Coccidiostats: Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Crk-Associated Substrate Protein: Crk-associated substrate was originally identified as a highly phosphorylated 130 kDa protein that associates with ONCOGENE PROTEIN CRK and ONCOGENE PROTEIN SRC. It is a signal transducing adaptor protein that undergoes tyrosine PHOSPHORYLATION in signaling pathways that regulate CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.DairyingNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Pasteurellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Ecthyma, Contagious: An infectious dermatitis of sheep and goats, affecting primarily the muzzle and lips. It is caused by a poxvirus and may be transmitted to man.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Milk, HumanGoat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.ArchivesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.PyrimidinonesDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.GeorgiaGeorgia (Republic)Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Esophageal Motility Disorders: Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue.Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Catalogs, Library

Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: morphologic and epidemiologic data. (1/100)

In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor salinomycin. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from 823 cats, or about 1% of the cats at risk. In 21 affected cats, postmortem examination was performed. The affected cats had acute onset of lameness and paralysis of the hindlimbs followed by the forelimbs. Clinical and pathologic examination indicated a distal polyneuropathy involving both the sensory and motor nerves.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of polycationic peptides against Cryptosporidium parvum, Pneumocystis carinii and yeast clinical isolates. (2/100)

The in-vitro activity of magainin II, indolicidin and ranalexin against 14 clinical isolates of eukaryotic microorganisms was evaluated. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution, and activity against Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptosporidium parvum was determined by inoculation on to cell monolayers. For yeasts, peptide MICs and MFCs ranged from 6.25 to > 50 mg/L. Ranalexin showed the highest activity against Candida spp., while magainin II demonstrated greatest anticryptococcal activity. The peptides suppressed the growth of P. carinii by > or = 50% and > or = 90% at 5 and 50 microM, respectively, with the exception of indolicidin. Ranalexin, the most effective compound against C. parvum, suppressed its growth by > or = 40% at 50 microM.  (+info)

Anticryptosporidial activity of ranalexin, lasalocid and azithromycin alone and in combination in cell lines. (3/100)

The in vitro anticryptosporidial activities of ranalexin, lasalocid and azithromycin alone and in combination were investigated against four clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Susceptibility was tested by inoculating the isolates on to cell monolayers and determining the parasite count after 48 h incubation at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was supplemented with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing serial dilutions of the above-mentioned compounds. Ranalexin showed moderate anticryptosporidial activity: at a concentration of 64 mg/L it reduced parasite counts by 33.8%. Azithromycin at a concentration of 8 mg/L gave inhibition comparable to that observed with the highest concentration of ranalexin. Lasalocid showed the highest activity, with a 70.3% reduction in parasite counts at 2 mg/L. The combination of ranalexin 64 mg/L and lasalocid 2 mg/L completely suppressed parasite growth without harming the monolayer.  (+info)

Anti-toxoplasma activities of antiretroviral drugs and interactions with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in vitro. (4/100)

The anti-Toxoplasma activities of nine antiretroviral drugs were examined in vitro. Nucleoside analogs had no effect on parasite growth, whereas ritonavir and nelfinavir were inhibitory for Toxoplasma, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 5.4 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively. None of the antiviral drugs affected the anti-Toxoplasma activity of pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine.  (+info)

Recent advances in biology and immunobiology of Eimeria species and in diagnosis and control of infection with these coccidian parasites of poultry. (5/100)

Avian coccidiosis, an intestinal disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, occurs worldwide. It is considered to be one of the most economically important diseases of domestic poultry. For many years, prophylactic use of anticoccidial feed additives has been the primary means of controlling coccidiosis in the broiler industry and has played a major role in the growth of this industry, which now can produce about 7.6 billion chickens annually. However, development of anticoccidial resistance has threatened the economic stability of the broiler industry. Although there has been little effort by the pharmaceutical industry to develop new anticoccidials, the mounting problem of drug resistance of Eimeria species has prompted major research efforts to seek alternative means of control through increased knowledge of parasite biology, host response, and nutritional modulation. As a consequence, important advancements have been made, particularly in defining parasite antigens that have potential use in vaccines, defining the Eimeria genome, understanding the immunology of coccidial infections, and the practical applications of live vaccines. This review describes the progress in these areas, most of which has occurred within the past 10 to 15 years.  (+info)

Disruption of microtubules uncouples budding and nuclear division in Toxoplasma gondii. (6/100)

The tachyzoite stage of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has two populations of microtubules: spindle microtubules and subpellicular microtubules. To determine how these two microtubule populations are regulated, we investigated microtubule behavior during the cell cycle following treatment with microtubule-disrupting drugs. Previous work had established that the microtubule populations are individually nucleated by two distinct microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs): the apical polar ring for the subpellicular microtubules and spindle pole plaques/centrioles for the spindle microtubules. When replicating tachyzoites were treated with 0.5 microM oryzalin or 1.0 mM colchicine they retained the capacity to form a spindle and undergo nuclear division. Although these parasites could complete budding, they lost the bulk of their subpellicular microtubules and the ability to reinvade host cells. Both nascent spindle and subpellicular microtubules were disrupted in 2.5 microM oryzalin or 5.0 mM colchicine. Under these conditions, parasites grew in size and replicated their genome but were incapable of nuclear division. After removal from 0.5 microM oryzalin, Toxoplasma tachyzoites were able to restore normal subpellicular microtubules and a fully invasive phenotype. When oryzalin was removed from Toxoplasma tachyzoites treated with 2.5 microM drug, the parasites attempted to bud as crescent-shaped tachyzoites. Because the polyploid nuclear mass could not be correctly segregated, many daughter parasites lacked nuclei altogether although budding and scission from the maternal mass was able to be completed. Multiple MTOCs permit Toxoplasma tachyzoites to control nuclear division independently from cell polarity and cytokinesis. This unusual situation grants greater cell cycle flexibility to these parasites but abolishes the checks for coregulation of nuclear division and cytokinesis found in other eukaryotes.  (+info)

Effect of wean-to-finish management on pig performance. (7/100)

In each of three trials, 240 crossbred barrows weaned at 17 d of age (5.1 kg BW) were assigned to one of three experimental treatments based on light and heavy weight outcome groups. Experimental treatments were 1) wean-to-finish at 0.69 m2/pig and 15 pigs/pen; 2) wean-to-finish double-stocked at 0.35 m2/pig, 30 pigs per pen for 8 wk and then randomly split into two pens (either stayed in same pen or moved to new pen) for growth to slaughter at 0.69 m2/pig; and 3) nursery facility for 8 wk at 0.35 m2/pig and 15 pigs/pen followed by move to the same grow-finish facility housing wean-to-finish and double-stocked pigs and maintaining pen integrity. Beginning at 38 kg BW, diets were supplemented with either bacitracin methylenedisalicylate at 33 mg/kg to slaughter or tylosin at 44 mg/kg to 59 kg BW and 22 mg/kg thereafter. There were no trial x treatment interactions, even though there was considerable variation in health status among trials. At the end of the 56-d nursery period, wean-to-finish pigs weighed more than nursery (28.7 vs 27.7 kg; P = 0.071) and double-stocked pigs (28.7 vs 26.9 kg; P = 0.002), due to greater ADG (wean-to-finish vs nursery; P = 0.062; wean-to-finish vs double-stocked; P = 0.002) and greater ADFI (wean-to-finish vs nursery; P = 0.024; wean-to-finish vs double-stocked, P = 0.002). There was no effect of treatments (P > 0.1) on ADG, feed conversion, carcass lean percentage, or lean gain during the growing-finishing period. There was also no effect of treatment (P > 0.1) on ADG or ADFI from weaning to slaughter. There was no difference (P > 0.1) between bacitracin methylenedisalicylate and tylosin for ADG, feed conversion, carcass lean percentage, or daily lean gain. These data suggest that housing 5-kg weaned pigs in fully slatted growing-finishing facilities from weaning to slaughter was not detrimental to overall performance. In this experiment, dietary additions of bacitracin methylenedisalicylate or tylosin from 38 kg BW to slaughter weight resulted in similar growth performance.  (+info)

Efficacy of common laboratory disinfectants on the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cell culture. (8/100)

Nine liquid disinfectants were tested for their ability to reduce infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cell culture. A 4-min exposure to 6% hydrogen peroxide and a 13-min exposure to ammonium hydroxide-amended windshield washer fluid reduced infectivity 1,000-fold. Other disinfectants tested (70% ethanol, 37% methanol, 6% sodium hypochlorite, 70% isopropanol, and three commercial disinfectants) did not reduce the infectivity after a 33-min exposure. The results indicate that hydrogen peroxide and windshield washer fluid or ammonium hydroxide disinfectant may be suitable laboratory disinfectants against C. parvum oocysts.  (+info)

*Coccidiostat

A coccidiostat is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon Coccidia parasites. Examples include: amprolium arprinocid artemether ... Coccidiostats at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82003049. ...

*Robenidine

... is a coccidiostat. Robenidine is an antibiotic used for the control of coccidiosis, a debilitating protozoal ...

*Toltrazuril

... is a coccidiostat. Clazuril Diclazuril Ponazuril Diaferia, M.; Veronesi, F.; Morganti, G.; Nisoli, L.; Fioretti, D ...

*Narasin

... is a coccidiostat and antibacterial agent. It is a derivative of salinomycin with an additional methyl group. Gerhold, ...

*Ethopabate

... is a coccidiostat used in poultry. Arabkhazaeli, F.; Modrisanei, M.; Nabian, S.; Mansoori, B.; Madani, A. (2013). " ...

*Diclazuril

... (trade name Vecoxan) is a coccidiostat. Clazuril Ponazuril Toltrazuril Diaferia, M.; Veronesi, F.; Morganti, G.; ...

*Halofuginone

... is a coccidiostat used in veterinary medicine. It is a synthetic halogenated derivative of febrifugine, a natural ...

*Nicarbazin

... is a coccidiostat used on meat chickens. It is also used as a contraceptive for population control of Canada geese ...

*Growell India

of Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai, India - A herbal coccidiostat on pathology of coccidiosis in broilers ... of Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai, India (25 February 2009). "A herbal coccidiostat on pathology of ... Indian Journal of Experimental Biology - Evaluation of herbal Coccidiostat 'coxynil' in broiler Dept. ... "Evaluation of herbal Coccidiostat 'Coxynil' in broiler" (PDF). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 44 (September 2006): 740 ...

*Decoquinate

... is a coccidiostat used in veterinary medicine. Da Cruz, F. P.; Martin, C.; Buchholz, K.; Lafuente-Monasterio, M. J ...

*Sarcocystis

Diclazuril and Toltrazuril and other coccidiostats are being evaluated to treat EPM. No vaccines are currently known. ...

*Salinomycin

... is used in chicken fodder as a coccidiostat. A team from the University of Cambridge has cloned and sequenced the ... Salinomycin is an antibacterial and coccidiostat ionophore therapeutic drug. Salinomycin and its derivatives exhibit high ...

*Clazuril

... is a drug used in veterinary medicine as a coccidiostat. Diclazuril Ponazuril Toltrazuril Vanparijs O, Hermans L, Van ...

*Cattle feeding

Ionophores were originally developed as coccidiostats for poultry and prevent coccidiosis in cattle as well. Ionophores work by ...

*Amprolium

Agents that control this disease-coccidiostats-are in view of the world's heavy dependence on poultry as a source of protein, ... Amprolium is the organic compound sold as a coccidiostat used in poultry. It has many (International Nonproprietary Names. The ... issues and is commonly used in conjunction with sulfonamides prophylactically in chickens and cattle as a coccidiostat. ...

*Coccidia

In dogs and cats, the most commonly administered coccidiostat is sulfa-based antibiotics. Once reproduction stops, the animal ... Coccidiosis is most commonly treated through the administration of coccidiostats, a group of medications that stop coccidia ...

*Polyketide

... coccidiostats, animal growth promoters and natural insecticides are in commercial use.[citation needed] Macrolides Pikromycin, ...

*Clopidol

... is an organic compound that is used as in veterinary medicine as a coccidiostat. It is prepared industrially by a ...

*Coccidiosis

There are chick feed mixes that contain a coccidiostat to manage exposure levels and control disease. In an outbreak, ...

*Lasalocid

... is an antibacterial agent and a coccidiostat, which is produced by strains of Streptomyces lasaliensis. It is the ...

*Febrifugine

... antimalarial properties and the synthetic halogenated derivative halofuginone is used in veterinary medicine as a coccidiostat ...

*Arprinocid

... is a coccidiostat (or more likely a coccidiocide, i.e. a drug killing Coccidia parasites) used in veterinary ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... coccidiostats MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.100.875 --- trypanocidal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388 --- antiviral agents MeSH ...

*Roxarsone

... and as a coccidiostat. The drug is also approved in the United States for use in pigs. Roxarsone is marketed as 3-Nitro by ...

*List of veterinary drugs

... arsenical used as a coccidiostat and for increased weight gain selamectin - antiparasitic treating fleas, roundworms, ear mites ...
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[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on [1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene]bis(2-bromopyridine)dichloro(phenylmethylene)ruthenium Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
What are the symptoms?. In cats, it causes diarrhea. The stool is often highly liquid in consistency. You may also see blood in the stool, as they cause damage to the intestines. The cat may get dehydrated as a result of the diarrhea.. Is it serious?. Yes - a cat will get dehydrated from the diarrhea and may lose blood. It makes the pet very ill and susceptible to other infections, and sometimes they die if they get sick from something else at the same time. You need to take the pet to the vet, because it is easily treatable, but it can take a week for them to get over it. What is the treatment? There are a couple of treatments. Antibiotics are often used, as well as coccidiostats, which are medicines designed to help the cats immune system fight back specifically against coccidia. Keeping the cat hydrated is also very important. Albon is one of the most commonly used drugs against it. Is it contagious to other pets or to people?. Both dogs and cats can get the same kind of coccidia - but ...
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1105 of 8 July 2015 concerning the authorisation of a preparation of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis DSM 16284, Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius DSM 16351 and Enterococcus faecium DSM 21913 as a feed additive for chickens reared for laying and minor poultry species other than laying, the authorisation of that feed additive for use in water for drinking for chickens for fattening and amending Regulation (EU) No 544/2013 as regards the maximum content of that feed additive in complete feedingstuff and its compatibility with coccidiostats (holder of the authorisation Biomin GmbH ...
Poultry feeds are available with several types of medications for preventing or treating diseases. Coccidiostats and/or antibiotics are the two most common medications added to feeds.
PROBOTIC 25G #VT00423 $20.00 PROBOTIC 90G #VT00054 $30.00. A concentrated water-soluble blend of 7 live microbes for use in drinking water or addition to food. Aids in the establishment of gastrointestinal micro flora in hand reared baby birds, day old chicks, puppies and kittens and other physiologically immature animals. Re-establishes natural gut flora after infections, diarrhoea, stress and the use of antibiotics. Recommended for: Baby birds being reared on a formula not produced by Vetafarm, birds recovering from illness or birds that have recently been treated with antibiotics. Probotic may be used during periods of extreme stress e.g.: overcrowding, diarrhoea, temperature extremes, transportation, training and medication; and following surgery.. Also suitable For: Dogs, Cats and Poultry Chicks. Can be used with: Probotic can be given in water or mixed in food. Probotic is compatible with feed ingredients including anthelmintics, coccidiostats, minerals and vitamins. Probotic® should NOT ...
गुणवत्ता दवा कच्चे माल निर्माताओं & निर्यातक - खरीदें White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of Diclazuril CAS 101831-37-2 चीन से निर्माता.
There statistically januvia generic cost is limited evidence to support the notion that alcoholic beverages, breads and other foods made with yeast can lead to yeast infections. The strain was initially phenotypically tetracycline resistant and carried the tet(A) gene! A administração deve começar o mais cedo possível. A broad-spectrum antibiotic powder for use in ornamental birds for bacterial infections? The coccidiostat added to poultry (hen) grower pellets is not a treatment! Remember, when Tretinoin is used properly, many users see improvement by 12 weeks? It prolongs, celebrex vs tramadol and helps sustain the penile erec! In general, phenergan elixir over the counter uk wholesomely dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy! However, it should be noted that their philological analysis ...
At a press conference yesterday in Belgium, Maja Mariën of Alpharma Animal Health explained the new approach of fighting coccidiosis in poultry. The main message: rotate the use of different coccidiostats!
(1H-Indazol-3-yl)methanol 64132-13-4 NMR spectrum, (1H-Indazol-3-yl)methanol H-NMR spectral analysis, (1H-Indazol-3-yl)methanol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite capable of infecting humans and other animals. Current treatment options for T. gondii infection are limited and most have drawbacks, including high toxicity and low tolerability. Additionally, no FDA-approved treatments are available for pregnant women, a high-risk population due to transplacental infection. Therefore, the development of novel treatment options is needed. To aid this effort, this review highlights experimental compounds that, at a minimum, demonstrate inhibition of in vitro growth of T. gondii When available, host cell toxicity and in vivo data is also discussed. The purpose of this review is to facilitate additional development of anti-Toxoplasmacompounds, and potentially to extend our knowledge of the parasite ...
Acquiring therapy resistance is one of the major obstacles in the treatment of patients with cancer. The discovery of the cancer stem cell (CSC)-specific drug salinomycin raised hope for improved treatment options by targeting therapy-refractory CSCs and mesenchymal cancer cells. However, the occurrence of an acquired salinomycin resistance in tumor cells remains elusive. To study the formation of salinomycin resistance, mesenchymal breast cancer cells were sequentially treated with salinomycin in an in vitro cell culture assay, and the resulting differences in gene expression and salinomycin susceptibility were analyzed. We demonstrated that long-term salinomycin treatment of mesenchymal cancer cells resulted in salinomycin-resistant cells with elevated levels of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and miR-200c, a decreased migratory capability, and a higher susceptibility to the classic chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The formation of salinomycin resistance through the acquisition of ...
Collectively our data demonstrate that the lethality of low nanomolar concentrations of salinomycin are enhanced by HDAC inhibitors in GBM cells and that increased death receptor signaling together with reduced mitochondrial function are causal in the combinatorial drug necro-apoptotic killing effect.. Salinomycin induces cell death with autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in human cancer cells. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that combination treatment with salinomycin and pharmacological autophagy inhibitors will be an effective therapeutic strategy for eliminating cancer cells as well as cancer stem cells.. Salinomycin enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant MCF-7/MDR human breast cancer cells via decreased efflux of doxorubicin.. Salinomycin decreases doxorubicin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting the β-catenin/TCF complex association via FOXO3a activation.. Salinomycin inhibits growth of pancreatic ...
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GLOBAL - The poultry industry has highlighted coccidiosis as one of the most prevalent factors adversely affecting producers and processors globally.
Background: Tumor spreading is the major threat for cancer patients. The recently published anti-cancer drug salinomycin raised hope for an improved treatment by targeting therapy-refractory cancer stem cells. However, an unambiguous role of salinomycin against cancer cell migration and metastasis formation remains elusive. Findings: We report that salinomycin effectively inhibits cancer cell migration in a variety of cancer types as determined by Boyden chamber assays. Additionally, cells were treated with doxorubicin at a concentration causing a comparable low cytotoxicity, emphasizing the anti-migratory potential of salinomycin. Moreover, single-cell tracking by time-lapse microscopy demonstrated a remarkable effect of salinomycin on breast cancer cell motility. Ultimately, salinomycin treatment significantly reduced the metastatic tumor burden in a syngenic mouse tumor model. Conclusions: Our findings clearly show that salinomycin can strongly inhibit cancer cell migration independent of the ...
A 10-aa-long sequence in SLP-76 upstream of the Gads binding site is essential for T cell development and function. Prior to sampling, special considerations need to be addressed cialis side effects dangers related to various factors including current medications, health status, and hygiene practices. Coherent spike activity occurs between widely separated retinal cialis price ganglion cells (RGCs) in response to a large, contiguous object, but not to disjointed objects. 3D-CRT is an effective method in the treatment of patients with small primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Candida tropicalis was the only ascomycetous species isolated from all four sites.. We report 4 patients with retinal hemorrhages that developed during hospitalization for dengue fever. from common mynah (Acridotheres tristis) and preliminary survey of two anticoccidial drugs in natural cialis samples request infection. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its ...
At day 14, average feed conversion and live weights were similar in the vaccine and salinomycin groups, Mathis reports. By day 21, the vaccinated group trailed behind the nonvaccinated group. However, after 21 days, the vaccinated birds recovered and began to gain. About day 28, performance declined in birds receiving the anticoccidial due to the presence of subclinical coccidiosis. Under normal management conditions, this is a typical occurrence when this ionophore is used, Mathis notes ...
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Benzamide, 4-bromo-N-(1H-indol-3-ylphenylmethyl)-N-phenyl- | C28H21BrN2O | CID 71399214 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 2-bromo-n-{(1e,4e)-3-methyl-4-[(phenylsulfonyl)imino]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene}acetamide (C15H13BrN2O3S) from the PQR.
With the successful sales of its feed additives sourced from Biomin, Zintec Feed Supplements has decided to set up a stand alone division: Zintec Feed Solutions. This new division will be responsible for the distribution of feed additives to the feed industry.
Feed additive are the functional ingredients added to the feed to aid healthy growth of animals. There are various types of feed additives catering to a...
1140 agribusiness professionals from across the globe provided their views on the use of phytogenic feed additives (PFAs, or botanicals) as part of the 2017 BIOMIN Phytogenic Feed Additives Survey.
1140 agribusiness professionals from across the globe provided their views on the use of phytogenic feed additives (PFAs, or botanicals) as part of the 2017 BIOMIN Phytogenic Feed Additives Survey.
NOR/310R0885.ohfo OJ L 265/10, p. 5-8 COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 885/2010 of 7 October 2010 concerning the authorisation of the preparation of narasin and nicarbazin as a feed additive for chickens
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Avian coccidiosis is an intracellular intestinal parasitic disease, caused by intracellular intestinal parasites from the genus Eimeria, among which Eimeria tenella is one of the most pathogenic species and causes great economic losses. Frequent applications of anticoccidial drugs have resulted in the development of drug-resistance in E. tenella. In the present study, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of E. tenella isolates prevalent in chicken farms in Hubei Province of China and examine their sensitivity to three anticoccidial drugs. The results provide useful information for the prevention and control of coccidiosis in this region. Eimeria tenella oocysts were isolated from faecal samples collected from different commercial broiler production farms in Hubei Province, China. After oocyst sporulation and animal inoculation for expansion of the field isolates, DNA and RNA were extracted from excysted sporozoites for molecular characterization. Species
Eimeria tenella is a species of Eimeria that causes hemorrhagic cecal coccidiosis in young poultry. It is found worldwide. This species has a monoxeous life cycle with the definitive (only) host as chickens; it is extremely host-specific. Acquired via fecal contamination of food and water (oral-fecal route), it undergoes endogenous merogony in the crypts of Lieberkuhn (intestinal ceca of chicken) and gametogony in epithelial cells of the small intestines. Fusion of microgamete and macrogamete forms results in unsporulated zygotes, which are released with feces of chicken. The zygote sporulates after one to five days, and becomes infective. Diagnosis is based on finding oocysts in feces. While no effective treatment exists, the rate of infection can be reduced via prophylates, anticoccidial drugs and vaccination of baby chicks. Eimeria tenella has a monogenetic life cycle, that is, the life cycle involves a single host. Various stages of its complicated life cycle may conveniently be described ...
Eimeria tenella is the best known poultry coccidia, because of the recognizable lesions and often spectacular losses it causes in commercial broilers or layer pullets. Eimeria tenella is the only species which causes caecal coccidiosis, one of the most easily recognized form of coccidiosis. Infection can be acute and spread rapidly, resulting in mortality in a susceptible flock or coccidiosis control program failure for replacement birds. Eimeria tenella causes bloody droppings and onset of mortality in a flock.. ...
Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material Engineering, IISME2011: Bioinformatic Analysis and Characteristics of the Antigen SO7 of Eimeria Tenella MY Strain
by K.J. Theodore of www.shagbarkbantams.com. Amprolium shortage? Why are you worried?. Im not. Thats because I practice prevention. And if theres anything to practice prevention for, its COCCIDIOSIS. Since Coccidiosis is one of the most flock-devastating protozoan parasitic diseases, Cocci management should forever be at the forefront of any good health and nutrition program.. If youve ever survived a round of Cocci in your own flock, you know what I mean about devastating. If youre new to the Fancy with a cute little backyard flock, your days are numbered for heartbreak.. It will come from nowhere in the form of a once healthy nice little bird suddenly looking as though theyve ruffled their feathers. They may already be sulking in a corner. Then comes the bloody diarrhea or the oozing of clear fluid from the mouth when you pick them up. By this time, its too late - most of the damage is already done, and its only taken about 96 hours to get there. Cocci outbreaks are particularly ...
Recent work has highlighted and enumerated the economic annual losses due to Neospora caninum abortions worldwide, which should provide strong motivation for the control of bovine neosporosis. However, with the recent withdrawal from sale of the only commercially available vaccine, control options for N. caninum have become more restricted. While researchers continue to work on developing alternative efficacious vaccines, what are the control options presently available for the cattle industries? At the practical level, recommendations for Test-and-cull, or not breeding from seropositive dams stand diametrically opposed to alternative options put forward that suggest a primary producer is better advised to keep those cows in the herd that are already seropositive, i.e. assumed to be chronically infected, and indeed those that have already aborted once. Treatment with a coccidiostat has been recommended as the only economically viable option, yet no such treatment has gained official, ...
Extraction and isolation. The air-dried medullae of J. effuses (6 kg) were powdered and extracted with 95% ethanol (3 × 70 L) at room temperature. The extracts were combined and concentrated under vacuum to give a residue (180 g). The residue was subjected to column chromatography over a silica gel (200-300 mesh), eluted with petroleum ether-acetone (from 10:1 to 1:1) to generate fractions 1-5. Fraction 2 (2.8 g) was subjected to medium pressure silica gel column chromatography eluted with petroleum ether-ethyl ether-acetone (20:2:1) to yield three fractions 2-1 to 2-3. Fraction 2-2 (1.21 g) was subjected to medium pressure silica gel column chromatography eluted with petroleum ether-acetone (30:1) to afford six fractions 2-2-1 to 2-2-6. Fraction 2-2-2 (860 mg) was subjected to silica gel column chromatography eluted with petroleum ether-acetone (40:1) to yield five fractions 2-2-2-1 to 2-2-2-5. Fraction 2-2-2-5 (600 mg) was chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 (petroleum ether-CHCl3 -MeOH, ...
Designed for the treatment and prevention of coccidiosis (caused by Eimeria bovis or Eimeria zuernii) in housed heifer calves (for environmental reasons, do not use in calves over 80kg) and sheep (lambs) (caused by Eimeria crandallis and Eimeria ovinoidalis ...
When using this server please cite the following paper:. Zsila F, Bikadi Z, Malik D, Hari P, Pechan I, Berces A, Hazai E.. Evaluation of drug-human serum albumin binding interactions with support vector machine aided online automated docking.. Bioinformatics. 2011 May 18. ...
Coccidiosis treatment: DNA-based methods such as PCR have overcome some limitations of conventional methods, allowing the analysis of more samples in less time.
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Studied was the effect of tiamin at the rate of 50 mg/kg mixture and white of egg in ratios of 25 and 50 per cent to the feed on the course of coccidiosis in chickens caused by Eimeria tenella. It was found that those of the birds that were offered 25 per cent white of egg and tiamin in a dose of 100 mg per kg exhibited more severe signs of coccidiosis had more pronounced morphologic changes with a higher mortality rate and the amount of the oocysts shed was higher than the same indices in birds having received the vitamin at the rate of 50 mg per kg and white of egg in a ration of 50 per cent to the feed ...
The present invention relates to a cross-linked polyether which is obtained by polymerization of at least one monomer selected from the group consisting of (a) (α-X-methyl)vinyl-EWG, (α-X-methyl)vinyl-ERG, or (α-X-methyl)vinyl-aryl, where X is oxygen, sulfur, PEG, PPG or poly(THF); (b) a monomer which is polymerizable with a PEG, PPG or poly(THF) cross-linker having at least one (α-X-methyl)vinyl-EWG, (α-X-methyl)vinyl-ERG or (α-X-methyl)vinyl-aryl, where X is oxygen, sulfur, PEG, PPG, or poly(THF); (c) a PEG, PPG, or poly(THF) cross-linker having at least an acrylamide or a methacrylamide end group; and (d) mixtures thereof. Various monomers, resins and methods for preparing such cross-linked polyethers are also disclosed.
Fig. 1: Economic evaluation of different application strategies for a feed additive in tilapia farming. Data show change of farm revenues and return of investment, relative to the non-supplemented control group. Treatment groups differ in inclusion of the feed additive and formulation: AG3 (control feed + 3 kg/MT Aquagest OMF throughout the production cycle), AG3/1.5 (control feed + 3 kg/MT till 350g; followed by 1.5 kg/MT till harvest), LC/AG2 (low cost feed + 2 kg/MT).. The low cost feed performed significantly worse compared to the control feed in most parameters, particularly in terms of survival, feed conversion and fileting yield. The addition of 2 kg/MT of the feed additive was only capable of improving growth but the nutritional impact of reducing the protein digestibility and amino acid balance in this feed heavily affected the overall performance, particularly FCR and survival. This resulted in 10% reduced revenues compared to control and showed the importance of maintaining the ...
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Press Release issued Sep 17, 2012: According to a new market report published by Transparency Market Research Animal Feed and Feed Additives Market - Global Industry Size, Market Share, Trends, Analysis, and Forecast, 2011 - 2018, global animal feed additives market was worth USD 13.5 billion in 2011 and is expected to reach USD 17.5 billion in 2018, growing at a CAGR of 3.8% from 2011 to 2018. In the overall global market, Asia Pacific is expected to maintain its lead position in terms of revenue till 2018. Asia Pacific is expected to enjoy 32.4% of global animal feed additives market revenue share in 2018 followed by Europe.
The Global and Chinese Animal Feed Additive Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Animal Feed Additive industry with a focus on the Chinese market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Animal Feed Additive manufacturers and is a valuable…
For all the challenges performed, vaccinated groups showed a reduction in lesion scores, oocyst excretion and clinical signs compared to control groups. Weight evolution post-challenge was not affected in vaccinated animals. The duration of immunity of the vaccine EVALON® for all Eimeria species included in the vaccine was confirmed to be until the end of the production cycle (60 weeks). It is hypothesized that this extended duration of immunity in conditions that do not favour reinfections is due to the coadministration of EVALON® with the adjuvanted solvent Hipramune® T.. ...
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In general, the development of immunity is a complex process. With Eimeria , the process is further complicated by the parasites multifaceted lifecycle,...
Global Market Study on Mineral Salt Ingredients: Macro Mineral Salt Ingredients Segment Expected to Exhibit the Highest Revenue Growth
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The major driving forces behind the animal feed and feed additives market is the worldwide increase, in the consumption of meat. Other driving factors that
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To assess muscle breakdown during avian coccidiosis, the level of the nonmetabolizable amino acid 3-methylhistidine (3MH) was determined in muscle and plasma from chickens infected with the cecal parasite Eimeria tenella. The change in 3MH level duri
E. Tenella lesion degree 3: large quantities of blood or caecal moulds; the caecal wall is greatly thickened and very little or no faecal content in the caeca (according to Johnson and Reid, 1970).. Most serious cases of intestinal coccidiosis are caused by Eimeria necatrix (and fewer by Eimeria brunetti). They develop within deeper tissues of the small intestine and besides Eimeria tenella are major pathogens of poultry. Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria brunetti mainly affect birds of more than 8-9 weeks or age.. Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima develop in epithelial cells within the small intestine and generally cause chronic intestinal coccidiosis associated with marked weight loss and heterogeneity.. Eimeria mitis and Eimeria praecox have a limited impact on long-life birds as they have very rapid biological life cycles within the host and this is closely related to their effect in the first weeks of production cycles. In long-life birds, the growth rate and weight development is quite ...
Targeting the global poultry industrys more than US$3 billion in annual losses to coccidiosis, Rotecc integrated coccidiosis management was introduced by Zoetis.
Symptoms of coccidiosis are similar to those seen in puppies with giardiasis. The signs include watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal tenderness, and anorexia. These symptoms may persist for up to 14 days. Unfortunately, these signs are not specific to coccidiosis only. A veterinarian should be consulted if any of the above signs are seen. […]. ...
Currently, all calves receive a bottle of colostrum at birth for at least one feeding and then are placed on milk replacer which contains antibiotics. Multiple feedings of colostrum are not consistently provided to calves. There is no testing of colostrum to ensure that it is of adequate quality, and no testing of sera from the calves to validate adequate colostrum intake by the calves. Calves are tied to a wall or pen in the barn and receive ad-libitum grain, with a coccidiostat added by the manufacturer. Calves are not given milk or milk replacement products after approximately 60 days of age, at which time the calves are placed in group housing. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Global Medicinal Feed Additives Industry report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Medicinal Feed Additives for 2016-2020. To calculate the market size, the report considers both the direct revenue and the indirect revenue of the vendors. The Medicinal Feed Additives Market to grow at a CAGR of 5.4% during the period 2016-2020.. Medicinal feed additives contain veterinary medicines and other nutritive supplements and are added to animal feed. Consumers and animal farmers use these products as an effective way to administer medicines to animals. These products comprise of essential vitamins, minerals, trace elements, anti-oxidants, antibiotics, vaccines, preservatives, and other related ingredients. They help prevent diseases among livestock, maintain animal health, and promote growth and feed efficiency.. Browse more detail information about Medicinal Feed Additives Market Report at: ...
... is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from one animal to another by contact with infected faeces or ingestion of infected tissue. Diarrhoea, which may become bloody in severe cases, is the primary symptom. Most animals infected with coccidia are asymptomatic, but young or immunocompromised animals may suffer severe symptoms and death ...
... is a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The disease spreads from one animal to another by contact with infected faeces or ingestion of infected tissue. Diarrhoea, which may become bloody in severe cases, is the primary symptom. Most animals infected with coccidia are asymptomatic, but young or immunocompromised animals may suffer severe symptoms and death ...
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The methanol fraction (165 g) was separated by silica gel column chromatography and eluted with CHCl3-MeOH mixtures of increasing polarity (100:1→20:1) to afford 10 fractions (Fr. 1~10). Fraction 4 was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography using MeOH-Water (9:1) to produce compound 5. Fraction 6 was separated on a Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with MeOH-Water to generate 8 subfractions (Fr.6-1~Fr.6-2). Fraction 6-5 was separated by silica gel column chromatography and eluted with CHCl3-acetone mixtures to afford 18 subfractions (Fr.6-5-1~Fr.6-5-18). Subfraction 6-5-6 was re-crystallized from MeOH to afford compound 7. Fractions 8 and 9 were recrystallized from MeOH to afford compound 6 and compound 1. The remaining fraction 9 was separated using a Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography with MeOH-Water to generate 8 subfractions (Fr.9-1~Fr.9-8). Fraction 9-8 was recrystallized from MeOH to afford compound 2. Fraction 9-6 was further purified by semi-preparative reverse-phase ...
... is essential to combat major parasitic disease of poultry. We offer disinfectants designed to be a powerful, DEFRA approved virucide
How reliable is the coccidiosis vaccine from mcmurray? And if the vaccine doesnt work what can you do to treat them for it if its in their system?
This combimix is highly suitable for the treatment of Trichomonades and hexamites (canker), Coccidiosis and Mucus in the upperthroat
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Global Animal Feed Additives Market size was estimated at USD 16 billion in 2014. Growing meat consumption as a key protein source, especially in Asia Pacific and Latin America is expected to be a key driver for market demand over the forecast period. Increased focus on product innovation, resulting in high R&D spending is expected to provide new growth opportunities to industry participants. High degree of regulatory intervention in developed markets of North America and Europe, coupled with raw material supply issues are expected to challenge product growth over the next seven years. Asia Pacific and LATAM animal feed additive markets, which are comparatively less regulated, are expected to reach USD 7.2 billion and USD 2 billion by 2022, respectively. With frequent regulatory updates and increasing R&D spending, the global feed additive industry is constantly evolving. In recent times, there has been a significant increase in mergers, acquisitions and partnerships among market participants, ...
A new class of 2,6-dinitroanilines bearing a cyanoalkylthio or alkoxycarbonylmethylthio group in the 3-position is disclosed. The new compounds possess activity against Plasmopara viticola, the causative organism of grape downy mildew.
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Pets Megastore : Coccivet 50ml - Coccidiosis treatment for Ornamental Birds and Pigeons. Liquid Coccidiosis treatment fo...
China Nutrition Enhancers, Feed Additives, Additive, offered by China manufacturer & supplier -Weifang Bochuang Chemical Co., Ltd., page1
China Nutrition Enhancers, Feed Additives, Additive, offered by China manufacturer & supplier -Weifang Bochuang Chemical Co., Ltd., page1
Biosprint® is a probiotic feed additive used for the feeding of beef cattle, piglets, sows, dairy cows, horses and minor ruminant species.
Feed additives are food supplements, which the farmers provide to their animals for their better growth and yield. These food supplements consist of vitamins, minerals irons, nutrients, proteins and other valuable nutrients in comparison to the natural feed.
MilPro-TX®, a feed additive, supports intestinal health in animals by reinforcing the intestinal mucosa barrier and assisting in the regeneration of epithelium.
The Australian aquaculture feed additives market is being driven by increasing domestic and global demand for aquaculture products and a move towards more sustainable aquaculture practices. This study analyses the drivers and restraints to growth, market
China Feed Additive catalog of Good Price Feed Grade L-Lysine Hydrochloride with Great Quality, Hot Sell Best Price Zinc Sulphate Znso4.7H2O Wholesale provided by China manufacturer - Dalian Chem Imp.& Exp. Group Co., Ltd., page1.
... _Which is the best solvent for herbal extraction? - ResearchGate ... traditionally used phytomedicine that is usually used as a water decoction (hot) or extraction ... Vapor Degreasing and Sol
Here is a link to a magnificent paper in the InfoMine library relevant to all metallurgists. The paper is called Technical Review - Copper Solvent Extraction in Hydrometallurgy.
Seventy-two pigs were used. They averaged about 50 pounds each at the start of the experiment. During the first 28 days the pigs that received a diet containing Aureo S.P.-250 (100 gms. Chlortetracycline, 100 gms ...
China Exploration Drilling Machine Ws-25t Full Hydraulic, Find details about China Drilling Rig, Machine from Exploration Drilling Machine Ws-25t Full Hydraulic - Shenzhen Weishibo Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd.
This article demonstrates differences in performance of fully and superficially porous particle columns for the routine analysis of drug compounds. At high pH, XBridge columns demonstrated a 10-fold increase in column efficiency over that at low pH at the same mass loads. This hybrid particle technology advantage is most important for increasing throughput in preparative HPLC and increasing capacity when developing superior stability indicating methods for detection in APIs.
The high-performance liquid chromatographic method published by Aliu & Odegaard (1983) was found to give poor peak separation when used to determine plasma diminazene concentrations in cattle. Before bioequivalence studies could be carried out, the method had to be modified. Solid-phase extraction with acetonitrile/0,025 M Na-octane sulphonate and 2% acetic acid as eluent, followed by sample concentration, gave recoveries of , 90% for diminazene and the internal standard. A mobile phase of acetonitrile/0,005 M Na-octane sulphonate, 0,1% triethylamine, pH 3,2 with acetic acid on a Nova Pak C 18 column was used for the analysis. Wavelength switching was used to determine the internal standard (imidocarb) and diminazene at their respective wavelengths of maximum absorbance, resulting in a fivefold increase in the limit of detection for diminazene. The modified method attained a detection limit of 2 ng/ml (peak 4x baseline noise) , limit of quantitation of 10 ng/ml (coefficient of variation , 15 %) ...
Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella are two common parasites in poultry. Mixed infections are likely to occur frequently in chickens due to the high prevalence of both pathogens. In this study, we investigate the co-occurrence of the two pathogens in the same immunocompetent host cell population towards potential parasite-parasite as well as altered patterns of parasite-host interactions. Primary macrophages from chicken blood were co-infected in vitro with T. gondii tachyzoites (RH strain) and E. tenella sporozoites (Houghton strain) for 72 h. Morphological observations by light microscopy and assessments of parasite replication by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed at 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Six host cell immune factors previously linked to T. gondii or E. tenella infection were selected for gene expression analysis in this study. Distinct morphological changes of macrophages were observed during mixed infection at 24 hpi and immunological activation of host cells was
The effectiveness of four commercial disinfectants including ammonium hydroxide, phenol, Eco.Bio (combination of QACs and gluteraldehyde) and Virox (combination of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) was evaluated against unsporulated E. tenella oocysts which were obtained from naturally infected birds with ceccal coccidiosis then propagated in broiler chicks reared on wire cage and fed anticoccidial free starter ration from day one of rearing till the end of experiment. The oocysts were exposed to the disinfectants at different concentrations and different contact times. In addition, the effect of some environmental factors including temperature, pH and presence of organic matter on the efficiency of these disinfectants was also studied. Based on obtained results of the current study, it was observed that the most effective disinfectants against unsporulated E. tenella oocysts were ammonium hydroxide 5% and 10%, Phenol 10%, while Eco. Bio and Virox were less effective. Also, the results ...
China Veterinary Drugs Erythromycin Thiocyanate (CAS: 7704-67-8), Find details about China Erythromycin Thiocyanate, Veterinary Drugs from Veterinary Drugs Erythromycin Thiocyanate (CAS: 7704-67-8) - Guangzhou Quanao Chemical Co., Ltd.
Chicken caecal arylsulphatase was purified 700-fold by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, concanavalin A-Sepharose and cyclic AMP-Sepharose chromatographies. The purified enzyme was a glycoprotein of Mr 97,000. It hydrolysed p-nitrocatechol sulphate, cerebroside 3-sulphate and ascorbic acid 2-sulphate and was strongly inhibited by Na2SO4 (Ki = 50 microM) and Na3PO4 (Ki = 20 microM). Arylsulphatase from Eimeria tenella sporozoites was purified 28-fold by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation. Arylsulphatase of E. tenella sporozoites was not a glycoprotein. It had an Mr of 49,000. It was inhibited by Na2SO4 (Ki = 300 microM), sodium phosphate (Ki = 90 microM) and heparin. It hydrolysed ascorbic acid 2-sulphate, but cerebroside 3-sulphate was not desulphated. The kinetic parameters of chicken caecal arylsulphatase were different from those of the E. tenella enzyme. ...

Goat-Link.com - Baby Goat PoopGoat-Link.com - Baby Goat Poop

Coccidiostats (Sulmet, DiMethox or Albon is a MUCH better choice than Corid) can be administered to a herd immediately after ...
more infohttp://goat-link.com/content/view/46/213/

Coccidiostat - WikipediaCoccidiostat - Wikipedia

A coccidiostat is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon Coccidia parasites. Examples include: amprolium arprinocid artemether ... Coccidiostats at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82003049. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccidiostat

Highlighting the Importance of Detecting Coccidiostat Drug Residues - The Poultry SiteHighlighting the Importance of Detecting Coccidiostat Drug Residues - The Poultry Site

The Randox Food Coccidiostat Array produces a semi-quantitative result for all of the following 12 analytes: Lasalocid, ... For the detection of coccidiostat drug residues, Biochip Array Technology (BAT) has been identified as an industry leader. ...
more infohttp://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/36393/highlighting-the-importance-of-detecting-coccidiostat-drug-residues/

Products || Animal Nutrition || Coccidiostats - Christa Ltd.Products || Animal Nutrition || Coccidiostats - Christa Ltd.

Coccidiostats. Supporting animal health. Our industry serves a very important segment: livestock health. As Zoetis, we strive ...
more infohttp://www.christa.bg/en/animal-nutrition/coccidiostats

White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of Diclazuril CAS 101831-37-2White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of Diclazuril CAS 101831-37-2

"गुणवत्ता दवा कच्चे माल निर्माताओं & निर्यातक - खरीदें White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of ... White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of Diclazuril. Product Details:. Place of Origin: CHINA. ... बड़ी छवि : White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of Diclazuril CAS 101831-37-2 ... White Diclazuril Raw Steroid Powders for Coccidiostat Animal Drug of Diclazuril CAS 101831-37-2. ...
more infohttp://hindi.peptidessteroids.com/sale-9360166-white-diclazuril-raw-steroid-powders-for-coccidiostat-animal-drug-of-diclazuril-cas-101831-37-2.html

Natural Latex Teats - Premier1SuppliesNatural Latex Teats - Premier1Supplies

Advance™ Replacer with Coccidiostat Item #622301 - In Stock Milk replacer for lambs and kids. Formulated with a coccidiostat. ...
more infohttps://www.premier1supplies.com/p/natural-latex-teats?slug=natural-latex-teats&cat_id=10&offset=0&limit=5

Bébé-Lac Automatic Milk Feeder - Premier1SuppliesBébé-Lac Automatic Milk Feeder - Premier1Supplies

Advance™ Replacer with Coccidiostat Item #622301 - In Stock Milk replacer for lambs and kids. Formulated with a coccidiostat. ...
more infohttps://www.premier1supplies.com/p/bebe-lac-automatic-milk-feeder?cat_id=145

Artemisinin-Based Antimalarial Combinations and Clinical Response in Cameroon - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govArtemisinin-Based Antimalarial Combinations and Clinical Response in Cameroon - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Methodology Children of either gender, between 6 months (, 5kg) and 10 years of age, with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum infection, who fulfil all of the inclusion and have none of exclusion criteria will be enrolled in the study. They will be randomised to receive the three trial arms, i.e, Study Arm-A: artesunate-amodiaquine, Study Arm-B: dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and Study Arm-C: artemether-lumefantrine at the ratio of 2:2:1 and will be hospitalised over a 3-day period to facilitate the supervised administration of the study drugs and full clinical and laboratory assessment and observation of early adverse effects. On discharge, participants will be required to report to the study clinic on days 7, 14, 21,28, 35 and 42 or at any other time when clinical sign(s)/symptom(s) of malaria is suspected. The number of participants is about 720 children. Inclusion Criteria. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01845701?recr=Open&cond=%22Protozoan+Infections%22&rank=19

RCSB PDB - Ligand Summary PageRCSB PDB - Ligand Summary Page

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ligand/ligandsummary.do?handler=biologyChemistry&hetId=GET

Drug Interaction Study Between Lumefantrine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govDrug Interaction Study Between Lumefantrine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

With the roll out of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for HIV across sub-Saharan Africa an unprecedented number of people will be commencing lifelong therapy. Current estimates are that 5-6 million people in sub-Saharan Africa require ART. At the same time, the World Health Organization (WHO) Roll Back Malaria campaign is aggressively promoting the use of artemether/lumefantrine as first-line therapy for malaria in this setting. Many patients in this setting have already become resistant to first-line ARV and have moved onto lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) based second-line regimens. Kaletra is a potent inhibitor of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4), an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many drugs which is found predominantly in the liver and the gut. Lumefantrine, and to a lesser extent artemether, is extensively metabolized by CYP 3A4. Therefore when given to a patient already taking Kaletra for HIV, it is likely that elevated levels of these drugs in the patient will result. There is some ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00619944?order=234

Robenidine - WikipediaRobenidine - Wikipedia

Robenidine is a coccidiostat. Robenidine is an antibiotic used for the control of coccidiosis, a debilitating protozoal ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robenidine

IPPE 2013 - The Poultry SiteIPPE 2013 - The Poultry Site

Highlighting the Importance of Detecting Coccidiostat Drug Residues. 15 January 2016. IPPE: More Than 25,000 Attendees, 1,189 ...
more infohttp://www.thepoultrysite.com/categories/41/ippe-2013/

EUR-Lex - 02003R1831-20151230 - EN - EUR-LexEUR-Lex - 02003R1831-20151230 - EN - EUR-Lex

a) Zootechnical additives, coccidiostats and histomonostats:. - the expiry date of the guarantee or the storage life from the ... 1. With a view to a decision on the phasing out of the use of coccidiostats and histomonostats as feed additives by 31 December ... b) veterinary medicinal products as defined in Directive 2001/82/EC ( 12 ), with the exception of coccidiostats and ... k) coccidiostats and histomonostats means substances intended to kill or inhibit protozoa; ...
more infohttps://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:02003R1831-20151230

Animal feed additives | Food Standards AgencyAnimal feed additives | Food Standards Agency

coccidiostats and histomonostats. The use of antibiotics as feed additives were previously permitted, but their use - other ... than coccidiostats and histomonostats - have since been prohibited.. Authorised additives. All authorised feed additives are ...
more infohttps://www.food.gov.uk/business-guidance/animal-feed-additives

Patent US6147109 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase by HMG-CoA ... - Google PatentsPatent US6147109 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell Nitric Oxide Synthase by HMG-CoA ... - Google Patents

... coccidiostat; cognition adjuvant; cognition enhancer; depressant; diagnostic aid; diuretic; dopaminergic agent; ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6147109?dq=%22robert+sheehan%22

Patent US6180597 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase by rho ... - Google PatentsPatent US6180597 - Upregulation of Type III endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase by rho ... - Google Patents

... coccidiostat; cognition adjuvant; cognition enhancer; depressant; diagnostic aid; diuretic; dopaminergic agent; ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US6180597

Goodwinol Oral Medications | Goat & SheepGoodwinol Oral Medications | Goat & Sheep

Corid 9.6% Oral Solution Coccidiostat (Amprolium) for use as an aid in the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in calves. ...
more infohttps://www.valleyvet.com/c/goat-sheep-supplies/health-care/oral-medications.html?mfg=goodwinol-GOO002

Neogen Oral Medications | Farm & Ranch SuppliesNeogen Oral Medications | Farm & Ranch Supplies

Corid 9.6% Oral Solution Coccidiostat (Amprolium) for use as an aid in the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in calves. ...
more infohttps://www.valleyvet.com/c/livestock-supplies/goat-sheep/health-care/oral-medications.html?mfg=neogen-NEO001

Feed Me the Scoop on Veterinary Feed DirectiveFeed Me the Scoop on Veterinary Feed Directive

Coccidiostats. Decoquinate (Deccox). References. *Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. (n.d.) ...
more infohttps://extension.psu.edu/feed-me-the-scoop-on-veterinary-feed-directive

EUR-Lex - 32005R0183 - EN - EUR-LexEUR-Lex - 32005R0183 - EN - EUR-Lex

Article 16. Amendments to registration or approval of an establishment. Upon request, the competent authority shall amend the registration or approval of an establishment, where it has demonstrated its capacity to develop activities which are additional to those for which it was first registered or approved, or which replace them.. Article 17. Exemption from on-site visits. 1. Member States are exempted from the obligation to carry out on-site visits, as provided for in Article 13, of feed businesses which act solely as traders, without holding the products on their premises.. 2. Such feed businesses shall submit to the competent authority a declaration, in a form decided upon by the competent authority, to the effect that the feeds placed on the market by them comply with the conditions of this Regulation.. Article 18. Transitional measures. 1. Establishments and intermediaries approved and/or registered in accordance with Directive 95/69/EC may continue their activities, on condition that they ...
more infohttps://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32005R0183

AmproMed For Calves 9.6% Oral Solution for Animal Use - Drugs.comAmproMed For Calves 9.6% Oral Solution for Animal Use - Drugs.com

Coccidiostat. FOR ORAL USE IN ANIMALS ONLY. KEEP THIS AND ALL DRUGS OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/vet/ampromed-for-calves-9-6-oral-solution.html

Sustained release L-arginine formulations and methods of manufacture and use - Ron, Eyal S.Sustained release L-arginine formulations and methods of manufacture and use - Ron, Eyal S.

... coccidiostat; cognition adjuvant; depressant; diuretic; dopaminergic agent; ectoparasiticide; emetic; enzyme inhibitor; ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2006/0029668.html
  • In this comparison, only medically important antimicrobials were considered (which means that ionophores and chemical coccidiostats used in animals were excluded), Canadian standard weights of animals were applied and the most recent animal (2015) and human (2014) data were used. (canada.ca)
  • More coccidiosis vaccines are available from different suppliers and many companies are also increasing the use of non-antibiotic chemical coccidiostats as part of their control programmes. (thepoultrysite.com)