Coccidioidin: A sterile solution containing the by-products of growth products of COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS, injected intracutaneously as a test for COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.HistoplasminSkin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.HondurasTuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Camping: Living outdoors as a recreational activity.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.Hemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Material Safety Data Sheets: Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.Erythema Nodosum: An erythematous eruption commonly associated with drug reactions or infection and characterized by inflammatory nodules that are usually tender, multiple, and bilateral. These nodules are located predominantly on the shins with less common occurrence on the thighs and forearms. They undergo characteristic color changes ending in temporary bruise-like areas. This condition usually subsides in 3-6 weeks without scarring or atrophy.ArgentinaDirofilaria immitis: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.United States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.AlaskaIndians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.United States

Microbial relatives of the seed storage proteins of higher plants: conservation of structure and diversification of function during evolution of the cupin superfamily. (1/26)

This review summarizes the recent discovery of the cupin superfamily (from the Latin term "cupa," a small barrel) of functionally diverse proteins that initially were limited to several higher plant proteins such as seed storage proteins, germin (an oxalate oxidase), germin-like proteins, and auxin-binding protein. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of two vicilins, seed proteins with a characteristic beta-barrel core, led to the identification of a small number of conserved residues and thence to the discovery of several microbial proteins which share these key amino acids. In particular, there is a highly conserved pattern of two histidine-containing motifs with a varied intermotif spacing. This cupin signature is found as a central component of many microbial proteins including certain types of phosphomannose isomerase, polyketide synthase, epimerase, and dioxygenase. In addition, the signature has been identified within the N-terminal effector domain in a subgroup of bacterial AraC transcription factors. As well as these single-domain cupins, this survey has identified other classes of two-domain bicupins including bacterial gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenases, fungal oxalate decarboxylases, and legume sucrose-binding proteins. Cupin evolution is discussed from the perspective of the structure-function relationships, using data from the genomes of several prokaryotes, especially Bacillus subtilis. Many of these functions involve aspects of sugar metabolism and cell wall synthesis and are concerned with responses to abiotic stress such as heat, desiccation, or starvation. Particular emphasis is also given to the oxalate-degrading enzymes from microbes, their biological significance, and their value in a range of medical and other applications.  (+info)

Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to a cell wall fraction of the mycelial phase of Coccidioides immitis. (2/26)

A skin test-active fraction was isolated from the mycelial-phase cell walls of Coccidioides immitis. This alkali-soluble, water-soluble antigen (C-ASWS) elicited positive reactions in 22 of 24 (92%) of the Coccidioides-sensitized guinea pigs whereas only 14 (54%) of the same guinea pigs reacted to commercial coccidioidin (BioCox). None of the 21 Histoplasma-sensitized guinea pigs cross-reacted with the C-ASWS antigen. Footpad tests in mice actively infected with Coccidioides further established the efficacy of the C-ASWS antigen in eliciting a delayed-type hypersensitivity response. One-microgram doses of C-ASWS produced reactions comparable to 100-mug doses of nondialyzable coccidioidin (Smith's lot 64 D4). The C-ASWS fractions isolated from three different C. immitis strains showed similar reactivity in terms of the number of positive reactions produced in Coccidioides-sensitized guinea pigs. However, the induration responses (diameter in millimeters) elicited by the C-ASWS fraction of one strain were significantly less than those elicited by the C-ASWS fractions of the other two C. immitis strains.  (+info)

Homologies between members of the germin gene family in hexaploid wheat and similarities between these wheat germins and certain Physarum spherulins. (3/26)

By screening approximately 10(6) plaques in a wheat DNA library with a "full-length" germin cDNA probe, two genomic clones were detected. When digested with EcoRI, one clone yielded a 2.8-kilobase pair fragment (gf-2.8) and the other yielded a 3.8-kilobase pair fragment (gf-3.8). By nucleotide sequencing, each of gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 was found to encode a complete sequence for germin and germin mRNA, and to contain appreciable amounts of 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. The "cap" site in gf-2.8 was determined by primer extension and the corresponding site in gf-3.8 was deduced by analogy. The mRNA coding sequences in gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 are intronless and 87% homologous with one another. The 5'-flanking regions in gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 contain recognizable sites of what are probably cis-acting elements but there is otherwise little if any significant similarity between them. In addition to putative TATA and CAAT boxes in the 5'-flanking regions of gf-2.8 and gf-3.8, there are AT-rich inverted-repeats, GC boxes, long purine-rich sequences, two 19-base pair direct-repeat sequences in gf-2.8, and a remarkably long (200-base pair) inverted-repeat sequence (approximately 90% homology) in gf-3.8. An 8% difference between the mature-protein coding regions in gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 is reflected by a corresponding 7% difference between the corresponding 201-residue proteins. Most significantly, the same 8% difference between the mature-protein coding regions in gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 is allied with no change whatever in a central part (61-151) of the encoded polypeptide sequences. It seems likely that this central, strongly conserved core in the germins is of first importance in the biochemical involvements of the proteins. When an equivalence is assumed between like amino acids, the gf-2.8 and gf-3.8 germins show significant (approximately 44%) similarity to spherulins 1a and 1b of Physarum polycephalum, a similarity that increases to approximately 50% in the conserved core of germin. Near the middle (87-96) of the conserved core in the germins is a rare PH(I/T)HPRATEI decapeptide sequence which is shared by spherulins (1a and 1b) and germins (gf-2.8 and gf-3.8). These similarities are discussed in the context of evidence which can be interpreted to suggest that the biochemistry of germins and spherulins is involved with cellular, perhaps cell-wall responses to desiccation, hydration, and osmotic stress.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  (+info)

An immunoreactive apoglycoprotein purified from Coccidioides immitis. (4/26)

Deglycosylation of glycoproteins in a lysate of spherules of Coccidioides immitis has permitted purification and partial characterization of a proline-rich pronase-sensitive antigen. Moreover, soluble antigen specifically stimulated lymphocytes from persons with dermal delayed-type hypersensitivity to coccidioidal antigens. When related to reference coccidioidin by tandem two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, the antigen fused in the anodal region with a specific reference antigen (antigen 2). It did not show identity with coccidioidal antigens used in conventional serologic assays. Although immunoblots of the purified protein with monospecific rabbit antiserum showed a single antigen at 33 kDa, the parent spherule lysate bound the same antibody in a broad band between 70 and greater than 200 kDa, which could be explained by microheterogeneity of glycosylation. Immunoelectron microscopy using affinity-purified human antibodies localized the antigen to the cell wall and internal septa of spherules. These findings suggest that the apoglycoprotein may be important in human immune responses to coccidioidal infection.  (+info)

Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by spherules of Coccidioides immitis. (5/26)

The cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) functions as an immunomodulatory protein and as a mediator of cachexia. We report that viable or Formalin-killed spherules of Coccidioides immitis induced the secretion of TNF-alpha by peritoneal-exudate cells from BALB/c mice. The identification of the cytokine as TNF-alpha was based on its lytic activity against the TNF-alpha-sensitive LS murine fibrosarcoma cell line but not the TNF-alpha-resistant LR cell line, its neutralization by rabbit anti-TNF-alpha, and its secretion by peritoneal cells having characteristics of macrophages. The induction of TNF-alpha was to spherules and not to contaminating lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin), as evidenced by the finding that polymyxin B, a reagent that blocks the TNF-alpha-inducing component of lipopolysaccharide, did not negate the production of TNF-alpha in response to spherules, whereas pretreatment of spherules with hyperimmune goat antiserum to spherulin neutralized the induction of TNF-alpha by these cells. The demonstration that C. immitis activates macrophages to secrete TNF-alpha in vitro is a new finding and warrants studies to determine whether this cytokine is produced during active coccidioidomycosis.  (+info)

Isolation of a coccidioidin component that reacts with immunoglobulin M precipitin antibody. (6/26)

Detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) precipitin antibody to coccidioidin, the autolysate of mycelial-phase cells of Coccidioides immitis, is an important serologic aid in establishing a diagnosis of primary coccidioidomycosis. In the present study, the component of coccidioidin that reacts with IgM precipitin antibody was isolated by a combination of immunoaffinity and anion-exchange chromatography. Antigenic analysis of the purified antigen in two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis against goat anti-coccidioidin revealed a precipitinogen characterized by a complete cathodal leg and a partial anodal leg. The reactivity of this incomplete precipitating antigen with anti-C. immitis IgM was established by serologic assays and by the adsorption of reference IgM precipitin antibody on solid-phase immunosorbents containing the purified precipitinogen. The isolation of the coccidioidin component that reacts with IgM precipitin antibody and the production of monospecific antibody will provide the necessary reagents for the development of a sensitive immunoassay for detecting this serodiagnostic response.  (+info)

Symptoms and routine laboratory abnormalities associated with coccidioidomycosis. (7/26)

To assess the relationships of various symptoms and other early findings to the diagnosis of primary coccidioidomycosis, we devised a 40-question survey that was completed by 556 college students seeking medical care for illness possibly due to Coccidioides immitis. The results of routine laboratory studies on these patients were also compiled. Of 269 who had coccidioidal antibody determinations and other diagnostic tests, coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 36 (13%). By logistic regression procedures, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, male gender, "red lumps on shins," recent arrival to an endemic area, acuteness of symptoms, and decreased total peripheral blood lymphocyte counts were independent factors positively associated with infection (P less than .05). Relative risk analysis indicated that 60% of patients with four or more of these factors were found to have coccidioidomycosis. Other significantly but not independently associated factors were an increased total leukocyte count, chest pain with breathing, fever, an absence of hoarseness, and an abnormal chest roentgenogram.  (+info)

Induction and expression of cell-mediated immune responses in inbred mice infected with Coccidioides immitis. (8/26)

Comparisons of the course of coccidioidomycosis in two strains of inbred mice established that BALB/c mice are significantly more susceptible to pulmonary infection with Coccidioides immitis than are DBA/2 mice. The susceptibility of BALB/c mice does not reside in their inability to mount a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to C. immitis antigen. That is, BALB/c mice manifested footpad hypersensitivity to coccidioidin early during the course of disease, to a level comparable to that of DBA/2 mice. In contrast to the more resistant DBA/2 mouse strain, however, BALB/c mice developed anergy by day 15 postinfection. Suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response was not specific for C. immitis antigen, as evidenced by the finding that BALB/c mice immunized with mycobacterial purified protein derivative prior to infection with C. immitis were suppressed in their footpad response to mycobacterial antigen at day 15 postinfection. Taken together, these results establish that genetically determined susceptibility to this fungus is associated with an acquired suppression of cell-mediated immune reactivity.  (+info)

The experiments recorded above show that in the case of antipneumococcus horse serum or purified antibody the arbitrary immunological procedure (37° for 2 hours, overnight in the ice box) does not permit either the establishment of a true equilibrium or the precipitation of the maximum amount of antibody nitrogen. Analyses of such horse sera for antibody content should therefore be carried out at 0° and the determinations should be allowed to stand in the cold for at least 24 hours in order to insure the completion of the reaction.. It is believed that the similarity of the nitrogen: S III ratios in the specific precipitate, whether obtained from whole serum or from purified antibody, and the failure of added serum to influence the amount of nitrogen precipitated show that the absolute chemical method for the estimation of antibody actually measures antibody and not antibody plus a more or less indefinite amount of non-specific protein. An objection to the use of the method is thus shown to be ...
IgG titers (seroconversion of 4× rise). • Skin tests (coccidioidin and spherulin) good for epidemiologic studies, not for diagnosis of acute disease. • C immitis early to grow in culture but hazardous to handle. • Spherule identification in tissue, lavage samples helpful in diagnosis. • Pap staining most sensitive (Gram stains fail to demonstrate spherules) ...
CASE REPORT. A 31 year old white male cement finisher entered the hospital January 3, 1956, because of progressively increasing cough over the previous year, productive of a small amount of white to yellow sputum without hemoptysis. In November, 1955, the patient had sought medical attention because of nocturnal cough, and a roentgenogram of the chest revealed a "milky spot." Tuberculin and coccidioidin skin tests were said to be negative at this time. Hospitalization was recommended but refused by the patient. On admission the patient complained ...
Summary and Conclusion 1. The results of a survey of skin sensitivity to histoplasmin, coccidioidin and tuberculin on the north coast of Honduras are reported. 2. Of 421 hospitalized patients, the histoplasmin skin test was positive in 47.7 per cent, doubtful in 5.2 per cent, and negative in 47.1 per cent. The coccidioidin skin test was positive in 1.0 per cent, doubtful in 2.1 per cent, and negative in 96.9 per cent. 3. Of 360 patients tested with tuberculin (P.P.D. 0.005 mg.), the result was positive in 89.5 per cent, doubtful in 2.2 per cent, and negative in 8.3 per cent. 4. Pulmonary calcifications were present in 84 (59.2 per cent) of 142 selected patients. Of these, 45.2 per cent were tuberculin positive, histoplasmin negative; 42.9 per cent were tuberculin positive, histoplasmin positive; 8.3 per cent were tuberculin negative, histoplasmin positive; and 3.6 per cent were negative to both. 5. These results suggest that, in addition to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in this area,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cells pulsed with Coccidioides immitis lysate induce antigen-specific naive T cell activation. AU - Richards, J. O.. AU - Ampel, Neil M.. AU - Galgiani, John N. AU - Lake, D. F.. PY - 2001/11/1. Y1 - 2001/11/1. N2 - Coccidioidomycosis, an infection endemic to the southwestern United States, is caused by the fungus Coccidioides immitis. Coccidioidal infection is overcome by the development of cell-mediated immunity. This study evaluated the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the initiation of coccidioidal immunity in nonimmune individuals. It was demonstrated that DCs pulsed with the coccidioidal antigen preparation, toluene spherule lysate (TSL), induce DC maturation, autologous lymphocyte proliferation, and antigen-specific lymphocyte responses from nonimmune donors. Furthermore, TSL-primed lymphocytes secreted interferon - γ after restimulation with TSL or antigen 2/proline-rich antigen, a subcomponent of TSL, but they did not do so when restimulated with ovalbumin or ...
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by Coccidioides immitis. Coccidioides immitis is detected as spherules via direct examination of tissue or sputum in a potassium hydroxide preparation. Eosinophilia is a useful laboratory marker for coccidioidomycosis.
1HDF: Crystal Structure of the Calcium-Loaded Spherulin 3A Dimer Sheds Light on the Evolution of the Eye Lens Betagamma-Crystallin Domain Fold
Antigen Skin Test Market Segmentation By Test Type - Bacterial Infections, (Tuberculin Test, Lepromin Test, Freis, Others), Fungal Infection, (Candida test, Trichophyton, Coccidioidin test, Histoplasmin test), Parasitic Infection, (Montenegro test, Onchocerciasis Skin test, Others); By End Use - Hospitals, Clinics, Ambulatory Surgical Centers. Global Antigen Skin Test market has witnessed a robust growth due to increasing adaptation among different segments of end users. The Companies focus is shifting towards innovation to acquire market by the uniqueness of services. Increasing government support for improvement and rising concerns of healthcare issues are driving the growth of the antigen skin test market. The future of Antigen Skin Test market anticipated with double CAGR during forecasting period.. Global Antigen Skin Test market segmented into following regions North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan and the Middle East and Africa. North Americais ...
Infection with Coccidioides immitis, a soil-inhabiting fungus native to the San Joaquin Valley in California, causes an illness in humans called coccidioidomycosis. Growth of C immitis occurs in 2 phases: (1) the mycelial arthrospore phase in the soil and (2) the spherule-endospore phase in infected tissues.
A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was ...
A method has been devised for the electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets. The method results in quantitative transfer of ribosomal proteins from gels containing urea. For sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, the original band pattern was obtained with no loss of resolution, but the transfer was not quantitative. The method allows detection of proteins by autoradiography and is simpler than conventional procedures. The immobilized proteins were detectable by immunological procedures. All additional binding capacity on the nitrocellulose was blocked with excess protein; then a specific antibody was bound and, finally, a second antibody directed against the first antibody. The second antibody was either radioactively labeled or conjugated to fluorescein or to peroxidase. The specific protein was then detected by either autoradiography, under UV light, or by the peroxidase reaction product, respectively. In the latter case, as little as 100 pg of protein was ...
Objective.-To establish the association between time spent in jail or number of jail admissions and development of tuberculosis in a cohort of inmates incarcerated without evidence of tuberculosis infection on entry. Design.-Nested case-control design within a prospective cohort. A cohort of 2636 tuberculin skin test-negative inmates...
The 2014/15 influenza season to date in Canada has been characterised by predominant influenza A(H3N2) activity. Canada's Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network (SPSN) assessed interim vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H3N2) infection in January 2015 using a test-negative case-control design. Of 861 participants, 410 (48%) were test-positive cases (35% vaccinated) and 451 (52%) were test-negative controls (33% vaccinated). Among test-positive cases, the majority (391; 95%) were diagnosed with influenza A, and of those with available subtype information, almost all influenza A viruses (379/381; 99%) were A(H3N2). Among 226 (60%) A(H3N2) viruses that were sequenced, 205 (91%) clustered with phylogenetic clade 3C.2a, considered genetically and antigenically distinct from the 2014/15 A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2)-like clade 3C.1 vaccine reference strain, and typically bearing 10 to 11 amino acid differences from the vaccine at key antigenic sites of the
We offer clinical cancer updates, treatment guidance, and research news to the oncology nursing community. Visit us often for drug therapy testing results, patient care information and more. Download our FREE app today.
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MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Coccidioides immitis SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Coccidioidomycosis, Valley fever, Desert fever CHARACTERISTICS: Dimorphic fungus, reproduces by arthroconidia, swelling of arthroconidia in vivo into spherules (which burst and release endospores) SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Systemic mycosis beginning as a respiratory infection; primary infection asymptomatic or influenza-like; 1/5 clinical cases develop erythema nodosum; rare progression to disseminated disease (more common in pregnant women, blacks and filipinos); progressive, frequently fatal granulomatous disease with lung lesions and abscesses throughout body. Meningitis common, 90% fatal if not treated. Increasingly important in immunocompromised patients. EPIDEMIOLOGY: Primary infections common in arid and semiarid areas of Western Hemisphere (California to South Texas, northern Argentina, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico and Central ...
Coccidioides precipitin is a blood test that looks for infections due to a fungus called Coccidioides, which causes the disease coccidioidomycosis. Learn more.
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that usually presents as a primary lung infection. The fungus is endemic to the Southwest United States of America, northern Mexico and parts of Central and South America the infection is rare outside these areas. However, some patients develop disseminated infection that can lie dormant for several years and can present itself in travelers. We report the first case of extra pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis in a non-immunocompromised individual in Denmark. A 32 year old Danish woman presented at the Emergency department with abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan and ultrasound examination of the pelvis raised suspicion of salpingitis. A laparoscopy exposed a necrotic salpinx and several small white elements that resembled peritoneal carcinomatosis. Histological workup however determined that she suffered from disseminated coccidioidomycosis. The patient had lived 2 years in Las Vegas, in the United States of America, 7 years prior and had no memory of lung
Coccidioidomycosis was first described as a disease in an Argentinean soldier in 1892. It was identified as a fungal infection in 1900.1 The Coccidioides spe...
Contact MiraVista Diagnostics to learn about the new assay that improves coccidioidomycosis diagnosis: MVista Coccidioides Antibody IgG IgM EIA.
Epidemiological and clinical studies have confirmed that coccidioidomycosis is more severe in African American and Filipino patients than in Caucasians, suggesting a genetic basis for susceptibility in humans. We discovered that inbred strains of mice also vary greatly in their susceptibility to Coc …
Learn more about Coccidioidomycosis at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Coccidioides antibodies answers are found in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Coccidioides is a genus of dimorphic ascomycetes in the family Onygenaceae. Member species are the cause of coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, an infectious fungal disease largely confined to the Western Hemisphere and endemic in the Southwestern United States. The host acquires the disease by respiratory inhalation of spores disseminated in their natural habitat. The causative agents of coccidioidomycosis are Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Both C. immitis and C. posadasii are indistinguishable during laboratory testing and commonly referred in literature as Coccidioides. Coccidioidomycosis is amazingly diverse in terms of its scope of clinical presentation, as well as clinical severity. About 60% of Coccidioides infections as determined by serologic conversion are asymptomatic. The most common clinical syndrome in the other 40% of infected patients is an acute respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, and pleuritic pain. Skin manifestations, ...
In 2002, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (tb) among 500 cattle on Holeta Farm, near Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was 48 per cent, and the farm was divided into positive and negative herds. After three consecutive rounds of skin testing and segregation of skin test-positive and -negative animals, the prevalence of bovine tb was reduced from 14 per cent to 1 per cent in the negative herd in a year. Spoligotyping of 41 isolates from 17 cows gave an identical and unique spoligotype pattern, which can be represented as the binary number 1100000101111110111111100010000000000100000, where 1 indicates the presence of a spacer and 0 represents a loss. This spoligotype pattern had not previously been reported on the Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype database, and it was therefore designated sb1176, Ethiopian M bovis strain 1 (embs1). The variable number tandem repeat (vntr) profile of the strain was 5254*33.1, which differed from the vntr profile of strains reported in Great Britain.. ...
Looking for online definition of secondary coccidioidomycosis in the Medical Dictionary? secondary coccidioidomycosis explanation free. What is secondary coccidioidomycosis? Meaning of secondary coccidioidomycosis medical term. What does secondary coccidioidomycosis mean?
While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales, including C. immitis and C. posadasii; a close, nonpathogenic relative, Uncinocarpus reesii; and a more diverged pathogenic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, were sequenced and compared with those of 13 more distantly related Ascomycetes. This analysis identified increases and decreases in gene family size associated with a host/substrate shift from plants to animals in the Onygenales. In addition, comparison among Onygenales genomes revealed evolutionary changes in Coccidioides that may underlie its infectious phenotype, the identification of which may ...
Coccidioidomycosis definition, a disease caused by inhaling spores of Coccidioides fungi, characterized by fever, respiratory infection, and reddish bumps on the skin, common in hot, semiarid regions, especially in southwestern U. S. and Mexico. See more.
Free Online Library: Fever, cough, rash: consider coccidioidomycosis.(Infectious Diseases) by Internal Medicine News; Health care industry Health, general Coccidioidomycosis Diagnosis Distribution Research Risk factors
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Spectrum and Presentation of Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis. AU - Adam, Rodney D.. AU - Elliott, Sean P.. AU - Taljanovic, Mihra S.. PY - 2009/8/1. Y1 - 2009/8/1. N2 - Purpose: Extrapulmonary dissemination of Coccidioides species is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestations vary widely according to the host, the severity of illness, and location of dissemination. The morbidity and mortality can be reduced by early recognition and treatment, which in turn depends on understanding the spectrum and presentation of disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 150 cases with extrapulmonary nonmeningeal disease seen from 1996 to 2007 at a referral medical center in an endemic region. Results: Hematogenous dissemination was associated with high mortality and occurred primarily in immunocompromised patients, but only 30% of patients with more limited forms of dissemination were immunocompromised. In keeping with prior studies, ...
Coccidioidomycosis is diagnosed and treated differently from other causes of pneumonia. Early diagnosis and recognition of the disease are important to allow appropriate follow-up and treatment of affected individuals, as well as to avoid unnecessary treatment and tests.
Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) definition, symptoms, risk and prevention, sources of infection, diagnosis, treatment, information for healthcare professionals, statistics, and more resources.
Definition of coccidioidomycosis. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
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Question posted in: coccidioidomycosis, fluconazole, medication, lesion - Additional details: ... also have lesions in my right lung. I am reaching ...
Mae ffyngaun achosi llawer o glefydau difrifol mewn anifeiliaid a phobl. Gall ffyngau asbergilws achosi necrosis yr ysgyfaint (ysgyfaint ffermwr), y system nerfol, ac organau eraill. Gall y ffyngau hyn hefyd gynhyrchu cynhyrchion gwenwynig mewn cydrannau bwydydd, gan achosi mycowenwyniad yn yr anifail syn bwytar bwyd hwn. Gall y ffwng tebyg i furum, Candida albicans, (llindag) achosi haint a llid y gwddf ar wain. Mae ffyngau dermatoffytig yn effeithio ar groen anifeiliaid a bodau dynol (e.e. tarwden y traed). Mae ffyngau a gludir mewn llwch, megis Coccidioides immitis a Histoplasma capsulatum, yn achosi clefyd yr ysgyfaint neu glefyd cyffredinol mewn anifeiliaid a bodau dynol.[1]. ...
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Fungi • Phylum: Ascomycota • Subphylum: Pezizomycotina • Classis: Eurotiomycetes • Subclassis: Eurotiomycetidae • Ordo: Onygenales • Familia: Onygenaceae • Genus: Coccidioides G.W. Stiles 1896 ...
Epidemiology. Coccidioidomycosis is caused by a soil-dwelling fungus that consists of two species, Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Most cases of coccidioidomycosis in HIV-infected individuals have been reported in the areas in which the disease is highly endemic.1 In the United States, these areas include the lower San Joaquin Valley and other arid regions in southern California; much of Arizona; the southern regions of Utah, Nevada, and New Mexico; and western Texas.2 Recently, cases of coccidioidomycosis that appeared to be acquired in eastern Washington state have been reported.3 Whether this is anomalous or is a manifestation of an expanding area of endemicity is not clear at this time. In some instances, coccidioidomycosis has been diagnosed in patients with HIV infection well outside the known endemic regions. These have presumably been the result of reactivation of a previously acquired infection.. The risk of developing symptomatic coccidioidomycosis after infection is ...
Coccidioidomycosis (/kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/, kok-sid-ee-oy-doh-my-KOH-sis), commonly known as cocci, valley fever, as well as California fever, desert rheumatism, and San Joaquin Valley fever, is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. It is endemic in certain parts of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and northern Mexico. ...
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1LL6: THE STRUCTURE OF AN ALLOSAMIDIN COMPLEX WITH THE COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS CHITINASE DEFINES A ROLE FOR A SECOND ACID RESIDUE IN SUBSTRATE-ASSISTED MECHANISM
Many Monterey County government offices will be closed or have limited hours of operation during a Winter Recess scheduled from December 26th- 29st. Check the department open/closed list for available services ...
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Coccidioidomycosis, a mild flulike illness in approximately 40% of infected persons, progresses to severe pulmonary or disseminated disease in 1% to 10% of symptomatic cases. We examined host genetic influences on disease severity among class II HLA loci and the ABO blood group. Participants included African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic persons with mild or severe disseminated coccidioidomycosis from Kern County, California. Among Hispanics, predisposition to symptomatic disease and severe disseminated disease is associated with blood types A and B, respectively. The HLA class II DRB1*1301 allele marks a pre-disposition to severe disseminated disease in each of the three groups. Reduced risk for severe disease is associated with DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 among Caucasians and Hispanics and with DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 among African-Americans. These data support the hypothesis that host genes, in particular HLA class II and the ABO blood group, influence susceptibility to severe coccidioidomycosis ...
Healthcare: Antibiotic avoidance. Over a third of women presenting with urinary tract infection symptoms are happy to delay antibiotic treatment when asked by their GP, with the majority of these patients showing an improvement in symptoms without the need for further treatment. This intriguingly suggests that patients are much more open to reducing unnecessary antibiotic use than is often thought. More on this study over on our blog.. Microbiology: Conversion of Coccidioides. Coccidioides immitis is a disease-causing fungus in mammals that exists as molds in the wild, growing in the desert soils of the southwestern US, and in Central and South America. In humans it can cause Valley Fever or pneumonia through inhalation of spores which eventually turn into pathogenic spherules. Viriyakosol et al. now report that this conversion from spores to spherules requires major transcriptional reprogramming, and has little congruence with genetic mechanisms displayed in other dimorphic fungi.. Cancer: The ...
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Coccidiodomycosis is commonly known as cocci. It is also known as valley fever. also known as California fever, desert rheumatism and san Jaoquin valley fe..
The synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole containing analogues of a-GalCer and galacturonic acid containing Sphingomonous cell wall antigens is described. Anomerisation was used to provide the required cc-glycosyl azide precursor ...
Coccidioidomycosis, also called "Valley Fever", is an infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides. The disease is also sometimes called "San Joaquin Valley fever" or "desert rheumatism." The term "Valley Fever" usually refers to Coccidioides infection in the lungs, but the infection can spread to other parts of the body in severe cases (this is called "disseminated coccidioidomycosis").. ...
Research article which includes a case study of an immunocompetent patient with diffuse coccidioidal pneumonia who responded to caspofungin and fluconazole therapy without experiencing any adverse effects. ...
This disease is also known as valley fever, an infectious fungal disease caused by inhaling bacterial spores, which may be either acute or chronic. It is endemic in hot, dry areas of the U.S. Southwest such as Central and San Joaquin valleys and...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between cetirizine and coccidioidin skin test. View detailed information regarding this drug ... If you are currently using or have recently used cetirizine, let your doctor know before you get tested with coccidioidin skin ... Cetirizine may interfere with your response to coccidioidin skin test. ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and vincristine. View detailed information regarding this ... you should let your doctor know before receiving coccidioidin skin test. Depending on the dose and length of time you have been ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and pseudoephedrine / terfenadine. View detailed information ... terfenadine coccidioidin skin test. Applies to: pseudoephedrine / terfenadine and coccidioidin skin test ... Drug interactions between coccidioidin skin test and pseudoephedrine / terfenadine. Edit this list ... If you are currently using or have recently used terfenadine, let your doctor know before you get tested with coccidioidin skin ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and dexbrompheniramine / pseudoephedrine. View detailed ... coccidioidin skin test dexbrompheniramine. Applies to: coccidioidin skin test and dexbrompheniramine / pseudoephedrine ... Drug interactions between coccidioidin skin test and dexbrompheniramine / pseudoephedrine. Edit this list ... Dexbrompheniramine may interfere with your response to coccidioidin skin test. If you are currently using or have recently used ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and mycophenolic acid. View detailed information regarding ... coccidioidin skin test mycophenolic acid. Applies to: coccidioidin skin test and mycophenolic acid ... Drug interactions between coccidioidin skin test and mycophenolic acid. Edit this list ... you should let your doctor know before receiving coccidioidin skin test. Depending on the dose and length of time you have been ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and dexchlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / pseudoephedrine ... Drug interactions between coccidioidin skin test and dexchlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / pseudoephedrine. Edit this list ... Dexchlorpheniramine may interfere with your response to coccidioidin skin test. If you are currently using or have recently ... dexchlorpheniramine coccidioidin skin test. Applies to: dexchlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / pseudoephedrine and ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and pheniramine / phenylephrine nasal. View detailed ... coccidioidin skin test pheniramine nasal. Applies to: coccidioidin skin test and pheniramine / phenylephrine nasal ... Drug Interactions between coccidioidin skin test and pheniramine / phenylephrine nasal. This report displays the potential drug ... Pheniramine nasal may interfere with your response to coccidioidin skin test. If you are currently using or have recently used ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and yellow fever vaccine. View detailed information regarding ... yellow fever vaccine coccidioidin skin test. Applies to: yellow fever vaccine and coccidioidin skin test ... Coccidioidin skin test may be given before or at the same time as yellow fever vaccine. However, a person who has been ... Drug interactions between coccidioidin skin test and yellow fever vaccine. Edit this list ...
... phenylpropanolamine and coccidioidin skin test. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction. ... chlorpheniramine coccidioidin skin test. Applies to: chlorpheniramine / phenylephrine / phenylpropanolamine and coccidioidin ... Drug interactions between chlorpheniramine / phenylephrine / phenylpropanolamine and coccidioidin skin test. Edit this list ... Chlorpheniramine may interfere with your response to coccidioidin skin test. If you are currently using or have recently used ...
... pseudoephedrine and coccidioidin skin test. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction. ... DiphenhydrAMINE may interfere with your response to coccidioidin skin test. If you are currently using or have recently used ... Drug interactions between acetaminophen / dextromethorphan / diphenhydramine / pseudoephedrine and coccidioidin skin test. Edit ... diphenhydrAMINE coccidioidin skin test. Applies to: acetaminophen / dextromethorphan / diphenhydramine / pseudoephedrine and ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and guaifenesin / hydrocodone / pheniramine / ... coccidioidin skin test pheniramine. Applies to: coccidioidin skin test and guaifenesin / hydrocodone / pheniramine / ... If you are currently using or have recently used pyrilamine, let your doctor know before you get tested with coccidioidin skin ... If you are currently using or have recently used pheniramine, let your doctor know before you get tested with coccidioidin skin ...
The coccidioidin skin test was positive in 1.0 per cent, doubtful in 2.1 per cent, and negative in 96.9 per cent. 3. Of 360 ... coccidioidin and tuberculin on the north coast of Honduras are reported. 2. Of 421 hospitalized patients, the histoplasmin skin ... The coccidioidin skin test was positive in 1.0 per cent, doubtful in 2.1 per cent, and negative in 96.9 per cent. ... Histoplasmin, Coccidioidin and Tuberculin Sensitivity in Honduras 1 * Author(s): Virgil Scott ...
824 tuberculous patients in the Philippines were tested with histoplasmin and coccidioidin; 3.15 per cent of the patients ... reacted to the histoplasmin, but no reactors to coccidioidin were seen. ... Histoplasmin and Coccidioidin Testing in a Philippine Tuberculosis Hospital * Carlyn Halde1,2, Alejandro C. Reyes ... In this survey, 824 tuberculous patients in the Philippines were tested with histoplasmin and coccidioidin; 3.15 per cent of ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between coccidioidin skin test and measles virus vaccine / mumps virus vaccine / rubella ... coccidioidin skin test varicella virus vaccine. Applies to: coccidioidin skin test and measles virus vaccine / mumps virus ... Coccidioidin skin test may be given before or at the same time as measles virus vaccine. However, a person who has been ... Coccidioidin skin test may be given before or at the same time as rubella virus vaccine. However, a person who has been ...
Coccidioidin. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Coccidioidomycosis. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. ...
Prevalence of Skin Sensitivity to Histoplasmin and Coccidioidin in Various Ugandan Populations * Vladimir Bezjak and Suleiman ... Skin-testing was done with histoplasmin and coccidioidin in 417 children and 727 adults. Only 44 histoplasmin reactions were ...
Prevalence of sensitivity to coccidioidin, with special reference to specific and nonspecific reactions to coccidioidin and to ... Coccidioidin skin testing in Kern County, California: decrease in infection rate over 58 years. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:612-3 ... Coccidioidin skin test survey of San Fernando Valley State college students over a five year period. In: Ajello L, editor. The ... Coccidioidin sensitivity among Southwestern American Indians. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1973;107:301-2.PubMed ...
Histoplasmin and coccidioidin sensitivity among students in Taiwan.J Formos Med Assoc. 1953;4:549-54. ...
Only a small proportion of the population is sensitive to tuberculin; sensitivity to histoplasmin and coccidioidin is ... coccidioidin, histoplasmin, and mumps. No other antigens intended for assessing a persons ability to elicit a DTH response ...
Coccidioidin. Definition. A sterile preparation injected IM as a test for valley fever (respiratory fungus disease).. ...
Prevalence of sensitivity to coccidioidin, with special reference to specific and nonspecific reactions to coccidioidin and to ... The use of coccidioidin. Am Rev Tuberc. 1948;57:330-60. PubMed ... and coccidioidin skin test (any reaction at any dilution). We ... initially identified in part by large-scale coccidioidin skin test surveys (13). In fact, 7 of the first 9 environmental ...
Coccidioidin test.-The intracutaneous test with coccidioidin, performed and read like the tuberculin test, is the means of ... 9Smith, C. E., Whiting, E. G., Baker, E. E., Rosenberger, H. G., Beard, R. R., and Saito, M. T.: The Use of Coccidioidin. Am. ... It was planned through the coccidioidin test to learn who had or had not had the disease before coming to stations in the ... The study was in fact to throw important light on the meaning of the coccidioidin reaction and on the nature of resistance in ...
Categories: Coccidioidin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 6 ...
Coccidioidin and spherulin are no longer available in the United States. However, Ampel et al found that archived coccidioidin ... 4] A dermal delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to coccidioidin is highly specific for coccidioidal infection. However, a ... An archived lot of coccidioidin induces specific coccidioidal delayed-type hypersensitivity and correlates with in vitro assays ... coccidioidin, spherulin). The induration of the skin is measured at 24 hours and 48 hours after the injection. An induration ...