Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Arizona" is a proper noun and refers to a state in the southwestern United States, not a medical term or condition. It would not have a medical definition.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
A sterile solution containing the by-products of growth products of COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS, injected intracutaneously as a test for COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is the name of a country located in North America, known officially as the United Mexican States. If you have any questions related to medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
**I'm sorry for the confusion, but 'Nevada' is not a medical term.** It is a geographical location, specifically a state in the southwestern United States. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Lung weight parallels disease severity in experimental coccidioidomycosis. (1/380)

Evidence provided by histopathological study of lesions is a valuable adjunct for evaluating chemotherapeutic efficacy in experimental animal models, In addition, this should be correlated with a measure of disease severity in the same animal. The latter could be obtained by homogenization of infected organs and quantitative enumeration of viable cells of the etiological agent, but this would preclude histopathological studies in the same animal. Progression of disease in pulmonary infection is associated with replacement of air space by fluid, cells, and cellular debris. Therefore, an increase in lung weight should reflect severity of disease. Results with the murine model of coccidioidomycosis demonstrate that increasing lung weight parallels the increasing census of fungus cells in the lungs of both treated and nontreated infected mice. This was supported with evidence obtained from microscopic studies of lesions indicating that specific chemotherapy limited spread of the infection and inhibited multiplication of the fungus in the lung. Therefore, lung weight can be used as a measure of disease severity in the murine model of coccidioidomycosis.  (+info)

MR imaging of acute coccidioidal meningitis. (2/380)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our purpose was to describe the MR imaging findings in patients with acute coccidioidal meningitis. METHODS: Fourteen patients (11 men, three women; 22-78 years old; mean age, 47 years) with coccidioidal meningitis underwent neuroimaging within 2 months of diagnosis. Thirteen patients had MR imaging and one had an initial CT study with a follow-up MR examination 5 months later. Initial and follow-up MR images were evaluated for the presence of ventricular dilatation, signal abnormalities, enhancement characteristics, sites of involvement, and evidence of white matter or cortical infarction. The patterns of enhancement were characterized as focal or diffuse. Pathologic specimens were reviewed in two patients. RESULTS: Ten of the 14 images obtained at the time of initial diagnosis showed evidence of meningitis. All of the initially abnormal studies showed enhancement in the basal cisterns, sylvian fissures, or pericallosal region. Subsequent studies, which were available for three of the four patients with normal findings initially, all eventually became abnormal, with focal enhancement seen on the initial abnormal examination. Other abnormalities seen at presentation included ventricular dilatation (six patients) and deep infarcts (four patients). Pathologic specimens in two patients showed focal collections of the organism corresponding to the areas of intense enhancement on MR images. CONCLUSION: Early in its disease course, coccidioidal meningitis may show areas of focal enhancement in the basal cisterns, which may progress to diffuse disease. Pathologically, the areas of enhancement represent focal collections of the organism. Deep infarcts and communicating hydrocephalus are associated findings.  (+info)

Endemic mycoses: a treatment update. (3/380)

Endemic mycoses remain a major public health problem in several countries and they are becoming increasingly frequent with the spread of HIV infection. Amphotericin B remains the drug of choice during the acute stage of life-threatening endemic mycoses occurring in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Ketoconazole is effective in non-AIDS patients with non-life-threatening histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or paracoccidioidomycosis. Itraconazole is the treatment of choice for non-life-threatening Histoplasma capsulatum or Blastomyces dermatitidis infections occurring in immunocompetent individuals and is the most efficient secondary prophylaxis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Itraconazole is also effective in lymphocutaneous and visceral sporotrichosis, in paracoccidioidomycosis, for Penicillum marneffei infection, and is an alternative to amphotericin B for Histoplasma duboisii infection. Coccidioidomycosis may be effectively treated with prolonged and sometimes life-long itraconazole or fluconazole therapy. Fluconazole has relatively poor efficacy against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and sporotrichosis. New antifungal agents have been tested in vitro or in animal models and may soon be evaluated in clinical trials.  (+info)

Reactivation of coccidioidomycosis in a fit American visitor. (4/380)

The case history is presented of an American visitor, known to have had primary coccidioidomycosis previously, who became very unwell during a visit to the UK. Despite consideration of reactivation of coccidioidomycosis from the outset, other pathogens were identified while Coccidioides immitis was not initially, leading to a delay in treatment.  (+info)

The first imported case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in Korea. (5/380)

Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease found in the southwestern part of North America. Travellers who visit the endemic area may carry the infection. We report a case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a 74-year-old woman. She was healthy before visiting Arizona, U.S.A twice. After returning home, she began to complain of intermittent dry coughing. The symptom was mild, however, and she was treated symptomatically. Later a chest radiograph, which was taken 4 years after the onset of the symptom, showed a solitary pulmonary nodule in the right upper lobe. By percutaneous needle aspiration, a few clusters of atypical cells were noted in the necrotic background. A right upper and middle lobectomy was done. A 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 cm sized tan nodule was present in otherwise normal lung parenchyma. Microscopically, the nodule consisted of aggregates of multiple solid granulomas inside of which was mostly necrotic. Neutrophils and nuclear debris were scattered along the periphery of the necrotic foci. Numerous multinucleated giant cells were associated with the granulomas. In the necrotic area, mature spherules of Coccidioides immitis, which were 30-100 microm in diameter, were present. They contained numerous endospores which ranged from 5 to 15 microm and were also noted in multinucleated giant cells. The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was made. She is doing well after the resection.  (+info)

Genes influencing resistance to Coccidioides immitis and the interleukin-10 response map to chromosomes 4 and 6 in mice. (6/380)

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that is endemic in the southwestern United States. Infection is more severe in blacks and Filipinos, which suggests that there is a genetic basis for susceptibility to this infection in humans. We found that there is also a difference in resistance to Coccidioides immitis infection among inbred mouse strains: B6 mice are susceptible, while DBA/2 mice are resistant (T. N. Kirkland and J. Fierer, Infect. Immun. 40:912-916, 1983). In this paper we report the results of our efforts to map the genes responsible for resistance to this infection in mice. Mice were infected by intraperitoneal inoculation, and 15 days later the numbers of viable fungi in their lungs and spleens were enumerated. We also determined the amounts of interleukin-10 mRNA made in the infected lungs. These three phenotypes were mapped as quantitative traits by using the 26 available lines of recombinant inbred mice derived from a cross between B6 and DBA/2 mice. The best associations were those between the regions near the Lv locus on chromosome 4 and the Tnfr1 locus on chromosome 6. We then infected backcross mice [(B6 x DBA/2) x B6] and confirmed these associations; 14 of 16 (87%) mice that were heterozygous at both Lv and Tnfr1 were resistant to infection, whereas only 4 of 16 (25%) mice that were homozygous B6 at both loci were resistant. These are the first genetic loci to be associated with susceptibility to C. immitis, but there may be additional genes involved in murine resistance to this infection.  (+info)

Resistance to Coccidioides immitis in mice after immunization with recombinant protein or a DNA vaccine of a proline-rich antigen. (7/380)

Two inbred strains of mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6) were vaccinated with either recombinant expression protein of a Coccidioides immitis spherule-derived proline-rich antigen (rPRA) in monophosphoryl lipid A-oil emulsion adjuvant or a DNA vaccine based on the same antigen. Four weeks after vaccination, mice were infected intraperitoneally with arthroconidia. By 2 weeks, groups of mice receiving saline or plasmids with no PRA insert exhibited significant weight loss, and quantitative CFUs in the lungs ranged from 5.9 to 6.4 log10. In contrast, groups of mice immunized with either rPRA or DNA vaccine had significantly smaller pulmonary fungal burdens, ranging from 3.0 to 4.5 log10 fewer CFUs. In vitro immunologic markers of lymphocyte proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release after splenocytes were stimulated with rPRA correlated with protection. Also, plasma concentrations of rPRA-specific total immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG1, and IgG2a showed increases in vaccinated mice. These studies expand earlier work by demonstrating protection in mice which differ in H-2 background, by using an adjuvant that is potentially applicable to human use, and by achieving comparable protections with a DNA-based vaccine. Our in vitro results substantiate a Th1 response as evidenced by IFN-gamma release and increased IgG2a. However, IgG1 was also stimulated, suggesting some Th2 response as well. PRA is a promising vaccine candidate for prevention of coccidioidomycosis and warrants further investigation.  (+info)

Construction of a single-chain interleukin-12-expressing retroviral vector and its application in cytokine gene therapy against experimental coccidioidomycosis. (8/380)

T-cell-mediated immunity is an important determinant in protection against primary infection with Coccidioides immitis, a dimorphic fungal pathogen that causes the disease coccidioidomycosis. To determine if interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene therapy could potentiate host response against C. immitis, we constructed a single-chain cDNA encoding the p40 and p35 subunits linked by a polylinker and, using a retroviral vector, transfected J774 macrophages with the construct. The transduced J774 cells expressed IL-12 in vitro, with a mean concentration of 28,440 pg from 10(6) cells in 48 h as measured by an IL-12 (p75)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The secreted IL-12 was biologically active, as judged by its ability to induce the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) by spleen cells from BALB/c mice. Treatment of the highly susceptible BALB/c mouse strain with the IL-12-transduced J774 cells inhibited C. immitis growth in tissues from mice challenged by a pulmonary route, as evidenced by 1.37-, 2.59-, and 1.22-log reductions in the number of CFU in the lungs, spleens, and livers, respectively, compared to the fungal load in mice given vector-transduced J774 cells. The protective effect of IL-12 gene therapy was accompanied by increased levels of IFN-gamma in the lungs and sera of mice treated with IL-12-transduced J774 cells and the constitutive production of IFN-gamma by their spleen cells cultured in vitro. These results suggest that IL-12 gene therapy could be used as adjunct therapy for coccidioidomycosis.  (+info)

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of spores of the Coccidioides species, mainly C. immitis and C. posadasii. These fungi are commonly found in the soil of dry regions such as the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America.

The infection often begins when a person inhales the microscopic spores, which can lead to respiratory symptoms resembling a common cold or pneumonia. Some people may develop more severe symptoms, especially those with weakened immune systems. The infection can disseminate to other parts of the body, causing skin lesions, bone and joint inflammation, meningitis, or other complications in rare cases.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests such as fungal cultures, histopathological examination, or serological tests to detect antibodies against Coccidioides antigens. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's immune status. Antifungal medications like fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B are commonly used for treating coccidioidomycosis. Preventive measures include avoiding inhaling dust in endemic areas, especially during excavation or construction activities.

'Coccidioides' is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the soil in certain geographical areas, including the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America. The two species of this genus, C. immitis and C. posadasii, can cause a serious infection known as coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley Fever) in humans and animals who inhale the spores of the fungi.

The infection typically begins in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as cough, fever, chest pain, fatigue, and weight loss. In some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, leading to more severe and potentially life-threatening complications. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy, are at higher risk for developing severe coccidioidomycosis.

I believe you are looking for a medical condition or term related to the state of Arizona. However, there is no specific medical condition or term named "Arizona." If you're looking for medical conditions or healthcare-related information specific to Arizona, I could provide some general statistics or facts about healthcare in Arizona. Please clarify if this is not what you were looking for.

Arizona has a diverse population and unique healthcare needs. Here are some key points related to healthcare in Arizona:

1. Chronic diseases: Arizona experiences high rates of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which can lead to various health complications if not managed properly.
2. Mental health: Access to mental health services is a concern in Arizona, with a significant portion of the population living in areas with mental health professional shortages.
3. Rural healthcare: Rural communities in Arizona often face challenges accessing quality healthcare due to provider shortages and longer travel distances to medical facilities.
4. COVID-19 pandemic: Like other states, Arizona has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has strained healthcare resources and highlighted existing health disparities among various populations.
5. Indigenous communities: Arizona is home to several indigenous communities, including the Navajo Nation, which faces significant health challenges, such as higher rates of diabetes, heart disease, and COVID-19 infections compared to the general population.

If you were looking for information on a specific medical condition or term related to Arizona, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Coccidioidin is a preparation derived from the filtrate of a culture of Coccidioides immitis, a fungus that is the causative agent of coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever. It is used in skin tests to diagnose coccidioidomycosis infection and determine if a person has developed immunity to the disease.

When Coccidioidin is injected into the skin, a positive reaction (induration or swelling) may indicate a current or past infection with Coccidioides immitis. However, it's important to note that a negative result does not necessarily rule out an infection, and further diagnostic tests may be needed for confirmation.

It's also worth noting that skin testing with coccidioidin can have false-positive results in people who have been vaccinated against other types of fungal infections or have certain medical conditions. Therefore, the test should be interpreted carefully and used in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Naval medicine, also known as marine medicine or maritime medicine, is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries that occur in naval or maritime environments. This can include conditions related to sea travel, such as motion sickness, decompression sickness, and infectious diseases spread through contaminated water or food. It also covers occupational health concerns for naval personnel, including hearing loss from exposure to loud noises, respiratory problems from inhaling fumes, and musculoskeletal injuries from heavy lifting. Additionally, naval medicine may address the unique mental health challenges faced by naval personnel, such as those related to isolation, stress, and combat.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of spores of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the skin, bones, and central nervous system. The initial symptoms of blastomycosis may include cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. If left untreated, the infection can become severe and potentially life-threatening. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as itraconazole or amphotericin B.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Southwestern United States" is not a term that has a medical definition. It generally refers to a geographic region in the western part of the United States, consisting of Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, as well as portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. If you're looking for medical information, I'd be happy to help if you could provide more context or specify a medical topic.

Histoplasmosis is a pulmonary and systemic disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. It is typically acquired through the inhalation of microconidia from contaminated soil, particularly in areas associated with bird or bat droppings. The infection can range from asymptomatic to severe, depending on factors like the individual's immune status and the quantity of inhaled spores.

In acute histoplasmosis, symptoms may include fever, cough, fatigue, chest pain, and headache. Chronic or disseminated forms of the disease can affect various organs, such as the liver, spleen, adrenal glands, and central nervous system, leading to more severe complications. Diagnosis often involves serological tests, cultures, or histopathological examination of tissue samples. Treatment depends on the severity and dissemination of the disease, with antifungal medications like itraconazole or amphotericin B being commonly used for moderate to severe cases.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. "Archaeology" is the scientific study of past human cultures and societies through the recovery, examination, and analysis of material remains such as artifacts, buildings, biofacts (e.g., bones, shells), and cultural landscapes. It is not typically associated with medical definitions. If you intended to ask for a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please let me know so I can provide the correct information.

For more information about archaeology, you may be interested in visiting the World Archaeological Congress () or the Society for American Archaeology () websites to learn more about this fascinating field of study.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Fungal meningitis is a form of meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is specifically caused by the invasion of the meninges by fungi. The most common causative agents are Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum.

Fungal meningitis typically occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. It begins gradually, often with symptoms including headache, fever, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light. Other possible symptoms can include confusion, nausea, vomiting, and altered mental status.

Diagnosis of fungal meningitis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment usually requires long-term antifungal therapy, often administered intravenously in a hospital setting. The prognosis for fungal meningitis depends on several factors, including the underlying immune status of the patient, the specific causative agent, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in North America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nevada" is not a medical term. It is the name of a state in the western United States. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, please let me know and I would be happy to help.

Acute coccidioidomycosis, sometimes described in literature as primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis Chronic coccidioidomycosis ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention page on coccidioidomycosis Medline Plus Entry for coccidioidomycosis (Articles ... Valley fever may progress to the chronic form and then to disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Therefore, coccidioidomycosis may be ... Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory (September 2007). "Coccidioidomycosis in California State ...
... is a systemic infection with Coccidioides immitis, in which 15-20% of people develop skin ... lesions.: 315 Coccidioidomycosis List of cutaneous conditions James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' ...
... is a skin condition caused by Coccidioides immitis following a definite history of ... inoculation or a colonized splinter found in the skin lesion.: 315 Coccidioidomycosis List of cutaneous conditions James, ...
Coccidioidomycosis List of cutaneous conditions James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the ... Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by inhalation of Coccidioides immitis.: 314 Once pulmonary symptoms ... residual granulomatous lesion or scar that can remain in the lung's tissues following primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. ...
She continued to work on coccidioidomycosis and found that it occurred more often in men than in women and people of ethnic ... Coccidioidomycosis was first identified by an Argentinian medical student, Alejandro Posadas, in 1892, the year Gifford that ... She was the first to identify that San Joaquin Valley Fever was the primary stage of coccidioidomycosis. Gifford was born to ... COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS OF THE MENINGES. OCLC 679072520.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "California ...
"COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS" (PDF). Department of Public Health. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved January ... The disseminated form of Coccidioidomycosis can devastate the body, causing skin ulcers, abscesses, bone lesions, severe joint ... ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. "Coccidioidomycosis". Merck. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2014. ... Exposure Factors In Occupational Coccidioidomycosis. McGraw Hill. p. 110.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ...
"Diagnosis and testing , Coccidioidomycosis , Types of Fungal Diseases , Fungal ,". www.cdc.gov. 2021-01-29. Retrieved 2022-03- ... It can also rarely occur as a result of infectious causes such as tuberculous peritonitis, peritoneal coccidioidomycosis, and ...
Coccidioidomycosis, caused by Coccidioides immitis, is found in arid and semi-arid regions of Central and South America, Mexico ... "Coccidioidomycosis". The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-18. "Symptoms of Coccidia". Retrieved 2013-12-14. ...
Coccidioidomycosis is not easily diagnosed on the basis of vital signs and symptoms, which are usually vague and nonspecific. ... "Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 9 July 2013 ... "Symptoms of Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved 11 July 2013. " ... C. immitis can cause a disease called coccidioidomycosis (valley fever). Its incubation period varies from 7 to 21 days. ...
A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. Jama, 277(11), 904-908. "Coccidioidomycosis Outbreak ... An unusual effect of the Northridge earthquake was an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in Ventura County. This ...
cite book}}: ,journal= ignored (help) Stevens, David A. (1980). Coccidioidomycosis: A Text. U.S.A.: Springer. pp. 2-3. ISBN ... Deresinski, Stan; Mirels, Laurence F (25 January 2019). "Coccidioidomycosis: What a long strange trip it's been". Medical ... Hirschmann, J. V. (1 May 2007). "The Early History of Coccidioidomycosis: 1892-1945". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 44 (9): ... who with Wernicke first described the fungal disease Coccidioidomycosis.[excessive citations] Wernicke was a founding member ...
Coccidioidomycosis is amazingly diverse in terms of its scope of clinical presentation, as well as clinical severity. About 60 ... The primary coccidioidomycosis-endemic areas are located in Southern California and southern Arizona, and northern Mexico, in ... Member species are the cause of coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, an infectious fungal disease ... The causative agents of coccidioidomycosis are Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Both C. immitis and C. ...
Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory (2007). "Coccidioidomycosis in California State Correctional ...
He was the first to recognise coccidioidomycosis in desert rodents, and he established that soil is a natural reservoir for ... He was the first to recognise coccidioidomycosis in desert rodents, and establishing that soil is a natural reservoir for ... Their Relationship to Coccidioidomycosis". Public Health Reports. 57 (46): 1715-1727. doi:10.2307/4584276. ISSN 0094-6214. ...
Posadas was the first person to describe coccidioidomycosis (later known as Posadas Disease) and Coccidioides posadasii was ... Alejandro Posadas first describes coccidioidomycosis (Taxonomy). Retrieved 2016-01-18 "Hospital Nacional Profesor Dr Alejandro ...
Pappagianis, Demosthenes, and the Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory (2007). Coccidioidomycosis in California State ...
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever), a fungal disease prominent in the US Southwest. Human immunodeficiency virus infection ... and diagnostic aspects of coccidioidomycosis". J. Clin. Microbiol. 45 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1128/JCM.02230-06. PMC 1828958. PMID ...
In 1892, Alejandro Posadas described a case of an unknown infectious disease, which later was named Coccidioidomycosis In 1901 ... Hirschmann, Jan V. (2007). "The Early History of Coccidioidomycosis: 1892-1945". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 44 (9): 1202- ...
This includes aspergillosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. It may be given by ...
... coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, candidiasis Other granulomatous conditions; PR3+ vasculitis, Crohn's disease, acute ...
"Fungal pneumonia: a silent epidemic - Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever)" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ... which cause Coccidioidomycosis, it is used in genomic research to help develop human vaccination, which might alleviate the ...
These include aspergillosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, mycetomas, and ...
An example is the use of ketoconazole to treat coccidioidomycosis. Like the oral route, this will reach the bloodstream and ... An example of this is IV amphotericin B for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. The available classes of antifungal drugs are ...
Jude CM, Nayak NB, Patel MK, Deshmukh M, Batra P (2014). "Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis: pictorial review of chest radiographic ... such as Coccidioidomycosis. Other infectious causes include a lung abscess, pneumonia (including pneumocystis pneumonia) or ...
This includes candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and tinea ...
Severe and disseminated coccidioidomycosis has been reported to occur in increased frequency in pregnant women in several ... The evidence is more limited for coccidioidomycosis, measles, smallpox, and varicella. Pregnancy may also increase ...
The evidence is more limited for coccidioidomycosis, measles, smallpox, and varicella. Mastitis, or inflammation of the breast ...
... where 44 workers came down with coccidioidomycosis while constructing solar power-generating facilities. Coccidioidomycosis (or ... "Coccidioidomycosis among Workers Constructing Solar Power Farms, California, USA, 2011-2014". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21 ...
The evidence is more limited for coccidioidomycosis, measles, smallpox, and varicella. Pregnancy does not appear to alter the ...
A third of patients presenting with disseminated coccidioidomycosis have developed meningitis. Histoplasma - occurs in bird and ...
Coccidioidomycosis is under public health surveillance, and is reportable - meaning the physician needs to report it to public ... In 2010 there were over 16,000 reported cases of coccidioidomycosis, the majority of which were located in Arizona and ... California Department of Public Health - Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever). *CDC. Increase in reported coccidioidomycosis - ... On average, there were approximately 200 coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths each year (deaths in which coccidioidomycosis was ...
Acute coccidioidomycosis, sometimes described in literature as primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis Chronic coccidioidomycosis ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention page on coccidioidomycosis Medline Plus Entry for coccidioidomycosis (Articles ... Valley fever may progress to the chronic form and then to disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Therefore, coccidioidomycosis may be ... Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory (September 2007). "Coccidioidomycosis in California State ...
Coccidioidomycosis is a disease caused by Coccidioides immitis, a dimorphic fungus that thrives in the lower Sonoran Desert ... encoded search term (Ocular Coccidioidomycosis) and Ocular Coccidioidomycosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Ocular Coccidioidomycosis. Updated: Aug 29, 2023 * Author: Mark Ventocilla, OD, FAAO; Chief Editor: Hampton Roy, Sr, MD more... ... Coccidioidomycosis is a disease caused by Coccidioides immitis, a dimorphic fungus that thrives in the lower Sonoran Desert ...
Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever. CDC Yellow Book 2024. Travel-Associated Infections & Diseases Author(s): Mitsuru Toda, ... Coccidioidomycosis infections are often self-limited, typically resolving in a few weeks to months, but also can be severe, ... Coccidioidomycosis is a nationally notifiable disease in the United States. The most common methods to diagnose ... Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is caused by the fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. ...
Coccidioidomycosis among persons with AIDS in the United States. J Infect Dis 1995;171:961-6. * CDC. Update: coccidioidomycosis ... from areas where coccidioidomycosis is not endemic; 2) promoting more complete reporting of coccidioidomycosis cases by ... unspecified coccidioidomycosis (6%), and primary extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis (0.1%); 1% of patients were discharged with ... Coccidioidomycosis -- Arizona, 1990-1995 MMWR 45(49);1069-1073 Publication date: 12/13/1996. Table of Contents. Article. ...
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides immitis, a soil fungus native to the San Joaquin Valley of California (see the ... encoded search term (Coccidioidomycosis and Valley Fever) and Coccidioidomycosis and Valley Fever What to Read Next on Medscape ... For discussion of imaging studies in coccidioidomycosis, see Imaging Studies in Coccidioidomycosis. ... Coccidioidomycosis and Valley Fever Workup. Updated: Dec 16, 2022 * Author: George R Thompson III, MD, FIDSA, FECMM; Chief ...
Coccidioidomycosis), including signs and symptoms; conditions that suggest it; contributing risk factors. ... Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis): Overview. Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by breathing in the spores of a fungus ... Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in the western hemisphere from California to Argentina. Coccidioidomycosis is also being ... The results of medical therapies for coccidioidomycosis are unpredictable. Antifungal therapy for coccidioidomycosis often is ...
Describe the epidemiology of blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis in the United States and the impact of ... Calls/Webinars - Algorithms for Diagnosing the Endemic Mycoses Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, and Histoplasmosis​, Thursday ... Algorithms for Diagnosing the Endemic Mycoses Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, and Histoplasmosis. *Preparing for the ... Describe diagnostic tests clinicians should consider initially and after a negative test for blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Coccidioidomycosis in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from ... Coccidioidomycosis varies from inapparent to progressive, disseminated, and fatal. Coccidioidomycosis is primarily a ... Coccidioidomycosis in Animals (Valley Fever). By Tamara Gull , DVM, PhD, DACVM, DACVIM (LA), DACVPM, University of Missouri, ... Coccidioidomycosis infections are most common in arid and semiarid regions of the southwestern US and similar areas of Mexico ...
Antimicrobial Drugs Coccidioidomycosis Delay In Diagnosis Delays In Coccidioidomycosis Diagnosis And Associated Healthcare ... Delays in Coccidioidomycosis Diagnosis and Relationship to Healthcare Utilization, Phoenix, Arizona, USA1 Cite ... "Delays in Coccidioidomycosis Diagnosis and Associated Healthcare Utilization, Tucson, Arizona, USA" 25, no. 9 (2019). Donovan, ... 2019). Delays in Coccidioidomycosis Diagnosis and Relationship to Healthcare Utilization, Phoenix, Arizona, USA1. 25(9). Ginn, ...
Information about the Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory
What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline Review? Get in-depth ... What challenges does Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline market is seeing ahead? Business transformation in Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline ... Coccidioidomycosis - Dormant Projects, H2 2019List of Figures. Number of Products under Development for Coccidioidomycosis, H2 ... What is the estimated valuation for the Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline market? The Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline market to reach ...
... and diagnose coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) and other select endemic fungal infections (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PA- ... Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a systemic infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii . ... Novel approaches to understand, prevent, treat, and diagnose coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) and other select endemic fungal ... The most common endemic mycoses in the United States are coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever), histoplasmosis, and blastomycosis. ...
Describe the epidemiology of blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis in the United States and the impact of ... Calls/Webinars - Algorithms for Diagnosing the Endemic Mycoses Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, and Histoplasmosis​, Thursday ... Algorithms for Diagnosing the Endemic Mycoses Blastomycosis, Coccidioidomycosis, and Histoplasmosis. *Preparing for the ... Describe diagnostic tests clinicians should consider initially and after a negative test for blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis ...
... and treatment recommendations for Coccidioidomycosis and Coccidioidal infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. ... Panels Recommendations for Coccidioidomycosis. Panels Recommendations. *Routine use of antifungal medications for primary ... Panels Recommendations for Coccidioidomycosis. Panels Recommendations. *Routine use of antifungal medications for primary ... Coccidioidomycosis in patients with HIV-1 infection in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. Jan 1 2010;50 ...
Coccidioidomycosis - chronic pulmonaryCoccidioidomycosis - chronic pulmonary CausesCoccidioidomycosis - chronic pulmonary Risk ... Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray. This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle ... Coccidioidomycosis - chronic pulmonary : Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors. * Coccidioidomycosis - chronic pulmonary : Symptoms ... Most pulmonary coccidioidomycosis infections do not become chronic.. The following increase the risk for the chronic or ...
The global coccidioidomycosis drug market size is experiencing a noticeable compound annual growth rate (CAGR) during the ... Coccidioidomycosis Drug Market Size & Growth Analysis to 2030. Global Coccidioidomycosis Drug Market Size, Share, Growth, ... The coccidioidomycosis drug market report offers a primary overview of the coccidioidomycosis drug industry covering different ... Key Questions Answered by Global Coccidioidomycosis Drug Market Report. The global coccidioidomycosis drug market research ...
Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioides immitis is endemic in the soil of the arid regions of the Western Hemisphere (not just the US ... Coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioides immitis is endemic in the soil of the arid regions of the Western Hemisphere (not just the US ... Acute Respiratory Infections in a Recently Arrived Traveler to Your Part of the World: Coccidioidomycosis. Category: ... Tagged on: airplane safety avian influenza Coccidioidomycosis hantavirus pulmonary syndrome Histoplasmosis Legionellosis ...
Adult Coccidioidomycosis Disease Outbreaks Female Humans Male Population Research Article Residence Characteristics Travel ... 1970). Coccidioidomycosis in Los Angeles County.. 85(5). Matlof, Harvey and Kamei, Ichiro and Heidbreder, G. A. " ... "Coccidioidomycosis in Los Angeles County." 85, no. 5 (1970). Matlof, Harvey et al. "Coccidioidomycosis in Los Angeles County." ... Title : Coccidioidomycosis in Los Angeles County. Personal Author(s) : Matlof, Harvey;Kamei, Ichiro;Heidbreder, G. A.; ...
Coccidioidomycosis. A fungal infection that usually affects the lungs, coccidioidomycosis results from inhaling fungal spores ...
Coccidioidomycosis. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or ... The first imported case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in korea. coccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease found in the ... occult manifestations of coccidioidomycosis. We present a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis in an active duty Caucasian ... Reactivation of coccidioidomycosis in a fit American visitor. The case history is presented of an American visitor, known to ...
The 68th Annual Coccidioidomycosis Study Group will take place April 5th-April 6th, 2024 in San Antonio, Texas. It will... Read ...
Coccidioidomycosis is the infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides immitis. The disease is endemic only in regions ... Coccidioidomycosis is acquired from inhalation of the spores (arthroconidia). Once in the lungs, the arthroconidia transform ...
Coccidioidomycosis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Coccidioidomycosis Most people with acute primary coccidioidomycosis have no symptoms. If symptoms develop, they ... Risk factors for progressive coccidioidomycosis Progressive coccidioidomycosis is uncommon in otherwise healthy people. It is ... Coccidioidomycosis may also spread from the lungs to the skin, bones (causing osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a ...
Access Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever (Coccidioides spp.) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for ... Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever (Coccidioides spp.) , 2011 Case Definition. *Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever (Coccidioides ... Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever (Coccidioides spp.) , 1996 Case Definition. *Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever (Coccidioides ... Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever (Coccidioides spp.) , 2023 Case Definition. * ...
Causative agents of coccidioidomycosis. *Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, is a fungal infection caused by the ... Clinical features of coccidioidomycosis. Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley fever, is a fungal infection caused by the ... Risk factors of Coccidioidomycosis infection. *Geographic Location: Coccidioidomycosis is most commonly found in the ... What is coccidioidomycosis?. Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley fever, is a fungal infection caused by inhaling spores of ...
  • Crum N, Lamb C, Utz G, Amundson D, Wallace M. Coccidioidomycosis outbreak among United States Navy SEALs training in a Coccidioides immitis -endemic area-Coalinga, California . (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (/kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/, kok-SID-ee-oy-doh-my-KOH-sis), commonly known as cocci, Valley fever, as well as California fever, desert rheumatism, or San Joaquin Valley fever, is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Coccidioides infection, coccidioidomycosis begins with Valley fever, which is its initial acute form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is a disease caused by Coccidioides immitis , a dimorphic fungus that thrives in the lower Sonoran Desert ecozone of the Western hemisphere. (medscape.com)
  • Shira Shafir] Coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci or valley fever, is a disease primarily in the lungs caused by the fungus, coccidioides. (cdc.gov)
  • Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is caused by the fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii . (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by the inhalation of airborne arthroconidia from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by breathing in the spores of a fungus Coccidioides immitis found in soil in desert regions of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Central and South America. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a dustborne, noncontagious infection due to Coccidioides spp fungi. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis, also called Valley fever, is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is caused by the endemic, 1,2 soil-dwelling dimorphic fungus, Coccidioides spp. (hiv.gov)
  • Chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is a lung infection caused by breathing in the fungus Coccidioides . (health32.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is the infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides immitis . (drfungus.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is an infection, usually of the lungs, caused by the fungus Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci, Valley fever, California fever, arid rheumatism, and San Joaquin Valley fever, is a fungal disease of mammals caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, is a fungal infection caused by the soil-dwelling fungi of the genus Coccidioides. (microbiologynote.com)
  • There are two species of Coccidioides that can cause coccidioidomycosis: Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was made when H&E and Gomori's methenamine silver staining of a bone biopsy sample revealed multiple fungal spherules, which were confirmed to be Coccidioides immitis by culture and PCR. (qxmd.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) is a disease endemic to arid regions in the western hemisphere, and is caused by the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides immitis (C. immitis). (arizona.edu)
  • Coccidioidomycosis ( Coccidioides species). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (also known as Valley Fever) is an infection usually caused by inhaling the spores ("seeds") of either Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii fungi. (jammujournal.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, is a fungal infection caused by inhaling spores of the Coccidioides fungus, commonly found in dry regions. (cochinreporter.in)
  • Therefore, coccidioidomycosis may be divided into the following types: Acute coccidioidomycosis, sometimes described in literature as primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis Chronic coccidioidomycosis Disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which includes primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis Valley fever is not a contagious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common symptoms of primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis are cough and persistent fatigue, with only about half of patients reporting fever. (cdc.gov)
  • The incidence of both acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis and the chronic disease is around 1 in 100,000 people. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is almost always mild, with few or no symptoms, and resolves without treatment. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis can develop 20 or more years after initial infection which may not have been recognized, diagnosed, or treated. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Lifelong antifungal suppression (secondary prophylaxis) with either fluconazole or itraconazole is recommended for treating HIV-infected children after disseminated, diffuse pulmonary, and/or meningeal coccidioidomycosis (AII*) , even if immune reconstitution is achieved with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). (hiv.gov)
  • Scarring (fibrosis) and cavities can form in the upper lungs as chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis slowly gets worse over a period of months or years. (health32.com)
  • Most pulmonary coccidioidomycosis infections do not become chronic. (health32.com)
  • The appearance is typical for chronic pulmonary tuberculosis but may also occur with chronic pulmonary histiocytosis and chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. (health32.com)
  • Long-lasting (chronic) pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is much less common. (ipl.org)
  • There are three forms of Coccidioidomycosis i.e. acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. (jammujournal.com)
  • The global coccidioidomycosis drug market is expected to witness a significant CAGR of X.X% during the forecast period from 2023 to 2030. (researchcorridor.com)
  • DelveInsight's " Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline Insight 2023 " report provides comprehensive insights about key companies and pipeline drugs in the Coccidioidomycosis pipeline landscapes. (jammujournal.com)
  • Before 1994, ADHS relied solely on physician diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis and did not require laboratory confirmation. (cdc.gov)
  • The AHDDB was reviewed to identify patients with a discharge diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification {ICD-9-CM}, codes 114.0-114.3 and 114.9). (cdc.gov)
  • For more than half a century, detection of antibodies to coccidioidal antigens has been used to establish the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis and to monitor patients undergoing therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Six had temporary responses to amphotericin B treatment, taken both alone and combined with ketoconazole, but all died within 14 months of their diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. (aku.edu)
  • During 1990-1995, a total of 2762 cases of coccidioidomycosis were reported to ADHS, and the annual number of reported cases increased from 255 (7.0 cases per 100,000 population) in 1990 to 623 (14.9 cases per 100,000 population) in 1995. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, 14,364 cases of coccidioidomycosis were reported in 2017. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis infections are often self-limited, typically resolving in a few weeks to months, but also can be severe, requiring hospitalization. (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis infections are most common in arid and semiarid regions of the southwestern US and similar areas of Mexico and Central and South America, though cases have been reported from nonendemic regions. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In endemic regions of the United States, coccidioidomycosis is a prevalent cause of community-acquired pneumonia.Infections are typically caused by inhaling arthroconidial particles after soil disruption.The disease is not transmissible.In certain instances, an infection may recur or become chronic. (microbiologynote.com)
  • In the United States- the limited geographic range of 3 fungal infections- blastomcyes, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis has been increasing in recent years (1). (knowthecause.com)
  • Describe the epidemiology of blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis in the United States and the impact of delayed and underdiagnosed cases. (cdc.gov)
  • DelveInsight's 'Coccidioidomycosis Epidemiology Forecast to 2032′ report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical and forecasted Cholangiocarcinoma epidemiology in the 7MM, i.e., the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom), and Japan. (jammujournal.com)
  • DelveInsight's "Coccidioidomycosis Therapeutic Vaccines - Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast - 2032" report delivers an in-depth understanding of the Coccidioidomycosis Therapeutic Vaccines, historical and forecasted epidemiology as well as the Coccidioidomycosis Therapeutic Vaccines market trends in the United States, EU4 (Germany, France, Italy, and Spain) and the United Kingdom, and Japan. (cochinreporter.in)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is acquired from inhalation of the spores (arthroconidia). (drfungus.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is acquired by inhaling spores. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The primary risk factor for coccidioidomycosis is exposure to soil, especially dust, containing C. immitis spores. (beltina.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis Coccidioidomycosis (also called San Joaquin Valley Fever) is a disease caused by breathing in airborne fungus spores. (ipl.org)
  • The authors report a case of disseminated skeletal coccidioidomycosis in a previously healthy person living in a non-endemic area, who was initially thought to have a malignancy. (qxmd.com)
  • The most common methods to diagnose coccidioidomycosis are culture, histopathology, molecular techniques, and serology. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe, progressive infection (progressive coccidioidomycosis): The infection spreads from the lungs throughout the body and is often fatal. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Progressive coccidioidomycosis is uncommon in otherwise healthy people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The true incidence of ocular coccidioidomycosis is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • During 1990-1995, annual incidence rates for coccidioidomycosis were highest among males (range: 8.2-19.3 per 100,000 population) and persons aged greater than or equal to 65 years (range: 14.6-35.0 per 100,000). (cdc.gov)
  • Shira Shafir] While coccidioidomycosis has the potential to be severe and fatal, we believe that the number of deaths in the US associated with this disease are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is a nationally notifiable disease in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Because surveillance data did not indicate disease outcome, death certificates were reviewed to determine mortality from coccidioidomycosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is primarily a respiratory disease that ranges from self-limiting to chronic. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Coccidioidomycosis - Pipeline Review, H2 2019, provides an overview of the Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Coccidioidomycosis - Pipeline Review, H2 2019, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Coccidioidomycosis and features dormant and discontinued projects. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease). (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease). (htfmarketreport.com)
  • Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Coccidioidomycosis (Infectious Disease) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The awareness of coccidioidomycosis is increasing in the Central Valley of California and southern Arizona, but outside of these areas the disease is not often diagnosed. (nau.edu)
  • In the USA, coccidioidomycosis cases reported rival the number of cases of tuberculosis and Lyme disease. (nau.edu)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is the most common endemic mycosis to cause disease in solid-organ transplant patients in North America. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Underlying renal and liver disease, T-lymphocyte suppression from antirejection medication, and activation of immunomodulating viruses, such as cytomegalovirus, all increase the risk for coccidioidomycosis among these patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A detailed picture of the Coccidioidomycosis pipeline landscape is provided, which includes the disease overview and Coccidioidomycosis treatment guidelines. (jammujournal.com)
  • Disseminated coccidioidomycosis, is the most severe form of the disease and occurs in about 1% of all cases, usually in people who have a poor immune system or pregnant women. (jammujournal.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis Pipeline Insights, 2022″ report by DelveInsight outlays comprehensive insights of present clinical development scenario and growth prospects across the Coccidioidomycosis market. (jammujournal.com)
  • The endemic mycoses blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever), and histoplasmosis are environmental fungal diseases that are frequently misdiagnosed. (cdc.gov)
  • Participants will also be introduced to new clinical diagnostic algorithms to address these challenges and improve the timely diagnosis of blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Discuss diagnostic challenges associated with blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Identify populations clinicians should consider testing for blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Describe diagnostic tests clinicians should consider initially and after a negative test for blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to support research activities that will contribute to the overall understanding of coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as Valley Fever, and other select endemic fungal diseases including histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. (nih.gov)
  • In endemic regions, coccidioidomycosis is responsible for 20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report summarizes the findings, which indicate that, during 1990-1995, coccidioidomycosis in Arizona disproportionately affected persons aged greater than or equal to 65 years and persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks have been associated with activities such as archaeological excavation, construction, and military training exercises. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous research shows there is a relationship between temperature and precipitation, and outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis. (arizona.edu)
  • An estimated 60% of people infected with the fungi responsible for coccidioidomycosis have minimal to no symptoms, while 40% will have a range of possible clinical symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994, ADHS adopted the surveillance case definition for coccidioidomycosis proposed by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, which requires the presence of clinically compatible symptoms and laboratory evidence of infection * (3). (cdc.gov)
  • Most people with acute primary coccidioidomycosis have no symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Among those who develop symptoms of coccidioidomycosis, commonly called valley FEVER, illness may be acute, chronic, or disseminated. (beltina.org)
  • The most common form of coccidioidomycosis is acute, in which symptoms develop within four weeks of exposure. (beltina.org)
  • Also see Coccidioidomycosis and Dermatologic Manifestations of Coccidioidomycosis . (medscape.com)
  • Although coccidioidomycosis is not contagious, lab personnel who handle specimens must take precautions to avoid contracting the illness. (diagnose-me.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is not contagious and cannot be transmitted from person to person. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis affects the respiratory tract, primarily the lungs. (beltina.org)
  • Barker, BM 2018, Coccidioidomycosis in animals . (nau.edu)
  • The classic triad of coccidioidomycosis known as "desert rheumatism" includes the combination of fever, joint pains, and erythema nodosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycology and immunology researchers from The University of Texas at San Antonio have been selected to receive a five-year, $6.8 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to establish a San Antonio-based Coccidioidomycosis Collaborative Research Center (SA-CCRC) focused on developing therapeutics and vaccines against coccidioidomycosis. (news-medical.net)
  • It also includes the Coccidioidomycosis therapeutics assessment by product type, stage, route of administration, and molecule type and further highlights the inactive Coccidioidomycosis pipeline products. (jammujournal.com)
  • On average, there were approximately 200 coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths each year (deaths in which coccidioidomycosis was listed as a primary or contributing cause on a death certificate) in the United States during 1999-2019, according to National Multiple Cause of Death data . (cdc.gov)
  • According to DelveInsight, the Coccidioidomycosis market in 7MM is expected to witness a major change in the study period 2019-2032. (cochinreporter.in)
  • This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. (health32.com)
  • [ 9 ] The prognosis in patients with severe ocular coccidioidomycosis is often poor. (medscape.com)
  • People with weakened immune systems are also at higher risk of developing severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Although many species of animals, including humans, are susceptible, dogs most commonly develop clinical signs of coccidioidomycosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is most commonly found in the southwestern United States, particularly in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Valley fever may progress to the chronic form and then to disseminated coccidioidomycosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name of this infection is coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, F2G has been granted Orphan Drug Designation for Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever). (lisavienna.at)
  • Although there are no established approaches to preventing coccidioidomycosis among these patients, studies are underway examining the use of prophylactic azole antifungals with documented prior coccidioidal infection. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, IgM may persist and/or reappear under certain circumstances (eg, chronic cavitary coccidioidomycosis or systemic reinfection associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement). (medscape.com)
  • There is no evidence that lipid preparations of amphotericin are more effective than amphotericin B deoxycholate for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. (hiv.gov)
  • Clearly, better diagnostics, effective treatments, and development of vaccines would greatly improve public health and reduce economic costs associated with coccidioidomycosis. (nau.edu)
  • Of 27 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Tucson, Arizona, 7 had concurrent coccidioidomycosis. (aku.edu)
  • Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in the western hemisphere from California to Argentina. (diagnose-me.com)
  • An example of such infectivity was noted following a large California dust storm after which 15 counties reported a tenfold or more increase in cases of coccidioidomycosis . (diagnose-me.com)
  • However, the specific environmental conditions that may produce an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis are not well understood in space and time. (arizona.edu)
  • Emerging therapies such as Ibrexafungerp, VT-1598, Fosmanogepix, Olorofim, are expected to have a significant impact on the Coccidioidomycosis market in the coming years. (jammujournal.com)
  • Mild lung infection (acute primary coccidioidomycosis): The infection disappears without treatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Extended, sometimes lifelong, treatment with antifungal medications is required for chronic and disseminated coccidioidomycosis. (beltina.org)
  • The report comprises Coccidioidomycosis pipeline drug profiles, including clinical and non-clinical stage products. (jammujournal.com)
  • The coccidioidomycosis drug market report offers a primary overview of the coccidioidomycosis drug industry covering different product definitions, classifications, and participants in the industry chain structure. (researchcorridor.com)