An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A characteristic symptom complex.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

A nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, reduces cue-induced cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent subjects. (1/1808)

We have previously shown that nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. In the present study, the effects of a nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, on cue-induced cocaine craving were investigated. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to mecamylamine (2.5 mg tablet) or placebo in a single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study. Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cocaine cues with visual analog scales for desire to use cocaine and mood. Skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate were recorded before and during cocaine cues. Following exposure to cocaine cues, all patients reported an increase in cocaine craving and anxiety relative to the precue measures. Cue exposure also produced an increase in skin conductance and decrease in skin temperature. The cue-induced increase in cocaine craving was reduced, while the cue-induced skin conductance and temperature responses were unaffected, by mecamylamine. These findings show that cue-induced cocaine craving is attenuated by mecamylamine. Further study on the use of mecamylamine in relapse prevention programs are suggested.  (+info)

Methadone treatment by general practitioners in Amsterdam. (2/1808)

In Amsterdam, a three-tiered program exists to deal with drug use and addiction. General practitioners form the backbone of the system, helping to deal with the majority of addicts, who are not criminals and many of whom desire to be free of addiction. Distinctions are made between drugs with "acceptable" and "unacceptable" risks, and between drug use and drug-related crime; patients who fall into the former categories are treated in a nonconfrontational, nonstigmatizing manner; such a system helps prevent the majority of patients from passing into unacceptable, criminalized categories. The overall program has demonstrated harm reduction both for patients and for the city of Amsterdam.  (+info)

Do alcohol and cocaine abuse alter the course of HIV-associated dementia complex? (3/1808)

Although psychoactive drugs are commonly used by AIDS patients, it is unclear whether commonly abused drugs, such as cocaine and ethanol, affect the course of HIV-associated dementia (HADC). Epidemiological studies have resulted in conflicting conclusions as to what role, if any, abused drugs play in HADC. In this review we discuss the clinical and pathological evidence that cocaine and ethanol might exacerbate the detrimental effects of HIV infection on the brain. We also review studies of cocaine and ethanol effects on various components of the immune system both in the presence and absence of retroviral infection. Data from these studies indicate that cocaine and ethanol have profound effects on the immune system that, in many respects, are enhanced by retroviral infection. We conclude that abused drugs likely affect the course of HADC but that proof awaits an examination of their interactive effects in an appropriate in vivo system of retroviral encephalitis.  (+info)

Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. (4/1808)

Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.  (+info)

Relative potency of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol and methadone in humans under acute dosing conditions. (5/1808)

levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) and methadone are full mu-opioid agonists used to treat opioid dependence. Current labeling indicates that LAAM is less potent than methadone. Clinical studies have not determined the relative potency of these drugs. This study compared the effects of acute doses of LAAM and methadone and also examined the ability of naloxone to reverse their effects. Five occasional opioid users received once weekly doses of either placebo, LAAM, or methadone (15, 30, or 60 mg/70 kg p.o.) in agonist exposure sessions and then received naloxone (1.0 mg/70 kg i.m.) 24, 72, and 144 h after agonist exposure. Subject-rated, observer-rated, and physiological measures were assessed regularly. Comparisons of physiological and subjective measures collected in agonist exposure sessions indicate that LAAM is not less potent than methadone under acute dosing conditions. For some measures, LAAM was significantly more potent. Three subjects who entered the study were withdrawn for safety reasons due to greater than anticipated and clinically relevant respiratory depression after receiving 60 mg of LAAM. Naloxone did not fully reverse the pupil constriction produced by 60 mg of LAAM. Acute agonist effects suggest that LAAM may be more potent than methadone and more potent than current labeling indicates. An accurate LAAM:methadone relative potency estimate will aid determination of adequate doses for opioid-dependent patients inducted onto LAAM and for methadone maintenance patients who choose to switch to more convenient thrice-weekly LAAM.  (+info)

Midfacial complications of prolonged cocaine snorting. (6/1808)

Acute and chronic ingestion of cocaine predisposes the abuser to a wide range of local and systemic complications. This article describes the case of a 38-year-old man whose chronic cocaine snorting resulted in the erosion of the midfacial anatomy and recurrent sinus infections. Previously published case reports specific to this problem are presented, as are the oral, systemic and behavioural effects of cocaine abuse.  (+info)

Predicting posttreatment cocaine abstinence for first-time admissions and treatment repeaters. (7/1808)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined client and program characteristics that predict posttreatment cocaine abstinence among cocaine abusers with different treatment histories. METHODS: Cocaine abusers (n = 507) treated in 18 residential programs were interviewed at intake and 1-year follow-up as part of the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Program directors provided the program-level data in a mail survey. We applied the hierarchical linear modeling approach for the analysis. RESULTS: No prior treatment and longer retention in DATOS programs were positive predictors of posttreatment abstinence. The interactive effect of these 2 variables was also significantly positive. Program that offered legal services and included recovering staff increased their clients' likelihood of cocaine abstinence. Crack use at both the client and program level predicted negative impact. None of the program variables assessed differentially affected the outcomes of first-timers and repeaters. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment repeaters were relatively difficult to treat, their likelihood of achieving abstinence was similar to that of first-timers if they were retained in treatment for a sufficient time. First-timers and repeaters responded similarly to the treatment program characteristics examined. The treatment and policy implications of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

Effects of contingent and non-contingent cocaine on drug-seeking behavior measured using a second-order schedule of cocaine reinforcement in rats. (8/1808)

Rats were trained to respond with intravenous cocaine as the reinforcer under a fixed interval 15-min schedule, during which conditioned stimuli paired with cocaine were presented contingent on completion of a fixed ratio of 10 responses (i.e., second-order schedule of reinforcement). The effects of contingent and noncontingent cocaine were investigated. The results show that pretreatment with noncontingent (i.e., experimenter-administered) cocaine led to a satiation-like effect that was reflected in decreased numbers of responses and a tendency for an increased latency to initiate responding when the doses of cocaine administered were similar to or higher than the training/maintenance dose of cocaine. By contrast, noncontingent administration of cocaine doses lower than the training/maintenance dose, and response-contingent cocaine administration, led to increased drug-seeking behavior, as reflected in increased numbers of responses. The present data indicate that at least two factors determine whether administration of cocaine would lead to drug-seeking behavior: whether the cocaine administration is contingent or noncontingent, and the relative magnitude of the cocaine dose administered in relation to the training/maintenance dose of cocaine.  (+info)

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

"Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a term used in the medical and psychiatric fields to refer to a group of conditions related to the use of cocaine, a powerful stimulant drug. These disorders are classified and diagnosed based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

The two main categories of Cocaine-Related Disorders are:

1. Cocaine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of cocaine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms within a 12-month period. These symptoms may include using larger amounts of cocaine over a longer period than intended, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cocaine use, spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cocaine, and continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by cocaine.
2. Cocaine-Induced Disorders: These disorders are directly caused by the acute effects of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal. They include:
* Cocaine Intoxication: Presents with a reversible syndrome due to recent use of cocaine, characterized by euphoria, increased energy, and psychomotor agitation. It may also cause elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as pupillary dilation.
* Cocaine Withdrawal: Occurs when an individual who has been using cocaine heavily for a prolonged period abruptly stops or significantly reduces their use. Symptoms include depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, vivid and unpleasant dreams, and insomnia.

Cocaine-Related Disorders can have severe negative consequences on an individual's physical health, mental wellbeing, and social functioning. They often require professional treatment to manage and overcome.

Dopamine uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission and activity.

These drugs are used in various medical conditions where dopamine is implicated, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. They can also be used to treat substance abuse disorders, such as cocaine addiction, by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and reducing the rewarding effects of the drug.

Examples of dopamine uptake inhibitors include:

* Bupropion (Wellbutrin), which is used to treat depression and ADHD
* Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), which is used to treat ADHD
* Amantadine (Symmetrel), which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and also has antiviral properties.

It's important to note that dopamine uptake inhibitors can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. They may also have the potential for abuse and dependence, particularly in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Crack cocaine is a potent and highly addictive form of the drug cocaine, which is made into a rock crystal that can be smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated and vaporized. Crack cocaine is abused for its euphoric effects, which are intensified and more immediate than those of powdered cocaine. Its use can lead to severe health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular complications, respiratory problems, and neurological damage.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

Noonan Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects various parts of the body and is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, heart defects, and developmental delays. It is caused by mutations in genes responsible for regulating cell growth and division. The syndrome is often identified at birth or in early childhood due to its physical manifestations, which may include widely spaced eyes, low-set ears, a short neck, a broad or webbed neck, chest deformities, and pulmonary valve stenosis. Noonan Syndrome affects both sexes and all races equally, with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 2,500 live births.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

LEOPARD syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple lentigines (freckle-like spots), electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism (wide-set eyes), pulmonic stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening), abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness. It is caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called SHP-2. This protein plays important roles in signaling pathways that control various cellular functions, such as cell growth and division. The signs and symptoms of LEOPARD syndrome can vary widely among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. Treatment is typically focused on managing the specific features of the condition in each individual.

Traumatic stress disorders are a category of mental health conditions that occur after exposure to a traumatic event or series of events. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several types of traumatic stress disorders, including:

1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): This disorder occurs after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event, such as combat, sexual assault, or a natural disaster. Symptoms include avoidance of reminders of the trauma, intrusive thoughts about the event, negative changes in mood and cognition, alterations in arousal and reactivity, and disturbances in sleep and concentration.
2. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD): This disorder is similar to PTSD but has a shorter duration. It occurs after exposure to a traumatic event and lasts for less than a month. Symptoms include dissociation, intrusive thoughts about the event, and avoidance of reminders of the trauma.
3. Adjustment Disorders: These disorders occur in response to a stressor or change in life circumstances, such as the loss of a job or the death of a loved one. Symptoms include anxiety, depression, and disturbances in conduct.
4. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED): These disorders occur in children who have experienced neglect or abuse and have difficulty forming attachments to caregivers.

It's important to note that traumatic stress disorders can have significant impacts on a person's daily functioning, relationships, and overall well-being. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic stress disorder, it's essential to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve unwanted physical events or experiences that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, or waking up. These behaviors can include abnormal movements, talk, emotions, perceptions, or dreams. Parasomnias can be caused by various factors such as stress, alcohol, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Some examples of parasomnias are sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep talking, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These disorders can disrupt sleep and cause distress to the individual and their bed partner.

Masturbation is the self-stimulation of the genitals to achieve sexual pleasure or orgasm. It's a normal and healthy sexual behavior that is commonly practiced by people of all ages, gender identities, and sexual orientations. Masturbation is generally considered safe and has few, if any, negative physical side effects.

It's important to note that masturbation is a personal choice, and individuals should feel comfortable and unpressured in their decision to engage in this behavior or not. Some people may choose not to masturbate due to personal, cultural, or religious beliefs, while others may find it to be a valuable way to explore their bodies, learn about their sexual responses, and relieve sexual tension.

If you have any concerns or questions about masturbation, it's always a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider who can provide you with accurate information and address any concerns you may have.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Environmental remediation is the process of treating, removing, or containing contamination from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water for the purpose of reducing the impact on human health and the environment. The goal of environmental remediation is to return the contaminated area to its original state, or to a state that is safe for use and poses no significant risk to human health or the environment. This process often involves various techniques such as excavation, soil washing, bioremediation, chemical treatment, and thermal treatment. The specific method used depends on the type and extent of contamination, as well as site-specific conditions.

Traumatic acute stress disorder is a short-term mental health condition that occurs in response to a traumatic or stressful event. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), it is characterized by the development of various symptoms, such as intrusive memories of the traumatic event, avoidance of reminders of the event, negative mood and cognitions, marked autonomic arousal, and sleep disturbances. These symptoms usually occur within one month after the traumatic event and last for no more than three months.

Acute stress disorder is different from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in that it has a shorter duration and does not involve some of the more severe symptoms associated with PTSD, such as avoidance behaviors, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Additionally, acute stress disorder may be more likely to resolve on its own without treatment, while PTSD typically requires professional intervention.

It's important to note that experiencing a traumatic event can have long-lasting effects on mental health, and it is essential to seek help from a qualified mental health professional if symptoms persist or interfere with daily functioning.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

A nursing society is a professional organization composed of registered nurses and other healthcare professionals who share a common mission, vision, and goals to advance the nursing profession and improve patient care. These societies provide a platform for members to collaborate, network, and exchange knowledge and ideas related to their practice, research, education, and policy-making. They offer various opportunities for professional development, including conferences, seminars, workshops, publications, and awards. Nursing societies also advocate for the rights and interests of nurses and patients at local, national, and international levels. Examples of nursing societies include the American Nurses Association (ANA), the International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the Society of Pediatric Nurses (SPN).

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue helps to strengthen and support various structures in the body, including the skin, ligaments, blood vessels, and heart. In Marfan syndrome, the body produces an abnormal amount of a protein called fibrillin-1, which is a key component of connective tissue. This leads to problems with the formation and function of connective tissue throughout the body.

The most serious complications of Marfan syndrome typically involve the heart and blood vessels. The aorta, which is the large artery that carries blood away from the heart, can become weakened and stretched, leading to an increased risk of aortic dissection or rupture. Other common features of Marfan syndrome include long, thin fingers and toes; tall stature; a curved spine; and eye problems such as nearsightedness and lens dislocation.

Marfan syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from a parent who has the condition. However, about 25% of cases are the result of a new mutation and occur in people with no family history of the disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is primarily found in neurons (nerve cells) in the brain. It is encoded by the SNCA gene and is abundantly expressed in presynaptic terminals, where it is believed to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release.

In certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, alpha-synuclein can form aggregates known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. These aggregates are a pathological hallmark of these diseases and are believed to contribute to the death of nerve cells, leading to the symptoms associated with these disorders.

The precise function of alpha-synuclein is not fully understood, but it is thought to be involved in various cellular processes such as maintaining the structure of the presynaptic terminal, regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release, and protecting neurons from stress.

Pachyonychia Congenita (PC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by thickened and abnormally shaped nails, painful blisters on the skin, and thickened palms and soles. The condition is caused by mutations in genes responsible for producing keratin proteins, which are essential components of our skin, hair, and nails.

There are two main types of PC: Type 1 (Jadassohn-Lewandowsky syndrome) and Type 2 (Jackson-Lawler syndrome). Both types have similar symptoms but may vary in severity. The symptoms typically appear at birth or within the first few years of life.

The medical definition of Pachyonychia Congenita includes:

1. Nails: Thickening and overcurvature of the nails, often with a yellow-white discoloration.
2. Skin: Formation of blisters and calluses on pressure points such as hands, feet, knees, and elbows. These blisters can be painful and may lead to secondary infections.
3. Palms and soles: Hyperkeratosis (thickening) of the skin on the palms and soles, causing discomfort or pain while walking or performing manual tasks.
4. Mucous membranes: In some cases, the condition can also affect the mucous membranes, leading to oral lesions and thickened vocal cords.
5. Genetics: PC is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning that only one copy of the mutated gene inherited from either parent is sufficient to cause the disease. However, some cases may result from spontaneous mutations in the affected individual.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Frasier Syndrome" is not a recognized medical condition or syndrome in the standard medical literature. It seems like it might be a term that is specific to a certain context or fictional work. In popular culture, "Frasier" is a television show about a character named Frasier Crane, and it's possible that "Frasier Syndrome" could refer to something within the realm of that fiction. However, without more specific information about where you encountered this term, I cannot provide an accurate definition.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of brain cells that regulate movement, thoughts, behavior, and eye movements. The term "supranuclear" refers to the location of the damage in the brain, specifically above the level of the "nuclei" which are clusters of nerve cells that control voluntary movements.

The most common early symptom of PSP is a loss of balance and difficulty coordinating eye movements, particularly vertical gaze. Other symptoms may include stiffness or rigidity of muscles, slowness of movement, difficulty swallowing, changes in speech and writing, and cognitive decline leading to dementia.

PSP typically affects people over the age of 60, and its progression can vary from person to person. Currently, there is no cure for PSP, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and maintaining quality of life.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Cystic kidney diseases are a group of genetic disorders that cause fluid-filled sacs called cysts to form in the kidneys. These cysts can vary in size and can grow over time, which can lead to damage in the kidneys and affect their function. There are two main types of cystic kidney diseases: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).

ADPKD is the most common type and is characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in both kidneys. It is usually diagnosed in adulthood, but it can also occur in children. The cysts can cause high blood pressure, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and eventually kidney failure.

ARPKD is a rare, inherited disorder that affects both the kidneys and liver. It is characterized by the presence of numerous cysts in the kidneys and abnormalities in the bile ducts of the liver. ARPKD is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and can cause serious complications such as respiratory distress, kidney failure, and liver fibrosis.

Other types of cystic kidney diseases include nephronophthisis, medullary cystic kidney disease, and glomerulocystic kidney disease. These conditions are also inherited and can cause kidney damage and kidney failure.

Treatment for cystic kidney diseases typically involves managing symptoms such as high blood pressure, pain, and infections. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove large cysts or to treat complications such as kidney stones. For individuals with advanced kidney disease, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

The Chernobyl nuclear accident, also known as the Chernobyl disaster, was a catastrophic nuclear meltdown that occurred on April 26, 1986, at the No. 4 reactor in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, near the city of Pripyat in the north of the Ukrainian SSR in the Soviet Union. It is considered the worst nuclear disaster in history and resulted in a significant release of radioactive material into the environment, which had serious health and environmental consequences both in the immediate vicinity of the reactor and in the wider region.

The accident occurred during a late-night safety test which simulated a station blackout power-failure, in order to test an emergency cooling feature of the reactor. The operators temporarily disabled several safety systems, including the automatic shutdown mechanisms. They also removed too many control rods from the reactor core, which made the reactor extremely unstable. When they performed a surprise test at low power, a sudden power surge occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. This event exposed the graphite moderator components of the reactor to air, causing them to ignite.

The resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive smoke into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union and Europe. From 1986 to 2000, 350,000 people were evacuated and resettled from the most severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

According to official post-Soviet data, about 60% of the fallout landed in Belarus. The battle to contain the contamination and prevent a subsequent disaster required about 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles. During the accident itself, 31 people died, and long-term effects such as cancers and deformities are still being accounted for.

The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was established around the power plant, and it is still in place today, with restricted access. The site of the reactor is now enclosed in a large steel and concrete structure, called the New Safe Confinement, to prevent further leakage of radiation.

Addictive behavior is a pattern of repeated self-destructive behavior, often identified by the individual's inability to stop despite negative consequences. It can involve a variety of actions such as substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs), gambling, sex, shopping, or using technology (e.g., internet, social media, video games).

These behaviors activate the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Over time, the individual may require more of the behavior to achieve the same level of pleasure, resulting in tolerance. If the behavior is stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Addictive behaviors can have serious consequences on an individual's physical, emotional, social, and financial well-being. They are often associated with mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help the individual overcome the addiction and develop healthy coping mechanisms.

Cerebellar diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the cerebellum, which is the part of the brain located at the back of the head, below the occipital lobe and above the brainstem. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control, coordination, balance, and some cognitive functions.

Cerebellar diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, tumors, stroke, trauma, or degenerative processes. These conditions can result in a wide range of symptoms, such as:

1. Ataxia: Loss of coordination and unsteady gait
2. Dysmetria: Inability to judge distance and force while performing movements
3. Intention tremors: Shaking or trembling that worsens during purposeful movements
4. Nystagmus: Rapid, involuntary eye movement
5. Dysarthria: Speech difficulty due to muscle weakness or incoordination
6. Hypotonia: Decreased muscle tone
7. Titubation: Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of the head and neck
8. Cognitive impairment: Problems with memory, attention, and executive functions

Some examples of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Ataxia-telangiectasia
2. Friedrich's ataxia
3. Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
4. Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs)
5. Cerebellar tumors, such as medulloblastomas or astrocytomas
6. Infarctions or hemorrhages in the cerebellum due to stroke or trauma
7. Infections, such as viral encephalitis or bacterial meningitis
8. Autoimmune disorders, like multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraneoplastic syndromes
9. Metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease or phenylketonuria (PKU)
10. Chronic alcoholism and withdrawal

Treatment for cerebellar diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, physical therapy, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of genetic disorders that affect the development and formation of ectodermal tissues, which include the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. The condition is usually present at birth or appears in early infancy.

The symptoms of ED can vary widely depending on the specific type and severity of the disorder. Common features may include:

* Sparse or absent hair
* Thin, wrinkled, or rough skin
* Abnormal or missing teeth
* Nail abnormalities
* Absent or reduced sweat glands, leading to heat intolerance and problems regulating body temperature
* Ear abnormalities, which can result in hearing loss
* Eye abnormalities

ED is caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the development of ectodermal tissues. Most cases of ED are inherited in an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child can inherit the disorder even if only one parent (dominant) or both parents (recessive) carry the mutated gene.

There is no cure for ED, but treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and improving quality of life. This may include measures to maintain body temperature, such as cooling vests or frequent cool baths; dental treatments to replace missing teeth; hearing aids for hearing loss; and skin care regimens to prevent dryness and irritation.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Drug-seeking behavior is a term used in the medical field to describe a pattern of actions taken by a person who is trying to obtain drugs, typically prescription medications, for non-medical reasons or in a manner that is considered inappropriate or abusive. This can include behaviors such as:

* Exaggerating symptoms or faking illness to obtain drugs
* Visiting multiple doctors or pharmacies to obtain multiple prescriptions (a practice known as "doctor shopping")
* Using false names or identities to obtain drugs
* Stealing, forging, or altering prescriptions
* Offering to sell or trade prescription medications

Drug-seeking behavior can be a sign of a substance use disorder, such as addiction, and may require medical intervention and treatment. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs of drug-seeking behavior and to take appropriate measures to ensure that patients are receiving the care and treatment they need while also protecting the integrity of the healthcare system.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

A reinforcement schedule is a concept in behavioral psychology that refers to the timing and pattern of rewards or reinforcements provided in response to certain behaviors. It is used to shape, maintain, or strengthen specific behaviors in individuals. There are several types of reinforcement schedules, including:

1. **Fixed Ratio (FR):** A reward is given after a fixed number of responses. For example, a salesperson might receive a bonus for every 10 sales they make.
2. **Variable Ratio (VR):** A reward is given after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule is commonly used in gambling, as the uncertainty of when a reward (winning) will occur keeps the individual engaged and motivated to continue the behavior.
3. **Fixed Interval (FI):** A reward is given after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. For example, an employee might receive a paycheck every two weeks, regardless of how many tasks they completed during that period.
4. **Variable Interval (VI):** A reward is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. This schedule can be observed in foraging behavior, where animals search for food at irregular intervals.
5. **Combined schedules:** Reinforcement schedules can also be combined to create more complex patterns, such as a fixed ratio followed by a variable interval (FR-VI) or a variable ratio followed by a fixed interval (VR-FI).

Understanding reinforcement schedules is essential for developing effective behavioral interventions in various settings, including healthcare, education, and rehabilitation.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Synucleins are a family of small, heat-stable, water-soluble proteins that are primarily expressed in neurons. They are involved in various cellular processes such as modulating synaptic plasticity, vesicle trafficking, and neurotransmitter release. The most well-known members of this family are alpha-synuclein, beta-synuclein, and gamma-synuclein.

Abnormal accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein into insoluble fibrils called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are hallmark features of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. These conditions are collectively referred to as synucleinopathies. The dysfunction and aggregation of alpha-synuclein are thought to contribute to the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a region of the brain involved in motor control, leading to the characteristic symptoms observed in these disorders.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein that develop in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. They are named after Frederick Lewy, a German-American neurologist who discovered them while working with Dr. Alois Alzheimer. The presence of Lewy bodies is a hallmark feature of Lewy body dementia, which includes both Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

Lewy bodies can lead to the dysfunction and death of neurons in areas of the brain that control movement, cognition, and behavior. This can result in a range of symptoms, including motor impairments, cognitive decline, visual hallucinations, and mood changes. The exact role of Lewy bodies in the development and progression of these disorders is not fully understood, but they are believed to contribute to the neurodegenerative process that underlies these conditions.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

"Extinction, Psychological" refers to the process by which a conditioned response or behavior becomes weakened and eventually disappears when the behavior is no longer reinforced or rewarded. It is a fundamental concept in learning theory and conditioning.

In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response (CR). For example, if a person learns to associate a tone (CS) with a puff of air to the eye (US), causing blinking (CR), but then the tone is presented several times without the puff of air, the blinking response will become weaker and eventually disappear.

In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a reinforcer is no longer provided following a behavior, leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of that behavior. For example, if a child receives candy every time they clean their room (reinforcement), but then the candy is withheld, the child may eventually stop cleaning their room (extinction).

It's important to note that extinction can be a slow process and may require multiple trials or repetitions. Additionally, behaviors that have been extinguished can sometimes reappear in certain circumstances, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Dementia is a broad term that describes a decline in cognitive functioning, including memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment, severe enough to interfere with daily life. It is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms that may be caused by various underlying diseases or conditions. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for 60-80% of cases. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Huntington's disease.

The symptoms of dementia can vary widely depending on the cause and the specific areas of the brain that are affected. However, common early signs of dementia may include:

* Memory loss that affects daily life
* Difficulty with familiar tasks
* Problems with language or communication
* Difficulty with visual and spatial abilities
* Misplacing things and unable to retrace steps
* Decreased or poor judgment
* Withdrawal from work or social activities
* Changes in mood or behavior

Dementia is a progressive condition, meaning that symptoms will gradually worsen over time. While there is currently no cure for dementia, early diagnosis and treatment can help slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life for those affected.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Tau proteins are a type of microtubule-associated protein (MAP) found primarily in neurons of the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and structure of microtubules, which are essential components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Tau proteins bind to and stabilize microtubules, helping to regulate their assembly and disassembly.

In Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, tau proteins can become abnormally hyperphosphorylated, leading to the formation of insoluble aggregates called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within neurons. These aggregates disrupt the normal function of microtubules and contribute to the degeneration and death of nerve cells, ultimately leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms associated with these disorders.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. It is a "downer" or depressant that affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain.

Heroin can be injected, smoked, or snorted. It is sold as a white or brownish powder or as a black, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Regardless of how it is taken, heroin enters the brain rapidly and is highly addictive.

The use of heroin can lead to serious health problems, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Long-term use of heroin can lead to physical dependence and addiction, a chronic disease that can be difficult to treat.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Benztropine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as rigidity, tremors, and muscle spasms. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in the regulation of motor function.

Benztropine is also used to treat side effects caused by certain medications, such as antipsychotics, that can cause Parkinson-like symptoms. It may be prescribed to help reduce drooling or to manage muscle stiffness and restlessness.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or a solution for injection and is typically taken orally once or twice a day. Common side effects of benztropine include dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and constipation. More serious side effects may include hallucinations, confusion, and irregular heartbeat.

It's important to note that benztropine can interact with other medications, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the drugs you are taking before starting this medication. Additionally, benztropine should be used cautiously in older adults, people with glaucoma or enlarged prostate, and those with a history of heart problems.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

A missense mutation is a type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in the substitution of a different amino acid in the protein that is encoded by the affected gene. This occurs when the altered codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid) specifies a different amino acid than the original one. The function and/or stability of the resulting protein may be affected, depending on the type and location of the missense mutation. Missense mutations can have various effects, ranging from benign to severe, depending on the importance of the changed amino acid for the protein's structure or function.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ) are small protein fragments that are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. They are derived from a larger transmembrane protein called the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a series of proteolytic cleavage events.

The two primary forms of Aβ peptides are Aβ40 and Aβ42, which differ in length by two amino acids. While both forms can be harmful, Aβ42 is more prone to aggregation and is considered to be the more pathogenic form. These peptides have the tendency to misfold and accumulate into oligomers, fibrils, and eventually insoluble plaques that deposit in various areas of the brain, most notably the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

The accumulation of Aβ peptides is believed to initiate a cascade of events leading to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death, which are all hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact role of Aβ in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's is still under investigation, it is widely accepted that they play a central part in the development of this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including butyrylcholine and acetylcholine. It is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, brain, and plasma. BChE plays a role in the metabolism of certain drugs and neurotransmitters, and its activity can be inhibited by certain chemicals, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Elevated levels of BChE have been found in some neurological disorders, while decreased levels have been associated with genetic deficiencies and liver disease.

Dopamine antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with various functions including movement, motivation, and emotion. These drugs work by binding to dopamine receptors and preventing dopamine from attaching to them, which can help to reduce the symptoms of certain medical conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There are several types of dopamine antagonists, including:

1. Typical antipsychotics: These drugs are primarily used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia and delusional disorders. Examples include haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and fluphenazine.
2. Atypical antipsychotics: These drugs are also used to treat psychosis but have fewer side effects than typical antipsychotics. They may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and depression. Examples include risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
3. Antiemetics: These drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting. Examples include metoclopramide and prochlorperazine.
4. Dopamine agonists: While not technically dopamine antagonists, these drugs work by stimulating dopamine receptors and can be used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, they can also have the opposite effect and block dopamine receptors in high doses, making them functionally similar to dopamine antagonists.

Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include sedation, weight gain, and movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. It's important to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Tic disorders are a group of conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive, involuntary movements or sounds, known as tics. These movements or sounds can vary in complexity and severity, and they may be worsened by stress or strong emotions.

There are several different types of tic disorders, including:

1. Tourette's disorder: This is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of both motor (movement-related) and vocal tics that have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
2. Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of either motor or vocal tics (but not both), which have been present for at least one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
3. Provisional tic disorder: This type of tic disorder is characterized by the presence of motor or vocal tics (or both) that have been present for less than one year. The tics may wax and wane in severity over time, but they do not disappear for more than three consecutive months.
4. Tic disorder not otherwise specified: This category is used to describe tic disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the other types of tic disorders.

Tic disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they often co-occur with other conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for tic disorders may include behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of both.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect, and mood, as well as marked impulsivity that begins by early adulthood and is present in various contexts.

Individuals with BPD often experience intense and fluctuating emotions, ranging from profound sadness, anxiety, and anger to feelings of happiness or calm. They may have difficulty managing these emotions, leading to impulsive behavior, self-harm, or suicidal ideation.

People with BPD also tend to have an unstable sense of self, which can lead to rapid changes in their goals, values, and career choices. They often struggle with feelings of emptiness and boredom, and may engage in risky behaviors such as substance abuse, reckless driving, or binge eating to alleviate these feelings.

Interpersonal relationships are often strained due to the individual's fear of abandonment, intense emotional reactions, and difficulty regulating their emotions. They may experience idealization and devaluation of others, leading to rapid shifts in how they view and treat people close to them.

Diagnosis of BPD is typically made by a mental health professional using criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Treatment for BPD may include psychotherapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. They can include problems with falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, medical conditions, or substance abuse.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recognizes over 80 distinct sleep disorders, which are categorized into the following major groups:

1. Insomnia - difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
2. Sleep-related breathing disorders - abnormal breathing during sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Central disorders of hypersomnolence - excessive daytime sleepiness, including narcolepsy.
4. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders - disruption of the internal body clock that regulates the sleep-wake cycle.
5. Parasomnias - abnormal behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or night terrors.
6. Sleep-related movement disorders - repetitive movements during sleep such as restless legs syndrome.
7. Isolated symptoms and normal variants - brief and occasional symptoms that do not warrant a specific diagnosis.

Sleep disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's quality of life, productivity, and overall health. If you suspect that you may have a sleep disorder, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or a sleep specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

The Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) is a collection of neurons located in the midbrain that is part of the dopamine system. It is specifically known as the A10 group and is the largest source of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These neurons project to various regions, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, and are involved in reward, motivation, addiction, and various cognitive functions. The VTA also contains GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that modulate dopamine release and have various other functions.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by the significant weakening of the immune system, making the person more susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers.

The medical definition of AIDS includes specific criteria based on CD4+ T-cell count or the presence of certain opportunistic infections and diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when:

1. The CD4+ T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (mm3) - a normal range is typically between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.
2. They develop one or more opportunistic infections or cancers that are indicative of advanced HIV disease, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count.

Some examples of these opportunistic infections and cancers include:

* Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
* Candidiasis (thrush) affecting the esophagus, trachea, or lungs
* Cryptococcal meningitis
* Toxoplasmosis of the brain
* Cytomegalovirus disease
* Kaposi's sarcoma
* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Invasive cervical cancer

It is important to note that with appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV can maintain their CD4+ T-cell counts, suppress viral replication, and prevent the progression to AIDS. Early diagnosis and consistent treatment are crucial for managing HIV and improving life expectancy and quality of life.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing useful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications such as kidney damage, bone pain and fractures.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer called a plasma cell neoplasm. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there is an overproduction of a single clone of plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, this results in the crowding out of normal plasma cells, red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to many of the complications associated with the disease.

The abnormal proteins produced by the cancer cells can also cause damage to organs and tissues in the body. These abnormal proteins can be detected in the blood or urine and are often used to monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon cancer, but it is the second most common blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It typically occurs in people over the age of 65, and men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation can help manage the disease and its symptoms, and improve quality of life.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) are a group of psychiatric conditions characterized by the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or others. This leads to negative consequences such as distress, anxiety, or disruption in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recognizes several specific ICDs, including:

1. Kleptomania - the recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal items, even though they are not needed for personal use or financial gain.
2. Pyromania - the deliberate and purposeful fire-setting on more than one occasion.
3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder - recurrent behavioral outbursts representing a failure to control aggressive impulses, resulting in serious assaultive acts or destruction of property.
4. Pathological Gambling - persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits.
5. Internet Gaming Disorder - the excessive and prolonged use of the internet for gaming, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress.

These disorders are typically associated with a range of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that can vary depending on the specific disorder and individual presentation. Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and self-help strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a group of diseases characterized by the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells, which are crucial components of the immune system. These disorders can arise from both B-cells and T-cells, leading to various clinical manifestations ranging from benign to malignant conditions.

LPDs can be broadly classified into reactive and neoplastic categories:

1. Reactive Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are typically triggered by infections, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency states. They involve an exaggerated response of the immune system leading to the excessive proliferation of lymphoid cells. Examples include:
* Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
* Lymph node enlargement due to various infections or autoimmune disorders
* Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which occurs in the context of immunosuppression following organ transplantation
2. Neoplastic Lymphoproliferative Disorders: These are malignant conditions characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal lymphoid cells, leading to the formation of tumors. They can be further classified into Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Examples include:
* Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL
* Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Various subtypes, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma

It is important to note that the distinction between reactive and neoplastic LPDs can sometimes be challenging, requiring careful clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular evaluations. Proper diagnosis and classification of LPDs are crucial for determining appropriate treatment strategies and predicting patient outcomes.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Dopamine D3 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as part of the D2-like family of dopamine receptors, which also includes the D2 and D4 receptors. The D3 receptor is primarily expressed in the limbic areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, where it plays a role in regulating motivation, reward, and cognition.

D3 receptors have been found to be involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra results in a decrease in dopamine levels and an increase in D3 receptor expression. This increase in D3 receptor expression has been linked to the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity.

In schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications that block D2-like receptors, including D3 receptors, are used to treat positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. However, selective D3 receptor antagonists have also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy and anhedonia.

In drug addiction, D3 receptors have been found to play a role in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Selective D3 receptor antagonists have shown promise in reducing drug-seeking behavior and preventing relapse in animal models of addiction.

Overall, dopamine D3 receptors play an important role in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, and further research is needed to fully understand their functions and potential therapeutic uses.

Movement disorders are a group of neurological conditions that affect the control and coordination of voluntary movements. These disorders can result from damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, or other parts of the brain that regulate movement. Symptoms may include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akathisia (restlessness and inability to remain still), dystonia (sustained muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures), chorea (rapid, unpredictable movements), tics, and gait disturbances. Examples of movement disorders include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, and dystonic disorders.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant drug that is primarily used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain, which helps to improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

Methylphenidate is available under various brand names, including Ritalin, Concerta, and Methylin, among others. It comes in different forms, such as tablets, capsules, or extended-release formulations, and is typically taken orally. The dosage and duration of treatment are usually individualized based on the patient's response to the medication and any potential side effects.

It is important to note that methylphenidate has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional. Additionally, it can interact with other medications and medical conditions, so it is essential to inform your doctor of any health concerns before starting treatment with methylphenidate.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Combat disorders are a category of mental health conditions that can occur in military personnel as a result of their experiences during combat. These disorders can include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders, among others. Combat disorders may be caused by exposure to traumatic events, such as experiencing or witnessing combat, the threat of death or serious injury, or the loss of fellow soldiers. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance of reminders of the trauma, difficulty sleeping, irritability, and feelings of detachment or numbness. Treatment for combat disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (ADDBDs) are a group of childhood-onset disorders characterized by persistent patterns of behavior that are difficult for the individual to control. These disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interfere with daily functioning. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur in multiple settings, such as school, home, and social situations.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures, which includes arguing with adults, losing temper, actively defying rules, and deliberately annoying others. These symptoms must be present for at least six months and occur more frequently than in other children of the same age and developmental level.

Conduct Disorder (CD) is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. These behaviors include aggression towards people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

It's important to note that these disorders can co-occur with other mental health conditions, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and learning disabilities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing the symptoms and improving the individual's quality of life.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Dextroamphetamine is available as a prescription medication and is sold under various brand names, including Adderall and Dexedrine. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare professional, as it can have potentially serious side effects if used improperly.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. It is used medically to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity, due to its appetite-suppressing effects.

Amphetamines can be prescribed in various forms, including tablets, capsules, or liquids, and are available under several brand names, such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse. They are also known by their street names, such as speed, uppers, or wake-ups, and can be abused for their euphoric effects and ability to increase alertness, energy, and concentration.

Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to dependence, tolerance, and addiction, as well as serious health consequences, such as cardiovascular problems, mental health disorders, and malnutrition. It is essential to use amphetamines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their instructions carefully.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Dissociative disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by disruptions or dysfunctions in memory, consciousness, identity, or perception. These disturbances can be sudden or ongoing and can interfere significantly with a person's ability to function in daily life. The main types of dissociative disorders include:

1. Dissociative Amnesia: This disorder is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information, usually due to trauma or stress.
2. Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder): In this disorder, a person exhibits two or more distinct identities or personalities that recurrently take control of their behavior.
3. Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: This disorder involves persistent or recurring feelings of detachment from one's self (depersonalization) or the environment (derealization).
4. Other Specified Dissociative Disorder and Unspecified Dissociative Disorder: These categories are used for disorders that do not meet the criteria for any of the specific dissociative disorders but still cause significant distress or impairment.

Dissociative disorders often develop as a way to cope with trauma, stress, or other overwhelming life experiences. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), as well as medication for co-occurring conditions such as anxiety or depression.

A learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to acquire, process, and use information in one or more academic areas despite normal intelligence and adequate instruction. It can manifest as difficulties with reading (dyslexia), writing (dysgraphia), mathematics (dyscalculia), or other academic skills. Learning disorders are not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or environmental factors alone, but rather reflect a significant discrepancy between an individual's cognitive abilities and their academic achievement. They can significantly impact a person's ability to perform in school, at work, and in daily life, making it important to diagnose and manage these disorders effectively.

Impulsive behavior can be defined medically as actions performed without proper thought or consideration of the consequences, driven by immediate needs, desires, or urges. It often involves risky or inappropriate behaviors that may lead to negative outcomes. In a clinical context, impulsivity is frequently associated with certain mental health conditions such as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and some neurological conditions. It's important to note that everyone can exhibit impulsive behavior at times, but when it becomes a persistent pattern causing distress or functional impairment, it may indicate an underlying condition requiring professional assessment and treatment.

Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) is a type of eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort or pain. These episodes are accompanied by a loss of control over eating and are not followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging or excessive exercise.

To be diagnosed with BED, an individual must experience these binge-eating episodes at least once a week for three months or more, along with feelings of distress, shame, or guilt about their eating habits. Additionally, the binge eating must occur on average at least once a week for three months.

BED is different from overeating and can cause significant emotional and physical problems, including depression, anxiety, obesity, and other health issues related to weight gain. It is important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have BED.

Dysthymic disorder, also known as persistent depressive disorder, is a chronic type of depression where a person's moods are regularly low. It is characterized by depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, for at least two years, and is accompanied by at least two other symptoms such as appetite or sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.

To meet the diagnostic criteria, the symptoms cannot be explained by substance abuse or a medical condition, and they must cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Dysthymic disorder typically has a chronic course, but it may respond to treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.

Tropane alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. This ring is composed of a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms, one of which is part of a piperidine ring. Tropane alkaloids are found in various plants, particularly those in the Solanaceae family, which includes nightshade, belladonna, and datura. Some well-known tropane alkaloids include atropine, scopolamine, and cocaine. These compounds have diverse pharmacological activities, such as anticholinergic, local anesthetic, and central nervous system stimulant effects.

Quinpirole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a synthetic compound used in research and medicine. It's a selective agonist for the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, which means it binds to and activates these receptors, mimicking the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes such as movement, motivation, reward, and cognition.

Quinpirole is used primarily in preclinical research to study the role of dopamine receptors in different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and others. It helps researchers understand how dopamine systems work and contributes to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these disorders.

It is important to note that quinpirole is not used as a medication in humans or animals but rather as a research tool in laboratory settings.

Benzazepines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a diazepine ring. In the context of pharmaceuticals, benzazepines refer to a group of drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Some examples of benzazepine-derived drugs include clozapine, olanzapine, and loxoprofen. These drugs have complex mechanisms of action, often involving multiple receptor systems in the brain.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Discrimination learning is a type of learning in which an individual learns to distinguish between two or more stimuli and respond differently to each. It involves the ability to recognize the differences between similar stimuli and to respond appropriately based on the specific characteristics of each stimulus. This type of learning is important for many aspects of cognition, including perception, language, and problem-solving.

In discrimination learning, an individual may be presented with two or more stimuli and reinforced for responding differently to each. For example, a person might be trained to press a button in response to the color red and to do nothing in response to the color green. Through this process of differential reinforcement, the individual learns to discriminate between the two colors and to respond appropriately to each.

Discrimination learning is often studied in animals as well as humans, and it is thought to involve a range of cognitive processes, including attention, memory, and perception. It is an important aspect of many forms of learning and plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) refer to a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles that control jaw movement. The TMJ is the hinge joint that connects the lower jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone) in front of the ear. It allows for movements required for activities such as eating, speaking, and yawning.

TMD can result from various causes, including:

1. Muscle tension or spasm due to clenching or grinding teeth (bruxism), stress, or jaw misalignment
2. Dislocation or injury of the TMJ disc, which is a small piece of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the bones in the joint
3. Arthritis or other degenerative conditions affecting the TMJ
4. Bite problems (malocclusion) leading to abnormal stress on the TMJ and its surrounding muscles
5. Stress, which can exacerbate existing TMD symptoms by causing muscle tension

Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders may include:
- Pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders
- Limited jaw movement or locking of the jaw
- Clicking, popping, or grating sounds when moving the jaw
- Headaches, earaches, or dizziness
- Difficulty chewing or biting
- Swelling on the side of the face

Treatment for TMD varies depending on the severity and cause of the condition. It may include self-care measures (like eating soft foods, avoiding extreme jaw movements, and applying heat or cold packs), physical therapy, medications (such as muscle relaxants, pain relievers, or anti-inflammatory drugs), dental work (including bite adjustments or orthodontic treatment), or even surgery in severe cases.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

The putamen is a round, egg-shaped structure that is a part of the basal ganglia, located in the forebrain. It is situated laterally to the globus pallidus and medially to the internal capsule. The putamen plays a crucial role in regulating movement and is involved in various functions such as learning, motivation, and habit formation.

It receives input from the cerebral cortex via the corticostriatal pathway and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata, which are also part of the basal ganglia circuitry. The putamen is heavily innervated by dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta, and degeneration of these neurons in Parkinson's disease leads to a significant reduction in dopamine levels in the putamen, resulting in motor dysfunction.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Conversion disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by the presence of neurological symptoms, such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing, that cannot be explained by a medical condition. These symptoms are thought to be caused by psychological factors, such as stress or trauma, and may be a way for the individual to express emotional distress or avoid certain situations.

The symptoms of conversion disorder are typically dramatic and can interfere significantly with a person's daily life. They may include:

* Loss of or alteration in physical senses (such as blindness, deafness, or loss of touch)
* Weakness or paralysis in a part or all of the body
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Seizures or convulsions
* Inability to move certain parts of the body
* Tremors or shaking
* Loss of consciousness

It is important to note that conversion disorder is not a fake or intentional condition. Rather, it is a genuine medical condition that requires treatment. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying psychological issues and helping the individual develop more effective ways of coping with stress and emotional distress.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

Flupenthixol is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor blocking activity, which makes it effective in managing various psychiatric disorders.

Flupenthixol is primarily used for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders. It can help alleviate symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and hostility. Additionally, flupenthixol may also be used off-label to manage depression, anxiety, and aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Flupenthixol decanoate) for short-term use and a long-acting depot injection (Flupenthixol dihydrochloride) that can be administered every 2-4 weeks, providing sustained therapeutic levels of the drug.

As with any medication, flupenthixol should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other drugs. Common side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and metabolic disorders.

Disulfiram is a medication used to treat chronic alcoholism. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which is responsible for breaking down acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite produced when alcohol is consumed. When a person taking disulfiram consumes alcohol, the buildup of acetaldehyde causes unpleasant symptoms such as flushing, nausea, palpitations, and shortness of breath, which can help discourage further alcohol use.

The medical definition of Disulfiram is:

A medication used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism, which works by inhibiting the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to an accumulation of acetaldehyde when alcohol is consumed, causing unpleasant symptoms that discourage further alcohol use. Disulfiram is available as a tablet for oral administration and is typically prescribed under medical supervision due to its potential for serious interactions with alcohol and other substances.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Antimanic agents are a class of medications primarily used to treat mania, a symptom of bipolar disorder. These agents help to control and reduce the severity of manic episodes, which can include symptoms such as elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.

The most commonly used antimanic agents are mood stabilizers, such as lithium and valproate (Depakote), and atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), and aripiprazole (Abilify). These medications work by altering the levels or activity of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is also considered an effective antimanic treatment for severe mania that has not responded to medication. ECT involves applying electrical currents to the brain while the patient is under anesthesia, which induces a seizure and can help to reduce symptoms of mania.

It's important to note that antimanic agents should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare provider, as they can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, a comprehensive treatment plan for bipolar disorder typically includes psychotherapy, education, and support to help manage the condition and prevent future episodes.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohols and carboxylates. This group includes several subclasses of enzymes such as esterases, lipases, and thioesterases. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and signal transduction. They are widely used in industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients.

The neostriatum is a component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain that are involved in motor control, procedural learning, and other cognitive functions. It is composed primarily of two types of neurons: medium spiny neurons and aspiny interneurons. The neostriatum receives input from various regions of the cerebral cortex and projects to other parts of the basal ganglia, forming an important part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop.

In medical terminology, the neostriatum is often used interchangeably with the term "striatum," although some sources reserve the term "neostriatum" for the caudate nucleus and putamen specifically, while using "striatum" to refer to the entire structure including the ventral striatum (also known as the nucleus accumbens).

Damage to the neostriatum has been implicated in various neurological conditions, such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease.

Euphoria is a medical term that refers to an state of intense happiness and well-being, often exaggerated or irrational in context. It is a heightened state of pleasure or excitement, sometimes reaching levels of ecstasy. Euphoria can be a symptom of certain medical conditions, such as manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder, or it can be a side effect of certain drugs, including some prescription medications and illegal substances.

In a clinical setting, euphoria is often assessed using rating scales to help diagnose and monitor the severity of various mental health disorders. It's important to note that while euphoria can be a positive experience for some individuals, it can also have negative consequences, particularly when it leads to impaired judgment or risky behaviors.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

Hyperkinesis is not considered a formal medical diagnosis. However, the term is often used informally to refer to a state of excessive or involuntary muscle movements. It is sometimes used as a synonym for hyperkinetic movement disorders, which are a group of neurological conditions characterized by an excess of involuntary movements. Examples of hyperkinetic movement disorders include chorea, dystonia, tics, myoclonus, and stereotypies.

It is important to note that the term "hyperkinesis" is not used in the current diagnostic classifications such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Instead, specific movement disorders are diagnosed and classified based on their underlying causes and symptoms.

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The drug was also under development for the treatment of cocaine-related disorders, obesity, and schizophrenia, but development ... Human clinical studies also showed that ecopipam was an effective antagonist of the acute euphoric effects of cocaine. However ... As of 2021, Emalex Biosciences is investigating its potential use for central nervous system disorders. Open-label studies have ... Baik JH (October 11, 2013). "Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors". Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 7: 152. doi:10.3389 ...
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... amphetamine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.300 - cocaine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.635 - marijuana abuse MeSH F03.900.650 ... alcohol-related disorders MeSH F03.900.100.050 - alcohol amnestic disorder MeSH F03.900.100.050.500 - korsakoff syndrome MeSH ... panic disorder MeSH F03.080.725 - phobic disorders MeSH F03.080.931 - stress disorders, traumatic MeSH F03.080.931.249 - combat ... conduct disorder MeSH F03.550.300 - child behavior disorders MeSH F03.550.325 - child development disorders, pervasive MeSH ...
... may often accompany a substance use disorder (SUD); if persistent substance-related problems exist, SUD ... cocaine F15. caffeine F16. hallucinogens F17. tobacco F18. volatile solvent F19. multiple drug use and use of other ... The ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders due to psychoactive substance use shows: F10. alcohol F11. opioids F12. ... Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 146-. ISBN 978-0-470-74520-5. ...
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Cocaine-related deaths in Minnesota, Drug-related deaths in Minnesota, Grunge musicians, Singers from San Diego, Musicians from ... Weiland revealed in 2001 that he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. In a 2005 interview with Esquire, Weiland said that while ... "Police: Cocaine Found On Scott Weiland's Tour Bus, Arrest Made". CBS Minnesota. December 4, 2015. Archived from the original on ... In 1995, Weiland was convicted of buying crack cocaine and sentenced to one year of probation. His drug use did not end after ...
According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine ... A related alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some ... Kedzior KK, Laeber LT (May 2014). "A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders ... "Cannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis". ...
Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS 307.9 Communication Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder 312.81 ... or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior 307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder 307.45 Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Cocaine ... Related Disorder NOS 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder 307.44 Hypersomnia related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II ... Related Disorder NOS 307.42 Insomnia Related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder] 312.34 Intermittent Explosive ...
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Narcotics Anonymous Cocaine Anonymous Methadone Suboxone List of twelve-step groups Recovery model Self-help groups for mental ... "The impact of alcoholics anonymous on other substance abuse-related twelve-step programs". Recent Dev Alcohol. Recent ... health Substance use disorder "Local Drug and Alcohol Counseling Resources - Ashwood Recovery". "Heroin Anonymous - Heroin ...
... including alcohol use disorder, cocaine use disorder, and opioid use disorder. Suvorexant and other orexin receptor modulators ... It is structurally related to other orexin receptor antagonists like lemborexant, daridorexant, and seltorexant. The orexin ... Schipper SB, Van Veen MM, Elders PJ, van Straten A, Van Der Werf YD, Knutson KL, Rutters F (November 2021). "Sleep disorders in ... In addition, orexin signaling appears to change with age, and this may be involved in age-related sleep disturbances. Orexin ...
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... as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Addiction is believed to be a disorder of experience-dependent brain plasticity. The ... E-cigarette related videos Robbing the Future - Advertising Aimed at Children. E-cigarettes - An Emerging Public Health ... The nicotine in e-cigarettes can also prime the adolescent brain for addiction to other drugs such as cocaine. Exposure to ... Other risks include mood disorders and permanent problems with impulse control-failure to fight an urge or impulse that may ...
... as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Addiction is believed to be a disorder of experience-dependent brain plasticity. The ... In 2019-2020, there was an outbreak of vaping-related lung illness in the US and Canada, primarily related to vaping THC with ... Substance-related disorders, Non-tobacco nicotine products, 2003 introductions, 21st-century inventions, Articles containing ... There is no research available on vaping for reducing harm in high-risk groups such as people with mental disorders. A 2014 PHE ...
... underlying disorder coexist with the jealousy The course of morbid jealousy closely relates to that of the underlying disorder ... cocaine, amphetamines.), organic brain disorders (i.e. Parkinson's, Huntington's), schizophrenia, neurosis, affective ... Unlike other delusional disorders, people who suffer from this disorder have a strong association with stalking, cyberstalking ... It can be found in the context of schizophrenia and delusional disorder, such as bipolar disorder, but is also associated with ...
One study looking at cocaine-related deaths in the 1970s and 1980s in Florida, showed that the deaths were more likely to be ... Often, their condition is associated with mental disorders or the use of drugs such as cocaine. Their actions make for riveting ... Wetli, CV; Fishbain, DA (July 1985). "Cocaine-induced psychosis and sudden death in recreational cocaine users". Journal of ... entitled Cocaine-induced psychosis and sudden death in recreational cocaine users. The JFS article reported that in "five of ...
"Activity-Dependent Epigenetic Remodeling in Cocaine Use Disorder". Substance Use Disorders. Handbook of Experimental ... Calipari found that when hormones related to fertility are high, women make stronger associations to clues in their environment ... "Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Alters the Pharmacodynamic Properties of Cocaine in Female Mice". ACS Chemical ... "Cues play a critical role in estrous cycle-dependent enhancement of cocaine reinforcement". Neuropsychopharmacology. 44 (7): ...
"What Are Anxiety Disorders?". www.psychiatry.org. Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Social Anxiety Disorder , Anxiety and Depression ... In regard to substance abuse, cocaine-dependent individuals report greater cravings for cocaine following exposure to a social ... and occupational prestige were all related to lower mortality in men. In women, however, only household income was related to ... This can lead to the development of an anxiety disorder (panic attacks, social anxiety, OCD, etc.). Social anxiety disorder is ...
This alteration is suggested to be related to the pathology, since antipsychotics do not regulate the expression of DARPP-32. A ... as well as being involved in the action of drugs including cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, LSD, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and ... DARPP-32 levels are decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lymphocytes of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ... "The leukocytes expressing DARPP-32 are reduced in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Progress in Neuro- ...
Furthermore, nightmares related to PTSD would be more stressful than idiopathic ones. However, further studies have to be ... Amphetamines, antidepressants, and stimulants like cocaine and caffeine can cause nightmares. Blood pressure medication, ... Dissociative disorders are usually paired with Nightmare Disorder 57% of the time. Nightmare disorder is believed to be ... Nightmare disorders can also be associated with sleep disorders such as night terrors, chronic insomnia and sleep-disordered ...
... opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100. Public ... It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical, and ... The terms "dual diagnosis" or "co-occurring disorders", refer to having a mental health and substance use disorder at the same ... For example, the US, devoid of such measures, has seen large increases in drug-related deaths since 2000 (mostly related to ...
Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Inhalant 305.90 Abuse 304.60 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Nicotine 305.1 Dependence 292.9 -Related disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal Opioid 305.50 Abuse 304.00 ... disorder 307.46 Sleep terror disorder 307.46 Sleepwalking disorder 307.47 Parasomnia NOS Sleep disorder Sleep disorder due to ...
Depressive symptoms and disorders are common in patients with Parkinson's disease and can affect their quality of life. ... This binding affinity is related to D2 and D3 receptor homology, the homology between them has a high degree of sequence and is ... Cathinone Cocaine (anesthetic with no medical uses as a central nervous system stimulant) Methamphetamine (used in rare ... Impulse control disorder that is described as gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping and binge eating is one serious ...
Depressive and related disorders and bipolar and related disorders. Bipolar disorders fall in between depressive disorders and ... For example, stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine can cause manic, hypomanic, mixed, and depressive ... more than one mood disorder can be present in an individual, like bipolar disorder and depressive disorder. If a mood disorder ... Mood disorders, specifically stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, have been shown to have differing ...
International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Parkinson & Movement Disorder Alliance Parkinson's Foundation Pediatric ... Known DTDS-related SLC6A3 mutations include: R85L A314V G386R R445C Y470S In vitro replication of SLC6A3 mutations like those ... human dopamine transporter can be used for in vitro functional analysis of any particular mutant's dopamine uptake and cocaine- ... The age at which signs and symptoms appear seems to be related to the severity of DAT dysfunction. Early-onset DTDS movement ...
The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ... Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. ... encoded search term (Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders) and Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders What to Read Next on ... Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders. Updated: Nov 18, 2021 * Author: Christopher P Holstege, MD; Chief Editor: David ...
Download Cocaine Related Psychiatric Disorders Download free online book chm pdf ... Cocaine Related Psychiatric Disorders. Currently this section contains no detailed description for the page, will update this ... Cocaine Related Psychiatric Disorders. Currently this section contains no detailed description for the page, will update this ... Borderline Personality Disorder. Currently this section contains no detailed description for the page, will update this page ...
The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ... Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. ... encoded search term (Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders) and Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders What to Read Next on ... Cocaine-related psychiatric disorders have been well-documented in the literature. Ten cocaine-induced psychiatric disorders ...
... also called crack cocaine, is a highly addictive stimulant. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Learn about health effects ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Cocaine-Related Disorders (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Crack Cocaine (National ... Substance use -- cocaine (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Tips for Teens: The Truth about Cocaine (Substance Abuse and ... Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be ...
... to more impulsive decision-making and to poorer performance on tests of learning and memory than does use of either cocaine or ... Scientists have found that cocaine abuse coupled with use of alcohol leads ... Diseases & Conditions Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders * 2002814525-overview. Diseases & Conditions Disulfiram Toxicity ... studied the interactive effects of cocaine and alcohol in 56 adult cocaine abusers. Roughly half the study participants also ...
Lifetime cocaine use is a potential predictor for conversion from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder: A prospective ... Peripheral toxicity in crack cocaine use disorders Journal Articles * Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Adolescent Neural Responses ... GABAergic polygenic risk for cocaine use disorder is negatively correlated with precuneus activity during cognitive control in ... A preliminary investigation of Stroop-related intrinsic connectivity in cocaine dependence: associations with treatment ...
Cocaine-related psychiatric disorders have been well-documented in the literature.. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ... Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) recognizes substance related disorders resulting from the use of ten separate classes ... Cocaine was first isolated from the coca leaf in 1859. Its first use as a local anesthetic was reported in 1884. In the late ... Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. The earliest reported use of ...
Categories: Cocaine-Related Disorders Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, containing articles about Br-Del ... Cocaine and related disorders. Cocaine is extracted from the coca plant, which grows in Central and South America. The ... Breathing-related sleep disorder. Breathing-related sleep disorder is marked by sleep disruption caused by abnormal breathing ... Brief psychotic disorder. Brief psychotic disorder is a short-term, time-limited disorder. An individual with brief psychotic ...
Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.32 mg/kg/infusion) during five consecutive daily sessions that were ... The reinstatement of extinguished cocaine self-administration behavior was studied in rats pretreated with N-methyl-D-aspartate ... Cocaine / administration & dosage * Cocaine / pharmacology* * Cocaine-Related Disorders / psychology* * Conditioning, Operant ... Priming injections of intravenous cocaine (Experiment 1), and exposures to cocaine-associated stimuli (buzzer and light; ...
"Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM Library, American ... Nicotine dependence Amphetamine dependence Cocaine dependence Substance use disorder American Psychiatric Association. " ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...
Adolescent, Adolescent Behavior, Cocaine-Related Disorders/epidemiology, Female, Humans, Male, Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology, ... Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology, Surveys and Questionnaires, Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology, Tobacco, Smokeless, ... Environmental strains had higher hydrophobicity, possibly related to adaptation to a low nutritive ecosystem. Expression of ... Adolescent, Adolescent Behavior, Depression/complications, Depressive Disorder/complications, Female, Health Surveys, Humans, ...
... cocaine, amphetamine, hallucinogen, inhalant, other stimulant, and other psychoactive substance-related disorders). ... Defined as ED visits made by patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of substance-related disorders or primary ...
Complete and unabridged definition of Narcissistic Personalty Disorder available on the Internet ... especially related to cocaine). Histrionic, borderline, antisocial, and paranoid personality disorders may be associated with ... Those who relate to individuals with narcissistic personality disorder typically find an emotional coldness and lack of ... Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues. Of those diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder, 50%-75% are male. ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders 3 0 Association Learning 3 0 Dermatitis, Atopic 3 0 ... Content source: Public Health Genomics Branch in the Division of Blood Disorders and Public Health Genomics, National Center on ...
Palabras clave : Substance-Related Disorders; Crack Cocaine; Public Policy; Harm Reduction. · resumen en Español , Portugués · ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders 1 0 Colonic Neoplasms 1 0 Psychiatric Status Rating Scales 1 0 ... Content source: Public Health Genomics Branch in the Division of Blood Disorders and Public Health Genomics, National Center on ...
... customize and analyze your browsing and show you advertising related to your preferences. By continuing to browse, we consider ... Chronic consumption of cannabis and cocaine can cause psychotic disorders. According to the latest data from the Ministry of ... Cocaine is similar, although it is not as toxic as methamphetamine; however, its use is more widespread. Cannabis is less toxic ... One in 10 individuals has taken it at some time in their life, with cocaine ranking second. Meanwhile, amphetamine consumption ...
... will cover only a fraction of the full solid angle.cocaine-related disorder not otherwise specified). ... Then the result relates to type-conventional CB values. The body will now move on a new linear path, with a new velocity, ... The strain is related to temperature by E a(T,-T) (6. But are there infinitely many amicable pairs. Upon further investigation ... As you can guess, pre- cision is related to the sample size, as seen in the section Calculating precision. This chapter ...
Autistic Disorder 1 0 Bipolar Disorder 1 0 Cocaine-Related Disorders 1 0 ... Conduct Disorder 1 0 Note: The number of publications displayed in this table will differ from the number displayed in the HuGE ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders/genetics (1) * Cocaine/administration & dosage (1) * Conditioning, Classical/drug effects (1) ... Regulation of BAZ1A and nucleosome positioning in the nucleus accumbens in response to cocaine. Full Title:. Regulation of ... have previously been shown to be important in the regulation of reward-related behaviors in animal models of mental illnesses. ... BAZ1A and nucleosome positioning in the nucleus accumbens in response to cocaine. ...
keywords = "Child development, Cocaine-related disorders, Motor skills, Posture, Prenatal exposure delayed effects", ... Prenatal cocaine exposure and motor performance at 4 months. / Bigsby, Rosemarie; Linda, L.; Gasse, La et al. In: American ... Prenatal cocaine exposure and motor performance at 4 months. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2011 Sep;65(5):e60-e68. ... Prenatal cocaine exposure and motor performance at 4 months. Rosemarie Bigsby, L. Linda, La Gasse, Barry Lester, Seetha ...
Psychostimulant use disorders. Psychostimulant drugs include cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (known under the ... and make recommendations related to the treatment of substance use disorders. In the development of this policy brief, numerous ... Opioid use disorders. Opioid use disorders are a substantial public health problem. These disorders primarily occur with ... and make recommendations related to the treatment of substance use disorders.. Evidence-based practices. While there has been a ...
... and treat various substance abuse disorders with this quick quiz. ... Pediatric Cocaine Abuse * Phencyclidine (PCP)-Related ... Substance use disorders (SUDs), including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and opioid use disorders, are all recognized patterns of ... With a spike in alcohol-related deaths in women in recent years, which appears to be independent of factors such as the global ... What Do We Know About "Gaming Disorder"? 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits Clinical Review ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (ARP), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), cocaine- and amphetamine- ... Binge eating disorder Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large ... This disorder does not include compensatory behaviors, such as vomiting. Binge eating disorder occurs in about 3.5% of women ... About 10% of people seeking treatment for severe obesity may have this disorder. Rarely, a similar disorder is induced by use ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences ... keywords = "Cocaine conditioned place preference, Cocaine self-administration, Cocaine sensitization, Dopamine clearance, ... Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine ... Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine ...
N2 - There are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for cocaine use disorder, including relapse. The μ-opioid ... AB - There are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for cocaine use disorder, including relapse. The μ-opioid ... There are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for cocaine use disorder, including relapse. The μ-opioid ... abstract = "There are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for cocaine use disorder, including relapse. The μ- ...
  • See Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders, Amphetamine-Related Psychiatric Disorders, Caffeine-Related Psychiatric Disorders, Nicotine Addiction, and ADHD for further information on these topics. (medscape.com)
  • In fact, a European study by the drug and addiction monitoring centre , which has collected data since 2011 and analyses wastewater from different cities in Europe , concluded that cocaine and cannabis were the drugs consumed most in Spanish cities. (clinicbarcelona.org)
  • This grant application is the molecular pharmacology portion of an Investigator Initiated Interactive Research Project designed to identify pharmacotherapeutic agents that can be used in the treatment of cocaine addiction. (unthsc.edu)
  • Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Overall, results to date with the LCR/HCR model underscore the contribution of striatal DATs to individual differences in initial cocaine responsiveness and the value of assessing the influence of initial drug response on subsequent expression of addiction-like behaviors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The findings support the development of buprenorphine analogs lacking MOPr agonism with increased NOPr agonism for relapse prevention to cocaine addiction. (bath.ac.uk)
  • His research group focuses on developing pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities for psychiatric diseases - specifically, drug addiction, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), using behavioral models in combination with neurochemical, molecular and computational methods and nanotechnology, in a bi-directional approach. (biu.ac.il)
  • These changes, which contribute importantly to the persistent behavioural abnormalities seen in addiction to drugs, occur because cocaine use sets off a series of chemical reactions that lead to increases in the amount of messenger RNA being produced from some of the affected genes in these two brain regions, whereas the activity of other genes decreases. (psychreg.org)
  • While it is hypothesised that regulation of gene expression in the brain's reward and motivational centres plays a critical role in the persistent behavioural changes that define addiction, knowledge remains limited of the maladaptive gene activity that chronic cocaine use causes in these circuits in humans and that underlies cocaine use disorder. (psychreg.org)
  • Addiction in Women: Is Cocaine Addictive? (hannahshouse.com)
  • Numerous factors can contribute to a woman developing a cocaine addiction at any age. (hannahshouse.com)
  • Prepare to be inspired and connect with others who share your goal of overcoming addiction through Cocaine Anonymous meetings near Arcadia, FL. (mccaod.com)
  • These meetings provide a safe space for people fighting with cocaine addiction to share their experiences, get support, and gain from others who have actually faced comparable challenges. (mccaod.com)
  • Whether you go to physical meetings or participate in online sessions, discovering support in Cocaine Anonymous can considerably enhance your chances of conquering addiction by supplying the motivation and guidance needed for long-term recovery. (mccaod.com)
  • Whether you participate in physical meetings or take part in online sessions, finding support in Cocaine Anonymous can greatly improve your chances of conquering addiction by offering the support and guidance required for long-term recovery. (mccaod.com)
  • Urinary toxicologic screening was positive for cocaine 1 week later, and the patient was then referred to the addiction clinic. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Researchers report that cocaine addiction disrupts the dopamine neurons that govern how we perceive and learn from rewards. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Though people with cocaine addiction have similar expectations of rewards compared to controls, their dopamine neurons send out much weaker signals when these rewards are actually received. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This dysregulation could make it more difficult for people with cocaine addiction to learn from their experiences and change addictive behavior. (sciencedaily.com)
  • We provide integrated treatment for mental health disorders and addiction. (drugrehab.com)
  • DrugRehab.com provides information regarding illicit and prescription drug addiction, the various populations at risk for the disease, current statistics and trends, and psychological disorders that often accompany addiction. (drugrehab.com)
  • If you regularly snort cocaine, you are likely to develop a cocaine addiction . (drugrehab.com)
  • Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, and the therapeutic use of stimulants for treatment-resistant depression and attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder are not discussed in this article. (medscape.com)
  • 12 Secondary forms of delusional infestation are due to a consumption of dopamine transporter inhibitors (cocaine, pemoline, bupropion, amphetamines) or to secondary dysfunctions of the dopamine transporter (traumatic brain injury, Parkinson disease, schizophrenia). (psychiatrist.com)
  • 13-15 The illness onset occurs between age 55 and 68 years, 8,9 although it may occur in adolescents and young adults after abuse of substances such as cocaine or amphetamines. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Regulation of BAZ1A and nucleosome positioning in the nucleus accumbens in response to cocaine. (fsu.edu)
  • The relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of movement was studied at 4 mo using the Posture and Fine Motor Assessment of Infants (PFMAI-I). METHOD. (uky.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate independent contributions of prenatal cocaine exposure and prematurity to risk of motor delay and support the validity of the PFMAI-I as a measure of motor competence in early infancy. (uky.edu)
  • Inhibition of dopamine reuptake in the CNS synapses, such as in the nucleus accumbens, contributes to the euphoria associated with cocaine. (medscape.com)
  • LCRs have higher basal numbers of striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) than HCRs and exhibit marginal cocaine inhibition of in vivo DAT activity and cocaine-induced increases in extracellular DA. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. (omicsonline.org)
  • To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cocaine increases the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine at synapses or junctions between two brain cells where electrical signals are converted into chemical signals. (psychreg.org)
  • Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder where the use of stimulants caused clinically significant impairment or distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus it can not be diagnosed as a stimulant use disorder or any other substance use disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of stimulant use disorder include failure to control usage and frequency of use, an intense craving for the drug, increased use over time to obtain the same effects, known as a developed tolerance, and continued use despite negative repercussions and interference in one's everyday life and functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a stimulant, cocaine revs up your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and body temperature, making you feel more alert and energetic. (drugrehab.com)
  • For excellent patient education resources, see eMedicineHealth's patient education articles Club Drugs, Cocaine Abuse, Drug Dependence and Abuse, Narcotic Abuse, and Substance Abuse. (medscape.com)
  • Substance use disorders (SUDs), including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and opioid use disorders, are all recognized patterns of problematic substance dependence and/or abuse included in the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition from 2014. (medscape.com)
  • Today, we'll talk about what makes cocaine addictive for women and what to do if you think you've developed a dependence on it. (hannahshouse.com)
  • Cocaine users quickly learn that higher doses are asso-ciated with intensified and prolonged euphoria, resulting in in-creasing use of the drug and progression to cocaine dependence. (brainkart.com)
  • This differentiation is crucial to an understanding of the syndrome of cocaine dependence. (brainkart.com)
  • The efficacy of olanzapine for decreasing cue-elicited craving in individuals with schizophrenia and cocaine dependence: a preliminary report. (umassmed.edu)
  • Smelson DA, Ziedonis D, Williams J, Losonczy MF, Williams J, Steinberg ML, Kaune M. The efficacy of olanzapine for decreasing cue-elicited craving in individuals with schizophrenia and cocaine dependence: a preliminary report. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cocaine-related psychiatric disorders have been well-documented in the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Apart from a primary form, delusional infestation may be associated with other psychiatric disorders (secondary functional forms), as well as medical diseases or substance abuse (secondary organic forms). (psychiatrist.com)
  • A new analysis of the genomes of more than 1 million people has shed light on the underlying biology of cannabis use disorder and its links to psychiatric disorders, abuse of other substances such as tobacco, and possibly even an elevated risk of developing lung cancer. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Scientists from the University of Surrey have developed a rapid and highly sensitive fingerprint test that can take just seconds to confirm whether someone has used cocaine. (phys.org)
  • When someone has taken cocaine, they excrete traces of benzoylecgonine and methylecgonine as they metabolise the drug, and these chemical indicators are present in fingerprint residue. (phys.org)
  • Cannabis is less toxic and addictive than both methamphetamine and cocaine, but is widely used by young people. (clinicbarcelona.org)
  • To address the knowledge gap, the research team performed RNA sequencing in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus from the postmortem brain tissue of persons with cocaine use disorder and matched controls. (psychreg.org)
  • Importantly, the transcriptional abnormalities - in particular, the neuroinflammatory responses that are suppressed in the nucleus accumbens of people with cocaine use disorder - are directionally opposite of the proinflammatory cascade responses conferred by opioid use disorder. (psychreg.org)
  • Chromatin regulation, in particular ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, have previously been shown to be important in the regulation of reward-related behaviors in animal models of mental illnesses. (fsu.edu)
  • In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These behaviors becomepivotal in the lives of cocaine abusers who continue drug abuse despite the presence of increasing personal and social conse-quences. (brainkart.com)
  • Finally, in 1970, the Controlled Substances Act prohibited the possession of cocaine in the United States, except for limited medical uses. (medscape.com)
  • Cannabis-related disorders refer to problems associated with the use of substances derived from this plant. (minddisorders.com)
  • La présente note d'orientation a pour objectif de passer en revue les interventions disponibles pour la prise en charge des troubles liés à la consommation de substances psychoactives, d'examiner les bases factuelles pour ces interventions dont le guide d'intervention du Programme d'action de l'OMS : Combler les lacunes en santé mentale (mhGAP), et d'effectuer des recommandations concernant le traitement de ces troubles. (who.int)
  • This new breakthrough, published in Clinical Chemistry , comes as a result of the first large scale study of cocaine users and could pave the way for the detection of a range of other Class A substances. (phys.org)
  • Read the latest scientific research on marijuana, cocaine, and other controlled substances, including the effect on the body, possible medicinal uses and more. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder, which means that it involves hallucinations or delusions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Research also suggests that people with schizophrenia may be three times more likely than those without this condition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Schizophrenia and AIPD are both psychotic disorders, and they have some symptoms in common. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Certain isolated conditions related to caffeine are recognized in the DSM-5's "substance-related" section, however: caffeine intoxication, caffeine withdrawal and other caffeine-induced disorders (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, a disorder is noted when withdrawal symptoms occur because of a decrease in the drug amount and frequency, as well as stopping the use of the drug entirely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attempting to quit using cocaine (and other drugs) may lead to experiencing highly uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. (hannahshouse.com)
  • A more chronic withdrawal period sometimes occurs characterized by minor de-pressive symptoms and cocaine craving lasting 2 to 10 weeks. (brainkart.com)
  • The disorder remitted after withdrawal of cocaine and administration of an antipsychotic agent. (psychiatrist.com)
  • T he usual assumption is that sales of cocaine, marijuana, and heroinwould be carefully regulated if made legal. (prospect.org)
  • Fast Five Quiz: Substance Use Disorder - Medscape - Sep 19, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Importantly, lower initial cocaine response predicts greater locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference and greater motivation to self-administer cocaine following low dose acquisition. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Our research team looked at studies performed in mice that were given the opportunity to self-administer cocaine and compared the resulting molecular changes to those seen in postmortem brain tissue of people with cocaine use disorder. (psychreg.org)
  • cocaine-dependent subjects were sensitive only to 300 mg caffeine. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cocaine is more dangerous when combined with other drugs or alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • New York (MedscapeWire) Jun 29 - Scientists have found that cocaine abuse coupled with use of alcohol leads to more impulsive decision-making and to poorer performance on tests of learning and memory than does use of either cocaine or alcohol alone. (medscape.com)
  • Jean Lud Cadet, MD, of NIDA's Intramural Research Program in Baltimore, Maryland, and Karen Bolla, PhD, of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, studied the interactive effects of cocaine and alcohol in 56 adult cocaine abusers. (medscape.com)
  • All participants abstained from both cocaine and alcohol during the 4-week study. (medscape.com)
  • The results of this study support the view that cocaine abuse can have a major negative impact on the brain and these effects are compounded by the concurrent use of alcohol," explained Dr. Cadet. (medscape.com)
  • According to the latest data from the Ministry of Health, alcohol and tobacco are still the most common drugs taken legally in Spain, followed by the illegal drugs, cannabis and cocaine. (clinicbarcelona.org)
  • With a spike in alcohol-related deaths in women in recent years, which appears to be independent of factors such as the global COVID-19 pandemic, SUDs are becoming more important for clinicians in all specialty areas. (medscape.com)
  • Abuse of cocaine (COC) and alcohol have been among the leading causes of non-prescription drug-related deaths in the USA and are known to cause acute and chronic lung diseases. (utmb.edu)
  • Alcohol-induced psychosis disorder (AIPD) can arise when someone drinks too much or withdraws from heavy alcohol use. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, some forms of alcohol use can lead to AIPD, a condition sometimes known as alcohol-related psychosis or alcohol hallucinosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cocaine and alcohol are often consumed together. (brainkart.com)
  • In addi-tion to the synergistic effects of cocaine and alcohol in humans, an active metabolite, cocaethylene, with cocaine-like pharmaco-logical properties is formed and users of both drugs simultane-ously report enhanced euphoria. (brainkart.com)
  • Like other drug and alcohol use disorders, cocaine use disorders are chronic relapsing illnesses that present substantial challenges in the treatment process. (brainkart.com)
  • Although the ability to cope with cocaine craving improves with continued abstinence, relapse to cocaine abuse or other drug and alcohol abuse will continue to be a risk for those with a history of a cocaine use disorder who re-lapse to cocaine abuse. (brainkart.com)
  • Continued use of cannabis can lead to psychotic disorders, lung diseases, decreased intellectual performance, academic failure, increased road accidents and amotivational syndrome, which is a loss of interest in any subject or activity. (clinicbarcelona.org)
  • Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Is cocaine addictive? (hannahshouse.com)
  • In addition to producing short-term effects of feeling energetic and euphoric, cocaine is highly addictive. (hannahshouse.com)
  • Cocaine abuse is associated with numerous detrimental health effects. (medscape.com)
  • Ill. Behavioral Studies: Those benzamide derivatives exhibiting the greatest selectivity will be used 1) to determine their efficacy for antagonizing the reinforcing effects of cocaine self-administration in primates using behavioral paradigms, 2) to investigate the molecular properties of the D2-like neurotransmitter binding sites using affinity labeling techniques, and 3) to explore the potential for using receptor subtype selective irreversible antagonists as a therapeutic tools for drug abuse rehabilitation. (unthsc.edu)
  • the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) found that 1 in 12 American adults (over 18 million) had a substance use disorder in 2017. (voicesofseptember11.org)
  • Statistics from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show deaths from cocaine overdose went up 38% in a 12-month period ending in October 2020. (hannahshouse.com)
  • Cocaine abusers are at high risk for relapse, particularly in the first few months of treatment related to acute craving often in the context of ongoing psychoso-cial stressors that result from or have been exacerbated by cocaine abuse. (brainkart.com)
  • ABSTRACT For the past 50 years, there has been a systematic effort to expand and improve treatment services for individuals with substance use disorders by developing an evidence base to guide practice. (who.int)
  • Newly abstinent cocaine abusers may ex-perience a triphasic abstinence pattern, although this varies by individual, that includes a period of acute abstinence, sometimes referred to as the "crash", lasting several hours to several days consisting of dysphoria, fatigue, insomnia or hypersomnia, in-creased appetite, and either psychomotor agitation or retardation, subsequent to the more intensive "crash" phase. (brainkart.com)
  • Newly abstinent cocaine abusers often lack adequate cop-ing skills necessary to avoid cocaine use, which take time to ac-quire in the treatment process. (brainkart.com)
  • She has been abstinent from cocaine for 3 months and is still taking risperidone 3 mg/d and receiving psychotherapy. (psychiatrist.com)
  • After the "high" of the cocaine wears off, you can "crash" and feel tired and sad for days. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the cocaine eventually wears off, you may have a runny or bloody nose. (drugrehab.com)
  • Infants prenatally exposed to cocaine had significantly lower posture scores than infants in the unexposed group. (uky.edu)
  • The most conspicuous harmsassociated with drugs nowadays -- violent crime, public disorder, governmentcorruption, and diseases related to injection with dirty needles -- are caused inlarge part by the country's prohibition policies. (prospect.org)
  • In Experiment 2, D-CPPene, but not memantine, abolished in a dose-dependent manner the selective increase in reinforced-lever over non-reinforced-lever responding that was induced by exposures to cocaine-related stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Most commonly, stimulants such as Adderall, Ritalin, and Vyvanse are prescribed for both children and adults diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reinstatement of extinguished cocaine self-administration behavior was studied in rats pretreated with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. (nih.gov)
  • These data help define the boundaries within which N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can prevent reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (e.g. type of antagonist used and reinstatement procedure). (nih.gov)
  • BU10119 and buprenorphine but not BU12004 lessened cocaine-primed reinstatement. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The selective NOPr agonist SCH221510 but not naloxone decreased cocaine-primed reinstatement. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Together, these findings are consistent with the concept that NOPr agonism contributes to the ability of BU10119 and buprenorphine to attenuate reinstatement of cocaine-conditioned place preference in mice. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) partial agonist buprenorphine alone or in combination with naltrexone has been shown to reduce cocaine-positive urine tests and cocaine seeking in rodents. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Buprenorphine's partial agonist and antagonist activity at the nociception receptor (NOPr) and κ-opioid receptor (KOPr), respectively, may contribute to its ability to inhibit cocaine seeking. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Our motivation for conducting the study is that, even though benzodiazepines are widely prescribed, are regulated by the DEA, and adverse events appear to be increasing - for example, benzo-related emergency department poisoning and overdose mortality - relatively little is known about the extent of misuse, particularly among older adults who are prescribed the most," Maust said. (medscape.com)
  • It is also important to emphasize that our human brain cohort includes a significant number of Black individuals, who have not been well represented in prior transcriptional studies of a cocaine use disorder, despite longstanding evidence that the highest rate of overdose deaths involving cocaine is among Black individuals. (psychreg.org)
  • Because it is difficult to directly study how drugs like cocaine affect the human brain, researchers often use animal models to study their effects. (psychreg.org)
  • People who use cocaine often mix its use with other drugs . (hannahshouse.com)
  • This is the first time it has ever been used to detect the presence of drugs in fingerprints, and our results show the technique was 99% effective in detecting cocaine use among the patients. (phys.org)
  • The rise in cocaine-related deaths during the pandemic is providing a new reminder about the dangers of illegal substance use. (hannahshouse.com)
  • In 2015, there were almost 2,500 deaths related to drug misuse - an increase of 10 per cent on 2014. (phys.org)
  • The stimulants listed on schedule I are more potent than cocaine and have no established medical use. (medscape.com)
  • It's important to become aware of what treatment options are available in your area for cocaine-related SUDs. (hannahshouse.com)
  • There are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for cocaine use disorder, including relapse. (bath.ac.uk)
  • This, in combination with the euphoria experienced by the user, can be reinforcing, and cocaine use is perceived as free of any adverse consequences. (brainkart.com)
  • The abuser is focused on the cocaine-induced euphoria and be-gins compulsively to pursue this effect. (brainkart.com)
  • Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). (elsevierpure.com)
  • The time to peak effects of cocaine depends on the dose and route of administration. (medscape.com)
  • When cocaine is injected intravenously or crack is smoked, the onset of action is within seconds and peak effects occur within 5 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • When snorted, the onset of action of cocaine is within the first 5 minutes and its effects typically peak within 30 minutes. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine has a number of pharmacologic effects on the human body. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine users are familiar with its short-term effects. (hannahshouse.com)
  • The duration of the effects can be another factor in developing a cocaine-related SUD. (hannahshouse.com)
  • Uncontrolled use of cocaine often begins with either increased access and resultant escalating dosages and frequency of administration or a change from intranasal use to a route of administration with more rapid onset of effects (i.e., intravenous or smoked). (brainkart.com)
  • These memories are later contrasted with current dys-phoria to produce intense craving, which perpetuates the binge use pattern Addicts report that during binge use, thoughts are focused exclusively on the cocaine-induced effects. (brainkart.com)
  • Most people use cocaine because they enjoy its powerful excitatory effects. (drugrehab.com)
  • Our analysis revealed strikingly similar changes in the brain's gene expression profiles in both the mice and humans, validating the use of mouse models to study the pathophysiological basis of a cocaine use disorder," said Eric J. Nestler, MD, senior author of the paper. (psychreg.org)
  • Repeated and excessive cocaine use induces oxidative stress leading to a systemic inflammatory response and neuroinflammation. (umontreal.ca)
  • Look no further than Cocaine Anonymous meetings in Arcadia, Florida. (mccaod.com)
  • Attending Cocaine Anonymous meetings can be essential for your recovery journey as they supply an encouraging and understanding community. (mccaod.com)
  • Whether you are looking for cocaine anonymous meetings near me or ca meetings near me, finding a regional meeting can help you on your path to recovery. (mccaod.com)
  • In addition, when looking for cocaine anonymous meetings near me or ca meetings near me, it prevails to come throughout websites that use cookies. (mccaod.com)
  • In general, participating in Arcadia Cocaine Anonymous Meetings supplies an important chance to get in touch with others facing comparable struggles and gain assistance in your recovery journey. (mccaod.com)
  • When looking for cocaine anonymous meetings near you, it's important to know what to expect. (mccaod.com)
  • Going to Cocaine Anonymous meetings can be vital for your recovery journey as they offer an encouraging and understanding community. (mccaod.com)
  • Furthermore, when looking for cocaine anonymous meetings near me or ca meetings near me, it prevails to come across sites that utilize cookies. (mccaod.com)
  • Overall, going to Finneytown Cocaine Anonymous Meetings offers a vital opportunity to connect with others facing comparable struggles and get assistance in your recovery journey. (mccaod.com)
  • It can also cause psychotic disorders, hallucinations, especially kinaesthetic ones (sensations within the body) and a persecution complex. (clinicbarcelona.org)
  • The object of this book is to set forth in practical form, on the basis of the Case System, certain fundamental facts regarding the symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment and pathological findings in the more frequent disorders of the nervous system. (freebookcentre.net)
  • While many of the recommendations are framed within the context of the specific needs articulated by the New York Spinal Cord Injury Research Board, the Institute of Medicine s panel of experts looked very broadly at research priorities relating to future directions for the field in general and make recommendations to strengthen and coordinate the existing infrastructure. (freebookcentre.net)