, stapedotomy procedure greatly reduces the chance of a perilymph fistula (leakage of cochlear fluid). Stapedotomy ...
Hair cells in the cochlear duct, specifically the organ of Corti, are deflected as waves of fluid and membrane motion travel ... Semi circular ducts, which are connected directly to the cochlea, can interpret and convey to the brain information about ... Hair cells in these parts of the ear protrude kinocilia and stereocilia into a gelatinous material that lines the ducts of this ... Neurons of the adjacent vestibular ganglia monitor the hair cells in these ducts. These sensory fibers form the vestibular ...
... claustrum clava clavicle climbing fiber clinoid clitoris clivus cloaca clonus coccyx cochlea cochlear duct cochlear nerve ... Edinger-Westphal nucleus efferent ducts efferent nerve fiber efferent limb ejaculatory duct elbow electrical conduction system ... sinus sphenopalatine artery sphenopalatine foramen sphincter sphincter of the bile duct sphincter of the pancreatic duct ... frontal horn of lateral ventricle frontal lobe frontal nerve frontal plane frontal pole frontal sinus frontonasal duct ...
... placed in different locations within the tympanic duct of the cochlear, resulted in the perception of different frequencies. ... the cochlear implant would need several electrodes, so it could stimulate the different frequency regions on the "cochlear ... The multichannel cochlear implant was designed and developed in 1975 at Saint-Antoine Hospital by a multidisciplinary team ... Chouard, CH; Fugain, C; Meyer, B; Lacombe, H (1983). "Long-term results of the multichannel cochlear implant". Ann N Y Acad Sci ...
... cochlear aqueduct MeSH A09.246.631.246.292 - cochlear duct MeSH A09.246.631.246.292.876 - stria vascularis MeSH A09.246.631.246 ... endolymphatic duct MeSH A09.246.631.909.957.360.701 - endolymphatic sac MeSH A09.371.060.067 - anterior chamber MeSH A09.371. ... nasolacrimal duct MeSH A09.371.509.155 - lens capsule, crystalline MeSH A09.371.509.225 - lens cortex, crystalline MeSH A09.371 ...
Cochlear duct: fluid waves in the endolymph of the cochlear duct stimulate the receptor cells, which in turn translate their ... "Observations on the electrochemistry of the cochlear endolymph of the rat: a quantitative study of its electrical potential and ...
... labyrinth Utricle Saccule Semicircular ducts Utriculosaccular duct Endolymphatic duct Cochlear labyrinth Cochlear duct Spiral ... Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal Pectinate line Liver Common hepatic duct Gall bladder Cystic duct Bile duct ... vein Inferior mesenteric vein Left colic vein Sigmoid veins Superior rectal vein Lymphatic trunks and ducts Thoracic duct ... Skin glands Sweat gland Sebaceous gland Nail Lunule Breast Nipple Mammary gland Lactiferous duct Lactiferous sinus Areola ...
... duct, also known as the scala media, the endolymph-filled part of the cochlea Cochlear, an alternate term for the ... Cochlear implant, a sensory aid for the deaf Cochlear nuclei, the ventral cochlear nucleus and the dorsal (or lateral) cochlear ... manufacturer of Nucleus Cochlear Implant Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions, manufacturer of Baha bone anchored hearing aid This ... the eighth cranial nerve Cochlear nerve, a division of the eighth cranial nerve Cochlear aqueduct, or aqueduct of cochlea, a ...
... via the cochlear aqueduct (sometimes referred to as the "perilymphatic duct"), is in continuity with cerebrospinal fluid. ... Bosher SK, Warren RL (1968-11-05). "Observations on the electrochemistry of the cochlear endolymph of the rat: a quantitative ... Wangemann, Philine (2006-10-01). "Supporting sensory transduction: cochlear fluid homeostasis and the endocochlear potential". ... Apart from the importance in the electric cochlear potential, the perilymph also contains a large number of proteins, e.g. ...
Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. Floor of ductus cochlearis. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the ... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) Each of ... There, its fibers synapse with the cell bodies of the cochlear nucleus. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as ... In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ipsilaterally located in the ...
It is separated from the cochlear duct by the basilar membrane, and it extends from the round window to the helicotrema, where ... This movement is conveyed to the organ of Corti inside the cochlear duct, composed of hair cells attached to the basilar ... Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Diagrammatic longitudinal ... The purpose of the perilymph-filled tympanic duct and vestibular duct is to transduce the movement of air that causes the ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ... The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... The purpose of the middle ear ossicles is to overcome the impedance mismatch between air waves and cochlear waves, by providing ... hearing assistive devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants. In a clinical setting, this management is offered by ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. Reissner's/vestibular membrane • Basilar membrane Endolymph • Stria vascularis • Spiral ligament ... Static/translations/vestibule/endolymphatic duct: Utricle (Macula) · Saccule (Macula, Endolymphatic sac) · Kinocilium · Otolith ...
... the failure in the specification of prosensory domain and subsequently leads to increased cell death in the cochlear duct thus ...
... also known as semicircular ducts. ... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). *the anteroventral cochlear ... Cochlear nuclear complexEdit. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ... the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Each of the three cochlear nuclei are tonotopically organized. The axons from the ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ...
The endocochlear potential (EP; also called endolymphatic potential) is the positive voltage of 80-100mV seen in the cochlear ... vestibular and tympanic ducts, -70 mV). EP is highest in the basal turn of the Cochlea and decreases in the magnitude towards ...
The lateral surface of the great wing of the sphenoid is convex, and divided by a transverse ridge, the infratemporal crest, into two portions.. The superior or temporal portion, convex from above downward, concave from before backward, forms a part of the temporal fossa, and gives attachment to the Temporalis; the inferior or infratemporal, smaller in size and concave, enters into the formation of the infratemporal fossa, and, together with the infratemporal crest, affords attachment to the Pterygoideus externus.. ...
The cochlea consists of three fluid-filled spaces: the vestibular duct, the cochlear duct, and the tympanic duct.[3] Hair cells ... Part of the saccule will eventually give rise and connect to the cochlear duct. This duct appears approximately during the ... membrane and the basilar membrane develop to separate the cochlear duct from the vestibular duct and the tympanic duct, ... As the cochlear duct's mesenchyme begins to differentiate, three cavities are formed: the scala vestibuli, the scala tympani ...
The carotid groove is a anatomical groove in the sphenoid bone located above the attachment of each great wing of the sphenoid bone. The groove is curved like the italic letter f, and lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus.[citation needed] ...
The ethmoidal sinuses or ethmoidal air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses. They are a variable in both size and number of small cavities in the lateral mass of each of the ethmoid bones and cannot be palpated during an extraoral examination.[1] They are divided into the anterior, middle and posterior groups (see below). The ethmoidal air cells consist of numerous thin-walled cavities situated in the ethmoidal labyrinth and completed by the frontal, maxilla, lacrimal, sphenoidal, and palatine bones. They lie between the upper parts of the nasal cavities and the orbits, and are separated from these cavities by thin bony laminae.[2]. ...
... and each communicates with the corresponding nasal cavity by means of a passage called the frontonasal duct. ...
... is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape. This is accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cells are stimulated by a variety of signals, and together referred to as a remodeling unit. Approximately 10% of the skeletal mass of an adult is remodelled each year.[42] The purpose of remodeling is to regulate calcium homeostasis, repair microdamaged bones from everyday stress, and to shape the skeleton during growth.[citation needed] Repeated stress, such as weight-bearing exercise or bone healing, results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum stress (Wolff's law). It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bone's piezoelectric properties, which cause bone to generate small electrical potentials under stress.[43] The action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are controlled by a number of chemical enzymes that either promote or ...
The medial pterygoid plate (or medial pterygoid lamina) of the sphenoid bone is a horse-shoe shaped process that arises from its underside.. It is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate and curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the tensor veli palatini glides.. The lateral surface of this plate forms part of the pterygoid fossa, the medial surface constitutes the lateral boundary of the choana or posterior aperture of the corresponding nasal cavity.. Superiorly the medial plate is prolonged on to the under surface of the body as a thin lamina, named the vaginal process, which articulates in front with the sphenoidal process of the palatine and behind this with the ala (wing) of the vomer.. The angular prominence between the posterior margin of the vaginal process and the medial border of the scaphoid fossa is named the pterygoid tubercle, and immediately above this is the posterior opening of the ...
Carotid canal · Facial canal (Hiatus) · Internal auditory meatus · Cochlear aqueduct · Stylomastoid foramen fossae (Subarcuate ... Ethmoidal notch · Fossa for lacrimal gland · Trochlear fovea · Frontal sinus · Frontonasal duct ...
... tufts of stereocilia called hair bundles that protrude from the apical surface of the cell into the fluid-filled cochlear duct ... Mammalian cochlear hair cells are of two anatomically and functionally distinct types, known as outer, and inner hair cells. ... Ashmore, Jonathan (2008). "Cochlear Outer Hair Cell Motility". Physiological Reviews. 88 (1): 173-210. doi:10.1152/physrev. ... Neurons of the auditory or vestibulocochlear nerve (the eighth cranial nerve) innervate cochlear and vestibular hair cells.[19] ...
... which form a portion of the cochlear division of the vestibulocochlear nerve and disappear into the median sulcus. ...
The Supraorbital notch is a small groove at superior and medial margin of the orbit in the frontal bone. The supraorbital nerve passes through this notch prior to dividing into superficial and deep components that provide sensory innervation to the ipsilateral forehead. The supraorbital nerve is a branch of the frontal nerve arising from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V).[1] The foramen sits on the inmost, lower margin of a grove splitting the supraorbital ridge into a central and two distal sections.[2] In vivo, it is often covered with connective tissue to form a supraorbital foramen.[citation needed] ...
The tympanic ring is an incomplete circle, in the concavity of which is a groove, the tympanic sulcus, for the attachment of the circumference of the eardrum (tympanic membrane). This ring expands to form the tympanic part, and is ossified in membrane from a single center which appears about the third month. The styloid process is developed from the proximal part of the cartilage of the second branchial or hyoid arch by two centers: one for the proximal part, the tympanohyal, appears before birth; the other, comprising the rest of the process, is named the stylohyal, and does not appear until after birth. The tympanic ring unites with the squama shortly before birth; the petromastoid part and squama join during the first year, and the tympanohyal portion of the styloid process about the same time [Fig. 7, 8]. The stylohyal does not unite with the rest of the bone until after puberty, and in some skulls never at all ...
Behind either condyle of the lateral parts of occipital bone is a depression, the condyloid fossa (or condylar fossa), which receives the posterior margin of the superior facet of the atlas when the head is bent backward; the floor of this fossa is sometimes perforated by the condyloid canal, through which an emissary vein passes from the transverse sinus. ...
The skull of fishes is formed from a series of only loosely connected bones. Lampreys and sharks only possess a cartilaginous endocranium, with both the upper and lower jaws being separate elements. Bony fishes have additional dermal bone, forming a more or less coherent skull roof in lungfish and holost fish. The lower jaw defines a chin. The simpler structure is found in jawless fish, in which the cranium is normally represented by a trough-like basket of cartilaginous elements only partially enclosing the brain, and associated with the capsules for the inner ears and the single nostril. Distinctively, these fish have no jaws.[5] Cartilaginous fish, such as sharks and rays, have also simple, and presumably primitive, skull structures. The cranium is a single structure forming a case around the brain, enclosing the lower surface and the sides, but always at least partially open at the top as a large fontanelle. The most anterior part of the cranium includes a forward plate of cartilage, the ...
Mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, aqueduct of Sylvius). Forebrain (prosencephalon)[edit]. Diencephalon[edit]. Epithalamus[ ... vestibulocochlear nuclei (vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei) (VIII). *Superior salivatory nucleus. *Pontine tegmentum * ...
Kim HM, Wangemann P (November 2010). "Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac initiates cochlear enlargement that ... and has been localized to the apical membrane of a population of intercalated cells in the cortical collecting duct where it is ... "Loss of cochlear HCO3- secretion causes deafness via endolymphatic acidification and inhibition of Ca2+ reabsorption in a ...
Assessment of cochlear extension. Cochleae were dissected from mouse embryos at E14. Following dissection, the cochlear duct ... D,E) Phalloidin labeling (green) of cell-cell boundaries in the cochlear duct. The prosensory domain is illustrated in violet. ... D,E) Cross-sections through the cochlear duct at E16.5 illustrating the distribution of MYH10 (D) and MYH14 (E). Bracket ... Changes in cell shape correlate with extension of the cochlear duct. To determine changes in individual cell shapes during the ...
Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of basilar membrane of cochlear duct ... Find out information about basilar membrane of cochlear duct. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of ... Basilar membrane of cochlear duct , Article about basilar membrane of cochlear duct by The Free Dictionary https:// ... redirected from basilar membrane of cochlear duct). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. membrane,. structure ...
... cochlear duct from A stained with phalloidin (green) to mark filamentous actin. The basal end of the cochlear duct is located ... but is not expressed in the cochlear duct (dotted line). B, In contrast with Shh, Ptch1 is expressed within the duct at E14, ... The bracket indicates the width of the cochlear duct. C, Gli3Δ699/Δ699 cochlea from A stained and oriented as in B. By ... E, F, Ptch1 and Gli3 continue to be expressed in the cochlear duct and in the SG at low levels. Gli3 expression is barely ...
Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of ... Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral ... Their axons (cochlear nerve) run from the cochlear ganglion through the modiolus (canales longitudinales modioli) to lower ... Cochlear ganglion. Cochler ganglion is placed in lamina spiralis ossea and it contains mainly bipolar neurons (only 10 % are ...
The cochlear duct is also known as the scala media. It lies between the two bony compartments and ends as a closed sac at the ...
basilar membrane of cochlear duct synonyms, basilar membrane of cochlear duct pronunciation, basilar membrane of cochlear duct ... English dictionary definition of basilar membrane of cochlear duct. n. 1. Biology a. A thin, pliable layer of tissue covering ... Basilar membrane of cochlear duct - definition of basilar membrane of cochlear duct by The Free Dictionary https://www. ... redirected from basilar membrane of cochlear duct). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. mem·brane. (mĕm′brān′). n. ...
What is cupular cecum of the cochlear duct? Meaning of cupular cecum of the cochlear duct medical term. What does cupular cecum ... cupular cecum of the cochlear duct explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of cupular cecum of the cochlear ... cupular cecum of the cochlear duct. cu·pu·lar ce·cum of the co·chle·ar duct. [TA] the upper blind extremity of the cochlear ... cu·pu·lar ce·cum of the co·chle·ar duct (kyūpyū-lăr sēkŭm koklē-ăr dŭkt) [TA] The upper blind extremity of the cochlear duct ...
What is tympanic surface of cochlear duct? Meaning of tympanic surface of cochlear duct medical term. What does tympanic ... Looking for online definition of tympanic surface of cochlear duct in the Medical Dictionary? tympanic surface of cochlear duct ... tympanic surface of cochlear duct. tympanic surface of cochlear duct. [TA] the wall that separates the cochlear duct from the ... Tympanic surface of cochlear duct , definition of tympanic surface of cochlear duct by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
Cochlear Duct & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn online with high-yield video ... The lecture Cochlear Duct by Geoffrey Meyer, PhD is from the course Sensory Histology. ...
Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea. This article ...
Specifically, the cochlear duct growth and the formation of hair cells within the organ of Corti. Mutations in the genes ... Transverse section of the cochlear duct of a fetal cat. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea Floor of ductus ... develops after the formation and growth of the cochlear duct. The inner and outer hair cells then differentiate into their ... The organ of Corti is located in the scala media of the cochlea of the inner ear between the vestibular duct and the tympanic ...
Maintenance of electrolyte content of the cochlear ducts. For many years, cochlear fluids were thought to be generated by ... encoded search term (Cochlear Function) and Cochlear Function What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Monitoring the Cochlear Response to an Acoustic Stimulus. Much of the data regarding cochlear function have been derived from ... Cochlear Blood Flow. The level of metabolic activity in the cochlea dictates the need for the maintenance of cochlear ...
... also known as semicircular ducts. ... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). *the anteroventral cochlear ... Cochlear nuclear complex[edit]. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Each of the three cochlear nuclei are tonotopically organized. The axons from the ...
Bast TH. Development of the aquaeductus cochleae and its contained periotic duct and cochlear vein in human embryos. (1946) Ann ... Bast TH. Development of the aquaeductus cochleae and its contained periotic duct and cochlear vein in human embryos. (1946) Ann ... Development of the aquaeductus cochleae and its contained periotic duct and cochlear vein in human embryos. ... Paper - Development of the aquaeductus cochleae and its contained periotic duct and cochlear vein in human embryos. From ...
... cochlear ducts at E13, E15 and E17 show that COUP-TFI-/- mutants have a shorter cochlear duct. Scale bar: 100 μm. (C) Graph of ... have a shorter cochlear duct (arrows in Fig. 1B, parts b,d,f) than wild-type controls (Fig. 1B, parts a,c,e). The cochlear duct ... cochlear ducts. In addition, despite having a shorter duct, the total number of hair cells in COUP-TFI-/- was similar to in ... and the mammalian cochlear duct (Chen et al., 2002). The lack of longitudinal extension of the COUP-TFI-/- duct may have ...
C) Electrical representation of the cochlear duct. Three transmission lines along three ducts (scala vestibule, media and ... Above is a computer simulation of cochlear fluid mechanics. The cochlea was modeled as a rectangular box filled with lymphatic ... URMC / Labs / Nam Lab / Projects / Multi-scaled Computational Analysis of Cochlear Mechano-transduction ... The image to the right is a multi-scaled model of cochlear mechano-transduction. (A) Fluid-structure interaction of the cochlea ...
Cochlear duct /. scala media. *Reissners/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph ...
... and an elongate cochlear duct. It has been suggested that some of these features may have been instrumental in the evolutionary ... A long duct is a synapomorphy of tyrannosauroids (20, 26), different from the much shorter ducts of most other theropods, and ... The cochlear duct is elongated, such that it extends far ventral to the brain endocast and is approximately as long ... cochlear duct; ct, crista tuberalis; fl, flocculus; fm, foramen magnum; lsc, lateral semicircular canal; mdp, median dural peak ...
cochlear duct (anatomy). inner ear: …in the vestibule; and the cochlear duct, which is the only part of the inner ear involved ... cochlear nucleus (anatomy). human ear: Ascending pathways: …of nerve cells called the cochlear nucleus. The cochlear nucleus ... The cochlear duct forms a shelf across the cochlea dividing it into two sections, the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. ... Each cochlear nerve fibre branches at the cochlear nucleus, sending one branch to the dorsal and the other branch to the ...
The Scala Media (cochlear duct) *The scala media is a triangular-shaped duct that contains the organ of hearing, called the " ... The cilia of the hair cells extend along the entire length of the cochlear duct and are imbedded in the undersurface of the ... This fluid pulse travels up the scala vestibuli but causes a downward shift of the cochlear duct, along with distortion of ... The cochlear duct is separated from the scala vestibuli by Reissners membrane. ...
... and a shortened cochlear duct in the Igf1r−/− mutant. cd, Cochlear duct; Lc, lateral canal; Ac, anterior canal; Pc, posterior ... To examine the cochlear phenotype further, cochlear ducts were dissected from Igf1r−/− mutants and controls at E18.5, and hair ... length of the cochlear duct, and the number of cochlear hair cells. The results also provide new insights regarding the ... D, E, Whole-mount preparations of the cochlear duct at E18.5 from a control (D) and an Igf1r−/− mutant (E) labeled with anti- ...
The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and ... The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and ... This "water shunt" explains experimentally determined phenomena of endolymphatic longitudinal flow towards the cochlear apex. ... water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating ...
... cochlear duct; la: lateral ampulla; lsc: lateral semicircular canal; pa: posterior ampulla; psc: posterior semicircular canal; ...
Synonym(s): vestibular cecum of the cochlear duct. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
4. Movement of fluid in the cochlear duct causes bending of the hair cells imbedded within the spiral organ. ... b.Vibration of stapes induces motion of the fluid within the cochlear duct. ... semicircular ducts, utricle, and saccule to carry proprioceptive information (movements of the head) to the brain. ... of these hair cells initiates signaling events which ultimately lead to propagation of a nerve impulse along the cochlear ...
It is composed of 2 saclike spaces that are continuous with the cochlear duct and filled with the same endolymph and surrounded ... Fluid vibration causes the cochlear duct to move which causes the tectorial membrane and the hair cells of the ... A U-shaped tube containing another fluid, ......., lies on either side of the cochlear duct. ... The vibration of the oval window causes the ...... around the cochlear duct to vibrate. ...
... also known as semicircular ducts. ... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). *the anteroventral cochlear ... Cochlear nuclear complexEdit. In mammals, the axons from each cochlear nerve terminate in the cochlear nuclear complex that is ... the posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN). Each of the three cochlear nuclei are tonotopically organized. The axons from the ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ...
The scala tympani and vestibuli are slightly wedge-shaped and surround the fluid-filled scala media, or cochlear duct. The ... Cochlear implants are not effective for this (rare) form of deafness.. *Cochlear Aplasia is the complete lack of development of ... Cochlear implants would be ineffective for this form of deafness.. *Mondini Dysplasia results in a fewer number of cochlear ... Cochlear implants are extremely effective for almost all causes of deafness (excluding the rare Michels Aplasia and Cochlear ...
Inside the cochlear duct, the hair cells are anchored on the basilar membrane, which forms the roof of the vestibular duct. The ... The cochlear duct contains the hair cells that detect sound. It is sandwiched between the tympanic and vestibular ducts, which ... Waltzman, S.; Cohen, N.; and Shapiro, B. "The Benefits of Cochlear Implantation in the Geriatric Population." Otolaryngology- ... The middle of the three ducts has as its bottom a rather stiff membrane known as the basilar membrane. On this membrane is the ...
Miller, M.R.: The cochlear duct of lizards. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci.33, 255-359 (1966)Google Scholar ... Weiss, T.F., Mulroy, M.J., Turner, R.G., Pike, C.L.: Tuning of single fibers in the cochlear nerve of the alligator lizard: ... Robertson, D., Manley, G.A.: Manipulation of frequency analysis in the cochlear ganglion of the guinea pig. J. comp. Physiol.91 ... Pfeiffer, R.R.: Classification of response patterns of spike discharges for units in the cochlear nucleus; tone-burst ...
Scala Media (Cochlear Duct):. Scala Media: Roof : Reissners membrane, floor: basilar membrane Filled with endolymph, a fluid ... the cochlear nucleus 1st major nucleus of the auditory system. After CN VIII reaches the cochlear nucleus. the info is carried ... Spiral Limbus; supports tectorial membrane Found on modiolar side of cochlear duct ... "cochlear duct" Scala Tympani. Scala Tympani: Roof: basilar membrane, floor: bone Also filled with perilymph Contains Round ...
... throughout the cochlear duct, as seen in both the apex (c) and the base (d). The shapes of AR cells in Ad.empty cochleae are ... AR cells are evenly spaced along the cochlear duct (arrow heads). (c, d) Following Ad.BDNF inoculation, many nerve fibers are ... a) In the cochlear apex, a few nerve fibers are seen in the auditory epithelium and appear to preferentially grow toward the AR ... a) The density of SGNs is greater in the Ad.BDNF-treated ears (black bars) than in controls (gray bars) in each cochlear turn ...
  • The mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, referred to as the organ of Corti (OC), comprises a narrow stripe of cells that extends along the length of the cochlear spiral. (jneurosci.org)
  • The sensory epithelium of the mammalian cochlea comprises mechanosensory hair cells that are arranged into four ordered rows extending along the length of the cochlear spiral. (biologists.org)
  • The organ of Corti is located in the scala media of the cochlea of the inner ear between the vestibular duct and the tympanic duct and is composed of mechanosensory cells, known as hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cochlea consists of 3 fluid-filled ducts or scalae (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • For many years, cochlear fluids were thought to be generated by filtration of blood or cerebrospinal fluid, which then flowed longitudinally down the length of the cochlea to be absorbed through the endolymphatic sac. (medscape.com)
  • The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell bodies of the cochlear nerve lie within the cochlea and collectively form the spiral ganglion , named for the spiral shape it shares with the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons from the low-frequency region of the cochlea project to the ventral portion of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the ventrolateral portions of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axons from the intermediate frequency region project to intermediate targets, such that tonotopy is preserved between the cochlea and the cochlear nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in a greater increase in hair cell differentiation in COUP-TFI -/- cochlear cultures than in wild-type cultures, suggesting a hypersensitivity to Notch inactivation in COUP-TFI -/- cochlea, particularly at the apical turn. (biologists.org)
  • In order to better understand the cochlear mechano-transduction, we develop a multi-scale computational model that incorporates the kinetics of the mechano-transduction channels, the mechanics of the hair-bundle, the electrical circuit of hair cells including their motility, the fluid mechanics of IHC, the electro-mechanics of the organ of Corti and the entire cochlea. (rochester.edu)
  • The cochlear duct forms a shelf across the cochlea dividing it into two sections, the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. (britannica.com)
  • human nervous system: Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII or 8): Auditory receptors of the cochlear division are located in the organ of Corti and follow the spiral shape (about 2.5 turns) of the cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • In this study, we describe the patterns of expression for IGF signaling components in the embryonic cochlea, and then examine the effect of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of IGF1R on cochlear development. (jneurosci.org)
  • The cochlea is a bony, spiral-shaped chamber that contains the cochlear duct of the membranous labyrinth. (medscape.com)
  • The vestibular wall separates the cochlear duct from the perilymphatic scala vestibuli, a cavity inside the cochlea. (medscape.com)
  • A primary goal of cochlear implant surgery is to protect the delicate anatomical structures within the cochlea while providing best benefit through atraumatic electrode insertion. (audiologyonline.com)
  • The newly released FLEXSOFT, a 31 mm electrode array available with the SYNCHRONY cochlear implant, should be considered for candidates with otherwise normal anatomy of the cochlea. (audiologyonline.com)
  • A cross section through one of the turns of the cochlea (inset) showing the scala tympani and scala vestibuli, which contain perilymph, and the cochlear duct, which is filled with endolymph. (britannica.com)
  • The snail-like cochlea is made up of three fluid-filled chambers that spiral around a bony core, which contains a central channel called the cochlear duct. (healthline.com)
  • Cochlear implants (CIs) allow the restoration of auditory perception through the direct electrical stimulation of the primary auditory neurons, located within the spiral ganglion of the cochlea. (hindawi.com)
  • Within the bony cochlea is the cochlear duct. (blausen.com)
  • The cochlea is a coiled, fluid-filled tube divided into the three canals: the vestibular, tympanic, and cochlear canals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cochlea 104 is a long narrow duct wound spirally about its axis for approximately two and a half turns. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the cochlea the sound waves are transduced into coded patterns of impulses transmitted along the afferent cochlear fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve for analysis in the central auditory pathways of the brain. (google.es)
  • 1966). The cochlea can also be embedded in plastic before dissection of the cochlear duct (Bohne and Harding, 1997). (cdc.gov)
  • Because of its small size, the mouse cochlea presents some advantages and disadvantages for cochlear preparation and microscopic evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • There are two membranes inside the cochlea, the vestibular membrane, which separates the cochlear duct from the vestibular duct, and the basilar membrane. (gue.com)
  • The cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals, are bony cavities inside the petrosal containing the duct of cochlea, utricle and saccule, and semicircular ducts respectively. (2dgf.dk)
  • The organ of Corti is a neural apparatus located within the cochlear duct, which separates the upper (vestibular canal) and lower (tympanic canal) chambers in the cochlea . (wisegeek.com)
  • The cochlea itself separates into halves to reveal cochlear, vestibular and tympanic ducts and the branching of the cochlear nerve. (cpr-savers.com)
  • The cochlear duct epithelium (CDE) constitutes a tight barrier that effectively separates the inner ear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, thereby maintaining distinct ionic and osmotic gradients that are essential for auditory function. (nih.gov)
  • The round window consists of a thin, membranous partition that separates the perilymph of the cochlear chambers from the air-filled middle ear. (medscape.com)
  • A pair of perilymph-filled chambers is found on each side of the duct. (medscape.com)
  • endolymph in the cochlear duct and perilymph in both the vestibular duct and tympanic duct. (blausen.com)
  • When the stapes pushes against the oval window, pressure waves in the perilymph travel up the spiral through the vestibular duct and back down in the tympanic duct. (blausen.com)
  • When looking at a cross section of the cochlear duct, specialized hair cells are shown being struck by pressure waves in the perilymph. (blausen.com)
  • The vestibular duct and tympanic ducts, both containing perilymph, are on either side of it. (blausen.com)
  • Transduction occurs through vibrations of structures in the inner ear causing displacement of cochlear fluid and movement of hair cells at the organ of Corti to produce electrochemical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the attached oval window moves and causes movement of the round window, which leads to displacement of the cochlear fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the oval window (the upper red circle in the left) vibrates the cochlear fluid is pressurized. (rochester.edu)
  • We computationally determined the diffusional (PD) and osmotic (Pf) water permeability coefficients for the mammalian CDE based on in silico simulations of cochlear water dynamics integrating previously derived in vivo experimental data on fluid flow with expression sites of molecular water channels (aquaporins, AQPs). (nih.gov)
  • b.Vibration of stapes induces motion of the fluid within the cochlear duct. (brainscape.com)
  • The scala tympani and vestibuli are slightly wedge-shaped and surround the fluid-filled scala media, or cochlear duct. (hubpages.com)
  • The Organ of Corti (which contains the "hair cells" for detecting sound waves) rests between the scala tympani and the fluid of the cochlear duct. (hubpages.com)
  • As the head rotates in one direction, inertia of the fluid causes it to lag, and hence generate relative motion in the semicircular duct in the direction opposite that of the head movement. (hear.com)
  • 2. A narrow enclosed channel containing a fluid, e.g., the semicircular duct of the ear. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The inner hair cells, which move as the incoming sound waves travel through the cochlear fluid, act as transducers that transform the motion into neural spike activity that is then sent to the auditory nerve. (gue.com)
  • Alongside the cochlear duct are the vestibular duct and the tympanic duct. (blausen.com)
  • At UT Southwestern, he was recently awarded the Dedman Family Scholar in Clinical Care for his research with cochlear implants. (childrens.com)
  • Kevin Vukovich has been working in the field of cochlear implants for over 20 years and is currently the Senior Surgical Education Manager at MED-EL Corporation. (audiologyonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to medical implants, and more specifically to cochlear implant systems. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Algorithms for transposing auditory frequencies already exist (common to most speech processors in cochlear implants and hearing aids). (phys.org)
  • Far advanced otosclerosis is reviewed along with its recent care centered on the impact of acoustic rehabilitation with stapedotomy prior or not to cochlear implants in different forms of advanced disease with profound deafness. (springer.com)
  • Cochlear Implants Int 2020 Jan 8;21(1):9-17. (pubfacts.com)
  • Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Surgical Complications Following Cochlear Implantation in Canal Wall-Down Mastoid Cavities. (childrens.com)
  • A membranous duct that runs in the nasolacrimal canal and drains tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It separates the tympanic canal from the cochlear duct and supports the organ of Corti. (tabers.com)
  • Current therapy for patients with hereditary absence of cochlear hair cells, who have severe or profound deafness, is restricted to cochlear implantation, a procedure that requires survival of the auditory nerve. (nih.gov)
  • The Importance of Electrode Location in Cochlear Implantation. (childrens.com)
  • Predictive factors for short- and long-term hearing preservation in cochlear implantation with conventional length electrodes. (childrens.com)
  • Electrode location and audiologic performance after cochlear implantation in adults: a comparison of CI422 and CI512 electrode arrays. (childrens.com)
  • Electrode Location and Angular Insertion Depth Are Predictors of Audiologic Outcomes in Cochlear Implantation. (childrens.com)
  • A systematic review on prevention and management of wound infections from cochlear implantation. (pubfacts.com)
  • The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). (diva-portal.org)
  • His clinical practice based at the Stanford Ear Institute and Lucile Packard Children?s Hospital focuses on otologic diseases including congenital hearing loss and cochlear implantation, and chronic ear diseases in the pediatric population. (stanford.edu)
  • The utricular division of the auditory vesicle also responds to angular acceleration, as well as the endolymphatic sac and duct that connect the saccule and utricle. (medscape.com)
  • In reptiles, birds and mammals, the cochlear duct, an elongated endolymphatic chamber, is in contact with the saccule. (2dgf.dk)
  • Beginning in the fifth week of development, the auditory vesicle also gives rise to the cochlear duct, which contains the spiral organ of Corti and the endolymph that accumulates in the membranous labyrinth. (medscape.com)
  • The lateral wall of the cochlear duct is formed by the spiral ligament and the stria vascularis, which produces the endolymph. (medscape.com)
  • The endolymph-filled cochlear duct now appears as the central triangular section. (blausen.com)
  • The other half of the labyrinth, upon removal, shows the vestibular and cochlear nerves, which join to form the auditory nerve. (cpr-savers.com)
  • The hair cells develop from the lateral and medial ridges of the cochlear duct, which together with the tectorial membrane make up the spiral organ of Corti. (medscape.com)
  • Histological view of the tectorial membrane of the cochlear duct with orientation insert. (smartdraw.com)
  • The limbus spiralis and its relationship to the developing tectorial membrane in the cochlear duct o. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2 https://www.audiologyonline.com/audiology-ceus/course/cochlear-implant-candidacy-and-consideration-26989 Cochlear Implant Candidacy and Consideration of Adults This course is intended to provide professionals with guidance for determining cochlear implant candidacy and counseling adult patients both pre and post operatively. (audiologyonline.com)
  • Three transmission lines along three ducts (scala vestibule, media and tympani). (rochester.edu)
  • Any of several canals located in the bony labyrinth of the internal ear and enclosing the three semicircular ducts that open into the vestibule. (tabers.com)
  • These results identify the first molecule, myosin II, which directly regulates cellular patterning and alignment within the cochlear sensory epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • In mammals sounds are perceived by the organ of Corti (OC), a sensory epithelium that extends along the basal-to-apical axis of the cochlear spiral. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, maturation of the cochlear sensory epithelium was delayed at the transition point between cellular proliferation and differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • COCHLEAR DUCT) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. (bioontology.org)
  • The walls of the bony labyrinth consist of dense bone everywhere except at 2 small areas near the base of the cochlear spiral. (medscape.com)
  • Sound processing strategies for use with cochlear implant systems utilizing simultaneous stimulation of electrodes are provided. (google.com.au)
  • The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. (hindawi.com)
  • The electrode shell includes an interior volume that partially encases an implant electrode so that its electrode contacts are exposed for delivering electrical stimulation signals to the cochlear tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A cochlear implant device comprising: an electrode shell for insertion into a fixed position in cochlear tissue, the electrode shell including an interior volume for partially encasing an implant electrode so that a plurality of electrode contacts are exposed for delivering electrical stimulation signals to the cochlear tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The lecture Cochlear Duct by Geoffrey Meyer, PhD is from the course Sensory Histology. (lecturio.com)
  • Acetylcholine is the major neurotransmitter of the olivocochlear efferent system, which provides feedback to cochlear hair cells and sensory neurons. (nih.gov)
  • This phenotype and the expression pattern are consistent with excitatory muscarinic signaling in cochlear sensory neurons. (nih.gov)
  • To study the role of cochlear muscarinic receptors, we studied receptor localization with immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR and measured olivocochlear function, cochlear responses, and histopathology in mice with targeted deletion of each of the five receptor subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • M 3 receptors were present only in whole-cochlear digests ( C ), and M 1 receptors were never amplified from wild types ( A-C ). All five mAChRs are expressed in adult brain ( B , positive control). (nih.gov)
  • The sense of hearing is provided by receptors within the cochlear duct. (medscape.com)
  • The orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFI (Nr2f1) regulates many aspects of mammalian development, but little is known about its role in cochlear hair cell and Deiter's support cell development. (biologists.org)
  • P. Dallos, Response characteristics of mammalian cochlear hair cells, J. Neuroscience , 5:1591 (1985). (springer.com)
  • The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron ) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve , a cranial nerve present in amniotes , the other part being the vestibular nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the vestibular nerve , which carries spatial orientation information to the brain from the semicircular canals , also known as semicircular ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distortion generates a signal that travels through the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain, where the signal is ultimately interpreted as a sound. (blausen.com)
  • The semicircular canals enclose the slender semicircular ducts. (medscape.com)
  • In 1933 researchers found that cochlear duct length (CDL) in otherwise normal anatomy varied by as much as 10 mm, from 25-35 mm in overall length. (audiologyonline.com)
  • During week 4 of embryonic development, the human inner ear develops from the auditory placode, a thickening of the ectoderm that gives rise to the bipolar neurons of the cochlear and vestibular ganglions. (medscape.com)
  • All of the cells that comprise the OC are believed to develop from a prosensory domain, a pool of progenitor cells that is normally restricted to the lateral half of the cochlear duct. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hearing rehabilitation outcomes in cochlear implant recipients with vestibular schwannoma in observation or radiotherapy groups: A systematic review. (pubfacts.com)
  • Performing MRI Scans on Cochlear Implant and Auditory Brainstem Implant Recipients: Review of 14.5 Years Experience. (pubfacts.com)
  • Robertson, D., Manley, G.A.: Manipulation of frequency analysis in the cochlear ganglion of the guinea pig. (springer.com)
  • An image depicting the divisions and electrolyte compositions of the cochlear compartments can be seen below. (medscape.com)
  • The divisions and electrolyte compositions of the cochlear compartments. (medscape.com)
  • Accessory Structures Eyelids Commissures Palpebral fissure Tarsal gland Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal gland Lacrimal canaliculi Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct. (slideserve.com)
  • Any of the small excretory ducts of the lacrimal glands. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This historic 1946 paper by Bast described development of the human aquaeductus cochleae and its contained periotic duct and cochlear vein. (edu.au)