An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A characteristic symptom complex.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

A nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, reduces cue-induced cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent subjects. (1/1808)

We have previously shown that nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. In the present study, the effects of a nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, on cue-induced cocaine craving were investigated. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to mecamylamine (2.5 mg tablet) or placebo in a single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study. Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cocaine cues with visual analog scales for desire to use cocaine and mood. Skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate were recorded before and during cocaine cues. Following exposure to cocaine cues, all patients reported an increase in cocaine craving and anxiety relative to the precue measures. Cue exposure also produced an increase in skin conductance and decrease in skin temperature. The cue-induced increase in cocaine craving was reduced, while the cue-induced skin conductance and temperature responses were unaffected, by mecamylamine. These findings show that cue-induced cocaine craving is attenuated by mecamylamine. Further study on the use of mecamylamine in relapse prevention programs are suggested.  (+info)

Methadone treatment by general practitioners in Amsterdam. (2/1808)

In Amsterdam, a three-tiered program exists to deal with drug use and addiction. General practitioners form the backbone of the system, helping to deal with the majority of addicts, who are not criminals and many of whom desire to be free of addiction. Distinctions are made between drugs with "acceptable" and "unacceptable" risks, and between drug use and drug-related crime; patients who fall into the former categories are treated in a nonconfrontational, nonstigmatizing manner; such a system helps prevent the majority of patients from passing into unacceptable, criminalized categories. The overall program has demonstrated harm reduction both for patients and for the city of Amsterdam.  (+info)

Do alcohol and cocaine abuse alter the course of HIV-associated dementia complex? (3/1808)

Although psychoactive drugs are commonly used by AIDS patients, it is unclear whether commonly abused drugs, such as cocaine and ethanol, affect the course of HIV-associated dementia (HADC). Epidemiological studies have resulted in conflicting conclusions as to what role, if any, abused drugs play in HADC. In this review we discuss the clinical and pathological evidence that cocaine and ethanol might exacerbate the detrimental effects of HIV infection on the brain. We also review studies of cocaine and ethanol effects on various components of the immune system both in the presence and absence of retroviral infection. Data from these studies indicate that cocaine and ethanol have profound effects on the immune system that, in many respects, are enhanced by retroviral infection. We conclude that abused drugs likely affect the course of HADC but that proof awaits an examination of their interactive effects in an appropriate in vivo system of retroviral encephalitis.  (+info)

Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. (4/1808)

Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.  (+info)

Relative potency of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol and methadone in humans under acute dosing conditions. (5/1808)

levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) and methadone are full mu-opioid agonists used to treat opioid dependence. Current labeling indicates that LAAM is less potent than methadone. Clinical studies have not determined the relative potency of these drugs. This study compared the effects of acute doses of LAAM and methadone and also examined the ability of naloxone to reverse their effects. Five occasional opioid users received once weekly doses of either placebo, LAAM, or methadone (15, 30, or 60 mg/70 kg p.o.) in agonist exposure sessions and then received naloxone (1.0 mg/70 kg i.m.) 24, 72, and 144 h after agonist exposure. Subject-rated, observer-rated, and physiological measures were assessed regularly. Comparisons of physiological and subjective measures collected in agonist exposure sessions indicate that LAAM is not less potent than methadone under acute dosing conditions. For some measures, LAAM was significantly more potent. Three subjects who entered the study were withdrawn for safety reasons due to greater than anticipated and clinically relevant respiratory depression after receiving 60 mg of LAAM. Naloxone did not fully reverse the pupil constriction produced by 60 mg of LAAM. Acute agonist effects suggest that LAAM may be more potent than methadone and more potent than current labeling indicates. An accurate LAAM:methadone relative potency estimate will aid determination of adequate doses for opioid-dependent patients inducted onto LAAM and for methadone maintenance patients who choose to switch to more convenient thrice-weekly LAAM.  (+info)

Midfacial complications of prolonged cocaine snorting. (6/1808)

Acute and chronic ingestion of cocaine predisposes the abuser to a wide range of local and systemic complications. This article describes the case of a 38-year-old man whose chronic cocaine snorting resulted in the erosion of the midfacial anatomy and recurrent sinus infections. Previously published case reports specific to this problem are presented, as are the oral, systemic and behavioural effects of cocaine abuse.  (+info)

Predicting posttreatment cocaine abstinence for first-time admissions and treatment repeaters. (7/1808)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined client and program characteristics that predict posttreatment cocaine abstinence among cocaine abusers with different treatment histories. METHODS: Cocaine abusers (n = 507) treated in 18 residential programs were interviewed at intake and 1-year follow-up as part of the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Program directors provided the program-level data in a mail survey. We applied the hierarchical linear modeling approach for the analysis. RESULTS: No prior treatment and longer retention in DATOS programs were positive predictors of posttreatment abstinence. The interactive effect of these 2 variables was also significantly positive. Program that offered legal services and included recovering staff increased their clients' likelihood of cocaine abstinence. Crack use at both the client and program level predicted negative impact. None of the program variables assessed differentially affected the outcomes of first-timers and repeaters. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment repeaters were relatively difficult to treat, their likelihood of achieving abstinence was similar to that of first-timers if they were retained in treatment for a sufficient time. First-timers and repeaters responded similarly to the treatment program characteristics examined. The treatment and policy implications of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

Effects of contingent and non-contingent cocaine on drug-seeking behavior measured using a second-order schedule of cocaine reinforcement in rats. (8/1808)

Rats were trained to respond with intravenous cocaine as the reinforcer under a fixed interval 15-min schedule, during which conditioned stimuli paired with cocaine were presented contingent on completion of a fixed ratio of 10 responses (i.e., second-order schedule of reinforcement). The effects of contingent and noncontingent cocaine were investigated. The results show that pretreatment with noncontingent (i.e., experimenter-administered) cocaine led to a satiation-like effect that was reflected in decreased numbers of responses and a tendency for an increased latency to initiate responding when the doses of cocaine administered were similar to or higher than the training/maintenance dose of cocaine. By contrast, noncontingent administration of cocaine doses lower than the training/maintenance dose, and response-contingent cocaine administration, led to increased drug-seeking behavior, as reflected in increased numbers of responses. The present data indicate that at least two factors determine whether administration of cocaine would lead to drug-seeking behavior: whether the cocaine administration is contingent or noncontingent, and the relative magnitude of the cocaine dose administered in relation to the training/maintenance dose of cocaine.  (+info)

OBJECTIVE: A previous pilot trial evaluating computer-based training for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) in 77 heterogeneous substance users (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and opioids) demonstrated preliminary support for its efficacy in the context of a community-based outpatient clinic. The authors conducted a more definitive trial in a larger, more homogeneous sample. METHOD: In this randomized clinical trial, 101 cocaine-dependent individuals maintained on methadone were randomly assigned to standard methadone maintenance or methadone maintenance with weekly access to CBT4CBT, with seven modules delivered within an 8-week trial. RESULTS: Treatment retention and data availability were high and comparable across the treatment conditions. Participants assigned to the CBT4CBT condition were significantly more likely to attain 3 or more consecutive weeks of abstinence from cocaine (36% compared with 17%; p,0.05, odds ratio=0.36). The group assigned to CBT4CBT also had better outcomes on ...
Drug and Alcohol Findings Effectiveness Bank analysis titled: Randomized trial of continuing care enhancements for cocaine-dependent patients following initial engagement
Cocaine dependence remains a serious public health problem; however no clearly effective pharmacological treatments have been identified to date. The investigators hypothesize that identification of subgroups of cocaine-dependent patients will help to develop targeted and more effective treatments. The investigators have observed that 30-40% of cocaine-dependent patients who enter our medication trials achieve abstinence during the lead-in period (the two weeks prior to starting medication). Initial abstinence is strongly predictive of abstinence during the subsequent medication trial. The investigators have also observed that a low dopamine release in the striatum is associated with greater choice of cocaine in volunteers and failure of cocaine-dependent patients to respond to behavioral treatment. The investigators hypothesize that individuals who have difficulties in achieving abstinence have a deficit in dopaminergic functioning and correcting this deficit using dopaminergic medication LCE ...
(Maternal Cocaine Use and Birth Defects) Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified.
We previously showed that chronic cocaine use by active illicit users produced a longer plasma half-life than expected based on acute low-dose cocaine studies. Here we report urinary excretion patterns of cocaine metabolites as benzoylecgonine (BE) equivalents from 18 of the same individuals, housed …
Learn more about Cocaine Use Disorder at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Cocaine Use Disorder at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
2011 & In Press. Bell, R.P., Foxe, J.J., Nierenberg, J., Hoptman, M.J., Garavan, H. White Matter Integrity as a Function of Abstinence Duration in Former Cocaine-Dependent Individuals. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2011, 114(2-3): 159-168.. Butler, J.S., Molholm, S., Fiebelkorn, I.C., Mercier, M.R., Schwartz, T.H., and Foxe, J.J. Common or redundant neural circuits for duration processing across audition and touch. Journal of Neuroscience, 2011, 31(9): 3400-3406.. Krakowski, A., Ross, L.A., Sehatpour, P., Snyder, A.C., Kelly, S.P., and Foxe, J.J. The neurophysiology of human biological motion processing: A high-density electrical mapping study. Neuroimage, 2011, 56(1): 373-383.. Brandwein, A.B., Foxe, J.J., Russo, N., Altschuler, T., Gomes, H., Molholm, S. The development of audiovisual multisensory integration across childhood and early adolescence: A high-density electrical mapping study. Cerebral Cortex, 2011, 21(5): 1042-1055. Foxe, J.J., Yeap, S., Kelly, S.P., Snyder, A.C., Thakore, J.H., ...
Edward F. Pace-Schott has an educational background that includes a B.A. degree in biology, an M.S. degree in oceanography and limnology, an M.A. degree in counseling psychology, and a Ph.D. degree in behavioral neuroscience. He currently serves as a Clinical Instructor in psychology at the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School. He based at Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Mass. His addiction research has utilized repeated-measure assessments of sleep, attention, and executive function in cocaine-dependent individuals to study interactions of drug withdrawal, sleep, and cognition. His current research on the emotional regulatory function of sleep utilizes psychophysiological techniques in humans to investigate the effects of sleep on consolidation and generalization of extinction learning in experimental fear conditioning paradigms and exposure treatment for anxiety disorders. In the field of addiction, he is currently interested in research designed to produce extinction of
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified an impairment in a brain region that might explain why it is difficult for persons with cocaine addiction to cease using the drug.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data, the research team found among cocaine-addicted individuals an impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which governs impulse and self-control, possibly explaining why these individuals cannot form new associations for certain stimuli.. Our study data suggests that it will be hard for longtime cocaine users to unlearn what once was a positive experience if this unlearning or new learning relies on this brain region to be effective, said Anna Konova, PhD, formerly with the Icahn School and now a postdoctoral fellow at New York Universitys Center for Neural Science.. The study compared 18 chronic cocaine users to 15 non-using controls on extinction learning activities resembling the exposure therapy often used to treat anxiety ...
The different clinical trajectories of cocaine-dependent men and women may be a consequence of distinct neurobiological substrates. Hypoperfusion of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has previously been reported in individuals addicted to cocaine and ha
Changes in ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle impact responses to cocaine in women. Studies have shown that cocaines effects are dampened during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen and progesterone concentrations are high, relative to the other phases of the cycle, when concentrations of these hormones are relatively low. The purpose of this study is to determine whether progesterone reduces subjective and physiological responses to cocaine in cocaine dependent individuals. In addition, this study will help to advance the possibility of hormonal progesterone and pharmacologically related drugs as potential treatment components for cocaine abuse.. Participants will undergo two 4-day inpatient periods, totaling 8 days of treatment. For women, the inpatient periods will occur during two consecutive menstrual cycles; for men, they will occur during two consecutive months. On Day 1, participants will receive a first dose of either progesterone or placebo. On Day 2, ...
LOS ANGELES (KTLA) -- The L.A. County Coroners Office says Whitney Houstons death was an accidental drowning in the bathtub of her suite at the Beverly Hilton Hotel. But, in its preliminary
Tenderness is the language of the young children, of those who need the other. A childs love for mom and dad grows through their touch, their gaze, their voice, their tenderness. I like when I hear parents talk to their babies, adapting to the little child, sharing the same level of communication. This is tenderness: being on the same level as the other. God himself descended into Jesus to be on our level. This is the same path the Good Samaritan took. This is the path that Jesus himself took. He lowered himself, he lived his entire human existence practicing the real, concrete language of love. Yes, tenderness is the path of choice for the strongest, most courageous men and women. Tenderness is not weakness; it is fortitude. It is the path of solidarity, the path of humility. Please, allow me to say it loud and clear: the more powerful you are, the more your actions will have an impact on people, the more responsible you are to act humbly. If you dont, your power will ruin you, and you will ...
Cocaine. Crack cocaine continues to dominate the Nations illicit drug problem. The overall number of current cocaine users did not change significantly between 1995 and 1996 (1.45 million in 1995 and 1.75 million in 1996). This is down from a peak of 5.7 million in 1985. Nevertheless, there were still an estimated 652,000 Americans who used cocaine for the first time in 1995. Supplies remain abundant in nearly every city. Data indicate a leveling off in many urban areas: cocaine-related deaths were stable or up slightly in 9 of the 10 areas where such information was reported; emergency department (ED) mentions increased in only 4 of the 19 CEWG cities in the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN);*** the percentage of treatment admissions for primary cocaine problems declined slightly or remained stable in 12 of the 14 areas where data were available; and prices of cocaine remained stable in most areas. Although demographic data continue to show most cocaine users as older, inner-city crack ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The sons of fathers who use cocaine may be less likely to become addicted to the drug themselves. - Emily Babay, Philadelphia
Probing Active Cocaine Vaccination Performance through Catalytic and Noncatalytic Hapten Design. J Med Chem. 2013 Apr 29; Cai X, Whitfield T, Hixon MS,
Call our Waukegan alcohol and drug rehab staff today at (312) 212-3025 for affordable, accredited alcohol and drug addiction rehab programs.
Pharmacologic treatment options for many substance use disorders (SUDs) are limited. This is especially true for cocaine use disorder and cannabis use disorder, for which there are no FDA-approved medications. FDA-approved medications for other SUDs often take the form of replacement or agonist therapies (eg, nicotine replacement therapy) that substitute the effects of the substance to aid in cessation. Other pharmacotherapies treat symptoms of withdrawal, reduce craving, or provide aversive counter-conditioning if the patient consumes the substance while on the medication (eg, disulfiram). The over-the-counter (OTC) antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be a potential treatment for SUDs. Although NAC is not approved by the FDA for treating SUDs, its proposed mechanism of action differs from that of current FDA-approved medications for SUDs. NACs potential for broad applicability, favorable adverse-effect profile, accessibility, and low cost make it an intriguing option for patients with ...
Chronic cocaine use alters the epigenetic profile of the FosB gene in the hippocampus. These alterations are required for cocaine-dependent gene expression and cocaine environment associations. Modification of hippocampal FosB results in a condition critical for cocaine-related learning.... Read More... ...
Another name for Abuse Crack is Cocaine Abuse. Complications of cocaine abuse during pregnancy include: * Women who use cocaine during pregnancy give ...
Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ceremonies.
Performance on standard (i.e., non-drug-related) neuropsychological tasks is frequently compromised in drug-addicted individuals compared with healthy control subjects (Woicik et al., 2009). In contrast, compared with neutral stimuli (including words), drug stimuli/words can enhance behavioral responses in drug-addicted individuals; although relatively better, these unique drug-related behavioral responses predict disadvantageous treatment outcome in this population (Cox et al., 2006). Our results show, for the first time, that drug words (uniquely human learned verbal descriptors of stimuli) increased fMRI-BOLD responses in the mesencephalon, a major source of dopaminergic release to motivationally salient or conditioned stimuli (Robinson and Berridge, 1993; McClure et al., 2003) in cocaine-addicted individuals. These results may reflect the strong conditioned incentive properties of the drug words in the addicted group. It is possible that this increased mesencephalic response to drug words ...
A study shows that chronic cocaine abuse speeds up the process of brain aging. The research revealed that age related loss of grey matter inside the human brain is increased in those who are addicted to cocaine in comparison to healthy people.For the research, the investigators scanned the brains of 120 individuals ...Read More... ...
Anton, R.F., Litten, R.Z., Falk, D.E., Palumbo, J.M., Bartus, R.T., Robinson, R.L., Kranzler, H.R., Kosten, T.R., Meyer, R.E., OBrien, C.P., Mann, K., Meulien, D. : The Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative (ACTIVE): purpose and goals for assessing important and salient issues for medications development in alcohol use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 37(2): 402-411, 2012 Notes: PMCID: PC3242301 ...
Ironically, the explosion of basic-science knowledge about ASD and possible drug treatments is emerging at a time when major pharmaceutical companies are canceling drug-development programs for ASD and other mental disorders, citing costs, difficulties and the recent failures of what were deemed good prospects. Many National Institutes of Health officials, research scientists and affected families are fearful that progress in medication development will slow in the face of the industrys retreat from neuroscience drug development ...
When a person uses cocaine, he may become so enamored of the intoxicating effects of cocaine use that he may not even want to know about the damaging effects of the drug. But that would be a serious mistake.
Characterization and inhibition of a cholecystokinin-inactivating serine peptidase. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behavior by a partial dopamine D(sub3) receptor agonist
BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence indicates that exposure to cocaine influences the activity of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) as well as several 5-HT receptor subtypes. However, little is known about the relationship between the 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors following cocaine exposure in humans. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between platelet 5-HTT, a presynaptic 5-HT measure, and prolactin (PRL) response to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a postsynaptic 5-HT receptor agonist in cocaine dependent individuals. METHODS: Platelet [3H] paroxetine binding sites were assayed and the m-CPP challenge test was performed in 35 African American cocaine dependent individuals and 33 controls. Clinical measures included assessments of drug use severity and depression. RESULTS: Cocaine subjects showed reduced Bmax of [3H] paroxetine (t=4.67, ...
Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a persons initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking. ...
Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a persons initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction. T2 - A scientific statement from the American Heart Association acute cardiac care committee of the council on clinical cardiology. AU - McCord, James. AU - Jneid, Hani. AU - Hollander, Judd E.. AU - de Lemos, James A. AU - Cercek, Bojan. AU - Hsue, Priscilla. AU - Gibler, W. Brian. AU - Ohman, E. Magnus. AU - Drew, Barbara. AU - Philippides, George. AU - Newby, L. Kristin. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. KW - AHA Scientific Statement. KW - Cocaine. KW - Myocardial infarction. KW - Substance-related disorders. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188950. DO - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188950. M3 - Review article. C2 - 18347214. AN - SCOPUS:41949126112. VL - 117. SP - 1897. EP - 1907. JO - Circulation. JF - Circulation. SN - 0009-7322. IS - 14. ER - ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Gooding, D.C., Ott, S.L., Roberts, S.A., & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (2013). Thought disorder in mid-childhood as a predictor of adulthood diagnostic outcome: Findings from the New York High-Risk Project. Psychological Medicine, 43, 1003-1012.. Gooding, D.C., Tallent, K.A., & Matts, C.W. (2005). Clinical status of at-risk individuals five years later: Further validation of the psychometric high-risk strategy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 170-175.. Gooding, D.C. & Pflum, M.J. (2013). The assessment of interpersonal pleasure: Introduction of the anticipatory and consummatory interpersonal pleasure scale (ACIPS) and preliminary findings. Psychiatry Research, doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.012.. Gooding, D.C., Gjini, K., Burroughs, S,, & Boutros, N.N. (2013). The association between psychosis-proneness and sensory gating in cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, 210, 1092-1100.. Gooding, D.C. & Basso, M.A. (2008). The tell-tale tasks: A review of saccadic research ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains reward center from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
A second problem with the ADHD stimulant use issue is the misconception that people with true ADHD are less susceptible to the positive reinforcing effects of stimulants than people without ADHD. There are certainly subgroups of person with this diagnosis that do not like to take stimulants. They find that stimulants decrease their appetite, given them increased anxiety and insomnia, and in many cases leave them feeling more restricted, affectively blunted and less spontaneous. I find that these patients are generally selected out by the time they are adults. They had true ADHD diagnoses in middle school, did not like the stimulants, or in many cases their parents did not like the effect they were seeing and they were taken off of them. They may have developed significant coping strategies based on their dislike of stimulant effects. Like many adult psychiatric disorders there is no one uniform phenotype, and the phenotype of the person who was diagnosed either as a child or an adult and who ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
The state medical examiners office ruled Tuesday that the death of a Trinity student in November was accidental and caused by a rare stomach disorder that was exasperated by cocaine use.
1] M. Gossop, V. Manning, and G. Ridge, Concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine: differences in patterns of use and problems among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder, Alcohol Alcohol., vol. 41, pp. 121-125, 2006.. [2] H. R. Sumnall, G. F. Wagstaff, and J. C. Cole, Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users, J. Psychopharmacol., vol. 18, pp. 75-82, 2004.. [3] M. Graziani, P. Nencini, and R. Nisticò, Genders and the concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol: Pharmacological aspects, Pharmacol. Res., vol. 87, pp. 60-70, 2014.. [4] L. J. Bierut, J. R. Strickland, J. R. Thompson, S. E. Afful, and L. B. Cottler, Drug use and dependence in cocaine dependent subjects, community-based individuals, and their siblings, Drug Alcohol Depend., vol. 95, pp. 14-22, 2008.. [5] T. Apantaku-Olajide, C. D. Darker, and B. P. Smyth, Onset of cocaine use: Associated alcohol intoxication and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in substance abuse treatment, J. Addict. Med., vol. 7, pp. ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Back. Brain and Cocaine. Techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) have shown in human cocaine abusers some of the ways by which cocaine produces its pleasurable effects as they are occurring. Researchers suggest that cocaine works in large part by occupying or blocking dopamine transporter (DAT) sites, thereby preventing reuptake of dopamine by the brain cells that release it, which then allows higher concentrations of dopamine to remain available in the brain longer than normal. It is this abnormally long presence of dopamine in the brain that is believed to cause the high and other effects associated with cocaine use.. Comparing the functioning of the dopamine system in the brains of chronic cocaine users with that in non-users, the researchers found that, compared to the non-users, the cocaine-dependent group showed reduced dopamine responses to the drug in the striatum, a region of the brain linked to motivation control and reward. At the same time, they found an abnormal increase in ...
The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging scans of thirty people with cocaine dependence as well as thirty six control subjects that were recreational drinkers. Whilst having brain scans, the researchers then gave subjects personalized cues (events or situations) that the participants had said were personally stressful along with other cues involving alcohol or cocaine.. Not surprisingly, those with cocaine dependence exhibited greater activation in broad parts of the brain associated with addiction and motivation compared to the control subjects. However, patterns of activation between the groups differed considerably in women and men when given stress or drug cues.. The results indicate that women with cocaine dependence could possibly benefit from stress reduction therapies which specifically target these cravings. On the other hand, men with cocaine dependence could possibly get more benefit from aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy or 12-step programs according to the ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug. Crack baby was a term coined to describe children who were exposed to crack (freebase cocaine in smokable form) as fetuses; the concept of the crack baby emerged in the US during the 1980s and 1990s in the midst of a crack epidemic. Other terms are cocaine baby and crack kid. Early studies reported that people who had been exposed to crack in utero would be severely emotionally, mentally, and physically disabled; this belief became common in the scientific and lay communities. Fears were widespread that a generation of crack babies were going to put severe strain on society and social services as they grew up. Later studies failed to substantiate the findings of earlier ones that PCE has severe disabling consequences; these earlier studies had been methodologically flawed (e.g. with small sample sizes and confounding factors). Scientists have come to ...
Because DSM-IV cocaine dependence (CD) is heterogeneous, it is not an optimal phenotype to identify genetic variation contributing to risk for cocaine use and related behaviors (CRBs). We used a cluster analytic method to differentiate homogeneous, highly heritable subtypes of CRBs and to compare their utility with that of the DSM-IV CD as traits for genetic association analysis. Clinical features of CRBs and co-occurring disorders were obtained via a poly-diagnostic interview administered to 9,965 participants in genetic studies of substance dependence. A subsample of subjects (N = 3,443) were genotyped for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 130 candidate genes related to addiction. Cluster analysis of clinical features of the sample yielded five subgroups, two of which were characterized by heavy cocaine use and high heritability: a heavy cocaine use, infrequent intravenous injection group and an early-onset, heavy cocaine use, high comorbidity group. The utility of ...
Review question We investigated whether psychostimulant substitution was safe and effective for treating patients with cocaine dependence.. Background Cocaine dependence is a frequent disorder for which no medication has been approved for treatment. Substitution therapy involves the replacement of the abused drug, which is often illegal and used several times a day, by a legal, orally administered and longer-acting one. A substitute drug has to have similar effects as the abused one, but with a lower addictive potential, enabling drug abstinence and patient adherence to medical and psychological assistance. This strategy can increase the abstinence rate in patients with heroin and tobacco dependence. In this review, we investigated whether psychostimulant substitution with medications that have psychostimulant effect was effective for treating patients with cocaine dependence.. Search date: the evidence is current to 15 February 2016.. Studies and participants characteristics We reviewed the ...
Cocaine abuse has become the most abused major stimulant in the USA and statistics show that emergency room visits for it are increasing. Cocaine abuse has been around for as long as anyone can remember.. Derived from the innocent cocoa plant, it is considered the champagne of drugs, one of its street names. There is an array of street names describing the different uses.. There are various ways that an addict will use this drug, amongst them being snorting, smoking one of the derivatives known as crack or rock. Historically, cocaine was known as the rich mans drug. This is changing rapidly as teenagers have found a new sensation in mixing it with marijuana.. The highly addictive nature of cocaine makes it an extremely dangerous drug and many a user will tell you that theyre not addicted. This is so far from the truth to be ridiculous. If cocaine abuse isnt a problem to the addict, how come they are still using it?. No-one would willingly remain addicted. The penalties are extreme. ...
Occurs within minutes to hours of excessive cocaine use. Some patients may die suddenly before treatment is given. Presentation includes tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, mydriasis, and agitation. Urine cocaine screen confirms recent cocaine use, but treatment should not be de...
Cocaine Addiction Centers in Cedar Rapids, IA. Find phone numbers, addresses and information about Cocaine Addiction Centers in Cedar Rapids.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
Cocaine addiction has become a major problem and epidemic in this country. Thousands of individuals and families are negatively affected by the use and abuse of cocaine every year. Cocaine is expensive, but individuals who use the drug to enhance their nightlife experience or work longer hours certainly are not afraid of long term consequences and repercussions. But as the years went on, studies began to find that long-term cocaine users were at risk for heart disease, heart failure, liver problems and other serious concerns. In addition, the financial burden that cocaine puts on families often lead to broken homes and lost trust. It is apparent that the need for cocaine rehab is immediate and must be confronted and addressed as soon as possible. Cocaine rehab refers to the process of helping an individual overcome their physical and psychological addiction to cocaine. This is accomplished through detoxification, individual counseling and cognitive therapy. In addition, a recovering cocaine ...
Crack cocaine is a powerful stimulant that often causes hallucinations, erratic behavior and significant urges to repeat use. Crack addiction is a difficult habit to kick.
Along with Recovery Lighthouse, Worthing and the South Coast house many private Cocaine rehab clinics. Our Cocaine addiction treatment is well respected in the local community and is the default provider of cocaine addiction recovery for residents of wards, districts and neighbourhoods in Worthing such as Broadwater, Findon Valley, Goring and Durrington. A key component of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation, Worthing region is divided into 13 wards and is part of a two-tier structure of local government split between West Sussex County Council and Worthing Borough Council, who offer little in terms of public provision of Cocaine detox and rehabilitation treatment.. While residential Cocaine detox is the start of many of our patients recovery from addiction, it is not the end as we also offer a highly integrated behavioural rehabilitation programme. Most inhabitants of Heene, High Salvington, Offington, Salvington and West Tarring avail of our Care Quality Commission approved 28-day ...
Another name for Addicted to Cocaine is Cocaine Abuse. Facts about cocaine abuse: * At least 1.5 million Americans use cocaine. * Cocaine use is most ...
Toronto Mayor Rob Fords confessed criminal conduct including smoking crack cocaine should be front and centre in mayoral debates.
In this cross-sectional study, the researchers sought to classify a sample of HIV-positive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug ...
Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and
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Background: Lipid profiles in the blood are altered in human cocaine users, suggesting that cocaine exposure can induce lipid remodeling. ...
This from The Irish Examiner: 14 May 2008 700% rise in cocaine users seeking initial treatment By Cormac OKeeffe THERE has been a 700% rise in the number of cocaine users seeking treatment...
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Here at Drugnet, our Cocaine Addiction research has been extensive, and we do that to make sure we bring you updated information regarding all topics.
"Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM Library, American ... Nicotine dependence Amphetamine dependence Cocaine dependence Substance use disorder American Psychiatric Association. " ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Volume 38, February 2020, 101496 Corina Roman-Filip, Aurelian Ungureanu, Ileana ... Article at Lucas M.Pessini, Tumefactive inflammatory leukoencephalopathy in cocaine users: Report of three ... Rare Neuroimmunologic Disorders Symposium [1] Mahad D. J., Ziabreva I., Campbell G., Lax N., White K., Hanson P. S., Lassmann H ...
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related ... alcohol-induced headache Headache induced by food components and additives Monosodium glutamate-induced headache Cocaine- ... jaws or related structures Headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder Headache attributed to ... attributed to other disorder of homoeostasis Headache attributed to disorder of cranial bone Headache attributed to disorder of ...
... cocaine, and some retro-viral drugs Severe potassium deficiency Fibromyalgia Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Auto-immune disorders, ... Viral Compression injury leading to crush syndrome Drug-related Commonly fibrates and statins Occasionally ACE inhibitors, ... myalgia syndrome Barcoo Fever Herpes Hemochromatosis Delayed onset muscle soreness HIV/AIDS Generalized anxiety disorder Tumor- ...
Substance abuse / Substance use disorder / Substance-related disorders. *Physical dependence / Psychological dependence / ... Cocaine[edit]. Cocaine has a similar potential to induce temporary psychosis[17] with more than half of cocaine abusers ... Elliott A.; Mahmood T.; Smalligan R. D. (2012). "Cocaine Bugs: A Case Report of Cocaine-Induced Delusions of Parasitosis". The ... Brady KT, Lydiard RB, Malcolm R, Ballenger JC (1991). "Cocaine-induced psychosis". J Clin Psychiatry. 52: 509-512.. ...
... amphetamine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.300 - cocaine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.635 - marijuana abuse MeSH F03.900.650 ... alcohol-related disorders MeSH F03.900.100.050 - alcohol amnestic disorder MeSH F03.900.100.050.500 - korsakoff syndrome MeSH ... panic disorder MeSH F03.080.725 - phobic disorders MeSH F03.080.931 - stress disorders, traumatic MeSH F03.080.931.249 - combat ... conduct disorder MeSH F03.550.300 - child behavior disorders MeSH F03.550.325 - child development disorders, pervasive MeSH ...
Many of these individual genes are directly related to aspects of addiction associated with cocaine exposure.[45][46] ... and age-related changes in histone acetylation at gene promoters in psychiatric disorders". Translational Psychiatry. 1 (12): ... Cocaine addiction occurs in about 0.5% of the US population. Repeated cocaine administration in mice induces hyperacetylation ... and Brap2-related zinc finger motif (HUB) domain in the C-terminus which shows some functions related to ubiquitination, ...
Disorders[edit]. Main article: Eating disorder. Physiologically, eating is generally triggered by hunger, but there are ... The first one is cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), the second is α-MSH (α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).[ ... Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... Eldredge, K. L.; Agras, W. S. (1994). "Weight and Shape Overconcern and Emotional Eating in Binge Eating Disorder". ...
Mood Disorders[edit]. There are various studies on animals that suggest that the N/OFQ-NOP system has a part to play in both ... Nociceptin is a peptide related to the opioid class of compounds (ex. morphine and codeine), but it does not act at the classic ... Specifically, nociceptin acts to inhibit neural rewards induced by drugs such as amphetamines, morphine, cocaine, and ... malfunctions in this pathway are linked to altered fear learning in brain disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder ( ...
Ailey died from an AIDS related illness on December 1, 1989, at the age of 58. He asked his doctor to announce that his death ... Following the death of his friend Joyce Trisler, a failed relationship, and bouts of heavy drinking and cocaine use, Ailey ... He was diagnosed as manic depressive, known today as bipolar disorder. During his rehabilitation, Judith Jamison served as co- ...
Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... Libido disorders, disorientation, and hallucinations are very rarely reported. Priapism is a very rare adverse event that can ... It should be used with extreme caution in people with bipolar disorder due to the potential induction of mania or hypomania. ... This is reflected in the increased, stable and long-lasting level of sensitivity to cocaine and other drugs, and tendency to ...
... is classified as a delusional disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... It may be related to excess dopamine in the brain's striatum, resulting from diminished dopamine transporter (DAT) function, ... Several drugs, legal or illegal, such as amphetamines, dopamine agonists, opioids, and cocaine may also cause the skin ... anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and affective or substance-induced psychoses or other conditions such as ...
... but might be considered to be a controlled substance analogue of cocaine on the grounds of its related chemical structure, in ... It showed promising effects in alleviating the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in an animal model of the disorder. It is not ... the opposite way round compared to natural cocaine. It is structurally related to benztropine and has similar anticholinergic ... "The discovery of an unusually selective and novel cocaine analog: difluoropine. Synthesis and inhibition of binding at cocaine ...
In discussing cocaine and related compounds such as amphetamines, it is clear that these psychostimulants cause increased blood ... SNDRIs were developed as potential antidepressants and treatments for other disorders, such as obesity, cocaine addiction, ... Cocaine is a short-acting SNDRI that also exerts auxiliary pharmacological actions on other receptors. Cocaine is a relatively ... Cocaine addiction (e.g., indatraline) Obesity (e.g., amitifadine, tesofensine) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD ...
Code and its State documents and sponsored legislation providing health care coverage for autism and its related disorders. ... He sponsored legislation to treat heroin, cocaine, and crack cocaine the same when it comes to punishing drug traffickers. ...
Activity-Dependent Epigenetic Remodeling in Cocaine Use Disorder. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2019;10.1007/164_2019_257. doi:10.1007/ ... Calipari found that when hormones related to fertility are high, women make stronger associations to clues in their environment ... Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Alters the Pharmacodynamic Properties of Cocaine in Female Mice. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2019; ... "Cues play a critical role in estrous cycle-dependent enhancement of cocaine reinforcement". Neuropsychopharmacology. 44 (7): ...
Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS 307.9 Communication Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder 312.81 ... or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior 307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder 307.45 Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Cocaine ... Related Disorder NOS 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder 307.44 Hypersomnia related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II ... Related Disorder NOS 307.42 Insomnia Related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder] 312.34 Intermittent Explosive ...
Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Epigenetics of anxiety and stress-related disorders Evolutionary neuroscience ... He F, Lidow IA, Lidow MS (2006). "Consequences of paternal cocaine exposure in mice". Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 28 (2): ... increased anxiety and anxiety disorders. These anxiety issues can precipitate the onset of eating disorders and obesity, and ... In animals, drug-related epigenetic changes in fathers have also been shown to negatively affect offspring in terms of poorer ...
... as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Addiction is believed to be a disorder of experience-dependent brain plasticity. The ... E-cigarette related videos Play media Robbing the Future - Advertising Aimed at Children. Play media E-cigarettes - An Emerging ... The nicotine in e-cigarettes can also prime the adolescent brain for addiction to other drugs such as cocaine. Exposure to ... Other risks include mood disorders and permanent problems with impulse control-failure to fight an urge or impulse that may ...
... as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Addiction is believed to be a disorder of experience-dependent brain plasticity. The ... In 2019-2020, there was an outbreak of vaping-related lung illness in the US and Canada, primarily related to vaping THC with ... There is no research available on vaping for reducing harm in high-risk groups such as people with mental disorders. A 2014 PHE ... As of 8 August 2016, the US FDA extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes, e-liquid and all related products. Under ...
... underlying disorder coexist with the jealousy The course of morbid jealousy closely relates to that of the underlying disorder ... cocaine, amphetamines, marijuana.), organic brain disorders (i.e. Parkinson's, Huntington's), schizophrenia, neurosis, ... Unlike other delusional disorders, people who suffer from this disorder have a strong association with stalking, cyberstalking ... It can be found in the context of schizophrenia and delusional disorder, such as bipolar disorder, but is also associated with ...
European Study Group for Haemolytic Uraemic Syndromes Related Disorders (2006). "Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and ... to cocaine, cyclosporine, or tacrolimus). Nevertheless, aHUS should be suspected in patients presenting with systemic TMA, and ... The neurological and kidney-related signs and symptoms of aHUS overlap with those of TTP. However, unlike aHUS, TTP is ... TTP also can be a genetic disorder characterized by mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene leading to severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. This ...
This alteration is suggested to be related to the pathology, since antipsychotics do not regulate the expression of DARPP-32. A ... as well as being involved in the action of drugs including cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, LSD, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and ... DARPP-32 levels are decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lymphocytes of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ... "The leukocytes expressing DARPP-32 are reduced in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Progress in Neuro- ...
"What Are Anxiety Disorders?". Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Social Anxiety Disorder , Anxiety and Depression ... In regard to substance abuse, cocaine-dependent individuals report greater cravings for cocaine following exposure to a social ... and occupational prestige were all related to lower mortality in men. In women, however, only household income was related to ... This can lead to the development of an anxiety disorder (panic attacks, social anxiety, OCD, etc.). Social anxiety disorder is ...
... opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.[4] ... Recurrent substance-related legal problems (e.g., arrests for substance-related disorderly conduct) ... Individuals who have a comorbid psychological disorder often have a poor prognosis if either disorder is untreated.[53] ... Related articles: Drug control law, Prohibition (drugs), Arguments for and against drug prohibition, Harm reduction. Most ...
Furthermore, nightmares related to PTSD would be more stressful than idiopathic ones. However, further studies have to be ... Amphetamines, antidepressants, and stimulants like cocaine and caffeine can cause nightmares. Blood pressure medication, ... Dissociative disorders are usually paired with Nightmare Disorder 57% of the time. Nightmare disorder is believed to be ... Nightmare disorder, also known as dream anxiety disorder, is a sleep disorder characterized by frequent nightmares. The ...
Cluttering is a speech disorder that is related to pressure of speech in that the speech of a clutterer sounds improperly ... Psychostimulants such as cocaine or amphetamines may cause speech resembling pressured speech in individuals with pre-existing ... In many psychotic disorders, use of certain drugs amplifies certain expressions of symptoms, and stimulant-induced pressured ... The pace of the speech indicates an underlying thought disorder known as "flight of ideas" wherein the flow of ideas and ...
Depressive and related disorders and bipolar and related disorders. Bipolar disorders falls in between depressive disorders and ... For example, stimulants such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine can cause manic, hypomanic, mixed, and depressive ... Sex Differences Mood disorders, specifically stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, have been shown to ... Depressive disorders underwent the most changes, the addition of three new disorders: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, ...
... opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100. Public ... It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal ... The terms "dual diagnosis" or "co-occurring disorders," refer to having a mental health and substance use disorder at the same ... For example the US, devoid of such measures, have seen large increases in drug-related deaths since 2000 (mostly related to ...
Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Inhalant 305.90 Abuse 304.60 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Nicotine 305.1 Dependence 292.9 -Related disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal Opioid 305.50 Abuse 304.00 ... disorder 307.46 Sleep terror disorder 307.46 Sleepwalking disorder 307.47 Parasomnia NOS Sleep disorder Sleep disorder due to ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nosebleeds.. *National Library of Medicine - Describes causes, solutions, and prevention ... Anticoagulant medication and disorders of blood clotting can promote and prolong bleeding. Spontaneous epistaxis is more common ... Insufflated drugs (particularly cocaine). *Intranasal tumors (e.g. nasopharyngeal carcinoma or nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) ...
In 1975, the related alkaloid cathinone was isolated, and its absolute configuration was established in 1978. Cathinone is not ... health suggested that there was a need for better research on khat-chewing and its possible link with psychiatric disorders; it ... Coca, a herb used for elaboration of cocaine and traditional chewing.. *Phenylpropanolamine ... These chemicals belong to the PPA (phenylpropanolamine) family, a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the ...
Contains trace amounts of cocaine and similar alkaloids.[15] In some countries where coca is illegal, products marketed as " ... Volz HP, Kieser M (1997). "Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders--a randomized placebo-controlled 25- ... Learning materials related to infusion maker at Wikiversity. *. Media related to tisanes at Wikimedia Commons ... the pharmacologically active components have been removed from the leaf using the same chemicals used in manufacturing cocaine. ...
弓狀核內含有兩群神經元[146]:第一群同時表現神經肽Y(英语:neuropeptide Y)(NPY)與刺豚鼠關聯肽(英语:agouti-related peptide)(AgRP),它們會刺激下視丘外核(英语:lateral hypothalamus ... 並抑制下視丘腹中核(英语:ventromedial nucleus);第二群則表現鴉片黑皮質素原(POMC)與古柯鹼-安非他命關聯轉錄因子(英语:cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript)(CART),並 ... and immunity disorders#Other metabolic
It has been proposed that histone proteins are evolutionarily related to the helical part of the extended AAA+ ATPase domain, ... "Epigenetic regulation in substance use disorders". Curr Psychiatry Rep. 12 (2): 145-53. doi:10.1007/s11920-010-0099-5. PMC ... "Molecular mechanism for a gateway drug: epigenetic changes initiated by nicotine prime gene expression by cocaine". Sci Transl ...
... anxiety and trauma-related disorders". Review. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 149: 150-90. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.12.004. ... "Enhancing exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder". Review. ... Yohimbine has been studied as a way to improve the effects of exposure therapy in people with post traumatic stress disorder ( ... Sun J, Chen P (March 2012). "Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/ ...
F14) use of cocaine Cocaine intoxication Cocaine dependence (F15) use of other stimulants, including caffeine Stimulant ... F39) Unspecified mood (affective) disorder. (F40-F48) Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders[edit]. *(F40) Phobic ... F25) Schizoaffective disorders *(F25.0) Schizoaffective disorder, manic type. *(F25.1) Schizoaffective disorder, depressive ... F92) Mixed disorders of conduct and emotions *(F92.0) Depressive conduct disorder. *(F92.8) Other mixed disorders of conduct ...
Schizophrenia occurs along with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with certain ... There are various medical conditions, other psychiatric conditions and drug abuse related reactions that may mimic the symptoms ... magic mushrooms and cocaine may cause schizophrenia symptoms.[3] ... People with this disorder often do not behave the way most ... Berrios G.E.; Porter, Roy (1995). A history of clinical psychiatry: the origin and history of psychiatric disorders. London: ...
... disordersEdit. Main article: Anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by ... Indeed, such is consistent with related work on attentional bias in implicit memory.[34][35][36] Additionally recent research ... cocaine and amphetamines), hallucinogens, and inhalants.[54] While many often report self-medicating anxiety with these ... Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, personality disorder, and ...
NPD is associated with bipolar disorder, anorexia, and substance use disorders,[7] especially cocaine.[6] As far as other ... These findings suggest that narcissistic personality disorder is related to a compromised capacity for emotional empathy and ... such as major depressive disorder, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, or eating disorders,[7] or at the insistence of ... Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder with a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized ...
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects ... Scientific Consensus Statement on Environmental Agents Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders, The Collaborative on ... "Cocaine and Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion". New England Journal of Medicine. 340 (5): 333-9. doi:10.1056/ ... any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up). Studies indicate ...
Cocaine: used as a topical anesthetic and to stop severe epistaxis. *Codeine (pure) and any drug for non-parenteral ... binge eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine only). Originally placed in Schedule III, but moved to Schedule II in 1971. ... Secretary of State which shall be binding on the representative of the United States in discussions and negotiations relating ... "History of Legislative Control Over Opium, Cocaine, and Their Derivatives". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy ...
... schizoaffective disorder,[33] borderline personality disorder,[34] and post-traumatic stress disorder.[35][needs update] ... The basis for this broader spectrum of activity of lamotrigine is unknown, but could relate to actions of the drug on voltage- ... Cocaine. *Cutamesine (SA-4503). *Cyclazocine. *Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (prasterone). *Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ( ... Bipolar disorder[edit]. Lamotrigine is approved in the US for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder and bipolar II ...
... amphetamines or cocaine. Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result ... The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand by the heart, which can lead to rate related ischemia. ... Anxiety Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Atrial tachycardia AV nodal reentrant tachycardia Brugada syndrome Caffeine Cocaine ...
... amphetamines or cocaine. Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result ... The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand by the heart, which can lead to rate related ischemia.[ ... ...
... pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, or autism spectrum disorder.[35] ... Asiri, Yousif A.; Mostafa, Gamal A.E. (2010). "Donepezil". Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology. 35 ... Cocaine. *Cutamesine (SA-4503). *Cyclazocine. *Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (prasterone). *Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ( ... Donepezil has been tested in other cognitive disorders, including Lewy body dementia,[28] and vascular dementia,[29] but it is ...
Related Disorders. 19 (6): 586-9. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.02.004. PMID 23522959.. ... Domperidone is a benzimidazole derivative and is structurally related to butyrophenone neuroleptics like haloperidol.[67][68] ... Mechanical bowel disorders such as bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal haemorrhage or bowel perforation ... "Domperidone - heart rate and rhythm disorders." Canadian adverse reactions newsletter. Government of Canada. January 2007 17(1) ...
It is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss-related therapeutic benefits; however, in orally ingested ... Reviews that cover attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and phenethylamine indicate that several studies have found ... of amphetamine or cocaine self-administration (Risner and Jones, 1977; Shannon and Thompson, 1984). In another study, high ... Smith, Terence A. (1977). "Phenethylamine and related compounds in plants". Phytochemistry. 16 (1): 9-18. doi:10.1016/0031-9422 ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epigenetics.. *. Haque FN, Gottesman II, Wong AH (May 2009). "Not really identical: ... Some human disorders are associated with genomic imprinting, a phenomenon in mammals where the father and mother contribute ... This is reflected in the increased, stable and long-lasting level of sensitivity to cocaine and other drugs, and tendency to ... While age is a known risk factor for many diseases, age-related methylation has been found to occur differentially at specific ...
disorders. *Alcoholic hallucinosis. *Alcoholic polyneuropathy. *Alcohol-related brain damage. *Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS ... Alcohol-related crimes. *Drunk drivers *Alcohol-related traffic crashes in the United States) ... a b Kühlwein, E., Hauger, R.L., Irwin, M.R. Abnormal nocturnal melatonin secretion and disordered sleep in abstinent alcoholics ... Cannabis use disorder (CUD). *Synthetic cannabinoid use disorder. Cocaine. *SID *Cocaine intoxication ...
Related topics. *Abuse of power. *Abusive power and control. *Child grooming. *Complex post-traumatic stress disorder ... It was a way of life,' Joe Hill acknowledged in court documents, 'Nembutal, Seconal, Percodan, Heroin, cocaine, Methedrine. Is ...
... coagulation disorders, renal impairment, and hepatic impairment.[8][9] ... Local anesthetics (e.g., cocaine, lidocaine). *Mexiletine. *Nefopam. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline#) ...
... is sometimes detected as a cutting agent in street drugs such as cocaine and heroin.[63] ... From 1969 to 1992, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received 157 reports of health problems related to quinine use, ... Because of the narrow difference between its therapeutic and toxic effects, quinine is a common cause of drug-induced disorders ... The most widely accepted hypothesis of its action is based on the well-studied and closely related quinoline drug, chloroquine ...
Drug addiction Prenatal cocaine exposure Prostitution Sex and drugs Date rape drug Drug-related crime Dependence (behavioral ... Having another mental health disorder: Other mental health disorders such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder can ... Furthermore, for sex workers at 16 to 19 years of age, over 70% of them have experienced cannabis, cocaine, and crack cocaine. ... Cocaine and other stimulants have also been reported to increase the confidence of streetwalkers' ability to talk to strangers ...
Ness R, Grisso J, Hirschinger N, Markovic N, Shaw L, Day N, Kline J (1999). "Cocaine and tobacco use and the risk of ... Maternal care related to the. fetus and amniotic cavity. *amniotic fluid *Oligohydramnios ...
Tropeines (e.g., atropine, bemesetron, cocaine, LY-278584, tropisetron, zatosetron). *Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, ... and coagulation disorders. Also reported diarrhoea (including antibiotic-associated colitis). ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure. *Neonatal withdrawal syndrome. *Parental child abduction. *Parental responsibility. *Parenting plan ...
... and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ... It is related in chemical structure to venlafaxine.. *Venlafaxine-the first and most commonly used SNRI. It was introduced by ... Duloxetine is also approved for major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), diabetic neuropathy, ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder ( ...
Musculoskeletal and joint disorders.. Agranulocytosis and cancer. Ampiroxicam. Related to piroxicam.. As per diclofenac.. PO.. ... Stimulants such as methylphenidate, caffeine, ephedrine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine work against heavy ... Musculoskeletal disorders; soft-tissue disorders; sore throat.. As per diclofenac. Bromfenac. Comes in free acid form; ... Musculoskeletal and joint disorders.. As per diclofenac. Proquazone. Comes in free form.. As per diclofenac.. PO, rectal.. Not ...
The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ... Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. ... Cocaine-Related%20Psychiatric%20Disorders) and Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Apr 14, 2016 * Author: Christopher P Holstege, MD; Chief ...
The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ... Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. ... encoded search term (Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders) and Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders What to Read Next on ... Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders. Updated: Apr 14, 2016 * Author: Christopher P Holstege, MD; Chief Editor: David ...
"Cocaine-Related Disorders" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cocaine-Related Disorders" was a major ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Cocaine-Related Disorders". ... "Cocaine-Related Disorders" by people in Profiles.. * Effects of early life stress on cocaine intake in male and female rhesus ... "Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
... cocaine use disorders and cocaine-induced disorders. Cocaine use disorders include cocaine dependence and cocaine abuse. ... COCAINE-RELATED DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. This classification is reserved for clinicians to use when a cocaine disorder ... Cocaine-induced disorders COCAINE INTOXICATION. Cocaine intoxication occurs after recent cocaine use. The person experiences a ... Cocaine use disorders COCAINE ABUSE. For the cocaine abuser, the use of the substance leads to maladaptive behavior over a 12- ...
Make research projects and school reports about cocaine easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... cocaine-related disorder not otherwise specified. Cocaine use disorders COCAINE ABUSE. For the cocaine abuser, the use of the ... cocaine use disorders and cocaine-induced disorders. Cocaine use disorders include cocaine dependence and cocaine abuse. ... COCAINE-RELATED DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. This classification is reserved for clinicians to use when a cocaine disorder ...
... also called crack cocaine, is a highly addictive stimulant. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Learn about health effects ... Cocaine Smoking (National Institutes of Health) * Cocaine-Related Disorders (National ... Cocaine (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in Spanish * Mind Matters: The Bodys Response to Cocaine (National Institute ... Substance use -- cocaine (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Tips for Teens: The Truth about Cocaine (Substance Abuse and ...
Substance-Related Disorders. Cocaine-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Epidiolex. ... DSM-5 criteria for current cocaine use disorder (moderate or severe).. *Current cocaine use with last use during two weeks ... or placebo on cocaine craving and cocaine use among 110 cocaine-dependent individuals. Phase I of the trial will assess the ... Substance Use Disorder Cocaine Dependence Withdrawal From Addictive Substance; Detoxification Drug: Cannabidiol Phase 2 ...
COCAINE-RELATED DISORDERS. Interventions Drug: d-cycloserine. Drug: sugar pill. Enrollment 52 ... Urinalysis Benzoylecgonine (Cocaine Metabolite)(ng/ml) Description The primary outcome for this study will be post-treatment ... Improving Learning-based Treatment of Cocaine Dependence With Medication. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. Dopamine. Raclopride. ... a primary major DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, etc.), unrelated to cocaine or pathological ... Cocaine Dependence Drug: Methylphenidate Drug: Alpha Methyl Para Tyrosine (AMPT) Other: [11C]PHNO Other: [11C]raclopride Not ... Understanding Dopamine Mechanisms in Cocaine Addiction Using AMPT and Methylphenidate With [11C]RAC/[11C]PHNO PET. The safety ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders. Substance-Related Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... To assess the efficacy and safety of reserpine in reducing cocaine use in subjects with cocaine dependence. This is a double- ... Reserpine for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence - 1. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of reserpine for the treatment of cocaine dependence. ...
Substance Related Disorders/. * Drug User/. * ((cocaine or heroin or crack or meth or opioid or inject$ methamphetamine or drug ... substance abusers OR drug users) AND (mental disorders prevention) The MEDLINE_OVID search for the literature on integration ... and mental disorder), drug use, integration (index term delivery of health care, integrated) ...
... have tried cocaine. Find out more about the effects of addiction. ... Behavior treatments include rewards for meeting goals related ... What causes cocaine addiction?. Cocaine affects neurological systems in your brain. Cocaine use, especially repetitive use, can ... What is the outlook for cocaine addiction?. Cocaine addiction is a complex illness that requires treatment. Cocaine addiction ... Cocaine and addiction. Cocaine is a drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America. According to the ...
post-traumatic stress disorder. 3. ClinicalTrials. ClinicalTrials. Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO:0002610. cocaine ... Mood Disorders. D019964. EFO:0004247. mood disorder. 2. ClinicalTrials. Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic. D013313. EFO:0001358 ... Substance-Related Disorders. D019966. EFO:0003890. drug dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Wounds and Injuries. D014947. EFO: ... Bipolar Disorder. D001714. EFO:0000289. bipolar disorder. 3. ClinicalTrials. Obesity. D009765. EFO:0001073. obesity. 1. ...
Opioid-Related Disorders. D009293. EFO:0005611. opioid dependence. 2. ClinicalTrials. Cocaine-Related Disorders. D019970. EFO: ... Amphetamine-Related Disorders. D019969. EFO:0004701. metamphetamine dependence. 1. ClinicalTrials. Glioblastoma. D005909. EFO: ... N07B - DRUGS USED IN ADDICTIVE DISORDERS. N07BB - Drugs used in alcohol dependence. N07BB01 - disulfiram. P - ANTIPARASITIC ...
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine. [from MeSH]. MedGen UID: 66741. •Concept ID: C0236736. •. Mental or ... Substance-Related Disorder. A category of psychiatric disorders which include disorders related to the taking of a drug of ... Representative examples include anxiety disorders, cognitive disorders, mood disorders and schizophrenia. [from NCI]. ... Mental disorder. A disorder characterized by behavioral and/or psychological abnormalities, often accompanied by physical ...
... system response during stress-induced and drug cue induced cocaine craving states in cocaine dependent individuals. The role of ... stress system activation in cocaine craving and in coca … ... Cocaine-Related Disorders / etiology * Cocaine-Related ... The role of stress system activation in cocaine craving and in cocaine use is discussed. ... system response during stress-induced and drug cue induced cocaine craving states in cocaine dependent individuals. ...
Cocaine users represent an emergency department (ED) population that has been shown to be at increased risk for acute coronary ... Cocaine-Related Disorders / complications* * Coronary Angiography* * Coronary Artery Disease / diagnostic imaging* * Coronary ... Cocaine users represent an emergency department (ED) population that has been shown to be at increased risk for acute coronary ... In this matched cohort study, we selected patients with a history of cocaine use and age- and gender-matched controls from a ...
... Cocaine continues to be one of the most widely used substances of abuse around the world. In the US, an ... Treatment for Cocaine Use Disorder". *Related Companies*Related Events*Related Clinical Trials*Related PubMed Entries*Related ... This will assess whether AFQ056 can have a beneficial effect by reducing cocaine use in Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) patients as ... Study to Investigate Whether AFQ056 Reduces Cocaine Use in Patients Diagnosed With Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) ...
... Cocaine use, abuse and dependence is a public health problem that is directly responsible for hundreds of ... Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.. Cocaine. An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including ... Related Companies*Related Events*Related Clinical Trials*Related PubMed Entries*Related Medications ... How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis. ...
This study examined the effect of prenatal cocaine use on infant physical, cognitive, and motor development, and temperamental ... Cocaine / toxicity*. Cocaine-Related Disorders / psychology. Cognition / physiology. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. ... Women who used cocaine during pregnancy rated their infants as more fussy/difficult and unadaptable than did women who did not ... Cocaine use in the second trimester was associated with significantly lower motor scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant ...
187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure statu ... Cocaine-Related Disorders / urine*. Female. Florida. Humans. Infant Behavior / drug effects*. Infant, Newborn. Male. Meconium. ... Fetal growth was also related to neurobehavioral functioning and, in part, mediated the relationship between cocaine exposure ... Cocaine exposure during each trimester similarly influenced infant neurobehavioral profiles, with cocaine-associated deficits ...
African Americans • Binding Sites • Binding, Competitive • Blood Platelets • Cocaine-Related Disorders • Female • Humans • Male ... Severity of cocaine use appears to mediate this relationship. Whether there is a causal association between the two measures, ... RESULTS: Cocaine subjects showed reduced Bmax of [3H] paroxetine (t=4.67, p. <.005). Multivariate regression models showed that ... However, little is known about the relationship between the 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors following cocaine exposure in humans. ...
Cocaine related disorders. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Type 2 Excludes*other stimulant-related ... F14.280 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced anxiety disorder F14.281 Cocaine dependence with cocaine-induced sexual ... Cocaine dependence, uncomplicated. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Cocaine use disorder, moderate ... Cocaine dependence, uncomplicated. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Cocaine use disorder, moderate ...
Cocaine related disorders. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Non-Billable/Non-Specific Code Type 2 Excludes*other stimulant-related disorders ... F14.98 Cocaine use, unspecified with other specified cocaine-induced disorder F14.980 Cocaine use, unspecified with cocaine- ... F14.982 Cocaine use, unspecified with cocaine-induced sleep disorder F14.988 Cocaine use, unspecified with other cocaine- ... Cocaine use, unspecified with cocaine-induced psychotic disorder with delusions. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code * ...
... and psychological disorders Includes those listed in the DSM 5 and ICD 10 as well as proposed disorders and foreign disorders. ... Cocaine related disorders. *Communication disorder. *Conduct Disorder. *Conversion Disorder. *Cotard delusion. *Cyclothymia ( ... List of Psychological Disorders , Substance Abuse Disorders , Childhood Disorders. Alphabetical List of Mental Disorders, ... Anxiolytic related disorders: A number of different disorders that result from the abuse of a class of medications known as ...
ASSOCIATED WITH Cocaine-Related Disorders (ortholog); Myocardial Reperfusion Injury (ortholog); INTERACTS WITH cisplatin; ... Cocaine-Related Disorders ISO. RGD:2290237. 11554173. CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism. CTD. PMID:20643829. ... Cocaine results in increased expression of MIR301B mRNA. CTD. PMID:20643829. cocaine multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1625987. ... Aging & Age-Related Disease Cancer Cardiovascular Disease COVID-19 Developmental Disease Diabetes Hematologic Disease Immune & ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders EXP. 11554173. CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism. CTD. PMID:20643829. ... cocaine increases expression. ISO. RGD:1625919. 6480464. Cocaine results in increased expression of MIR148B mRNA. CTD. PMID: ... cocaine multiple interactions. ISO. RGD:1625919. 6480464. AGO2 protein affects the reaction [Cocaine results in increased ... Neurodevelopmental Disorders IAGP. RGD:14698774. 8554872. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Neurodevelopmental disorder. ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders. 1. 2011. 456. 0.360. Why? Hodgkin Disease. 1. 2014. 1407. 0.320. Why? ...
Mood Disorders. *Cocaine-Related Disorders. *Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System. *Molecular Mechanisms of ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders * Asthma * Pulmonary Emphysema (COPD) * Chest Infection * Tuberculosis (TB) * Pneumonia ... A pulmonologist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the lungs and ...
  • Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: Results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). (
  • Imaging dopamine transmission in cocaine dependence: link between neurochemistry and response to treatment. (
  • Cocaine vaccine for the treatment of cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial. (
  • Cocaine dependence with and without post-traumatic stress disorder: a comparison of substance use, trauma history and psychiatric comorbidity. (
  • Biggins CA, MacKay S, Clark W, Fein G. Event-related potential evidence for frontal cortex effects of chronic cocaine dependence. (
  • The Addiction Severity Index in clinical efficacy trials of medications for cocaine dependence. (
  • Cocaine use disorders include cocaine dependence and cocaine abuse. (
  • Cocaine dependence is even more serious than cocaine abuse. (
  • Dependence is a maladaptive behavior that, over a three-month period, has caused the affected individual to experience tolerance for and withdrawal symptoms from cocaine. (
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of reserpine for the treatment of cocaine dependence. (
  • To assess the efficacy and safety of reserpine in reducing cocaine use in subjects with cocaine dependence. (
  • The proposed protocol is a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient study of the safety and efficacy of Adderall-XR (ER-MAS) and topiramate in the treatment of cocaine dependence. (
  • This placebo-controlled trial will test the effectiveness of Seroquel XR™ for the treatment of cocaine dependence in non-psychotic individuals who are cocaine dependent. (
  • How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis. (
  • Relapse rates to cocaine use are high, creating a pressing need to develop effective therapies for cocaine dependence. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether varenicline (Chantix), is effective for the treatment of cocaine dependence. (
  • Cocaine dependence is a significant public health concern. (
  • lists opioid dependence and opioid abuse as substance use disorders. (
  • Marital difficulties, including divorce, unemployment, and drug-related legal problems are often associated with opioid dependence. (
  • These criteria are consistent with those for a diagnosis of dependence provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (
  • Pharmacological interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders have been well researched and reported on for the management of withdrawal, dependence, and relapse prevention. (
  • The terms 'addiction,' 'abuse,' and 'dependence' have traditionally been used in regard to people with substance use disorders. (
  • People who suffer from substance-related disorders often experience physical and/or psychological dependence and develop problems which affect them socially (e.g., friends withdraw), personally (e.g., relationships breakdown), and at school/work (e.g., miss an exam or deadline). (
  • The proportion of inmates with a moderate-severe opioid use disorder in 2016 was twice that of the prevalence of dependence in 2008. (
  • The purpose of this course is to provide a current, evidence-based overview of cocaine abuse and dependence and its treatment, in order to allow psychologists to more effectively identify, treat, or refer patients who abuse cocaine. (
  • Cocaine abuse has thus been assumed to be a "psychological dependence" rather than one involving neurophysiological adaptations, and currently used treatments consist of psychological strategies aimed at modifying addictive behaviors. (
  • DSM-IV-TR describes both cocaine use disorders (cocaine dependence and cocaine abuse) and cocaine-induced disorders (cocaine intoxication, cocaine withdrawal, cocaine intoxication delirium, cocaine-induced sexual dysfunction, cocaine-induced psychotic, mood, anxiety, and sleep disorders). (
  • Drug and alcohol dependence disorders are best characterized as chronic medical illnesses. (
  • Alcohol abuse, Alcoholism & Drug Dependence, Cocaine Addiction, Cocaine-Related Disorders Computer Addiction Research Drug Addiction Treatment Drug Rehabilitation Effects of Alcoholism Facts About Alcoholism Food Addiction Research, Smoking Cessation, Substance Use Rehabilitation. (
  • The company has a strong pipeline of products and candidates designed to both expand on its heritage in global opioid dependence and address other chronic diseases of addiction - including opiate overdose, alcohol use disorders and cocaine intoxication - as well as related mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. (
  • The American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for SUD are nearly identical to the DSM-IV substance abuse and dependence criteria combined into a single disorder (see Table 1 for prevalence rates and diagnoses associated with each class of substance). (
  • Cocaine addiction is characterized by compulsive substance use and repetitive urges to consume the drug even after a sustained period of abstinence. (
  • While substance use remains the most obvious direct outcome of addiction, there is a growing interest in other core symptoms of this disorder. (
  • Craving has become a subject of great interest as it is a reliable intermediate phenotype of cocaine relapse and a distressing symptom of addiction associated with suffering. (
  • In the past decades, significant scientific efforts have been deployed toward the development of innovative strategies to beat cocaine addiction, but with partial success thus far. (
  • Unlike other types of addiction, such as opioid and alcohol, no pharmacological treatment has yet been found to be truly effective in relieving cocaine-cessation symptoms like craving and anxiety or to prevent relapse. (
  • CBD is a natural cannabinoid with a favourable tolerability profile and discrete neurobiological actions that are linked to neural circuits closely involved in addiction disorders. (
  • Addiction to cocaine is characterized by alternating phases of intoxication and short abstinence, followed by recurrent drug-craving episodes which result in distress and relapse. (
  • Our hypothesis is that CBD a cannabinoid known for its broad spectrum properties is an interesting pharmacological contender to decrease cocaine craving and treat cocaine addiction. (
  • What is Cocaine Addiction? (
  • Addiction to cocaine can develop quickly, even after trying it only a few times. (
  • Who is at risk for cocaine addiction? (
  • How is cocaine addiction diagnosed? (
  • To diagnose a cocaine addiction, your doctor will discuss your current usage and health history. (
  • How is cocaine addiction treated? (
  • There are a variety of treatment methods for cocaine addiction that address all these components. (
  • This study will test the efficacy and safety of l-THP for abstinence in those with cocaine addiction in a phase II pilot study (N=24). (
  • Cocaine addiction continues to be an important public health problem in the US with a significant cost to the individual and society. (
  • Published May 10, 2013. (
  • A further goal was to explore the impact on smartphone addiction of several variables related to smartphone use habits, perceived quality of life, and sociability measures. (
  • Although cocaine is a relatively uncommon drug of misuse in Australia (with only about 1% of Australians over the age of 14 having used cocaine within the past 12 months), it nevertheless has a very high rate of addiction, morbidity and mortality, with the proportion of Australians aged over 14 years ever having used cocaine (lifetime use) increasing from 3% in 1991 to 4.5% in 1998. (
  • Citicoline shows an even promising future for cure in depression, cocaine addiction, glaucoma, memory and vision related disorders. (
  • They are implicated in many forms of neural plasticity including hippocampal long-term potentiation and depressions, cerebellar long-term depression, associative learning, and cocaine addiction. (
  • The section furthermore encourages submission of papers related to challenges such as behavioral addictions (e.g. disorders related to compulsive use of the Internet, Internet gaming disorders, gambling, cybersex, "food addiction"), dual diagnosis, and treatment delivered through Internet- and computer-based technologies. (
  • 2 - 4 Early substance use confers a heightened risk for addiction, psychiatric and medical disorders, poor psychosocial functioning, treatment needs, and mortality. (
  • The proportion of inmates in jails with a moderate to severe stimulant use disorder-including addiction to methamphetamine-has surged in recent years, a study presented at the recent American Society of Addiction Medicine annual meeting suggests. (
  • The study of inmates in two jails in rural North Carolina found over seven times more inmates with a substance use disorder met criteria for addiction to stimulants, including methamphetamine, in 2016 compared with 2008. (
  • The introduction and widespread use of crack cocaine in the 1980s, the severity of the addiction, and comorbid problems prompted the scientific community to investigate treatment options. (
  • He has written or contributed to the authorship of numerous papers on addiction and other medical disorders and has written books on prescription opioids and alcoholism published by the Hazelden Foundation. (
  • More recent characterization of transgenic mice engineered to prevent generation of the IEG form (a.k.a Homer1a KO) pose a critical role for Homer1a in cocaine-induced behavioral and neurochemical sensitization of relevance to drug addiction and related neuropsychiatric disorders. (
  • It covers a wide range of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for opioid, alcohol, cocaine and other stimulant and drug misuse, offering comprehensive coverage of interventions for drug and alcohol addiction. (
  • Cocaine used together with alcohol represents the most common fatal two-drug combination. (
  • A category of psychiatric disorders which include disorders related to the taking of a drug of abuse (including alcohol, prescribed medications and recreational drugs). (
  • Cocaine is more dangerous when combined with other drugs or alcohol. (
  • Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Alcohol and Cocaine Use Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. (
  • This study evaluates the use of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of alcohol and cocaine use disorders. (
  • Anxiety symptoms can be due to: 1) an anxiety disorder, 2) another psychiatric disorder, 3) a medical disease or disorder, and 4) the use of, or withdrawal from, alcohol and other drugs. (
  • and alcohol, have all been known to cause, or aggravate a pre-existing anxiety disorder. (
  • Cocaine, pentobarbital (a fast-acting sedative), nicotine and alcohol are next, followed by marijuana and possibly caffeine. (
  • Promote abstinence and relapse prevention during and after treatment for an alcohol and/or substance use disorder (TREATMENT). (
  • While young racial/ethnic groups are the fastest growing population in the United States, data on alcohol and drug use disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds are lacking. (
  • Among past-year alcohol or drug users (n=27,705), Native Americans (32%), multiple-race adolescents (25%), whites (23%), and Hispanics (21%) had the highest rates of alcohol or drug use disorders. (
  • These groups also are disproportionately affected by alcohol and drug use disorders. (
  • Furthermore, there is a growing need for understanding alcohol and drug use disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds to track health statistics, plan for and improve health services, and identify vulnerable subgroups for focused intervention. (
  • COCAINE WITHDRAWAL & TREATMENT - Cocaine and alcohol or any other drugs, even if taken in small amounts, is an incredibly dangerous polysubstance abuse. (
  • Proctor found alcohol was the most prevalent substance use disorder diagnosis in 2008, followed by cannabis and cocaine. (
  • In sharp contrast, the substance use disorder category involving stimulants was the most prevalent diagnosis in 2016, followed by alcohol and opioids. (
  • The prevalence of cannabis use disorder remained relatively constant, but there was a dramatic drop in alcohol and cocaine use in 2008 and 2016. (
  • The categories used were: heroin-related disorder, alcohol-related disorder, cocaine-related disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. (
  • 30 Although increases in marijuana use following the establishment of marijuana dispensaries could reduce the occurrence of alcohol-related mortality by reducing the number of drivers driving under the influence of alcohol, other simultaneous factors at the state and local levels also may be responsible for these changes in traffic fatalities. (
  • Russell C. Callaghan, Jodi M. Gatley, Scott Veldhuizen, Shaul Lev-Ran, Robert Mann, and Mark Asbridge, "Alcohol- or Drug-Use Disorders and Motor Vehicle Accident Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study," Accident Analysis and Prevention, 53 (2013) 149-155, . (
  • Several hospitalizations for alcohol-related illness can occur before a direct connection is made between a patient's alcohol use and medical problems. (
  • Alcoholic patients tend to experience many alcohol-related problems before seeking professional help or attending AA meetings. (
  • Psychiatrists participating in a hospital survey positively identified alcohol abuse two-thirds of the time, whereas physicians treating gynecology patients diagnosed the disorder only 10% of the time. (
  • Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have long been used for conditions including various psychiatric disorders, insomnia, acute alcohol withdrawal, and epilepsy [ 7 ]. (
  • Neural substrates underlying vulnerability and resilience to alcohol use disorder and comorbid conditions like PTSD, anxiety and depressive disorders. (
  • The time to peak effects of cocaine depends on the dose and route of administration. (
  • What are the effects of cocaine? (
  • Physical tolerance to the effects of cocaine can occur after just a few uses. (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of buprenorpine on cocaine taking and on the physiological and subjective effects of cocaine, including cocaine craving in non-opiate d. (
  • drug dependent human volunteers in the laboratory, and through examination of the effects of pharmacotherapies on the above effects of cocaine. (
  • The physical and mental side effects of cocaine can manifest almost immediately after a single dose and disappear within a few minutes to one hour. (
  • The effects of cocaine can be different from person to person, and also from one use to the next. (
  • Review the acute and chronic effects of cocaine use, including effects on fetal development. (
  • Increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in early crack cocaine withdrawal. (
  • The dependent person also experiences cocaine withdrawal. (
  • Withdrawal symptoms develop within hours or days after cocaine use that has been heavy and prolonged and then abruptly stopped. (
  • The onset of withdrawal symptoms can cause a person to use more cocaine to avoid these painful and uncomfortable symptoms. (
  • stop cocaine/crack use because withdrawal symptoms are developing. (
  • Repeated use of cocaine that typically includes a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state. (
  • In addition, the opioid-induced disorders of opioid intoxication and opioid withdrawal are listed in the substance-related disorders section as well. (
  • The use and withdrawal from several street drugs are also implicated in precipitating, or worsening, an anxiety disorder. (
  • Sustained feelings of shame or humiliation and the attendant self-criticism may be associated with social withdrawal, depressed mood , and Dysthymic or Major Depressive Disorder. (
  • Certain isolated conditions related to caffeine are recognized in the DSM-5's "substance related" section, however: caffeine intoxication, caffeine withdrawal and other caffeine-induced disorders (e.g. (
  • Furthermore, a disorder is noted when withdrawal symptoms occur because of a decrease in the drug amount and frequency, as well as stopping the use of the drug entirely. (
  • Recognize the withdrawal syndrome associated with cessation of cocaine use. (
  • Desired treatments by patients included counseling, medical withdrawal, or medical maintenance with the drug of abuse or a chemically related drug. (
  • 1 These disorders are divided into two groups: substance use disorders (SUDs) and substance-induced disorders (ie, intoxication, withdrawal, and other substance/medication-induced mental disorders). (
  • Inhibition of dopamine reuptake in the CNS synapses, such as in the nucleus accumbens, contributes to the euphoria associated with cocaine. (
  • Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury during Adolescence Enhances Cocaine Rewarding Efficacy and Dysregulates Dopamine and Neuroimmune Systems in Brain Reward Substrates. (
  • Cocaine causes your dopamine levels to rise causing the user to feel euphoric. (
  • Cocaine prevents the dopamine, and other neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, from being taken up into the nerve cells. (
  • Dopamine receptors are implicated in cocaine reward and seeking. (
  • We hypothesize that (-)-stepholidine, a dopamine D1/D2/D3 multi-receptor agent, would be effective in reducing cocaine reward and seeki. (
  • It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter. (
  • Nicotine, like cocaine or heroin, artificially stimulates the release of dopamine. (
  • Currently, our principal research focus concerns nicotinic receptor systems and their interactions with related transmitter systems such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinepherine, GABA and glutamate. (
  • Using this method, we show that cocaine modifies dopamine release in two ways: dopamine concentration transients increase in frequency and magnitude, whereas a gradual increase in steady-state dopamine concentration occurs over 90 s. (
  • This approach enables separation of the pH-related signal that accompanies dopamine release from stimulated neurons. (
  • It can also be smoked after being processed into a form called crack cocaine. (
  • Cocaine is prepared from the leaves of the plant Erythroxylon coca , and is available as cocaine hydrochloride (a water-soluble powder or granule which can be taken orally, intravenously or intranasally) and as "freebase" or "crack" cocaine (heat stable, melting at high temperatures, thus allowing it to be smoked). (
  • Drugs in the 10 classes vary in how likely they are to cause a substance use disorder. (
  • Thus, doctors now prefer to use the more comprehensive and less negative term 'substance use disorder. (
  • Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder that involves the abuse of stimulants. (
  • thus it can not be diagnosed as a stimulant use disorder or any other substance use disorder. (
  • Chronic, noncancer pain is common among patients being treated for a substance use disorder but studies indicate that such disorders are more than 90% likely to appear before the onset of pain symptoms. (
  • The following article examines assessment and risk for developing a substance use disorder (SUD) in relation to chronic pain and pain management. (
  • Patients being treated for a substance use disorder commonly report chronic, noncancer pain, 3 and, in turn, a history of SUD occurs frequently among patients who receive treatment for chronic, noncancer pain. (
  • The DAWN Report: Highlights of the 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Findings on Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. (
  • Cocaine abuse is associated with numerous detrimental health effects. (
  • The cocaine abuse impairs the affected person's judgment, and he or she puts him- or herself in physical danger to use the substance. (
  • The drugs of abuse currently being tested using this new approach are nicotine, cocaine, phencyclidine and methamphetamine. (
  • Cocaine continues to be one of the most widely used substances of abuse around the world. (
  • A number of different disorders that result from the abuse of a class of medications known as sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics (SHA). (
  • Accessed January 10, 2017. (
  • Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., promiscuous sex, eating disorders , binge eating , substance abuse , reckless driving). (
  • Cocaine - Cocaine Answers are from DSM-IV-TR or the Substance Abuse Practice Guideline, AJP Supplement, August 2006. (
  • Although cocaine has been a drug of abuse for decades, research on the treatment of cocaine use disorder was delayed until the later part of the 20th century. (
  • He also serves as an Expert Advisor and Expert Witness to various law firms on matters related to substance abuse, is on the Board of Directors of the Minneapolis-based International Institute of Anti-Aging Medicine, and is a member of several professional organizations. (
  • Specific, consequences of cocaine abuse on health and psycho-social functioning were assessed in 55 cocaine-abusing subjects who called a telephone "helpline. (
  • Strategies devised to treat cocaine abuse have existed since its intractable lure for some first became obvious almost a century ago. (
  • Issues related to current psychological strategies will be discussed first, followed by a summary of evidence indicating cocaine abuse may cause neuroadaptation. (
  • The latter includes a review of pharmacological strategies, aimed at reversal of such adaptation, which may hold future potential as adjuncts in cocaine abuse treatment. (
  • Epidemiological Characteristics An estimated 193,034 U.S. emergency department visits solely for cocaine use were documented in the 2001 Drug Abuse Warning Network (Office of Applied Studies 2003), and cocaine is the most frequently reported drug in emergency department visits. (
  • According to the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1.8 million individuals in the United States had used cocaine during a 1-month period. (
  • Individuals prone to polysubstance abuse tend to use sedatives for their calming effects (i.e., to come down after use of a stimulant such as cocaine) and for their ability to decrease dysphoric affects, including anxiety, or to potentiate euphoric effects of other drug classes (e.g., benzodiazepines in combination with methadone to boost euphoria). (
  • 4 Between 3% and 48% of patients who suffer from chronic, noncancer pain also have a current substance abuse disorder. (
  • In human clinical trials, cocaine and nicotine vaccines have been shown to induce antibody titers while producing few side effects. (
  • Nicotine, however, is treated separately psychiatrically under tobacco use disorder. (
  • Nicotine disorders are caused by the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco. (
  • Another form of anxiety is the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. (
  • Cocaine-related psychiatric disorders have been well-documented in the literature. (
  • This alphabetical list of Mental Disorders , also called Psychological Disorders , Psychiatric Disorders, and Mental Illnesses has been gathered from a wide variety of sources including the DSM-IV, DSM 5, ICD-10 Chapter V, and online resources including the Wikipedia page on mental disorders . (
  • In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, cocaine use is classified under the category of stimulant-related disorders. (
  • Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment. (
  • Certain medical disorders or diseases can cause psychiatric symptoms. (
  • Anxiety Disorders are one of the most common psychiatric conditions, affecting fifteen to twenty per cent of the general population. (
  • Although there are no physiological tests that confirm borderline personality disorder, medical tests may be employed to exclude any co-occurring medical conditions that may present with psychiatric symptoms. (
  • The latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), the widely-used American Psychiatric Association guide for clinicians seeking to diagnose mental illnesses , defines Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as: "a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects, as well as marked impulsivity, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (
  • Frequent reasons for psychiatric consultation in the medical setting are cocaine overdose, positive results of a urine toxicological screen, cocaine-induced depression, cocaine-induced cardiac problems, and cocaine-induced psychosis. (
  • However, it has previously been difficult to distinguish whether this frequent prescribing was due to underlying psychiatric disorders or inappropriate prescribing. (
  • Admitting to treatment for a drug use disorder did not increase the specialized psychiatric treatment coverage of this patient group, disregarding use of prescribed benzodiazepines. (
  • These findings point towards inappropriate prescribing of benzodiazepines in many cases more than treatment for psychiatric disorders. (
  • On the other hand, initiation of psychiatric treatment for BZD users after admission to DUD treatment would be a likely indicator of an underlying psychiatric disorder. (
  • In the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud proposed cocaine for the treatment of depression, cachexia, and asthma. (
  • Maprotiline treats depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder. (
  • Sometimes this particular spectrum of symptoms can be secondary to a mood disorder such as depression or manic-depression. (
  • It is also very common for someone who suffers from a substance-related disorders to experience other mental health problems such as anxiety or depression as well. (
  • Either cocaine or crack used in conjunction with heroin is called a "speedball. (
  • This is similar to lifetime heroin use of 4% in Australia, but is significantly less than the 12% lifetime use of cocaine in the United States. (
  • Many famous personalities have died or encountered fatal consequences when they took "speedballs" or "power balls," a mixture of heroin (depressant) and cocaine (a stimulant). (
  • The emergence of illicitly manufactured fentanyl* (a synthetic, short-acting opioid with 50-100 times the potency of morphine) mixed into heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, with or without the users' knowledge, has increased the risk for fatal overdose ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Almost half of all drug related deaths involved opiates such as heroin and morphine. (
  • Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Syndemics Intervention with HIV-Positive, Cocaine-Using Women. (
  • Also known as Generalized Anxiety Disorder ) A condition in which people experience a constant state of high anxiety, which does not seem to be attributed to any particular cause. (
  • Before diagnosing a particular anxiety disorder, it is important to rule-out other possible causes of anxiety symptoms. (
  • Thus, in order for an anxiety disorder to be diagnosed, the clinician must determine whether the anxiety symptoms are severe enough to result in significant distress, or impairment in functioning. (
  • and the catchall categories Other Specified and Unspecified Anxiety Disorder. (
  • When the fear and anxiety symptoms are the direct effect of a medical condition, this would be referred to as an Anxiety Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition. (
  • When anxiety symptoms are a direct result of a prescription drug, over-the-counter drug, or street drug, then the correct diagnosis is Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder. (
  • Someone may not fully meet the diagnostic criteria for a particular anxiety disorder. (
  • In this case, they could receive a diagnosis of Other Specified Anxiety Disorder. (
  • Other Unspecified Anxiety Disorder is used when there are anxiety-like symptoms that cause significant distress or impaired functioning. (
  • However, there is insufficient information to determine what particular type of Anxiety Disorder may be present. (
  • If you're sitting in there on a clear day, trembling, sweating and feeling doomed, then you probably have an anxiety disorder. (
  • A type of primary anxiety disorder is the panic attack. (
  • If a person has six months or more of constant generalized anxiety and excessive worry with the physical and emotional repercussions of anxiety, this is called Generalized Anxiety Disorder. (
  • There is an anxiety disorder which occurs after a person has endured a shocking situation in which he has faced the possibility of his own death . (
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. (
  • Most commonly, stimulants such as Adderall, Ritalin, and Vyvanse are prescribed for both children and adults diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (
  • Safety and Efficacy of ADDERALL XR in the Treatment of Adolescents Aged 13-17 With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) Safety and Efficacy of ADDERALL XR in the Treatment of Adolescents Aged 13-17 With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (
  • January 29, 2013 Sponsor: AbbVie (prior sponsor, Abbott) Information provided by (Responsible Party): AbbVie ( AbbVie (prior sponsor, Abbott) ) Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to test if the investigational medication ABT-089 is a safe and effective treatment for children with Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD . (
  • Accessed January 10, 2017. (
  • A pulmonologist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the lungs and respiratory tract. (
  • If cocaine use is suspected, a thorough physical examination is warranted to help confirm the diagnosis and analyze the detrimental effects on the body. (
  • Self-diagnosis of this disorder is often inaccurate. (
  • Diagnosis is based on the self-reported experiences of the patient, as well as markers for the disorder observed by a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other qualified diagnostician through clinical assessment. (
  • These two cocaine-related disorders emphasize that the diagnosis of WG should not be made on the basis of ANCA testing alone. (
  • 1 Diagnosis of SUD is typically based on a pathological pattern of behaviors related to use of the substance. (
  • According to the mental health clinician's handbook, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revised (also known as the DSM-IV-TR ), the broad category of cocaine-related disorders can be subdivided into two categories: cocaine use disorders and cocaine-induced disorders. (
  • Adjustment Disorder is defined as a maladaptive response to a normal, psychosocial stressor that has occurred in the past three months, and is not caused by another mental illness. (
  • There was no effect of prenatal cocaine use on BSID mental performance or on growth. (
  • Accordingly, psychological treatments aim to reduce MA use and related problems, including symptoms of mental ill health. (
  • Homeless youth seem to be at elevated risk for a variety of mental health problems, including mood disorders, suicide attempts, and post traumatic stress disorder (Cauce et al. (
  • Therefore, it would not be diagnosed as a mental disorder. (
  • SAMHSA's National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357), (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service) is a confidential, free, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year, information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members facing mental and/or substance use disorders. (
  • The ultimate goal is to accelerate progress in these research areas to improve the prevention and treatment of mental health and addictive disorders. (
  • Depersonalization/derealization disorder involves a persistent or recurring feeling of being detached from one's body or mental processes (depersonalization), or from one's surroundings (derealization). (
  • This Text Revision incorporates information culled from a comprehensive literature review of research about mental disorders published since DSM-IV was completed in 1994. (
  • DSM-IV-TR , the handheld version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, is now available for both Palm OS and PocketPC handhelds. (
  • This Text Revision incorporates information culled from a comprehensive literature review of research about mental disorders and includes associated features, culture, age, and gender features, prevalence, course, and familial pattern of mental disorders. (
  • Most, I'm sure, wouldn't consider reading the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed.) for pleasure, and I think that's a shame. (
  • [3] BPD is classed on "Axis II", as an underlying pervasive or personality condition, rather than "Axis I" for more circumscribed mental disorders. (
  • Ten people aged between 90 and 99 were admitted with mental disorders due to the use of cocaine last year, shocking new NHS Digital figures show. (
  • She said: "Many people don't realise that cocaine use can cause mental health problems, resulting in people becoming so unwell they need to be admitted to hospital. (
  • Cocaine use can cause mental health problems such as anxiety and paranoia, while doctors have linked the rise in cheap, potent coke to an increase in suicide rates. (
  • While there is no single cause of substance-related problems, some factors put people at an increased risk for developing this type of mental health disorder. (
  • Kind of blue': creativity, mental disorder and jazz. (
  • Iatrogenic stigma is stigma resulting from the attitudes and behaviors of healthcareprofessionals this may limit help seeking when symptoms of a mental disorder first appear. (
  • Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health condition with strong changes in mood and energy. (
  • An individual who is addicted to opioids cannot simply just stop using, despite significant negative consequences related to their use. (
  • Substance use disorders related to opioids and stimulants were relatively infrequent in 2008. (
  • Understanding potential links and mitigation strategies may help physicians when prescribing opioids to patients with substance use disorders. (
  • Other substances which could cause anxiety would be stimulants like diet pills, amphetamines or cocaine. (
  • Amphetamines are a first-line treatment for ADHD and have shown promise for the treatment of cocaine use disorder (CUD), both alone and with comorbid ADHD. (
  • The goal of this paper is to outline some of the major tools used by cognitive neuroscience - beginning with experimental design and behavioral measures, and then followed by a discussion of some of the neuroimaging tools (fMRI, electroencephalography and event-related potentials [EEG/ERP], and magnetoencephalography [MEG]) - and to highlight how those tools have been used to understand food decision-making. (
  • Earlier studies of Homer1 gene knock-out (KO) mice indicated active, but distinct, roles for IEG and constitutively expressed Homer1 gene products in regulating cognitive, emotional, motivational and sensorimotor processing, as well as behavioral and neurochemical sensitivity to cocaine. (
  • Moreover, the data indicate a specific role for Homer1a in regulating cocaine-induced behavioral and neurochemical sensitization of potential relevance to the psychotogenic properties of this drug. (
  • The essential feature of SUD is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues using the substance despite significant substance-related problems. (
  • 16 Behavioral effects of SUDs (eg, repeated relapses and intense drug cravings) reflect brain changes that are evident even after detoxification when the individuals are exposed to drug-related stimuli. (
  • Updated May 2016. (
  • Among the first, most consistent, and broadly replicated of such findings in drug‐ (including cocaine) dependent individuals has been the reduction in subcortical (striatal) D2/3 receptors as imaged, most commonly, by the reversible, non‐selective, D2/3 receptor antagonist radiotracer, [11C]raclopride. (
  • However, little is known about the relationship between the 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors following cocaine exposure in humans. (
  • This study examined the effect of prenatal cocaine use on infant physical, cognitive, and motor development, and temperamental characteristics, controlling for other factors that affect infant development. (
  • Findings from multivariate profile analyses support a consistent, modest effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on neurobehavioral functioning in full-term neonates. (
  • Finally, in 1970, the Controlled Substances Act prohibited the possession of cocaine in the United States, except for limited medical uses. (
  • In addition to their stand-alone use, both cocaine and crack are often mixed with other substances. (
  • Cocaine typically contains considerable amounts of other substances such as talc, borax and levamisole. (
  • In this latter case treatment would be for the mood disorder. (
  • Roncero C, Ros-Cucurull E, Daigre C, Casas M. Prevalence and risk factors of psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent patients. (
  • Proctor said that although prevalence estimates of substance use disorders are provided annually for the non-institutionalized U.S. general population through nationally representative surveys, such methods are absent for correctional populations. (
  • Stepholidine reduces cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration in rats. (
  • Normalizing effects of modafinil on sleep in chronic cocaine users. (
  • Dose-related neurobehavioral effects of chronic cocaine use. (
  • Effects of chronic cocaine self-administration and N-acetylcysteine on learning, cognitive flexibility, and reinstatement in nonhuman primates. (
  • Chronic cocaine insufflation can cause sinusitis, irritation and bleeding of the nasal membranes, a perforated nasal septum (the membrane that divides the two nostrils) and vasculitis. (
  • 21477060 2011 08 23 2018 12 01 1521-0391 20 3 2011 May-Jun The American journal on addictions Am J Addict Effects of galantamine on cocaine use in chronic cocaine users. (
  • Discuss the epidemiology of cocaine use. (
  • These findings are consistent with other reports in the literature and with the hypothesis that prenatal cocaine exposure affects development through changes in neurotransmitter systems. (
  • Influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on full-term infant neurobehavioral functioning. (
  • The ONS stated that there had been 4,393 deaths relating to drug poisoning in 2019, a small increase from 4,359 in 2018. (
  • Cocaine use seems to be partly to blame for the increase in deaths with a 34.2 per cent increase from 2018. (
  • Cicero said that means 71 people died of drug-related causes in Hartford in 2018. (
  • Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Acute Cardiac Care Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. (
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most commonly reported cardiac consequence of cocaine misuse, usually occurring in men who are young, fit and healthy and who have minimal, if any, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most commonly reported cardiac consequence of cocaine misuse, but significant arrhythmias are also reported. (
  • 2 , 5 Cocaine appears to cause acute myocardial ischaemia or infarction in patients with and without pre-existing coronary artery disease. (
  • 10 This is supported by the postmortem findings of acute platelet-rich thrombi in fatal cocaine-related infarcts in both normal and atherosclerotic coronary vessels. (
  • Background Acute aortic dissection associated with cocaine use is rare and has been reported predominantly as single cases or in small patient cohorts.Methods Our study analyzed 3584 patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996 to 2012. (
  • however, mortality was significantly lower in type A C+ patients.Conclusions Cocaine use is implicated in 1.8% of patients with acute aortic dissection. (
  • Official data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) shows that 2019 had the highest number of drug-related deaths registered in more than a quarter of a century. (
  • Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. (
  • Cocaine is dangerously addictive, and users of the drug experience a "high"-a feeling of euphoria or intense happiness, along with hypervigilance, increased sensitivity, irritablity or anger, impaired judgment, and anxiety. (
  • Cocaine and crack are powerful stimulants and highly addictive. (
  • In higher doses, it is also more addictive than regular cocaine that is snorted. (
  • The aim of the section is to offer a strong international and well-recognized venue for scientific and clinical publications in the field of addictive disorders in order to meet the needs and opportunities of the 21st century. (
  • All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Addictive Disorders, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section. (
  • Articles published in the section Addictive Disorders will benefit from the Frontiers impact and tiering system after online publication. (
  • Our findings challenge popular notions that cocaine is a benign "recreational" drug and that the intranasal route of administration guarantees protection against addictive patterns of use and adverse effects. (
  • A promising lead towards an effective treatment comes from a recent finding that pretreatment with oral l-tetrahydropalmitine (l-THP) in rats attenuated the cocaine seeking associated with a cocaine challenge, while having no motor effects. (
  • Impulsiveness as a moderator of amphetamine treatment response for cocaine use disorder among ADHD patients. (
  • He said cocaine usage is growing in men and women and added that it was more important than every for treatment bodies to develop 'clinical interventions' for cocaine users. (
  • Many women struggling with their cocaine use may be apprehensive about walking through the doors of a drug treatment centre. (
  • This intermediate course is designed for psychologists who are involved in the evaluation or treatment of persons who use cocaine. (
  • Select possible treatment modalities for cocaine use disorder, including psychosocial therapy, pharmacotherapy, immunotherapy options, alternative/complementary approaches, and interventions for non-English-proficient patients. (
  • In a nationwide cohort study, we investigated the prescribing of benzodiazepines to patients with drug use disorders in connection with treatment admission. (
  • Benzodiazepine prescriptions to patients (N = 33203) aged 18 to 67 years admitting for outpatient treatment for drug use disorders in Denmark, 2000 to 2010, were studied by using linked data from nationwide health registries. (
  • Benzodiazepines were commonly prescribed to patients admitting to treatment for drug use disorders, and included prescription of multiple and non-optimal types, high doses, and very long-term prescriptions. (
  • Read more about bipolar disorder treatment. (
  • Cocaine potentiates defensive behaviors related to fear and anxiety. (
  • Psychosocial approaches have been widely used to help cocaine-dependent patients achieve better outcomes after drug cessation, but literature indicates that these strategies alone are at times insufficient to induce significant behavioural changes or a reduction in rates of drug consumption. (
  • In other words, someone who is dependent on cocaine needs more cocaine to produce the same "high" that a lesser amount produced in the past. (
  • The dependent person uses larger amounts of cocaine for longer periods of time than intended. (
  • Indeed, even after a period of abstinence, cocaine-dependent individuals remain vulnerable to stress and other craving-inducing stimuli, which, in turn, lead to intense physiological responses and various negative feelings such as anger and sadness. (
  • Real-time daily monitoring of craving and drug use has shown that craving predicts cocaine relapse among cocaine-dependent individuals. (
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between platelet 5-HTT, a presynaptic 5-HT measure, and prolactin (PRL) response to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a postsynaptic 5-HT receptor agonist in cocaine dependent individuals. (
  • METHODS: Platelet [3H] paroxetine binding sites were assayed and the m-CPP challenge test was performed in 35 African American cocaine dependent individuals and 33 controls. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disturbances in serotonin transporter binding and post-synaptic 5-HT receptor function seem to be associated in cocaine-dependent subjects. (
  • This project will evaluate the role of the 5-HT2CR:5-HT2AR balance in impulsive action and cue reactivity in cocaine-dependent subjects as compared to non-drug using controls. (
  • The 5-HT2CR Cys23Ser SNP is thought to decrease the function of the protein and a preliminary observation indicates cocaine-dependent subjects carrying the CC genotype (Ser23 protein variant) display significantly higher cue reactivity. (
  • There are a number of proposed mechanisms of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction. (
  • Phase I of the trial will assess the effects of CBD or placebo administration on cocaine craving in the context of a 10-day inpatient medical detoxification period. (
  • This study will examine cocaine-derived reinforcement under week-long sub-chronic varenicline (Chantix) dosing, and under placebo conditions. (
  • Levamisole had been prescribed for humans in the past but was discontinued after developing side effects similar to those found in the cocaine users. (
  • Also known as ADHD ) This is a neurodevelopmental disorder, meaning that the disorder is present at the time of birth. (
  • We don't know whether a change in crime prevention strategy is driving law enforcement to prioritize meth-related crimes, leading to more arrests of people with stimulant use disorders, or whether increased use of meth is leading to an increase in meth-related crimes. (
  • Rare cases of benzoylecgonine detection in the urine for 22 days following cocaine use have been reported. (
  • This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure status through maternal interview and urine and meconium toxicology assays. (
  • Preliminary findings show l-THP is safe and well tolerated in cocaine users, with no adverse interactions with cocaine. (
  • Small amounts of cocaine usually make the user feel euphoric, energetic, talkative, mentally alert and hypersensitive to sight, sound and touch. (

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