Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Cochlear Diseases: Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Spiral Ligament of Cochlea: A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Labyrinth Supporting Cells: Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Scala Tympani: The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Tectorial Membrane: A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Ear Auricle: The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear: A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Endolymphatic Hydrops: An accumulation of ENDOLYMPH in the inner ear (LABYRINTH) leading to buildup of pressure and distortion of intralabyrinthine structures, such as COCHLEA and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. It is characterized by SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; and sometimes VERTIGO.Endolymphatic Sac: The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Ear Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the ear caused by disease or injury after birth.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Mice, Inbred CBAHair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Middle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Anatomy, Regional: The anatomical study of specific regions or parts of organisms, emphasizing the relationship between the various structures (e.g. muscles, nerves, skeletal, cardiovascular, etc.).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Mice, Inbred C57BLHearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear is a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes ... The basilar membrane is widest (0.42-0.65 mm) and least stiff at the apex of the cochlea, and narrowest (0.08-0.16 mm) and most ... Deiters cells M. Holmes and J. D. Cole, "Pseudoresonance in the cochlea, ' in: Mechanics of Hearing, E. de Boer and M. A. ... In: Altschuler, R.A., Hoffman, D.W., Bobbin, R.P. (Eds.), Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. Raven Press, New York, pp. 109- ...
The human ear is made up of three areas: the outer, middle and inner ear. Within the inner ear sits the cochlea. The cochlea is ... ear. The auditory filter of an impaired ear is flatter and broader compared to a normal ear. This is because the frequency ... When a sound is presented to the human ear, the time taken for the wave to travel through the cochlea is only 5 milliseconds. ... 365-375 Plewes, K. (2006). Anatomy and physiology of the ear. "Promenade 'round the Cochlea". 2003. Moore, B. C. J.; Glasberg, ...
Internal auditory meatus
Horizontal section through left ear; upper half of section. The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Tympanic cavity. ... is a canal within the petrous part of the temporal bone of the skull between the posterior cranial fossa and the inner ear. The ... can pass from inside the skull to structures of the inner ear and face. It also contains the vestibular ganglion. The opening ...
Ear, the auditory end organ. Cochlea, the auditory branch of the inner ear. Auditory illusion, sound trick analogous to an ... Auditory ossicles, three bones in the middle ear that transmit sounds. Sound, the physical signal perceived by the auditory ... External auditory meatus, the ear canal Auditory scene analysis, the process by which a scene containing many sounds is ...
In slightly more detail this corresponds to ear (cochlea) -> cranial nerve VIII (auditory) -> cochlear nucleus (ventral/ ... First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... The basic pathway follows the auditory pathway from the ear up to the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLN) from where it ...
Pure tone audiometry
When the stimuli presented to the test ear stimulates the cochlea of the non-test ear, this is known as cross hearing. Whenever ... This prevents the non-test ear from detecting the test signal presented to the test ear. The threshold of the test ear is ... Audition Cochlea Promenade oreille ear organ Corti C.R.I.C Montpellier. This website provides excellent diagrams and animated ... When sound is applied to one ear the contralateral cochlea can also be stimulated to varying degrees, via vibrations through ...
Sensorineural hearing loss
Unlike hearing aids, which make sounds louder, cochlear implants do the work of damaged parts of the inner ear (cochlea) to ... From the middle ear, a drug can diffuse across the round window membrane into the inner ear. Intratympanic administration of ... Moore, BC (April 2004). "Dead regions in the cochlea: conceptual foundations, diagnosis, and clinical applications". Ear and ... 2010). "Drug delivery for treatment of inner ear disease: current state of knowledge". Ear Hear. 31 (2): 156-65. doi:10.1097/ ...
Prostaglandin EP4 receptor
EP44 receptors are expressed in the cochlea of the inner ear. Pre- and post-treatment of guinea pigs with an EP4 agonist ... These findings indicate that EP4 is involved in mechanisms for prostaglandin E(1) actions on the cochlea, and local EP4 agonist ... "Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP4 agonist protects cochleae against noise-induced trauma". Neuroscience. 160 (4): 813-9. doi ...
The cochlea is primarily a hearing structure situated in the inner ear. It is the snail-shaped shell containing several nerve ... Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the ... Ototoxicity typically results when the inner ear is poisoned by medication that damages the cochlea, vestibule, semi-circular ... Ototoxicity in the cochlea may cause hearing loss of the high-frequency pitch ranges or complete deafness, or losses at points ...
Glossary of communication disorders
Inner ear Part of the ear that contains both the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the organ of balance (the labyrinth). ... Middle ear Part of the ear that includes the eardrum and three tiny bones of the middle ear, ending at the round window that ... Cholesteatoma Accumulation of dead cells in the middle ear, caused by repeated middle ear infections. Cochlea Snail-shaped ... Ear infection Presence and growth of bacteria or viruses in the ear. Earwax Yellow secretion from glands in the outer ear ( ...
Topographic map (neuroanatomy)
The vibrations travel through the bones of the inner ear to the cochlea. In the cochlea, the vibrations are transduced into ... Higher frequency sounds are at the base of the cochlea, if it were unrolled, and low frequency sounds are at the apex. This ... Sound waves enter the ear through the auditory canal. These waves arrive at the eardrum where the properties of the waves are ... The tonotopic layout of sound information begins in the cochlea where the basilar membrane vibrates at different positions ...
Bone conduction auditory brainstem response
This is a way to somewhat bypass the outer and middle ears to stimulate the cochlea. Von Bekesy is credited with the discovery ... Auditory brainstem response Bone conduction Cochlea Middle ear Tone burst Katz, J. (2002). Handbook of Clinical Audiology. ... Ear & Hearing; 8, 4. Stapells, D.R., & Ruben, R.J. Auditory brainstem responses to bone-conducted tones in infants. Annals of ... An example of this occurs when you close your ears and speak- your voice appears to be much lower in frequency. Bone-conduction ...
This is an electronic device that replaces the cochlea of the inner ear. Electrodes are typically inserted through the round ... The result is a tympanogram showing ear canal volume, middle ear pressure and eardrum compliance. Normal middle ear function ( ... The cochlea is tonotopically mapped in a spiral fashion, with lower frequencies localizing at the apex of the cochlea, and high ... Heredity: factors like early aging of the cochlea and susceptibility of the cochlea for drug insults are genetically determined ...
Noise-induced hearing loss
The ear can not get more resistant to noise harmfulness by training it to noise. The cochlea is partially protected by the ... The middle ear ossicles transfer mechanical energy to the cochlea by way of the stapes footplate hammering against the oval ... This typical 4000 Hz notch is due to the transfer function of the ear. Indeed, as any object facing a sound, the ear acts as a ... Hearing loss can affect either one or both ears. When one ear is affected it causes problems with directional hearing. ...
... these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The inner ear has a cochlea, but it is not spiral as in mammals. A few species ... The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds, such as the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, ... Saito, Nozomu (1978). "Physiology and anatomy of avian ear". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 64 (S1): S3. doi ... the two common ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse god Odin. In several civilisations of ancient Italy, ...
Alternatively, the sensory receivers may be centralized in the cochlea of the inner ear. Vibrations are transmitted from the ... The ear lacks a pinna, the reduced ear opening is hidden under fur and the organization of the middle ear indicates it would be ... The vibrations are transmitted through the lower jaw, which is often rested on the ground and is connected with the inner ear. ... In addition, the annular muscle surrounding the ear canal can constrict the passageway, thereby dampening acoustic signals and ...
The lateral canal of one ear is very nearly in the same plane as that of the other; while the superior canal of one ear is ... The cochlea and vestibule, viewed from above. Transverse section through head of fetal sheep, in the region of the labyrinth. X ... Ear Inner ear This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Saladin, ... interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear. The three canals are the horizontal, superior ...
At the same time, he was researching the structure of the ear, and the organ of Corti in particular. He continued to research ... He saw this organ as a link between the cochlea of higher and lower vertebrates. In the British Medical Journal of January 1880 ... In 1874 he was appointed surgeon of the Royal Ear Hospital, holding this position until 1900, when he stepped down and became ... Pritchard, Urban (1873). On the Structure and Function of the Rods of the Cochlea in Man and Other Mammals. William Clowes & ...
Tone decay test
... to the normal ear. E.g. A tone at SL of 60 dB in normal ear and 30 dB in impaired ear may sound equally loud. This result ... This is due to abnormality in cochlea such as hypersensitivity of haircells due to damage. Recruitment is a landmark feature of ... Fowler noted that equal loudness between the recruiting impaired ear with normal ear can be achieved only with larger sensation ... When the recruitment is associated with cochlea then the concept is known as Partial Recruitment. Low cost and ...
Philosophy of perception
Mammals have three bones in the middle ear and a cochlea in the inner ear. They are clothed in hair and their skin contains ... There is an inner ear but no external or middle ear. Low frequency vibrations are detected by the lateral line system of sense ... The nostrils, eyes and ears are elevated above the top of the flat head enabling them to remain above the surface of the water ... Valves seal the nostrils and ears when it is submerged. Unlike other reptiles, crocodilians have hearts with four chambers ...
Function of the vestibular nerve may be tested by putting cold and warm water in the ears and watching eye movements caloric ... The cochlear nerve transmits information from the cochlea, allowing sound to be heard. When damaged, the vestibular nerve may ... Damage to the cochlear nerve will cause partial or complete deafness in the affected ear. The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) ... The vestibular part is responsible for innervating the vestibules and semicircular canal of the inner ear; this structure ...
Perception of infrasound
... a bone that links the tympanic membrane to the inner ear, in each ear severely reduced the ability to respond to infrasound, ... They originate in the apical end of the cochlea and they are located near fibers that transmit low frequency sounds in the ... It was observed that the elephant spread the pinna of its ears only during the sound localization tasks, however the precise ... This shows that the receptors for infrasonic stimuli may be located in the inner ear. Neural fibers that are sensitive to ...
History of deaf education
It is a prosthetic with wires attached to the cochlea and is located behind the ear. The cochlear implant has a microphone, ... Since the Cochlear implant is in fact brain surgery, it destroys the cochlea in the process of implantation. Teaching ... "Innovations for the Hearing Impaired". Cochlear Implant- Bionic Ear. About.com. Retrieved 11/5/2011. Check date values in: , ... converts sounds into electrical impulses by taking information from sound patterns and producing an electrical pulse in the ear ...
SLC26A4 can be found in the cochlea (part of the inner ear), thyroid and the kidney. In the kidney, it participates in the ... MRI scanning of the inner ear usually shows widened or large vestibular aqueducts with enlarged endolymphatic sacs and may show ... In some cases, language development worsens after head injury, demonstrating that the inner ear is sensitive to trauma in ... abnormalities of the cochleae that is known as Mondini dysplasia. Genetic testing to identify the pendrin gene usually ...
... and can be divided into the inner ear and outer ear. The remainder of this article mainly references the cochlea, outer hair ... In general, structural damages to any anatomical part of the ear can cause hearing-related problems. Usually, minor bending of ... The complete anatomy of the ear is extensive, ... the stereocilia of the inner ear is associated with temporary ...
This mechanism seeks to reduce the sound energy in the ear by dampening its transfer from eardrum to cochlea. It has been seen ... With regards to listening fatigue, the relevant mechanical and biochemical mechanisms primarily deal with inner ear and cochlea ... Blockage of the ear canal, common in [headphones], is thought to be a main contributing factor in listener fatigue. When cut ... The temperature and heat levels of the body are directly correlated with the temporary threshold shifts of the ear. When the ...
Ossicles - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
They are contained within the middle ear space and serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea ... the elliptical or oval window or opening between the middle ear and the inner ear. ... The ossicles are, in order from the eardrum to the inner ear (from superficial to deep), the malleus, incus, and stapes. The ... Studies have shown that ear bones in mammal embryos are attached to the dentary, which is part of the lower jaw. These are ...
... middle and inner ears are present). There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Due to their short cochlea, reptiles use ... The last species to have been studied is the red-eared slider, which also breathes during locomotion, but takes smaller breaths ... Most typical sense organs are well developed with certain exceptions, most notably the snake's lack of external ears ( ...
The lateral canal of one ear is very nearly in the same plane as that of the other; while the superior canal of one ear is ... Cochlea and vestibular system. See also: Balance (ability) and Equilibrioception. The semicircular ducts provide sensory input ... interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear. The three canals are the horizontal, superior ... Inner ear illustration showing semicircular canal, hair cells, ampulla, cupula, vestibular nerve, & fluid ...
The human ear has a large dynamic range in sound reception. The ratio of the sound intensity that causes permanent damage ... http://oto2.wustl.edu/cochlea/wt4.html *^ Bigelow, Stephen (2001). Understanding Telephone Electronics. Newnes. p. 16. ISBN 978 ... Since the human ear is not equally sensitive to all sound frequencies, noise levels at maximum human sensitivity, somewhere ... These symbols are often used to denote the use of different weighting filters, used to approximate the human ear's response to ...
Neuroscience of music
"Ear and Hearing. 31 (3): 302-24. doi:10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181cdb272. PMC 2868335. PMID 20084007.. ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. The ... Successive parts of the tonotopically organized basilar membrane in the cochlea resonate to corresponding frequency bandwidths ... Zatorre, Robert J.; Halpern, Andrea R.; Perry, David W.; Meyer, Ernst; Evans, Alan C. (1996). "Hearing in the Mind's Ear: A PET ...
নিতম্বাস্থি - উইকিপিডিয়া
Inner ear/. (membranous labyrinth,. bony labyrinth). Auditory system/. Cochlear labyrinth. General cochlea. *Vestibular duct ... a b c d e f g h i j k l Hawke, M. (2003) Chapter 1: Diseases of the Pinna. Ear Disease: A Clinical Guide. Hamilton, Ontario. ... a b c d Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears. MedlinePlus. *^ a b Neonatal Dermatology: Ear Anomalies. Archived November 9, ... Ear stapling. References. *^ Moore, K. L. The Developing Human: Clinically Oriental Embryology, ninth edition. Saunders. ...
Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement methods
... in the middle ear to the oval window of the cochlea. Vibrations of the footplate of stapes transmit through the oval window to ... The stapedius, which emerges from the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity of the middle ear and inserts into the neck of the ... A measurable acoustic phenomenon that originates in the inner ear would, at least in theory, allow for more precise assessment ... and perilymph caused by contractions of the outer hair cells of the inner ear in response to a loud sound, seems to offer such ...
... these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The inner ear has a cochlea, but it is not spiral as in mammals. ... Saito, Nozomu (1978). "Physiology and anatomy of avian ear". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 64 (S1): S3. doi ... The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds, such as the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, ... the two common ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse god Odin. In several civilisations of ancient Italy, ...
The external ears of microbats do not close to form a ring; the edges are separated from each other at the base of the ear. ... but ontogenic analysis of the cochlea supports that laryngeal echolocation evolved only once. ... The ears of these bats are sharply tuned to a specific frequency range. They emit calls outside this range to avoid deafening ... Six species have been recorded to live over 30 years in the wild: the brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), the little brown ...
Conductive hearing loss
Middle ear (ossicular chain), tympanic membrane, or external ear Weber test Sound localizes to normal ear Sound localizes to ... to the cochlea or organ of hearing bypassing the pathology. These can be on a soft or hard headband or can be inserted ... Tumor of the ear canal. *Congenital stenosis or atresia of the external auditory canal (narrow or blocked ear canal). *Ear ... Examination of the external ear canal and ear drum is important and may help identify problems located in the outer ear up to ...
Additionally, in fully developed MD the balance system (vestibular system) and the hearing system (cochlea) of the inner ear ... ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear. Typically, only one ear is affected initially; ... Feeling like the world is spinning, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, fullness in the ear. ... Ménière's disease usually starts confined to one ear; it appears that it extends to both ears in about 30% of cases. ...
... through the middle ear apparatus and into the cochlea (i.e., there is a conductive hearing loss). ... In an ear with normal hearing and an ear with sensorineural hearing loss, air conduction (AC) is more than bone conduction (BC ... The Rinne test (/ˈrɪnə/ RIN-ə) is a hearing test, primarily for evaluating loss of hearing in one ear (unilateral hearing loss ... In an ear with conductive hearing loss, bone conduction (BC) is better than air conduction (AC) BC , AC Negative ...
... the participants did not favor any particular ear. Due to the contralateral nature of the auditory system, the right ear is ... and is likely to reflect the fact that the cochlea is arranged according to sound frequency. The auditory cortex is involved in ... In a study involving dichotic listening to speech, in which one message is presented to the right ear and another to the left, ... Besides receiving input from the ears via lower parts of the auditory system, it also transmits signals back to these areas and ...
The development of inner ear structures such as the cochlea is regulated by Dlx5/Dlx6, Otx1/Otx2 and Pax2, which in turn are ... The human ear consists of three parts-the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. The ear canal of the outer ear is separated ... In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts-the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear ... Inner ear. The outer ear receives sound, transmitted through the ossicles of the middle ear to the inner ear, where it is ...
List of Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... of which the cochlea, a straight short tube to the external ear, branches from. ... The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane ... The middle avian ear is made up of three semicircular canals, each ending in an ampulla and joining to connect with the macula ... Morphological differences in the middle ear are observed between species. Ossicles within green finches, blackbirds, song ...
Sensory nervous system
The sound is passed from the receiver on the arm of the spectacles to the inner ear (cochlea), via the bony portion. The ... In the Ear Hearing Aids. In the ear aids (ITE) devices fit in the outer ear bowl (called the concha). Being larger, these ... Behind the Ear Hearing Aids. Behind the ear hearing aids are one of two major classes of hearing aids - Behind the ear ( ... Early devices, such as ear trumpets or ear horns, were passive amplification cones designed to gather sound energy and ...
Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles
... the middle ear collects airborne sounds through an ear drum and transmits the vibrations to the inner ear via thin ... matching the mechanical impedance of vibrations in air to vibrations in the liquid of the cochlea. The net effect of this ... Definitive mammalian middle earEdit. The mammalian middle ear contains three tiny bones known as the ossicles: malleus, incus, ... The frequency range and sensitivity of the ear is dependent upon the shape and arrangement of the middle-ear bones. In early ...
Jagger, Daniel James (1996). Modulation of ion channels in outer hair cells from the mammalian cochlea. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis ... This structure in the inner ear increases the selectivity and sensitivity of our hearing through an in-built cochlear amplifier ... Ashmore, J. F.; Meech, R. W. (1986). "Ionic basis of membrane potential in outer hair cells of guinea pig cochlea". Nature. 322 ... Ashmore has worked on dissecting the cellular mechanisms of hearing by studying the organ of Corti in the mammalian cochlea ...
Πρότυπο:Ανατομία - Βικιπαίδεια
Bone-anchored hearing aid
Two of the causes of hearing loss are lack of function in the inner ear (cochlea) and when the sound has problems in reaching ... Some with this condition have normal inner ear function, as the external ear canal and the inner ear are developed at different ... Most ear surgeons are thus reluctant to perform surgery on an only hearing ear.[medical citation needed] The BAHA surgery ... External ear canal problems. Irritation in the external ear canal due to inflammation or eczema may be a condition for ...
Bat - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... but the well-preserved skeleton showed the cochlea of the inner ear could not achieve the great hearing ability of modern bats ... An interesting thing about bats is that even though they can see with their eyes, they also use their ears to help them 'see' ... The team said it lacked ear and throat features not only of echolocating bats today, but also in other known fossil species. ... Interestingly, bats also use their thumbs to clean their ears. Bats' wings have a lot of maneuverability (they can change ...
সংবেদী স্নায়ুতন্ত্র - উইকিপিডিয়া
Inner ear/. (membranous labyrinth,. bony labyrinth). Auditory system/. Cochlear labyrinth. General cochlea. *Vestibular duct ... is a pathway running from the outer ear to the middle ear. The adult human ear canal extends from the pinna to the eardrum and ... The human ear canal is divided into two parts. The elastic cartilage part forms the outer third of the canal; its anterior and ... The ear canal (external acoustic meatus, external auditory meatus, EAM) ...
As much as 15 - 20% (for example 200 Hz one ear => 240 Hz in the other). Hard to match because the SNHL ear hears it "fuzzily ... Diplacusis may also occur if for some reason the density of the fluid in the cochlea is altered. To a good approximation, the ... the same tone presented alternately to the two ears may be perceived as having different pitches in the two ears. This is the ... The magnitude of the shift can be measured by getting the subject to adjust the frequency of a tone in one ear until its pitch ...
Dopaminergic Signaling in the Cochlea: Receptor Expression Patterns and Deletion Phenotypes | Journal of Neuroscience
... the density of TH-positive fibers was higher in the basal half of the cochlea. In all, 4 knock-out ears and 4 wild-type ears ... Cochleas were harvested from adult mice at 12 weeks of age. Following decapitation, both bullas were removed. The inner ear was ... Samples were kept frozen by immersion into liquid nitrogen until at least 3 samples of 2-3 cochleas were collected. Inner ears ... Whole-mount preparations were also used for immunostaining to localize dopamine receptor subtypes in wild-type ears. Cochleae ...
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling Regulates the Timing of Sensory Cell Differentiation in the Mouse Cochlea | Journal of...
To examine the roles of the IGF pathway in inner ear formation, cochleae from Igf1r mutant mice were analyzed. Deletion of ... F, G, Immunostaining for Ki67 in cross-sections of the basal region of the cochlea from control (F) and Igf1r−/− cochleae (G) ... Within the cochlea, the onset of Atoh1 expression follows a stereotypical pattern that initiates near the base of the cochlea ... Igf1, Igf2, and Igf1r are expressed in the developing mouse cochlea. To determine which cells within the developing cochlea ...
Patent WO2003039660A1 - Subthreshold stimulation of a cochlea - Google Patents
The peripheral auditory system is subdivided into the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The external ear ... Sound, in a form of a mechanical wave, enters the cochlea at the round window. The cochlea is filled with fluid and the ... This motion is transformed across the middle ear and transferred to the inner ear, where it is frequency analysed and converted ... but rather into a natural crevice in the cochlea that allows for the hydrodynamic nature of the cochlea to be maintained. Still ...
The effect of aging on cochlear amplifier : A simulation approach using a physiologically-based electro-mechanical model of the...
Human cochleas; Inner ear; Mechanical elements; Middle ears; Organ of corti; Simulation approach; Sound pressure field; ... A sound pressure field in the air is transmitted via the outer and middle ear to the inner ear. It causes the stapes to vibrate ... The CFs of the curves tend to move backwards in a presbyacusis cochlea, this result is consistent with Robles and Ruggem where ... The electrical, acoustical, and mechanical elements of the cochlea are explicitly integrated into a transmission-line model to ...
Cochlea | anatomy | Britannica.com
The cochlea is a spiral tube that is… ... The cochlea contains the sensory organ of hearing. It bears a ... In human ear: Cochlea. The cochlea contains the sensory organ of hearing. It bears a striking resemblance to the shell of a ... inner ear, which contains the cochlea. The cochlea is a complex coiled structure. It consists of a long membrane, known as the ... In the cochlea (the specialized auditory end organ of the inner ear), the frequency of a pure tone is reported by the location ...
Search Results for "cochlea" | jns
... or direct radiation injury to inner ear structures. 1 It has been shown that the components of the cochlea are likely to be ... T he cochlea is the most anterior and medial part of the vestibulocochlear labyrinth. It lies anteromedial to the vestibule and ... ear structures were exposed after removal of the posterior wall of the external acoustic canal and the tympanic membrane. E: ... The position of the cochlea was determined on bone window CT scans. The position of the cochlear nucleus was identified on the ...
Spiral canal of cochlea | Definition of Spiral canal of cochlea at Dictionary.com
Spiral canal of cochlea definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... The winding tube located in the bony labyrinth of the ear.cochlear canal ... spiral canal of cochlea. spiral, spiral arm, spiral bandage, spiral bevel gear, spiral binding, spiral canal of cochlea, spiral ...
Frontiers | Macrophage-Mediated Glial Cell Elimination in the Postnatal Mouse Cochlea | Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
... demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and ... demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and ... preserving the modiolus portion of the cochlea. For RNA isolations, the left and right ear cochlea preparations from a single ... Inner ears were dissected and immersed in fixative overnight at 4°C. Decalcification for P16 cochleae was completed by ...
Engineering Acoustics/The Human Ear and Sound Perception - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
The cochlea. The cochlea, or inner ear, constitutes the hydrodynamic part of the ear. It is a small, hollow, snail shaped ... It is really interesting to note that if the two tones are presented to each ear separately, then no beating occurs and the ear ... the little bones in the middle ear) to tense under an intense acoustic stimulus, thereby making the inner ear stiffer and in ... The cochlea is divided down the middle by the basilar membrane which is a partly bony and partly gelatinous membrane. It is on ...
β-Catenin is required for radial cell patterning and identity in the developing mouse cochlea | PNAS
Neurod1 suppresses hair cell differentiation in ear ganglia and regulates hair cell subtype development in the cochlea. PLoS ... Single-cell RNA-Seq resolves cellular complexity in sensory organs from the neonatal inner ear. Nat. Commun. 6, 8557 (2015).. ... β-Catenin is required for radial cell patterning and identity in the developing mouse cochlea. Lina Jansson, Michael Ebeid, ... The cochlea is essential for sound detection. It consists of highly differentiated hair cells and nonsensory supporting cells ...
Lgr5-positive supporting cells generate new hair cells in the postnatal cochlea. - PubMed - NCBI
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA ; Program in Speech and Hearing Bioscience and Technology, Division ... Lgr5-positive supporting cells generate new hair cells in the postnatal cochlea.. Bramhall NF1, Shi F2, Arnold K3, Hochedlinger ... The prevalence of hearing loss after damage to the mammalian cochlea has been thought to be due to a lack of spontaneous ... These data suggest that the neonatal mammalian cochlea has some capacity for hair cell regeneration following damage alone and ...
Tectorial Membrane - Cochlea
Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo
The traditional theory predicts that OAE will propagate to the ear canal via a backward traveling wave on the basilar membrane ... while the opponent theory proposed that the OAE will reach the ear canal via a compression wave. Although accepted by most ... the phase spectra of the basilar membrane vibration at multiple longitudinal locations of the basal turn of the cochlea. A ... Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo,. Neural Plasticity,. vol ...
DK Human Body: Ear
The outer ear collects sound and directs it to the sensory structures deep inside the skull. ... The ear is the organ of hearing and balance. ... WHAT HAPPENS IN THE COCHLEA? HOW DO EARS HELP US BALANCE?. FIND ... DK Human Body: Ear. HOW DOES SOUND TRAVEL THROUGH THE EAR? ... The ear is the organ of hearing and balance. The outer ear ... These bones pass the vibrations to the fluid-filled inner ear and the cochlea. ...
Three-dimensional imaging of the intact mouse cochlea by fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy. - PubMed - NCBI
A view near the center of the inner ear presented in , prior to slicing open the cochlear capsule. This volume began 400 μm ... The capsule may be trimmed to allow the cochlea to lie on the coverslip, or sliced (e.g., along the dashed line) to open the ... However, the cochlea is often sectioned to minimize the effects of its anatomic complexity and optical properties on image ... B) A decalcified cochlea cleared in MSBB and imaged by oblique lighting clearly displays the modiolus, basilar lamina, spiral ...
How Does the Cochlea Work to Let Us Hear? | HubPages
The cochlea is located in the inner ear and is the main hearing organ. Outer and inner hair cells detect and transmit ... which separates the middle ear bones from the inner ear. Sound is collected by the outer ear, travels down the air-filled ear ... The cochlea is a spiral organ shaped like a nautilus shell in the inner ear. The cochlea contains the organ of Corti, with ... The middle ear bones amplify sound as they transmit it through the air-filled middle ear space. Firstly, the first middle ear ...
DIGITAL.CSIC: Folate deficiency alters homocysteine cycle in the cochlea and causes premature hearing loss in mice
50th Inner Ear Biology Workshop (2013). Abstract: The methionine/homocysteine cycle is modulated by nutritional factors and its ... In summary our data indicate that: i) the main enzymes of Hcy metabolism are expressed in the cochlea; ii) alterations in the ... All Hcy cycle enzymes studied were expressed in the cochlea. But some of them showed altered mobility in Western blotting as ... Póster presentado en el 50th Inner Ear Biology Workshop (IEB), celebrado en Alcalá de Henares del 10 al 13 de septiembre de ...
Frontiers | LGR4 and LGR5 Regulate Hair Cell Differentiation in the Sensory Epithelium of the Developing Mouse Cochlea |...
Using the Lgr5 knock-in mouse line we show that loss of LGR5 function increases Wnt/β-catenin activity in the embryonic cochlea ... Using the Lgr5 knock-in mouse line we show that loss of LGR5 function increases Wnt/β-catenin activity in the embryonic cochlea ... The loss of LGR4 function prolonged the proliferation in the mid-basal turn of E13 cochleae, causing an increase in the number ... Not much, however, is known about the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin activity in the cochlea. In multiple tissues, the activity of ...
What Is the Function of the Semicircular Canals? | Reference.com
Semicircular canals are the part of the inner ear associated with balance. These three canals have cilia and fluid to transmit ... The semicircular canals form part of the inner ear along with the cochlea and are connected to the auditory nerve. The inner ... Semicircular canals are the part of the inner ear associated with balance. These three canals have cilia and fluid to transmit ... ear is connected to the outer ear by a thin membrane known as the oval window. ...
What Are the Parts of the Inner Ear That Are Responsible for Balance? | Reference.com
Information collected from the inner ear is sent... ... and utricle are the parts located within the inner ear that are ... What Part of the Ear Contains the Sensory Receptors for Hearing? What Is the Function of the Cochlea? ... The inner ear contains three semicircular canals that are able to monitor changes in movement of the body. Hair cells located ... If abnormal signals are received from the inner ear, the body attempts to adjust. This is done by moving the arms and legs, as ...
The Role of the Transcription Factor Foxo3 in Hearing Maintenance: Informed Speculation on a New Player in the Cochlea
Animal models have elucidated the cellular pathological sequelae of specific inner ear insults . Noise exposure, ... Foxo3 expression in the adult mouse cochlea suggests that it acts in sensory cells. Foxo3 protein is detected in the nuclei of ... H. W. Lin, A. C. Furman, S. G. Kujawa, and M. C. Liberman, "Primary neural degeneration in the Guinea pig cochlea after ... The identification of genes involved in early-onset hearing loss has led to a wealth of knowledge about how the cochlea ...
Wnt signaling mediates reorientation of outer hair cell stereociliary bundles in the mammalian cochlea | Development
In the ear, orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles is particularly important for normal hearing (Fujita and Orita, 1988 ... Multiple Wnt genes are expressed in the embryonic cochlea. To determine if Wnt genes are expressed in the developing cochlea, ... Cochleae from P0 and adult mice homozygous for a deletion of Wnt7a with obvious limb patterning defects (Parr and McMahon, 1995 ... Development of the cochlea and organ of Corti of P0 and adults appeared unaffected in Wnt7a homozygous mutants and no obvious ...
A dual function for canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the developing mammalian cochlea | Development
In the inner ear, this pathway has been shown to regulate the size of the otic placode from which the cochlea will arise; ... In the inner ear, Qian et al. (Qian et al., 2007) reported no Wnt/β-catenin activity in the otocyst and developing cochlea ... In the cochlea, Sox2 has been shown, at least in part, to regulate the expression of the transcription factor Prox1 (Dabdoub et ... Laine et al., 2010) identified low-level activity in cochleae of the same BAT-gal strain as well as in the TOP-gal reporter ( ...
Cochlear Function: Overview, Microenvironment of the Inner Ear, Traveling Wave and Signal Transduction
While performing this sensory transduction process, the inner ear analyzes a sound stimulus in terms of its frequency, ... The inner ear functions as the sensorineural receptor organ of the auditory system, converting an acoustic waveform into an ... Microenvironment of the Inner Ear. The cochlea consists of 3 fluid-filled ducts or scalae (see the image below). These ducts ... In the late 1970s, sound was recorded in the external ear canal that was found to be generated by the cochlea itself. The ...
Basilar membrane - Wikipedia
The basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear is a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes ... The basilar membrane is widest (0.42-0.65 mm) and least stiff at the apex of the cochlea, and narrowest (0.08-0.16 mm) and most ... Deiters cells M. Holmes and J. D. Cole, "Pseudoresonance in the cochlea, in: Mechanics of Hearing, E. de Boer and M. A. ... In: Altschuler, R.A., Hoffman, D.W., Bobbin, R.P. (Eds.), Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. Raven Press, New York, pp. 109- ...
Eyes and Ears (Example) - MindMeister
Ear, Light, Inventions that can help us see, Inventions that can help us hear, types of eyes, New node ... 3. Ear. 3.1. Auricle. 3.2. Hammer. 3.3. Ear Drum. 3.4. Pinna. 3.5. cochlea. 3.6. anvil. 3.7. stirrup. 3.8. Semicircular canals ... Eyes and Ears. by Gary Molloy 1. Sound. 1.1. Vibration. 1.2. sound waves. 1.3. Need air to make sound.. 2. Eye. 2.1. Iris. 2.2 ...
How We Hear And Cochlea Implants | Interviews | Naked Scientists
Sound is then transmitted to the inner ear, inside of which theres a membrane which is thin and stiff at one end and wobbly at ... We all take our ears for granted, I think. How do they actually work?Bob - Basically, sound is vibration in the air and it is ... But a cochlea implant looks a bit like a normal hearing aid. Its worn behind the ear and theres a microphone attached to it. ... Chris - Can your ears literally tune into certain sounds then?. Bob - The ears are pretty good at tuning into individual ...
Glossary For A Parent's Guide To Hearing Loss | CDC
Inner Ear: The inner ear is made up of the snail shaped organ for hearing (called the cochlea) and the nerves that go to the ... Cochlea: The cochlea is in the inner ear. Its a snail-shaped tube that is filled with fluid and has tiny hair cells. Sound ... Outer Ear: The outer ear is made up of the parts we see (pinna), the ear canal, and eardrum (tympanic membrane). ... It is a part of the outer ear. The pinna collects sound and sends it down the ear canal to the rest of the ear. ...
Critical band - Wikipedia
The human ear is made up of three areas: the outer, middle and inner ear. Within the inner ear sits the cochlea. The cochlea is ... ear. The auditory filter of an impaired ear is flatter and broader compared to a normal ear. This is because the frequency ... When a sound is presented to the human ear, the time taken for the wave to travel through the cochlea is only 5 milliseconds. ... 365-375 Plewes, K. (2006). Anatomy and physiology of the ear. "Promenade round the Cochlea". 2003. Moore, B. C. J.; Glasberg, ...
JBL Duet BT | Wireless on-ear headphones
JBL DUETBT on-ear wireless headphones bring the signature sound of JBL in one of our most versatile packages ever. Prepare for ... My left ear has a damaged cochlea. Can I listen just through the right headphone? ... JBL DUETBT on-ear wireless headphones bring the signature sound of JBL right to your ears. The DUETBT is one of our most ... Leather ear pads and aluminum touches Comfortable, leather ear pads and aluminum touches complement the sleek look of the ...
SensorineuralInflammationThroatLabyrinthMiddleHearing LossFullnessBilateralHairSemicircularVibrationsPinnaMouse cochleaOssiclesCanalTympanicShape of the cochleaHearingAnatomyStapesAuricleBasilarMassachusetts Eye and EVestibularLength of the cochleaCerumenHair cells in the postnatalConverts soundPostnatalMalleusFrequenciesFluid-filledNeuronsMammalian inner earOval windowApexEmbryonic cochleaEustachian tubeSensory epitheliaOuter and middle earScala vestibuliAmplify soundCochlear nerveTransmitMiddle ear cavityPortion of the earTurn of the cochleaCoil of the cochleaSection of the cochleaStructure of the CochleaMammalsSeparates the middle earInner ear to the brainImpulsesContains the cochleaBony labyrinth of the ear
- Lorenz RR, Solares CA, Williams P, Sikora J, Pelfrey CM, Hughes GB and Tuohy VK: Interferon-γ production to inner ear antigens by T cells from patients with autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss. (spandidos-publications.com)
- More severe barotrauma can lead to middle ear fluid or even permanent sensorineural hearing loss. (symptoma.com)
- Deletion of Igf1r leads to several changes in inner ear development including a shortened cochlear duct, a decrease in the total number of cochlear hair cells, and defects in the formation of the semicircular canals. (jneurosci.org)
- human cochlea and semicircular canals Dissection of the human cochlea and semicircular canals. (britannica.com)
- Semicircular canals are the part of the inner ear associated with balance. (reference.com)
- The semicircular canals form part of the inner ear along with the cochlea and are connected to the auditory nerve. (reference.com)
- The semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle are the parts located within the inner ear that are responsible for monitoring and maintaining balance. (reference.com)
- The inner ear contains three semicircular canals that are able to monitor changes in movement of the body. (reference.com)
- The inner ear contains the otolith organs-the utricle and saccule-and the semicircular canals belonging to the vestibular system, as well as the cochlea of the auditory system. (wikipedia.org)
- It consists of the vesibule and the semicircular canals that contribute to the sensation of motion and the control of balance, and the cochlea, which is involved in hearing. (nature.com)
- BPPV develops when calcium carbonate crystals, which are known as otoconia, shift into and become trapped within the semicircular canals (one of the vestibular organs of the inner ear that controls balance). (clevelandclinic.org)
- Then there is the inner ear, which includes the cochlea and the semicircular canals. (soundonsound.com)
- The fluid-filled semicircular canals (labyrinth) attach to the cochlea and nerves in the inner ear. (webmd.com)
- The mechanical vibrations of the stapes footplate at the oval window creates pressure waves in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. (britannica.com)
- This reduction in the motion of the stapes equates to a real rather than a perceived reduction in the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted through the middle ear to the inner ear. (wikibooks.org)
- Sound travels into the ear as vibrations in air. (factmonster.com)
- These bones pass the vibrations to the fluid-filled inner ear and the cochlea. (factmonster.com)
- When sound waves hit the cochlea, they cause the fluid inside it to vibrate: the hair cells detect these vibrations and convert them into electrical signals that are sent along neurons to the brain. (elifesciences.org)
- Tiny bones in the ear amplify and transmit these vibrations to the fluid in the cochlea, creating pressure waves that travel along a narrowing canal in the coiled tube-like organ. (innovations-report.com)
- To do this, your middle ear turns the sound waves into vibrations, which are then passed on to your inner ear . (study.com)
- It is your inner ear that uses the vibrations to create nerve impulses that travel to your brain. (study.com)
- The cochlea is a fluid-filled tube that converts vibrations into nerve impulses. (study.com)
- The vibrations are then passed to 3 tiny bones in the middle ear called the ossicles. (rochester.edu)
- In order for mammals to hear, sound vibrations travel through a hollow, snail shell-looking structure called the cochlea. (eurekalert.org)
- Hair cells are arranged inside the cochlea, which convert sound vibrations into nerve impulses. (keyence.com)
- These vibrations of the tympanic membrane are transmitted to the ossicles, which in turn transmit them to the cochlea. (soundonsound.com)
- bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations. (brainscape.com)
- The sensors allowed the researchers to pick up phase shifts-a change in the alignment of the vibrations of the sound waves within the ear-suggesting that some part of the ear was amplifying sound. (scientificamerican.com)
- From here, the vibrations are amplified and pass through fluid-like substance in a snail-shaped structure called the cochlea, located in the inner ear. (bartleby.com)
- The ear converts sound waves in the air, to nerve impulses which are sent to the brain, where the brain interprets them as sounds instead of vibrations. (bartleby.com)
- The vibrations of the molecules strike the ear drum, which vibrates back and forth, moving the ossicles (Latin for 'little bones') that are on the other side (in the middle ear). (bris.ac.uk)
- However, the muscles can't stop really strong vibrations from getting through, so some loud sounds can still damage the ear. (bris.ac.uk)
- Cells further into the cochlea seem to be most sensitive to low pitch, or it is possible that cells all the way along the cochlea respond to low frequency vibrations. (bris.ac.uk)
- The sound waves cause the tympanum to vibrate and the three small bones of the middle ear , the anvil, hammer and stirrup , transfer the vibrations of the tympanum to the oval window of the Cochlea . (everything2.com)
- By this time the tympanum and middle ear have amplified the vibrations by a factor of 40. (everything2.com)
- The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal. (wikipedia.org)
- The pinna consists of the curving outer rim called the helix, the inner curved rim called the antihelix, and opens into the ear canal. (wikipedia.org)
- In most animals, the visible ear is a flap of tissue that is also called the pinna . (wikidoc.org)
- The pinna may be all that shows of the ear, but it serves only the first of many steps in hearing and plays no role in the sense of balance. (wikidoc.org)
- The outer ear includes the pinna (also called auricle), the ear canal, and the very most superficial layer of the ear drum (also called the tympanic membrane). (wikidoc.org)
- Although the word "ear" may properly refer to the pinna (the flesh covered cartilage appendage on either side of the head), this portion of the ear is not vital for hearing. (wikidoc.org)
- The auricle (or pinna) gathers sound and channels it into the ear. (bris.ac.uk)
- The outer ear is called the pinna and is made of ridged cartilage covered by skin. (webmd.com)
- Swimmer's ear (Otitis externa): Inflammation or infection of the outer ear (pinna and ear canal). (webmd.com)
- Notice that your pinna is much bigger than your ear canal (duh). (everything2.com)
- Before we move on, dry off your ears and notice the complex shape of the pinna. (everything2.com)
- demonstrated that Igf1 and Igf-I receptor ( Igf1r ) are both expressed in the developing mouse cochlea at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5) and E18.5. (jneurosci.org)
- Three-dimensional imaging of the intact mouse cochlea by fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy. (nih.gov)
- A maximum intensity projection (MIP) from an intact mature mouse cochlea imaged through its entire volume. (nih.gov)
- Using TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP reporter mice and transfection of an independent TCF/Lef reporter construct, we describe the pattern of canonical Wnt activity in the developing mouse cochlea. (biologists.org)
- Mouse cochlea with hair cells shown in green and auditory nerves shown in red. (eurekalert.org)
- The risks and efficacy of transplanting two varieties of stem cells into mouse cochlea have been evaluated by Japanese researchers. (medindia.net)
- The acoustic reflex in man refers to the tendency of the middle ear muscles controlling the behavior of the ossicles (the little bones in the middle ear) to tense under an intense acoustic stimulus, thereby making the inner ear stiffer and in that way limiting the motion of the stapes (the last bone in the chain). (wikibooks.org)
- The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity and the three ossicles. (wikipedia.org)
- The middle ear contains the three small bones-the ossicles-involved in the transmission of sound, and is connected to the throat at the nasopharynx, via the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube. (wikipedia.org)
- The three ossicles transmit sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
- To best understand the inner ear, let's take one step back and look at the three tiny bones of your middle ear, which are collectively referred to as the ossicles. (study.com)
- The auditory ossicles of the right ear, seen from the front. (usf.edu)
- The malleus, incus and stapes, which are small bones often referred to as ossicles, belong to the middle ear, along with the interior of the tympanic membrane. (soundonsound.com)
- It is vital that the ossicles can move freely, and that the pressure on both sides of the ear drum is the same (otherwise it would be pushed in or out too far). (bris.ac.uk)
- In human hearing, sound waves enter the outer ear and travel through the external auditory canal. (britannica.com)
- The traditional theory predicts that OAE will propagate to the ear canal via a backward traveling wave on the basilar membrane, while the opponent theory proposed that the OAE will reach the ear canal via a compression wave. (hindawi.com)
- To utilize the OAE for more precise diagnoses, it is necessary to understand how it propagates backward to the ear canal. (hindawi.com)
- The tragus protrudes and partially obscures the ear canal, as does the facing antitragus. (wikipedia.org)
- The hollow region in front of the ear canal is called the concha. (wikipedia.org)
- The ear canal stretches for about 1 inch (2.5 cm). (wikipedia.org)
- The skin surrounding the ear canal contains ceruminous and sebaceous glands that produce protective ear wax. (wikipedia.org)
- The ear canal ( external acoustic meatus , external auditory meatus , EAM ) is a pathway running from the outer ear to the middle ear . (wikipedia.org)
- The human ear canal is divided into two parts. (wikipedia.org)
- The cartilaginous portion of the ear canal contains small hairs and specialized sweat glands, called apocrine glands, which produce cerumen ( ear wax ). (wikipedia.org)
- The layer of epithelium encompassing the bony portion of the ear canal is much thinner and therefore, more sensitive in comparison to the cartilaginous portion. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to its relative exposure to the outside world, the ear canal is susceptible to diseases and other disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- It plays an important role in the human ear canal, assisting in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection from bacteria , fungi , and insects . (wikipedia.org)
- If left untreated, cerumen impaction can also increase the risk of developing an infection within the ear canal. (wikipedia.org)
- The canal is one of two main chambers that are created by an elastic membrane that runs the length of the cochlea. (innovations-report.com)
- Sound enters through auditory canal , vibrates tympanic membrane ,moving three bones of middle ear ( malleus , incus , and stapes )against oval window opening in front of cochlea. (wikibooks.org)
- A canal that links the middle ear with the back of the nose. (rochester.edu)
- Exocrine glands in the skin of the auditory canal of the ear that secrete earwax or cerumen. (encyclopedia.com)
- Sounds are passed through the skull (via a headband) to the inner ear rather than through the ear canal as normal. (medic8.com)
- This can be caused by a build up of ear wax in the ear canal, an ear infection such as otitis media or a foreign body. (medic8.com)
- A system for treating various neurological, vestibular, and other disorders includes a stimulator device situated in an ear canal of the patient. (google.com)
- 1 . A system for treating a neurological or vestibular disorder in a patient, the system comprising a stimulator device adapted to be situated in an ear canal of the patient for noninvasive interaction with the nervous system of the patient. (google.com)
- 5 . The system for treating a disorder of claim 1 , wherein the noninvasive interaction comprises electrical stimulation applied with at least one electrode in contact with the ear canal. (google.com)
- 20 . The system for treating a disorder of claim 1 , further comprising a second device adapted to be situated in a second ear canal of the patient. (google.com)
- When these pressure variations strike the ear, they find their way through the external auditory canal to the tympanic membrane, setting it into vibration. (soundonsound.com)
- semitransparent membrane that seperates the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity. (brainscape.com)
- The change from air to liquid occurs because air surrounds the head and is contained in the ear canal and middle ear, but not in the inner ear. (wikidoc.org)
- The complicated design of the human outer ear does help capture sound (and imposes filtering that helps distinguish the direction of the sound source), but the most important functional aspect of the human outer ear is the ear canal itself. (wikidoc.org)
- Ear wax (medical name - cerumen ) is produced by glands in the skin of the outer portion of the ear canal. (wikidoc.org)
- Only the thicker cerumen-producing ear canal skin has hairs. (wikidoc.org)
- The Outer Ear has many structures that help to guide sound waves into the External Auditory Canal. (bartleby.com)
- The concha is the deepest groove and funnels the sound wave down the "s" shaped ear canal. (bartleby.com)
- Sam was fascinated at how the Outer Ear was shaped in order to localize sounds and push them down to the External Acoustic Canal. (bartleby.com)
- The auricle is the cartilage that is covered by skin on opposite sides of the head, the auditory canal, more commonly called the ear canal, is the tunnel in which sound waves travel down, and the ear drum, also known as the tympanic membrane. (bartleby.com)
- In a particular situation, a physician assessed the patient's right ear and cleared the canal of all cerumen. (articlealley.com)
- An otoscope is a device to look into the ear canal to see the drum. (webmd.com)
- Irrigation (lavage): Gentle irrigation of the ear canal with salt water and diluted hydrogen peroxide can treat some cerumen impactions. (webmd.com)
- It basically serves as a reflector, either reflecting sound directly into the ear canal, or off of the tragus and into the ear canal. (everything2.com)
- Okay, now we move through the ear canal and into the middle ear . (everything2.com)
Shape of the cochlea3
- In 2006 Manoussaki and her NIH collaborators published a paper proposing that the helical shape of the cochlea enhances low-frequency sounds through an effect analogous to the well-known "whispering gallery effect" in which soft sounds that travel along curved walls in a large chamber remain loud enough that they can be heard clearly on the opposite side of the room. (innovations-report.com)
- The high-quality, sterling silver jewelry is inspired by the shape of the cochlea, the part of the ear that gives us the ability to interpret sound. (audbling.com)
- Then, like sports fans performing "the wave" in a stadium, precursor cells along the spiral shape of the cochlea turn into hair cells along a wave of transformation that stops when it reaches the inner part of the cochlea. (eurekalert.org)
- These findings demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and that glial cells play a critical role in hearing onset and auditory nerve maturation. (frontiersin.org)
- The prevalence of hearing loss after damage to the mammalian cochlea has been thought to be due to a lack of spontaneous regeneration of hair cells , the primary receptor cells for sound. (nih.gov)
- An adult mammalian cochlea lacks regenerative potential and therefore hair cell loss is irreversible and leads to hearing loss. (frontiersin.org)
- What Part of the Ear Contains the Sensory Receptors for Hearing? (reference.com)
- Moreover, application of furosemide, a diuretic and inhibitor of the Na-K-2Cl symporter (NKCC2), to the gerbil inner ear both reduces endocochlear potential and induces hearing loss [ 20 , 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Deiters cells M. Holmes and J. D. Cole, "Pseudoresonance in the cochlea, ' in: Mechanics of Hearing, E. de Boer and M. A. Viergever (editors), Proceedings of the IUTAM/ICA Symposium, Delft (1983), pp. 45-52. (wikipedia.org)
- Hearing nerve) This nerve carries electrical signals from the cochlea in the inner ear to the brain. (cdc.gov)
- A hearing loss that affects both ears. (cdc.gov)
- and the cochlea, which enables hearing. (wikipedia.org)
- Diseases of the ear may lead to hearing loss, tinnitus and balance disorders such as vertigo, although many of these conditions may also be affected by damage to the brain or neural pathways leading from the ear. (wikipedia.org)
- Some hearing loss can be attributed to the death of hair cells in a part of the inner ear called the cochlea. (elifesciences.org)
- Increasing evidence suggests that hearing loss also results from damage to the synapses that connect the hair cells and the neurons in the cochlea. (elifesciences.org)
- It turns out that it is the curvature of the cochlea, not its size, that is highly correlated to the low-frequency hearing limit," says Daphne Manoussaki, assistant professor of mathematics at Vanderbilt University, who headed the new study with Richard S. Chadwick, a section chief at the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (one of the National Institutes of Health, or NIH). (innovations-report.com)
- Animals with tightly coiled cochleae tend to have greater hearing ranges, but previous attempts to associate these auditory effects with the physical characteristics of the cochlea have proven unsatisfactory because they did not take a critical acoustic effect into account. (innovations-report.com)
- Now we have a theory that we have confirmed with a number of concrete examples using real ear shapes and hearing abilities. (innovations-report.com)
- Defects in the cellular or molecular components of the cochlea can lead to deafness and other hearing impairments. (cshlpress.com)
- You usually think of your ears for hearing, but did you know they also help you maintain your balance? (study.com)
- In this lesson, you will learn about the structures of the inner ear and how they help support hearing and your sense of balance. (study.com)
- In this lesson, we will take a closer look at how your inner ear helps support hearing and balance. (study.com)
- and the cochlear duct, which is the only part of the inner ear involved in hearing. (britannica.com)
- The cochlea is a coiled sensory structure in the inner ear that plays a fundamental role in hearing. (britannica.com)
- In first steps in hearing, the cochlea converts sound waves coming from the outside of the ear into electrical activity of the auditory nerve. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- bony, coil shaped part of inner ear, where hearing occurs. (wikibooks.org)
- Hearing starts with the outer ear. (rochester.edu)
- The special sensory receptors for sight and hearing are located in large, complex sensory organs - the eyes and the ears. (encyclopedia.com)
- Unilateral and bilateral are terms used to describe if hearing loss is in one ear or both ears. (prezi.com)
- During delivery or in the newborn period, a number of complications, such as lack of oxygen, can damage the hearing mechanism, particularly the cochlea. (prezi.com)
- The most common cause of hearing loss in children is middle ear disease. (prezi.com)
- Post lingual causes: A blow to the skull can cause trauma to the cochlea and may lead to a sensorineural hearing loss. (prezi.com)
- The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. (nature.com)
- Hearing and balance are rescued by a synthetic virus that delivers a transgene to the inner ear of neonatal mice. (nature.com)
- A condition in which the body's immune system attacks the mechanisms of the inner ear, affecting hearing and balance. (medic8.com)
- A type of hearing aid which fits behind the ear and enables sound to be transferred via the ear mould to the ear. (medic8.com)
- This aid is designed for an individual with no hearing in one ear and partial hearing in the other ear. (medic8.com)
- It takes the form of two hearing aids and works by sending sounds from the 'bad'ear to the 'good'ear where they are combined with amplified sounds in this ear. (medic8.com)
- Hearing aids worn in both ears. (medic8.com)
- A smaller version of the 'in the ear hearing aid' which is practically invisible to the observer. (medic8.com)
- A form of hearing loss in which sounds are prevented from travelling through the outer ear to the middle ear and into the inner ear. (medic8.com)
- Similar to a Bi-CROS hearing aid: a type of device which is designed for people who have no hearing in one ear but normal hearing in the other. (medic8.com)
- A CROS hearing aid picks up sounds from the 'bad'ear (no hearing) and sends these to the 'good' ear (normal hearing). (medic8.com)
- Snail-shell shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the sensory organs of hearing. (medindia.net)
- In this article, Prof. Rask-Andersen explains the intricate functions of the cochlea and why structure preservation should be a priority for every cochlear implant surgery-even if there is no residual hearing. (dizzinessbalancedisorders.com.au)
- The structure of the inner ear responsible for hearing. (studystack.com)
- Hearing loss of either the inner ear or cranial nerve. (studystack.com)
- Although the sensation of hearing requires an intact and functioning auditory portion of the central nervous system as well as a working ear, human deafness (extreme insensitivity to sound) most commonly occurs because of abnormalities of the inner ear, rather than the nerves or tracts of the central auditory system. (wikidoc.org)
- Although the research won't immediately lead to new hearing aids, it does provide insights into the mechanics of the cochlea, which is essential for being better able to simulate its function. (scientificamerican.com)
- The most significant aspect of the team's results is it eliminates certain models and it guides us toward building better models of the cochlea," says Stephen Neely, an electrical engineer specializing in hearing of the Boys Town National Research Hospital in Omaha, Neb. (scientificamerican.com)
- Better understanding of exactly where sound waves should hit the inner ear should also eventually improve hearing aids, which send sound through the middle ear. (scientificamerican.com)
- Better cochlea models could make it possible to focus sound more precisely within the inner ear, theoretically making it possible to both amplify and sharpen hearing. (scientificamerican.com)
- The ear anatomy and physiology along with how sound waves are transmitted into meaningful sounds will help one understand how hearing loss occurs. (bartleby.com)
- We don t think of training or improving our hearing or listening ability, or developing our ear muscles? (articlealley.com)
- To determine if autologous human umbilical cord blood infusion in children with acquired hearing loss is safe, feasible, improves inner ear function, audition and language development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will determine if autologous human umbilical cord blood infusion in children with hearing loss is safe and feasible, improves inner ear function, audition, and language development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To determine if autologous hUBC transplantation in children with hearing loss improves inner ear function, audition and language development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The researchers' work was reported in the June issue of Ear and Hearing. (medgadget.com)
- An audiologist formally examines a person's hearing in each ear, using sounds of varying volume and frequency. (webmd.com)
- Scientists are now looking at using that battery to power devices that could be implanted in the ear , without affecting the recipient's hearing. (slashdot.org)
- The complex anatomy of the mammalian cochlea is most readily understood by representation in three-dimensions. (nih.gov)
- Anatomy of the right inner ear. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The article reviews the anatomy of the middle ear space and surrounding bone and presents radiographic imaging in both axial and coronal views, with labeled salient features and relevant text. (medscape.com)
- The motion of the stapes against the oval window sets up waves in the fluids of the cochlea, causing the basilar membrane to vibrate. (britannica.com)
- In relation to the backward propagation of the OAE, von Békésy discovered that the wave on the BM always traveled from the base to the apex, even the stimulus (the stapes vibration) was placed at the apex of the cochlea. (hindawi.com)
- Bones of the ear: Malleus, Incus and Orbiculare, Stapes. (usf.edu)
- The stapes then transfers the energy to the oval window of the cochlea . (everything2.com)
Massachusetts Eye and E1
- These results demonstrate novel roles for IGF signaling in inner ear development including regulation of vestibular formation, length of the cochlear duct, and the number of cochlear hair cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Using cell-specific inducible gene recombination in mice we found that, in the postnatal inner ear, Bbnf and Ntf3 are required for the formation and maintenance of hair cell ribbon synapses in the vestibular and cochlear epithelia, respectively. (elifesciences.org)
- This nerve consists of two divisions: the cochlea nerve which transfers electrical signals to the brain which are interpreted as sound: and the vestibular nerve which controls our sense of balance. (medic8.com)
- The part of the ear that is dedicated to sensing balance and position also sends impulses through the eighth cranial nerve, the VIIIth nerve's Vestibular Portion. (wikidoc.org)
Length of the cochlea2
- Four rows of hair cells (called stereocilia) are located along the length of the cochlea. (hubpages.com)
- For many years, cochlear fluids were thought to be generated by filtration of blood or cerebrospinal fluid, which then flowed longitudinally down the length of the cochlea to be absorbed through the endolymphatic sac. (medscape.com)
Hair cells in the postnatal2
- In normal ears, D1, D2, and D5 receptors were detected in microdissected immature (postnatal days 10-13) spiral ganglion cells and outer hair cells but not inner hair cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) are critical for sensory neuron survival and establishment of neuronal projections to sensory epithelia in the embryonic inner ear, but their postnatal functions remain poorly understood. (elifesciences.org)
- Thus Bdnf and Ntf3 could have significant functions in the postnatal inner ear, and alterations in expression of these neurotrophins may modulate structure and function in the adult inner ear. (elifesciences.org)
- In this study, we investigated the roles of postnatal Ntf3 and Bdnf in both normal and damaged inner ears. (elifesciences.org)
- The detection location for various sound frequencies along the length of an uncoiled cochlea. (hubpages.com)
- Bob - The ears are pretty good at tuning into individual frequencies, but the problem is that my voice contains lots of frequencies. (thenakedscientists.com)
- This micromechanical microphone mimics the cochlea, the tapered part of the biological ear that distinguishes different frequencies. (trnmag.com)
- This shape affects how different frequencies enter your ear. (everything2.com)
- The neurons and sensory cells of the inner ear are subject to feedback control from the brainstem via the olivocochlear (OC) efferent system ( Fig. 1 ). (jneurosci.org)
- During development of the inner ear, molecules called growth factors are needed to ensure the survival of these neurons. (elifesciences.org)
- Consistent with this, mice that were genetically modified to lack a growth factor called neurotrophin-3 had cochleae that did not work properly and had fewer synapses between hair cells and neurons compared to control mice. (elifesciences.org)
- Four weeks after transplantation, the researchers found that the majority of cochleae that had been transplanted exhibited the settlement of iPS or ES-derived neurons. (medindia.net)
Mammalian inner ear2
- The mammalian inner ear uses its sensory hair cells to detect and amplify incoming sound. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Using genetic tools in mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have identified a pair of proteins that precisely control when sound-detecting cells, known as hair cells, are born in the mammalian inner ear. (eurekalert.org)
- The end of the cochlea nearest the oval window is stiff and narrow, which funnels high frequency sounds to the first sections of the cochlea. (hubpages.com)
- sound reception: The auditory mechanism in frogs: …which makes contact with the fluids of the inner-ear (otic) capsule through an opening, the oval window. (britannica.com)
- The innermost ossicle of the middle ear, which attaches to the oval window in the inner ear. (studystack.com)
- The cochlea connects to the oval window in the middle ear. (brainscape.com)
- The last ossicle (the stirrup) is attached to the oval window in the cochlea. (bris.ac.uk)
- The area from the ear drum to the oval window is called the middle ear. (bris.ac.uk)
- Low frequency sounds are detected near the apex of the cochlea. (hubpages.com)
- Deviations towards the apex of the cochlea were assigned a positive value and deviations towards the base were assigned a negative value. (biologists.org)
- High-frequency sounds localize near the base of the cochlea (near the round and oval windows), while low-frequency sounds localize near the apex. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, we describe the patterns of expression for IGF signaling components in the embryonic cochlea, and then examine the effect of genetic or pharmacological inhibition of IGF1R on cochlear development. (jneurosci.org)
- Using the Lgr5 knock-in mouse line we show that loss of LGR5 function increases Wnt/β-catenin activity in the embryonic cochlea, resulting in a mild overproduction of inner and outer hair cells (OHC). (frontiersin.org)
- Altogether, our findings suggest that LGR4 and LGR5 play an important role in the regulation of hair cell differentiation in the embryonic cochlea. (frontiersin.org)
- The middle ear also connects to the upper throat at the nasopharynx via the pharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube. (wikipedia.org)
- The eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure in the middle ear. (rochester.edu)
- More superiorly, the eustachian tube, tensor tympani, and cochleariform process can be observed along the anterior margin of the middle ear. (medscape.com)
Outer and middle ear3
- A sound pressure field in the air is transmitted via the outer and middle ear to the inner ear. (diva-portal.org)
- A test that will tell the audiologist how your baby's outer and middle ear are working. (cdc.gov)
- Microtia refers to congenital deformity of the ear in which the outer and middle ear is not properly developed. (articlealley.com)
- A cross section through one of the turns of the cochlea (inset) showing the scala tympani and scala vestibuli, which contain perilymph, and the cochlear duct, which is filled with endolymph. (britannica.com)
- [ 1 ] In contrast, the composition of perilymph resembles that of extracellular fluid and is high in Na + and low in K + . These differences in electrolyte concentrations remain fairly constant throughout the cochlea, although slight differences are noted in the electrolyte composition of scala vestibuli and scala tympani and between the basal and apical portions of scala media. (medscape.com)
- The cochlear duct forms a shelf across the cochlea dividing it into two sections, the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. (britannica.com)
Middle ear cavity1
Portion of the ear4
- Since the outer ear is the only visible portion of the ear in most animals, the word "ear" often refers to the external part alone. (wikipedia.org)
- That sound pressure is amplified through the middle portion of the ear and, in land animals, passed from the medium of air into a liquid medium. (wikidoc.org)
- The outer ear is the most external portion of the ear. (wikidoc.org)
- In humans, and almost all vertebrates, the only visible portion of the ear is the outer ear. (wikidoc.org)
Coil of the cochlea2
Section of the cochlea4
- A cross section of the cochlea, showing the basic structure. (hubpages.com)
- Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
- A vertical section of the cochlea, highly magnified, to show the arrangement and connection of its parts. (usf.edu)
- Longitudinal section of the cochlea, showing the relations of the scalae, the ganglion spirale, ect. (usf.edu)
Structure of the Cochlea1
- In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts-the outer ear, middle ear and the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
- A tubercle, known as Darwin's tubercle, is sometimes present, lying in the descending part of the helix and corresponding to the ear-tip of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- Spiral-shaped cochleae are exclusive to mammals. (innovations-report.com)
- Ketten provided Manoussaki and her collaborators with high-resolution CT scans of the cochleae of a number of different species of land and marine mammals. (innovations-report.com)
- The shape of outer ear of mammals varies widely across species. (wikidoc.org)
- Many mammals can move their ears to catch the sound better, but we don't have these localising abilities. (bris.ac.uk)
Separates the middle ear1
Inner ear to the brain1
- You see, your outer ear , which is the part you can touch, collects sound waves from the world around you, but your brain can't read sound waves, so your ear must change them into a language your brain understands, namely nerve impulses. (study.com)
- Creating nerve impulses from the sounds that enter your ear is not the only thing your inner ear does, it also helps you keep your balance. (study.com)
- As the fluid in the cochlea gets pushed in and out, it moves the hairs, creating nerve impulses that your brain can read and understand. (study.com)
- Once the sound waves reach the inner ear, they are converted into electrical impulses. (rochester.edu)
- These impulses are then boosted in volume via the amplifier and channelled towards the ear. (medic8.com)
- The ear changes sound pressure waves from the outside world into a signal of nerve impulses sent to the brain. (wikidoc.org)
- The nerve impulses travel from the left and right ears through the eighth cranial nerve to both sides of the brain stem and up to the portion of the cerebral cortex dedicated to sound. (wikidoc.org)
- converting sound pressure patterns from the outer ear into electrochemical impulses which are passed on to the brain via the auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
- Once the sound waves reach the inner ear, they are converted into electrical impulses, which the auditory nerve sends to the brain. (uhhospitals.org)
- Your ears have the job of taking sound and turning it into neural impulses ( action potential s), so the brain can use the information. (everything2.com)