Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Cyclofenil: A gonadal stimulant and inducer of ovulation. It is used in the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea, but is thought to be less effective than CLOMIPHENE.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.PhenanthrenesToxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Effect of magnetic field exposure on anchorage-independent growth of a promoter-sensitive mouse epidermal cell line (JB6). (1/596)

The anchorage-independent growth of mouse epidermal cells (JB6) exposed to 60-Hz magnetic fields (MF) was investigated. Promotion-responsive JB6 cells were suspended in agar (10(4)cells/plate) and exposed continuously to 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz magnetic fields for 10-14 days, with or without concurrent treatment with the tumor promoter tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). Exposures to MF were conducted in a manner such that the experimenter was blind to the treatment group of the cells. At the end of the exposure period, the anchorage-independent growth of JB6 cells on soft agar was examined by counting the number of colonies larger than 60 microm (minimum of 60 cells). The use of a combined treatment of the cells with both MF and TPA was to provide an internal positive control to estimate the success of the assay and to allow evaluation of co-promotion. Statistical analysis was performed by a randomized block design analysis of variance to examine both the effect of TPA treatment (alone and in combination with MF exposure) and the effect of intra-assay variability. Transformation frequency of JB6 cells displayed a dose-dependent response to increasing concentrations of TPA. Coexposure of cells to both TPA and 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz MF did not result in any differences in transformation frequency for any TPA concentrations tested (0-1 ng/ml). These data indicate that exposure to a 0.10 or 0.96 mT, 60-Hz MF does not act as a promoter or co-promoter in promotion-sensitive JB6 cell anchorage-independent growth.  (+info)

Possible carcinogenic effects of X-rays in a transgenerational study with CBA mice. (2/596)

A lifetime experiment using 4279 CBA/J mice was carried out to investigate whether the pre-conceptual exposure of sperm cells to X-ray radiation or urethane would result in an increased cancer risk in the untreated progeny, and/or increased susceptibility to cancer following exposure to a promoting agent. The study consisted of four main groups, namely a control group (saline), a urethane group (1 mg/g body wt) and two X-ray radiation groups (1 Gy, 2 Gy). At 1, 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the males of these four parental groups were mated with untreated virgin females. The offspring of each parental group was divided into two subgroups: one received s.c. urethane (0.1 mg/g body wt once) as a promoter, the other saline, at the age of 6 weeks. All animals were evaluated for the occurrence of tumours. K-ras oncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene mutations were investigated in frozen lung tumour samples. The female offspring of male parents exposed to X-rays 1 week before their mating showed a trend towards a higher tumour incidence of the haematopoietic system than the F1 controls. In addition, a higher percentage of bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinomas in male offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 1 week after X-ray treatment points to a plausible increased sensitivity of post-meiotic germ cell stages towards transgenerational carcinogenic effects. On the other hand, no increased tumour incidence and malignancy were observed in the offspring born to irradiated paternals mated 3 and 9 weeks after X-ray treatment. Paternal urethane treatment 1, 3 and 9 weeks prior to conception did not result in significantly altered incidence or malignancy of tumours of the lung, liver and haematopoietic tissue in the offspring. K-ras mutations increased during tumour progression from bronchioloalveolar hyperplasia to adenoma. Codon 61 K-ras mutations were more frequent in lung tumours of urethane-promoted progeny from irradiated parents than from control parents. P53 mutations were absent from these lung alterations.  (+info)

Potency of dietary indole-3-carbinol as a promoter of aflatoxin B1-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis: results from a 9000 animal tumor study. (3/596)

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a metabolite of glucobrassicin found in cruciferous vegetables, is documented as acting as a modulator of carcinogenesis and, depending on timing and dose of administration, it may promote hepatocarcinogenesis in some animal models. In this study we demonstrate that, when given post-initiation, dietary I3C promotes aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rainbow trout model at levels as low as 500 p.p.m. Trout embryos (approximately 9000) were initiated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 175 or 250 p.p.b. AFB1 by a 30 min immersion. Experimental diets containing 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 or 1250 p.p.m. I3C were administered starting at 3 months and fish were sampled for liver tumors at 11-13 months. Promotion at the level of tumor incidence was statistically significant for all dietary levels, except 250 p.p.m. Relative potency for promotion markedly increased at dietary levels >750 p.p.m. We propose that more than one mechanism could be involved in promotion and that both estrogenic and Ah receptor-mediated pathways could be active. The estrogenicity of I3C, measured as its ability to induce vitellogenin (an estrogen biomarker in oviparous vertebrates) was evident at the lowest dietary level (250 p.p.m.), whereas CYPIA (a P450 isozyme induced through the Ah receptor pathway) was not induced until dietary levels of 1000 p.p.m. Therefore, at lower dietary levels, promotion by I3C in this model could be explained by estrogenic activities of I3C acid derivatives, as it is known that estrogens promote hepatocarcinogenesis in trout. Much stronger promotion was observed at high dietary I3C levels (1000 and 1250 p.p.m.), at which levels both CYP1A and vitellogenin were induced.  (+info)

Environmental factors as regulators and effectors of multistep carcinogenesis. (4/596)

This review highlights current knowledge of environmental factors in carcinogenesis and their cellular targets. The hypothesis that environmental factors influence carcinogenesis is widely supported by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The fact that only a small fraction of cancers can be attributed to germline mutations in cancer-related genes further buttresses the importance of environmental factors in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, penetrance of germline mutations may be modified by either environmental or other genetic factors. Examples of environmental factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk in the human population include chemical and physical mutagens (e.g. cigarette smoke, heterocyclic amines, asbestos and UV irradiation), infection by certain viral or bacterial pathogens, and dietary non-genotoxic constituents (e.g. macro- and micronutrients). Among molecular targets of environmental influences on carcinogenesis are somatic mutation (genetic change) and aberrant DNA methylation (epigenetic change) at the genomic level and post-translational modifications at the protein level. At both levels, changes elicited affect either the stability or the activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. Together, via multiple genetic and epigenetic lesions, environmental factors modulate important changes in the pathway of cellular carcinogenesis.  (+info)

A comparison of the effects of dietary cellulose and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharide, in a rat model of colorectal carcinogenesis: fermentable fibre confers greater protection than non-fermentable fibre in both high and low fat backgrounds. (5/596)

The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of diets with either a non-fermentable fibre source (cellulose) or a fermentable fibre source [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS)], combined with different levels of dietary fat, on the development of colorectal cancer. Male Wistar rats were fed AIN76-based diets with either a low or high level of cellulose, or a low or high level of GOS, for 9 months. The fat content of the diets was low, medium or high. All rats were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine to induce colorectal tumours. Generally, the tumour incidence increased with increasing fat content in the diet. Despite marked faeces bulking, dietary cellulose either had no effect or an enhancing effect on the formation of colorectal tumours in general, although the development of carcinomas was decreased. GOS appeared to be highly protective against the development of colorectal tumours, as was demonstrated by an inhibitory effect on tumour incidence, multiplicity and size, regardless of the fat content of the diet. Neither fibre source influenced the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index determined in colon crypts or tumours. In animals fed high-GOS diets, the caecal content was significantly increased in weight and significantly decreased in pH. It was concluded that tumorigenesis was enhanced by increased fat content of the diet, and that the diets containing fermentable GOS conferred a greater protection against colorectal cancer than did the diets containing non-fermentable cellulose.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection enhances glandular stomach carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils treated with chemical carcinogens. (6/596)

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is thought to be a stomach carcinogen from epidemiological findings. To determine the effects of infection with the bacteria on experimental carcinogenesis, a study of the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils (MGs) was performed. Male MGs were treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine followed by inoculation with Hp or infected with Hp followed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine administration. Animals were killed at week 50, and their excised stomachs underwent microbiological and histopathological examinations. In addition, a serological investigation was performed. The incidences of adenocarcinomas were significantly higher in animals treated with 60 or 300 p.p.m. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 10 weeks followed by Hp inoculation or Hp followed by 20 p.p.m. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 30 weeks than in the respective controls. Moreover, tumour-bearing animals had higher titres of anti-Hp antibodies than tumour-free animals. Of interest was the finding that a dose of 100 p.p.m. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine given to infected gerbils eradicated the Hp in about half the animals, with a concomitant reduction in the promoting effect. No tumours were found in animals infected with Hp without N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or non-treated gerbils. Hp infection enhances glandular stomach carcinogenesis in MGs treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Animals with high titres of anti-Hp antibodies are at greatest risk of developing neoplasms.  (+info)

Lack of effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field on biomarkers of tumor promotion in the skin of SENCAR mice. (7/596)

It has been proposed that extremely low frequency magnetic fields may enhance tumorigenesis through a co-promotional mechanism. This hypothesis has been further tested using the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis, i.e. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion of skin carcinogenesis in mice initiated by a single subcarcinogenic dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Experimentation utilized three different doses of TPA within its dose-response range (0.85, 1.70 or 3.40 nmol) and examined the following early biomarkers of tumor promotion after 1, 2 and 5 weeks of promotion: increases in epidermal thickness and the labeling index of epidermal cells, induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and down-regulation of epidermal protein kinase C activity. Mice exposed to a 60 Hz magnetic field having a flux density of 2 mT for 6 h/day for 5 days/week were compared with mice exposed to an ambient magnetic field. Within the sensitivity limits of the biomarker methodology and the exposure parameters employed, no consistent, statistically significant effects indicative of promotion or co-promotion by the magnetic field were demonstrated.  (+info)

Promoting effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone on rat glandular stomach carcinogenesis initiated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. (8/596)

The modifying effects of 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a mutagenic by-product in chlorinated water, on the development of glandular stomach cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. A total of 120 males, 6 weeks of age, were divided into six groups. After initiation with 100 ppm N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) solution and 5% NaCl diet for 8 weeks, 30 rats each in groups 1-3 were given MX in the drinking water at concentrations of 30, 10, or 0 ppm for the following 57 weeks. Ten animals each in groups 4-6 were administered the MX without prior carcinogen exposure. There were no statistical significant differences in final body weights between the groups. The incidences and multiplicities of adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the initiated 30 ppm MX group than those in the MNNG/NaCl group. The incidences of atypical hyperplasias in the glandular stomachs were also significantly increased (P < 0.05 or 0.01) by the MX treatments. With their multiplicity, the effects were clearly dose dependent. Interestingly, the 30 ppm MX alone itself induced atypical hyperplasias in the pylorus, although the incidences and severity were low. Moreover, MX showed a tendency to enhance the development of intrahepatic cholangiocellular tumors and thyroid follicular cell tumors in the MNNG-treated animals. The results of the present study thus indicate that MX exerts promoting effects when given during the postinitiation phase of two-stage glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.  (+info)

In the liver, ethanol is predominantly metabolised by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP 2E1, resulting in acetaldehyde (AA) formation. AA, the extremely toxic first intermediate of ethanol metabolism, binds rapidly to cellular proteins and also possibly to DNA. These AA adducts represent neoantigens leading to the formation of specific antibodies.26 AA has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties leading to metaplasia, inhibition of DNA repair,27 sister chromatid exchanges,28 stimulation of apoptosis, and enhanced cell injury associated with hyperregeneration.29 According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is sufficient evidence to identify AA as a carcinogen in animals.. Ethanol is metabolised by the successive action of ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). For both ADH and ALDH, genetic polymorphisms have been described that influence the rate of conversion of ethanol to AA and of the latter to acetate.30 It has been consistently reported that ALDH2 is the most ...
A list of 13 letter words that begin with Co in the enable uncensored word list. coacervations coadaptations coagulability coalification coalitionists coastguardman coastguardmen coauthorships cobelligerent cocainization cocarboxylase cocarcinogens cochairperson cockfightings coconspirator cocounselling cocultivating cocultivation codependences codicological etc.
Looking for online definition of cocarcinogenesis in the Medical Dictionary? cocarcinogenesis explanation free. What is cocarcinogenesis? Meaning of cocarcinogenesis medical term. What does cocarcinogenesis mean?
TRPV1 is involved in the regulation of pain pathways (24). Capsaicin initially activates TRPV1 and excites nociceptive neurons, leading to the perception of pain. However, prolonged and repetitive exposure to capsaicin causes TRPV1 to become insensitive to noxious stimuli, resulting in desensitization (10). Thus, capsaicin-containing drugs have been developed to treat neuropathic pain through topical administration. Accumulating evidence suggests that repeated or high-dose treatments of capsaicin could cause apoptosis of TRPV1-expressing cells, primarily through the elevation of intracellular calcium ion levels (25), indicating that TRPV1-unresponsive or deficient states might be clinically important with exposure to capsaicin for a prolonged period. Because capsaicin-induced initial activation of TRPV1 is inevitably followed by desensitization, the possibility that capsaicin affects intracellular signals independently of TRPV1 cannot be excluded (26). TRPV1 expression was reportedly reduced in ...
Differential gene expression during multistage carcinogenesis.: The use of the mouse skin multistage model of carcinogenesis has aided our understanding of crit
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In the liver, ethanol is predominantly metabolised by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP 2E1, resulting in acetaldehyde (AA) formation. AA, the extremely toxic first intermediate of ethanol metabolism, binds rapidly to cellular proteins and also possibly to DNA. These AA adducts represent neoantigens leading to the formation of specific antibodies.26 AA has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties leading to metaplasia, inhibition of DNA repair,27 sister chromatid exchanges,28 stimulation of apoptosis, and enhanced cell injury associated with hyperregeneration.29 According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is sufficient evidence to identify AA as a carcinogen in animals.. Ethanol is metabolised by the successive action of ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). For both ADH and ALDH, genetic polymorphisms have been described that influence the rate of conversion of ethanol to AA and of the latter to acetate.30 It has been consistently reported that ALDH2 is the most ...
Mi 12-14 in V2-213; Fr 12-14 in U2-113; Do 10-12, einmalig in V3-201; Do 12-14, einmalig in T2-228; Do 10-12, einmalig in V3-201; Do 12-14, einmalig in T2-228; Do 12-14, einmalig in T2-228; Do 12-14, einmalig in T2-228; Do 10-12, einmalig in V2-105/115; Do 12-14, einmalig in T2-228; Do 12-14, einmalig in T2-228 ...
The role of the lung in stomach carcinogenesis is discussed, and a revision of the Meyer hypothesis of stomach carcinogenesis is presented. According to the Meyer hypothesis, the risk for lung or stomach cancer in susceptible individuals is related to pulmonary clearance of carcinogenic particles as follows: the risk of lung cancer is decreased when particle retention in the lungs is increased and
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A two-stage model for achieving X-ray amplifying action on photoionized K-transitions pumped by the soft X-ray broadband flux from laser-produced plasma is treated. A simple pumping criterion is considered by the analysis of the positive gain-length product for the two-stage model of innershell transitions (0) → (3) and (2) → (1). The incident photon flux integrated over the effective lifetime T21 of an innershell transition (2) → (1) is related to the photoionization coefficient μ03(ph), stimulated emission cross section σ21(stim), and the effective gainlength L(eff) ≃ 0.63/μ03(abs), where μ03(abs) is the absorption coefficient of a pump soft X-ray radiation. Numerical estimates for the feasibility of K-shell X-ray amplification are given for C, F, Na, Ti, and Sn. For the example of an exponential X-ray carrier pulse (XCP) propagating through a resonant medium, an amplifying effect depending on the ratio of the input pulse temporal bandwidth τband to the effective lifetime T21 is ...
Tea, instant, sweetened with sodium saccharin, lemon-flavored, prepared - nutrtion information: calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat and other nutritional food data
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Presents information describing investigations of molecular aspects of the mechanisms involved in chemical, physical, and viral (biological) carcinogenesis
Phorbol ester tumor promoters and the anti-tumor-promoter dexamethasone share a molecular target: modulation of the transcription factor AP-1 by novel type of ...
China Food Additive Sodium Saccharin 99%, Find details about China Sodium Saccharin, Saccharin from Food Additive Sodium Saccharin 99% - Xinle City Hongyuan Carbon Black Sales Center
The discovery that phorbol ester tumor promoters inhibit metabolic cooperation (MC) between several cell types in vitro fostered the idea that the effect might be associated with tumor promoters in general. The authors are testing the hypothesis by assessing the effects of tumor promoters, selected metabolites, and other chemicals on MC between cocultivated mutant (HGPRT-) and wild-type (HGPRT+) V79 cells in reconstructed selection experiments. Correlation studies show that many structurally-diverse promoters inhibit MC in a dose-related fashion. More recent studies show that ethanol, a surface-active solvent with cocarcinogenic activity in humans, inhibits MC at high concentrations (10-20 mg/ml). Phenol, a weak promoter of tumors on mouse skin, has no effect on MC at concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 micrograms/ml. Five metabolites of phenol block MC, but at least two others appear to be inactive as complete promoters for mouse skin ...
Thyroid cancer has the fastest growing incidence in the US. However, the underlying causes are still under debate. We analyzed thyroid cancer incidence in the SEER-9 registry from 1973-2010 using multistage carcinogenesis and age-period-cohort models. Multistage models were used to investigate differences in initiation, promotion and malignant conversion rates of thyroid tumors by sex, race, stage, and histology. Models were adjusted for period and cohort trends to investigate the contributions of each factor, and determine whether birth- or diagnosis-year better correlate with observed incidence patterns. Significant increases in thyroid cancer incidence by period or calendar-year were found for all sex, race, stage and histology combinations, particularly for localized cases (a 3- and 4-fold increase from 1973-2010 for females and males, respectively). Multistage analyses suggest that the 3-fold higher incidence in women could be explained by 1.5-fold higher initiation and promotion rates. Analyses by
The SENCAR stock of mice has proved to be a useful model in dissecting out the multistage nature as well as the critical mechanisms involved in skin tumorigenesis. This outbred stock was selectively bred to be susceptible to initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In order to obtain mice more suitable for genetic analyses of tumor susceptibility and tissue transplantation studies, several inbred lines of mice were derived from the SENCAR stock. One of these lines, the SSIN mice, has a higher susceptibility to tumor promotion compared to the SENCAR stock but is very resistant to tumor progression. On the other hand, the SENCAR B/Pt mice, derived also from the outbred stock, not only have a tumor promotion susceptibility almost identical to the SSIN mice, but they also have a high susceptibility to tumor progression. In order to understand the nature of the phenotypic differences between these two inbred lines we have ...
There is hardly any other field in chemical carcinogenesis in which such good agreement between experimental and clinical results has been reached as in carcinogenesis induced by antineoplastic...
More than half a century has elapsed since the carcinogenic effects of radiation were first recorded. Study of such effects has since received continuing impetus from the early and expanding uses of...
A selected ion monitoring method for the estimation of an anti-allergy compound isamaxole (N-butyl-N-(4-methyloxazol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanamide, LRCL 3950) in plasma has been developed. The method uses a stable analogue containing nine deuterium atoms
Bladder cancer represents a major public health burden. The cost per bladder cancer patient from diagnosis to death is the highest among all cancers ($96,000 to...
There are 49 calories in 4 tablespoons of Tea (Lemon Flavored, Instant Powder, Decaffeinated, with Sodium Saccharin). Get full nutrition facts and other common serving sizes of Tea (Lemon Flavored, Instant Powder, Decaffeinated, with Sodium Saccharin) including 2 tsps and 1 oz.
As emission standards become more stringent, many studies have been carried out to understand and reduce the emissions from diesel combustion engines, among which nitric oxide (NO) emissions and soot are known to have the trade-off relation during combustion processes. One aspect of this trade-off is manifested by the role radiation heat transfer plays on post-flame gas temperature, thus affecting NO formation. For example, a decrease in in-cylinder soot decreases radiation heat transfer causing an increase in post-flame gas temperature and partially contributing to the corresponding soot-NO relationship with an increase in NO formation.This topic has re-emerged with the increased use of biodiesel; a potential explanation for the so-called "biodiesel NOx penalty" is biodiesels inherently reduced in-cylinder soot. In order to assess how much radiation heat transfer may affect NO formation, this study seeks to isolate and control the soot formation of petroleum diesel through the use of barium ...
Malech, Harry L., "Cytological changes during chemical carcinogenesis in mouse epithelium; the appearance of cytochalasin B-sensitive microfilaments" (1972). Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. 2893 ...
Mutations in TGF-βRII have been detected in malignant cell lines and cancers (24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31 , 31, 32, 33) , suggesting that inactivation of TGF-βRII is an important mechanism for malignant progression at late stages of carcinogenesis. Previous reports on transgenic mice expressing ΔβRII in the mammary gland and lung (47) or basal epidermal keratinocytes (45) have consistently demonstrated that loss of TGF-β responsiveness plays a late role in chemical carcinogenesis. Interestingly, we observed an accelerated benign papilloma formation in ML.ΔβRII mice at a very early stage (Fig. 1, A and B) ⇓ . More surprisingly, we observed that TPA application alone, without DMBA initiation, induced papilloma formation in ML.ΔβRII mice (Fig. 3B) ⇓ . These results suggest that blocking TGF-βRII signaling can serve as an initiating event in skin carcinogenesis. Supporting this, most of the TPA-induced papillomas in ML.ΔβRII mice did not exhibit c-rasHa mutations (Table 1) ⇓ , a ...
Definition of non-genotoxic carcinogen and genotoxic carcinogens and whether there are any thresholds for carcinogens from a regulatory perspective.
Table 8-1 lists definitions of terms commonly used in discussing chemical carcinogenesis. For benign neoplasms, the tissue of origin is frequently followed by the suffix "oma"; e.g., a benign fibrous neoplasm would be termed fibroma, and a benign glandular epithelium termed an adenoma. Malignant neoplasms from epithelial origin are called carcinomas, whereas those derived from mesenchymal origin are referred to as sarcoma. Thus, a malignant neoplasm of fibrous tissue would be a fibrosarcoma, whereas that derived from bone would be an osteosarcoma. ...
A two-stage model estimates aggregate and source-specific import demand elasticities for pork in Japan. The low income elasticity of imported pork and low income elasticity of U.S. pork reflect consumer survey results of low quality rating for imported pork compared to domestic pork, and rating for U.S. pork not higher than Canadian pork. To maintain and increase market share, the U.S. needs strategies to reverse consumer attitude by positioning U.S. pork as high quality, safe, and low cost. Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Ukhova, Yekaterina S.
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Name: CA Name: Anthracene Molecular Structure: Anthracene,CAS 120-12-7,178.23,C14H10 Anthracene,CAS 120-12-7,178.23,C14H10 Molecular Formula:C14H10 Molecular Weight: 178.23 CAS Registry Number: 120-12-7
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent synergic effects in carcinogenesis initiation by simultaneous exposure to two genotoxic carcinogens. AU - Verdina, A.. AU - Zito, R.. AU - Federico, A.. AU - Falasca, G.. AU - Galati, R.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Carcinogenesis is a complex and multistep process starting from initiation to tumor progression. Synergistic mechanisms can occur at every step of the process. The aim of this work was to provide information about the effect of chemical carcinogens which, if administered in combination, result in positive as well as negative synergistic effects. In order to evaluate whether for some carcinogens synergism occurs at the initiation step, we compared the effects of Ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) on Benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-DNA adducts formation in the liver and lung of male Swiss mice treated for seven days by i.p. dose of EMS (1.2 mg/Kg b.w.) alone or by simultaneous administration of three doses of BP (25, 50, 100 mg/Kg b.w.) injected i.p. or the first day of ...
In the last chapter, characteristics and mechanisms of the early stages of neoplastic develop- ment-initiation and promotion-were presented as being the result of cellular and molecular changes induced by specific ...
"Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Metal Carcinogenesis and Cocarcinogenesis: Nickel, Arsenic, and Chromium". Chem. Res. ...
Salnikow K, Zhitkovich (January 2008). "Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel ...
Liu, S. (2005). Effects of arsenic on DNA repair and cell cell checkpoints involvement in arsenic co-mutagenesis and co-carcinogenesis ...
... cocarcinogenesis MeSH C23.550.727.645 --- neoplasm invasiveness MeSH C23.550.727.645.500 --- leukemic infiltration MeSH C23.550 ...
Chemistry · 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine · Animals · Bile Acids and Salts · Carcinogens · Cecum · Cellulose · Cocarcinogenesis · ... Tissue damage and nutritional factors in experimental respiratory tract (co-)carcinogenesis article. 1983 ... Nutrition · Animals · Anticarcinogenic Agents · Azaserine · Body Weight · Carcinogens · Cell Division · Cocarcinogenesis · ... Cocarcinogenesis · Female · Flour · Hyperplasia · Male · Pancreas · Pancreatic Ducts · Pancreatic Neoplasms · Poultry · Random ...
What is cocarcinogenesis? Meaning of cocarcinogenesis medical term. What does cocarcinogenesis mean? ... Looking for online definition of cocarcinogenesis in the Medical Dictionary? cocarcinogenesis explanation free. ... cocarcinogenesis. cocarcinogenesis. [ko-kahr″sĭ-no-jen´ĕ-sis] the development, according to one theory, of cancer only in ... cocarcinogenesis. /co·car·ci·no·gen·e·sis/ (ko-kahr″sĭ-no-jen´ĕ-sis) the development, according to one theory, of cancer only ...
Borek C., Ong A., Mason H., Zaider M., Witz G., Mehlman M.A. (1987) Ozone Carcinogenesis and Co-Carcinogenesis and its ...
Cocarcinogenesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505: 67-89.Google Scholar. *. 8.. Diamond, L., T.G. OBrien, and G. Rovera. 1979. ...
20.5 Photo Co-Carcinogenesis 418. 20.6 Future Testing Concepts, with Emphasis on Biomarkers 423 ...
Cocarcinogenesis. Likelihood Functions. Liver / drug effects, pathology. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced, ...
Cocarcinogenesis. Cookery. Diet Surveys. Disease Models, Animal. Energy Intake. Feeding Behavior. Female. Food / adverse ...
Acetaldehyde seems to be involved in ethanol-associated cocarcinogenesis. The metabolism of retinol and the generation of ... cell differentiation and cell growth and may also be involved in ethanol-associated gastrointestinal cocarcinogenesis. ...
Shamberger, R.J. & Rudolph, G. (1966). Protection against cocarcinogenesis by antioxidants. Experienta., 22, 116. Shamberger, R ...
Viruses, chemicals and co-carcinogenesis. ...Use of Kochs postulates will not help one prove or disprove a multifactorial ...
Mutation studies of NA showed interference with cellular DNA repair and possible cocarcinogenesis. Less than 5000 workers were ...
"Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Metal Carcinogenesis and Cocarcinogenesis: Nickel, Arsenic, and Chromium". Chem. Res. ...
Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion and Cocarcinogenesis by Thomas J. Slaga - 1978 - 558 pages. ... Mechanisms of tumor promotion and cocarcinogenesis by Thomas J. Slaga - 1978 - 558 pages. ...
Categories: Cocarcinogenesis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 36 ...
Cocarcinogenesis. *Female. *Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated (toxicity) *Mice. *Neoplasms, Experimental (chemically induced) * ...
Arsenite cocarcinogenesis: an animal model derived from genetic toxicology studies. Environ Health Perspect 110(suppl 5):749- ...
Salnikow, K.; Zhitkovich, A. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: Nickel, arsenic, ...
... several indirect cocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Many studies support the role of As in altering one or more ...
Salnikow, K., and Zhitkovich, A. (2008). Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel ...
... to test for cocarcinogenesis. In controls, HM and HF were exposed to concentrations of crocidolite ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 μg/ ... MM may be a new example of cocarcinogenesis between a virus (SV40) and a ubiquitous environmental carcinogen (asbestos). ...
Co-carcinogenesis: Human Papillomaviruses, Coal Tar Derivatives, and Squamous Cell Cervical Cancer. Front Microbiol. 2017;8: ...
Viruses, Chemicals and Co-carcinogenesis. Oncogene 2004; 23:6492-99.. Haverkos HW, Soon G, Steckley SL, Pickworth WB. Cigarette ...
Tissue damage and nutritional factors in experimental respiratory tract (co-)carcinogenesis article. 1983 ... Cocarcinogenesis · Glass · Neoplasms, Experimental · Plants, Toxic · Respiratory Tract Neoplasms · Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Cocarcinogenesis · Experimental neoplasm · Iatrogenic disease · Nutrition · Pathology · Plant · Respiratory tract tumor · Smoke ... Cocarcinogenesis · Electrocoagulation · Female · Hamsters · Hyperplasia · Laryngeal Neoplasms · Lung Neoplasms · Male · ...
Salnikow K, Zhitkovich (January 2008). "Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel ...
Mutation studies of NA showed interference with cellular DNA repair and possible cocarcinogenesis. Less than 5000 workers were ...
  • The coke oven sample was approximately 12 times as active as the roofing tar sample as a tumor promoter in mouse skin initiated with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Cocarcinogenesis was studied in SENCAR mice by using the tumor co-initiation protocol. (epa.gov)
  • The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cocarcinogenesis studies using IR chrysotile asbestos and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride were considered inadequate because there was no increase in intestinal neoplasia in the DMH group. (nih.gov)
  • As a model of SV40/asbestos cocarcinogenesis, we propose that malignant mesothelioma originates from a subpopulation of transformed stem cells and that Akt signaling is a novel therapeutic target to overcome malignant mesothelioma resistance to conventional therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Salnikow K, Zhitkovich A (2008) Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic, and chromium. (springer.com)
  • Florea A, Yamoah EN, Dopp E. Intracellular Calcium Disturbances Induced by Arsenic and Its Methylated Derivatives in Relation to Genomic Damage and Apoptosis Induction. (aaem.pl)
  • The metabolism of retinol and the generation of retinoic acid is a function of class I and class IV ADH, and its inhibition by alcohol may lead to an alteration of epithelial cell differentiation and cell growth and may also be involved in ethanol-associated gastrointestinal cocarcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Mutation studies of NA showed interference with cellular DNA repair and possible cocarcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)