An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A characteristic symptom complex.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Societies whose membership is limited to nurses.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.
A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Inosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). An inosine nucleotide which acts as a mild inhibitor of the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and as an inhibitor of cat heart cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

A nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, reduces cue-induced cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent subjects. (1/1808)

We have previously shown that nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. In the present study, the effects of a nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, on cue-induced cocaine craving were investigated. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to mecamylamine (2.5 mg tablet) or placebo in a single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study. Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cocaine cues with visual analog scales for desire to use cocaine and mood. Skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate were recorded before and during cocaine cues. Following exposure to cocaine cues, all patients reported an increase in cocaine craving and anxiety relative to the precue measures. Cue exposure also produced an increase in skin conductance and decrease in skin temperature. The cue-induced increase in cocaine craving was reduced, while the cue-induced skin conductance and temperature responses were unaffected, by mecamylamine. These findings show that cue-induced cocaine craving is attenuated by mecamylamine. Further study on the use of mecamylamine in relapse prevention programs are suggested.  (+info)

Methadone treatment by general practitioners in Amsterdam. (2/1808)

In Amsterdam, a three-tiered program exists to deal with drug use and addiction. General practitioners form the backbone of the system, helping to deal with the majority of addicts, who are not criminals and many of whom desire to be free of addiction. Distinctions are made between drugs with "acceptable" and "unacceptable" risks, and between drug use and drug-related crime; patients who fall into the former categories are treated in a nonconfrontational, nonstigmatizing manner; such a system helps prevent the majority of patients from passing into unacceptable, criminalized categories. The overall program has demonstrated harm reduction both for patients and for the city of Amsterdam.  (+info)

Do alcohol and cocaine abuse alter the course of HIV-associated dementia complex? (3/1808)

Although psychoactive drugs are commonly used by AIDS patients, it is unclear whether commonly abused drugs, such as cocaine and ethanol, affect the course of HIV-associated dementia (HADC). Epidemiological studies have resulted in conflicting conclusions as to what role, if any, abused drugs play in HADC. In this review we discuss the clinical and pathological evidence that cocaine and ethanol might exacerbate the detrimental effects of HIV infection on the brain. We also review studies of cocaine and ethanol effects on various components of the immune system both in the presence and absence of retroviral infection. Data from these studies indicate that cocaine and ethanol have profound effects on the immune system that, in many respects, are enhanced by retroviral infection. We conclude that abused drugs likely affect the course of HADC but that proof awaits an examination of their interactive effects in an appropriate in vivo system of retroviral encephalitis.  (+info)

Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica. (4/1808)

Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively.  (+info)

Relative potency of levo-alpha-acetylmethadol and methadone in humans under acute dosing conditions. (5/1808)

levo-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) and methadone are full mu-opioid agonists used to treat opioid dependence. Current labeling indicates that LAAM is less potent than methadone. Clinical studies have not determined the relative potency of these drugs. This study compared the effects of acute doses of LAAM and methadone and also examined the ability of naloxone to reverse their effects. Five occasional opioid users received once weekly doses of either placebo, LAAM, or methadone (15, 30, or 60 mg/70 kg p.o.) in agonist exposure sessions and then received naloxone (1.0 mg/70 kg i.m.) 24, 72, and 144 h after agonist exposure. Subject-rated, observer-rated, and physiological measures were assessed regularly. Comparisons of physiological and subjective measures collected in agonist exposure sessions indicate that LAAM is not less potent than methadone under acute dosing conditions. For some measures, LAAM was significantly more potent. Three subjects who entered the study were withdrawn for safety reasons due to greater than anticipated and clinically relevant respiratory depression after receiving 60 mg of LAAM. Naloxone did not fully reverse the pupil constriction produced by 60 mg of LAAM. Acute agonist effects suggest that LAAM may be more potent than methadone and more potent than current labeling indicates. An accurate LAAM:methadone relative potency estimate will aid determination of adequate doses for opioid-dependent patients inducted onto LAAM and for methadone maintenance patients who choose to switch to more convenient thrice-weekly LAAM.  (+info)

Midfacial complications of prolonged cocaine snorting. (6/1808)

Acute and chronic ingestion of cocaine predisposes the abuser to a wide range of local and systemic complications. This article describes the case of a 38-year-old man whose chronic cocaine snorting resulted in the erosion of the midfacial anatomy and recurrent sinus infections. Previously published case reports specific to this problem are presented, as are the oral, systemic and behavioural effects of cocaine abuse.  (+info)

Predicting posttreatment cocaine abstinence for first-time admissions and treatment repeaters. (7/1808)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined client and program characteristics that predict posttreatment cocaine abstinence among cocaine abusers with different treatment histories. METHODS: Cocaine abusers (n = 507) treated in 18 residential programs were interviewed at intake and 1-year follow-up as part of the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Program directors provided the program-level data in a mail survey. We applied the hierarchical linear modeling approach for the analysis. RESULTS: No prior treatment and longer retention in DATOS programs were positive predictors of posttreatment abstinence. The interactive effect of these 2 variables was also significantly positive. Program that offered legal services and included recovering staff increased their clients' likelihood of cocaine abstinence. Crack use at both the client and program level predicted negative impact. None of the program variables assessed differentially affected the outcomes of first-timers and repeaters. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment repeaters were relatively difficult to treat, their likelihood of achieving abstinence was similar to that of first-timers if they were retained in treatment for a sufficient time. First-timers and repeaters responded similarly to the treatment program characteristics examined. The treatment and policy implications of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

Effects of contingent and non-contingent cocaine on drug-seeking behavior measured using a second-order schedule of cocaine reinforcement in rats. (8/1808)

Rats were trained to respond with intravenous cocaine as the reinforcer under a fixed interval 15-min schedule, during which conditioned stimuli paired with cocaine were presented contingent on completion of a fixed ratio of 10 responses (i.e., second-order schedule of reinforcement). The effects of contingent and noncontingent cocaine were investigated. The results show that pretreatment with noncontingent (i.e., experimenter-administered) cocaine led to a satiation-like effect that was reflected in decreased numbers of responses and a tendency for an increased latency to initiate responding when the doses of cocaine administered were similar to or higher than the training/maintenance dose of cocaine. By contrast, noncontingent administration of cocaine doses lower than the training/maintenance dose, and response-contingent cocaine administration, led to increased drug-seeking behavior, as reflected in increased numbers of responses. The present data indicate that at least two factors determine whether administration of cocaine would lead to drug-seeking behavior: whether the cocaine administration is contingent or noncontingent, and the relative magnitude of the cocaine dose administered in relation to the training/maintenance dose of cocaine.  (+info)

OBJECTIVE: A previous pilot trial evaluating computer-based training for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT) in 77 heterogeneous substance users (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and opioids) demonstrated preliminary support for its efficacy in the context of a community-based outpatient clinic. The authors conducted a more definitive trial in a larger, more homogeneous sample. METHOD: In this randomized clinical trial, 101 cocaine-dependent individuals maintained on methadone were randomly assigned to standard methadone maintenance or methadone maintenance with weekly access to CBT4CBT, with seven modules delivered within an 8-week trial. RESULTS: Treatment retention and data availability were high and comparable across the treatment conditions. Participants assigned to the CBT4CBT condition were significantly more likely to attain 3 or more consecutive weeks of abstinence from cocaine (36% compared with 17%; p,0.05, odds ratio=0.36). The group assigned to CBT4CBT also had better outcomes on ...
Drug and Alcohol Findings Effectiveness Bank analysis titled: Randomized trial of continuing care enhancements for cocaine-dependent patients following initial engagement
Cocaine dependence remains a serious public health problem; however no clearly effective pharmacological treatments have been identified to date. The investigators hypothesize that identification of subgroups of cocaine-dependent patients will help to develop targeted and more effective treatments. The investigators have observed that 30-40% of cocaine-dependent patients who enter our medication trials achieve abstinence during the lead-in period (the two weeks prior to starting medication). Initial abstinence is strongly predictive of abstinence during the subsequent medication trial. The investigators have also observed that a low dopamine release in the striatum is associated with greater choice of cocaine in volunteers and failure of cocaine-dependent patients to respond to behavioral treatment. The investigators hypothesize that individuals who have difficulties in achieving abstinence have a deficit in dopaminergic functioning and correcting this deficit using dopaminergic medication LCE ...
(Maternal Cocaine Use and Birth Defects) Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified.
We previously showed that chronic cocaine use by active illicit users produced a longer plasma half-life than expected based on acute low-dose cocaine studies. Here we report urinary excretion patterns of cocaine metabolites as benzoylecgonine (BE) equivalents from 18 of the same individuals, housed …
Learn more about Cocaine Use Disorder at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Cocaine Use Disorder at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
2011 & In Press. Bell, R.P., Foxe, J.J., Nierenberg, J., Hoptman, M.J., Garavan, H. White Matter Integrity as a Function of Abstinence Duration in Former Cocaine-Dependent Individuals. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2011, 114(2-3): 159-168.. Butler, J.S., Molholm, S., Fiebelkorn, I.C., Mercier, M.R., Schwartz, T.H., and Foxe, J.J. Common or redundant neural circuits for duration processing across audition and touch. Journal of Neuroscience, 2011, 31(9): 3400-3406.. Krakowski, A., Ross, L.A., Sehatpour, P., Snyder, A.C., Kelly, S.P., and Foxe, J.J. The neurophysiology of human biological motion processing: A high-density electrical mapping study. Neuroimage, 2011, 56(1): 373-383.. Brandwein, A.B., Foxe, J.J., Russo, N., Altschuler, T., Gomes, H., Molholm, S. The development of audiovisual multisensory integration across childhood and early adolescence: A high-density electrical mapping study. Cerebral Cortex, 2011, 21(5): 1042-1055. Foxe, J.J., Yeap, S., Kelly, S.P., Snyder, A.C., Thakore, J.H., ...
Edward F. Pace-Schott has an educational background that includes a B.A. degree in biology, an M.S. degree in oceanography and limnology, an M.A. degree in counseling psychology, and a Ph.D. degree in behavioral neuroscience. He currently serves as a Clinical Instructor in psychology at the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School. He based at Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Mass. His addiction research has utilized repeated-measure assessments of sleep, attention, and executive function in cocaine-dependent individuals to study interactions of drug withdrawal, sleep, and cognition. His current research on the emotional regulatory function of sleep utilizes psychophysiological techniques in humans to investigate the effects of sleep on consolidation and generalization of extinction learning in experimental fear conditioning paradigms and exposure treatment for anxiety disorders. In the field of addiction, he is currently interested in research designed to produce extinction of
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified an impairment in a brain region that might explain why it is difficult for persons with cocaine addiction to cease using the drug.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data, the research team found among cocaine-addicted individuals an impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which governs impulse and self-control, possibly explaining why these individuals cannot form new associations for certain stimuli.. Our study data suggests that it will be hard for longtime cocaine users to unlearn what once was a positive experience if this unlearning or new learning relies on this brain region to be effective, said Anna Konova, PhD, formerly with the Icahn School and now a postdoctoral fellow at New York Universitys Center for Neural Science.. The study compared 18 chronic cocaine users to 15 non-using controls on extinction learning activities resembling the exposure therapy often used to treat anxiety ...
The different clinical trajectories of cocaine-dependent men and women may be a consequence of distinct neurobiological substrates. Hypoperfusion of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has previously been reported in individuals addicted to cocaine and ha
Changes in ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle impact responses to cocaine in women. Studies have shown that cocaines effects are dampened during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen and progesterone concentrations are high, relative to the other phases of the cycle, when concentrations of these hormones are relatively low. The purpose of this study is to determine whether progesterone reduces subjective and physiological responses to cocaine in cocaine dependent individuals. In addition, this study will help to advance the possibility of hormonal progesterone and pharmacologically related drugs as potential treatment components for cocaine abuse.. Participants will undergo two 4-day inpatient periods, totaling 8 days of treatment. For women, the inpatient periods will occur during two consecutive menstrual cycles; for men, they will occur during two consecutive months. On Day 1, participants will receive a first dose of either progesterone or placebo. On Day 2, ...
LOS ANGELES (KTLA) -- The L.A. County Coroners Office says Whitney Houstons death was an accidental drowning in the bathtub of her suite at the Beverly Hilton Hotel. But, in its preliminary
Tenderness is the language of the young children, of those who need the other. A childs love for mom and dad grows through their touch, their gaze, their voice, their tenderness. I like when I hear parents talk to their babies, adapting to the little child, sharing the same level of communication. This is tenderness: being on the same level as the other. God himself descended into Jesus to be on our level. This is the same path the Good Samaritan took. This is the path that Jesus himself took. He lowered himself, he lived his entire human existence practicing the real, concrete language of love. Yes, tenderness is the path of choice for the strongest, most courageous men and women. Tenderness is not weakness; it is fortitude. It is the path of solidarity, the path of humility. Please, allow me to say it loud and clear: the more powerful you are, the more your actions will have an impact on people, the more responsible you are to act humbly. If you dont, your power will ruin you, and you will ...
Cocaine. Crack cocaine continues to dominate the Nations illicit drug problem. The overall number of current cocaine users did not change significantly between 1995 and 1996 (1.45 million in 1995 and 1.75 million in 1996). This is down from a peak of 5.7 million in 1985. Nevertheless, there were still an estimated 652,000 Americans who used cocaine for the first time in 1995. Supplies remain abundant in nearly every city. Data indicate a leveling off in many urban areas: cocaine-related deaths were stable or up slightly in 9 of the 10 areas where such information was reported; emergency department (ED) mentions increased in only 4 of the 19 CEWG cities in the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN);*** the percentage of treatment admissions for primary cocaine problems declined slightly or remained stable in 12 of the 14 areas where data were available; and prices of cocaine remained stable in most areas. Although demographic data continue to show most cocaine users as older, inner-city crack ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The sons of fathers who use cocaine may be less likely to become addicted to the drug themselves. - Emily Babay, Philadelphia
Probing Active Cocaine Vaccination Performance through Catalytic and Noncatalytic Hapten Design. J Med Chem. 2013 Apr 29; Cai X, Whitfield T, Hixon MS,
Call our Waukegan alcohol and drug rehab staff today at (312) 212-3025 for affordable, accredited alcohol and drug addiction rehab programs.
Pharmacologic treatment options for many substance use disorders (SUDs) are limited. This is especially true for cocaine use disorder and cannabis use disorder, for which there are no FDA-approved medications. FDA-approved medications for other SUDs often take the form of replacement or agonist therapies (eg, nicotine replacement therapy) that substitute the effects of the substance to aid in cessation. Other pharmacotherapies treat symptoms of withdrawal, reduce craving, or provide aversive counter-conditioning if the patient consumes the substance while on the medication (eg, disulfiram). The over-the-counter (OTC) antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be a potential treatment for SUDs. Although NAC is not approved by the FDA for treating SUDs, its proposed mechanism of action differs from that of current FDA-approved medications for SUDs. NACs potential for broad applicability, favorable adverse-effect profile, accessibility, and low cost make it an intriguing option for patients with ...
Chronic cocaine use alters the epigenetic profile of the FosB gene in the hippocampus. These alterations are required for cocaine-dependent gene expression and cocaine environment associations. Modification of hippocampal FosB results in a condition critical for cocaine-related learning.... Read More... ...
Another name for Abuse Crack is Cocaine Abuse. Complications of cocaine abuse during pregnancy include: * Women who use cocaine during pregnancy give ...
Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ceremonies.
Performance on standard (i.e., non-drug-related) neuropsychological tasks is frequently compromised in drug-addicted individuals compared with healthy control subjects (Woicik et al., 2009). In contrast, compared with neutral stimuli (including words), drug stimuli/words can enhance behavioral responses in drug-addicted individuals; although relatively better, these unique drug-related behavioral responses predict disadvantageous treatment outcome in this population (Cox et al., 2006). Our results show, for the first time, that drug words (uniquely human learned verbal descriptors of stimuli) increased fMRI-BOLD responses in the mesencephalon, a major source of dopaminergic release to motivationally salient or conditioned stimuli (Robinson and Berridge, 1993; McClure et al., 2003) in cocaine-addicted individuals. These results may reflect the strong conditioned incentive properties of the drug words in the addicted group. It is possible that this increased mesencephalic response to drug words ...
A study shows that chronic cocaine abuse speeds up the process of brain aging. The research revealed that age related loss of grey matter inside the human brain is increased in those who are addicted to cocaine in comparison to healthy people.For the research, the investigators scanned the brains of 120 individuals ...Read More... ...
Anton, R.F., Litten, R.Z., Falk, D.E., Palumbo, J.M., Bartus, R.T., Robinson, R.L., Kranzler, H.R., Kosten, T.R., Meyer, R.E., OBrien, C.P., Mann, K., Meulien, D. : The Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative (ACTIVE): purpose and goals for assessing important and salient issues for medications development in alcohol use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 37(2): 402-411, 2012 Notes: PMCID: PC3242301 ...
Ironically, the explosion of basic-science knowledge about ASD and possible drug treatments is emerging at a time when major pharmaceutical companies are canceling drug-development programs for ASD and other mental disorders, citing costs, difficulties and the recent failures of what were deemed good prospects. Many National Institutes of Health officials, research scientists and affected families are fearful that progress in medication development will slow in the face of the industrys retreat from neuroscience drug development ...
When a person uses cocaine, he may become so enamored of the intoxicating effects of cocaine use that he may not even want to know about the damaging effects of the drug. But that would be a serious mistake.
Characterization and inhibition of a cholecystokinin-inactivating serine peptidase. Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behavior by a partial dopamine D(sub3) receptor agonist
BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence indicates that exposure to cocaine influences the activity of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) as well as several 5-HT receptor subtypes. However, little is known about the relationship between the 5-HTT and 5-HT receptors following cocaine exposure in humans. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between platelet 5-HTT, a presynaptic 5-HT measure, and prolactin (PRL) response to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a postsynaptic 5-HT receptor agonist in cocaine dependent individuals. METHODS: Platelet [3H] paroxetine binding sites were assayed and the m-CPP challenge test was performed in 35 African American cocaine dependent individuals and 33 controls. Clinical measures included assessments of drug use severity and depression. RESULTS: Cocaine subjects showed reduced Bmax of [3H] paroxetine (t=4.67, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal cocaine use and infant behavior. AU - Neuspiel, D. R.. AU - Hamel, S. C.. AU - Hochberg, E.. AU - Greene, J.. AU - Campbell, D.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - We hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure results in less optimal infant behavior and more impaired maternal-infant interaction in healthy term infants. Infants were evaluated with the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) at days 1-3 and 11-30 of age, and mother-infant pairs with the Nursing Child Assessment of Feeding Scale (NCAFS) at 7-16 weeks of age. Drug use was determined from confidential interviews, urine assays and medical records. Cocaine-exposed infants (N=51) were no different than unexposed comparison infants (N=60) on the first NBAS exam. On the second NBAS exam, 20 cocaine-exposed infants had slightly lower motor cluster scores compared with those of 32 unexposed infants (p=0.01), but this difference was reduced after control for several confounding variables. The NCAFS detected no ...
Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a persons initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking. ...
Nicotine sensitizes the mouse brain to the addictive effects of cocaine, according to recent NIDA-supported research. The results accord with the hypothesis that a persons initial use of an addictive substance physiologically sensitizes his or her brain to the rewarding and addictive effects of other substances. If the findings carry over to people, then preventing youths from smoking might reduce their vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction, and cocaine-dependent individuals might ease their path to recovery by quitting smoking. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction. T2 - A scientific statement from the American Heart Association acute cardiac care committee of the council on clinical cardiology. AU - McCord, James. AU - Jneid, Hani. AU - Hollander, Judd E.. AU - de Lemos, James A. AU - Cercek, Bojan. AU - Hsue, Priscilla. AU - Gibler, W. Brian. AU - Ohman, E. Magnus. AU - Drew, Barbara. AU - Philippides, George. AU - Newby, L. Kristin. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. KW - AHA Scientific Statement. KW - Cocaine. KW - Myocardial infarction. KW - Substance-related disorders. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188950. DO - 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.188950. M3 - Review article. C2 - 18347214. AN - SCOPUS:41949126112. VL - 117. SP - 1897. EP - 1907. JO - Circulation. JF - Circulation. SN - 0009-7322. IS - 14. ER - ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Gooding, D.C., Ott, S.L., Roberts, S.A., & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (2013). Thought disorder in mid-childhood as a predictor of adulthood diagnostic outcome: Findings from the New York High-Risk Project. Psychological Medicine, 43, 1003-1012.. Gooding, D.C., Tallent, K.A., & Matts, C.W. (2005). Clinical status of at-risk individuals five years later: Further validation of the psychometric high-risk strategy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 170-175.. Gooding, D.C. & Pflum, M.J. (2013). The assessment of interpersonal pleasure: Introduction of the anticipatory and consummatory interpersonal pleasure scale (ACIPS) and preliminary findings. Psychiatry Research, doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.012.. Gooding, D.C., Gjini, K., Burroughs, S,, & Boutros, N.N. (2013). The association between psychosis-proneness and sensory gating in cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, 210, 1092-1100.. Gooding, D.C. & Basso, M.A. (2008). The tell-tale tasks: A review of saccadic research ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains reward center from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
A second problem with the ADHD stimulant use issue is the misconception that people with true ADHD are less susceptible to the positive reinforcing effects of stimulants than people without ADHD. There are certainly subgroups of person with this diagnosis that do not like to take stimulants. They find that stimulants decrease their appetite, given them increased anxiety and insomnia, and in many cases leave them feeling more restricted, affectively blunted and less spontaneous. I find that these patients are generally selected out by the time they are adults. They had true ADHD diagnoses in middle school, did not like the stimulants, or in many cases their parents did not like the effect they were seeing and they were taken off of them. They may have developed significant coping strategies based on their dislike of stimulant effects. Like many adult psychiatric disorders there is no one uniform phenotype, and the phenotype of the person who was diagnosed either as a child or an adult and who ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
The state medical examiners office ruled Tuesday that the death of a Trinity student in November was accidental and caused by a rare stomach disorder that was exasperated by cocaine use.
1] M. Gossop, V. Manning, and G. Ridge, Concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine: differences in patterns of use and problems among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder, Alcohol Alcohol., vol. 41, pp. 121-125, 2006.. [2] H. R. Sumnall, G. F. Wagstaff, and J. C. Cole, Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users, J. Psychopharmacol., vol. 18, pp. 75-82, 2004.. [3] M. Graziani, P. Nencini, and R. Nisticò, Genders and the concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol: Pharmacological aspects, Pharmacol. Res., vol. 87, pp. 60-70, 2014.. [4] L. J. Bierut, J. R. Strickland, J. R. Thompson, S. E. Afful, and L. B. Cottler, Drug use and dependence in cocaine dependent subjects, community-based individuals, and their siblings, Drug Alcohol Depend., vol. 95, pp. 14-22, 2008.. [5] T. Apantaku-Olajide, C. D. Darker, and B. P. Smyth, Onset of cocaine use: Associated alcohol intoxication and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in substance abuse treatment, J. Addict. Med., vol. 7, pp. ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Back. Brain and Cocaine. Techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) have shown in human cocaine abusers some of the ways by which cocaine produces its pleasurable effects as they are occurring. Researchers suggest that cocaine works in large part by occupying or blocking dopamine transporter (DAT) sites, thereby preventing reuptake of dopamine by the brain cells that release it, which then allows higher concentrations of dopamine to remain available in the brain longer than normal. It is this abnormally long presence of dopamine in the brain that is believed to cause the high and other effects associated with cocaine use.. Comparing the functioning of the dopamine system in the brains of chronic cocaine users with that in non-users, the researchers found that, compared to the non-users, the cocaine-dependent group showed reduced dopamine responses to the drug in the striatum, a region of the brain linked to motivation control and reward. At the same time, they found an abnormal increase in ...
The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging scans of thirty people with cocaine dependence as well as thirty six control subjects that were recreational drinkers. Whilst having brain scans, the researchers then gave subjects personalized cues (events or situations) that the participants had said were personally stressful along with other cues involving alcohol or cocaine.. Not surprisingly, those with cocaine dependence exhibited greater activation in broad parts of the brain associated with addiction and motivation compared to the control subjects. However, patterns of activation between the groups differed considerably in women and men when given stress or drug cues.. The results indicate that women with cocaine dependence could possibly benefit from stress reduction therapies which specifically target these cravings. On the other hand, men with cocaine dependence could possibly get more benefit from aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy or 12-step programs according to the ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug. Crack baby was a term coined to describe children who were exposed to crack (freebase cocaine in smokable form) as fetuses; the concept of the crack baby emerged in the US during the 1980s and 1990s in the midst of a crack epidemic. Other terms are cocaine baby and crack kid. Early studies reported that people who had been exposed to crack in utero would be severely emotionally, mentally, and physically disabled; this belief became common in the scientific and lay communities. Fears were widespread that a generation of crack babies were going to put severe strain on society and social services as they grew up. Later studies failed to substantiate the findings of earlier ones that PCE has severe disabling consequences; these earlier studies had been methodologically flawed (e.g. with small sample sizes and confounding factors). Scientists have come to ...
Because DSM-IV cocaine dependence (CD) is heterogeneous, it is not an optimal phenotype to identify genetic variation contributing to risk for cocaine use and related behaviors (CRBs). We used a cluster analytic method to differentiate homogeneous, highly heritable subtypes of CRBs and to compare their utility with that of the DSM-IV CD as traits for genetic association analysis. Clinical features of CRBs and co-occurring disorders were obtained via a poly-diagnostic interview administered to 9,965 participants in genetic studies of substance dependence. A subsample of subjects (N = 3,443) were genotyped for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 130 candidate genes related to addiction. Cluster analysis of clinical features of the sample yielded five subgroups, two of which were characterized by heavy cocaine use and high heritability: a heavy cocaine use, infrequent intravenous injection group and an early-onset, heavy cocaine use, high comorbidity group. The utility of ...
Review question We investigated whether psychostimulant substitution was safe and effective for treating patients with cocaine dependence.. Background Cocaine dependence is a frequent disorder for which no medication has been approved for treatment. Substitution therapy involves the replacement of the abused drug, which is often illegal and used several times a day, by a legal, orally administered and longer-acting one. A substitute drug has to have similar effects as the abused one, but with a lower addictive potential, enabling drug abstinence and patient adherence to medical and psychological assistance. This strategy can increase the abstinence rate in patients with heroin and tobacco dependence. In this review, we investigated whether psychostimulant substitution with medications that have psychostimulant effect was effective for treating patients with cocaine dependence.. Search date: the evidence is current to 15 February 2016.. Studies and participants characteristics We reviewed the ...
Cocaine abuse has become the most abused major stimulant in the USA and statistics show that emergency room visits for it are increasing. Cocaine abuse has been around for as long as anyone can remember.. Derived from the innocent cocoa plant, it is considered the champagne of drugs, one of its street names. There is an array of street names describing the different uses.. There are various ways that an addict will use this drug, amongst them being snorting, smoking one of the derivatives known as crack or rock. Historically, cocaine was known as the rich mans drug. This is changing rapidly as teenagers have found a new sensation in mixing it with marijuana.. The highly addictive nature of cocaine makes it an extremely dangerous drug and many a user will tell you that theyre not addicted. This is so far from the truth to be ridiculous. If cocaine abuse isnt a problem to the addict, how come they are still using it?. No-one would willingly remain addicted. The penalties are extreme. ...
If you or someone you know is living with cocaine may feel hopeless. Take hope! Here, we review the many ways cocaine addiction is treated.
Occurs within minutes to hours of excessive cocaine use. Some patients may die suddenly before treatment is given. Presentation includes tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, mydriasis, and agitation. Urine cocaine screen confirms recent cocaine use, but treatment should not be de...
Cocaine Addiction Centers in Cedar Rapids, IA. Find phone numbers, addresses and information about Cocaine Addiction Centers in Cedar Rapids.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
Cocaine addiction has become a major problem and epidemic in this country. Thousands of individuals and families are negatively affected by the use and abuse of cocaine every year. Cocaine is expensive, but individuals who use the drug to enhance their nightlife experience or work longer hours certainly are not afraid of long term consequences and repercussions. But as the years went on, studies began to find that long-term cocaine users were at risk for heart disease, heart failure, liver problems and other serious concerns. In addition, the financial burden that cocaine puts on families often lead to broken homes and lost trust. It is apparent that the need for cocaine rehab is immediate and must be confronted and addressed as soon as possible. Cocaine rehab refers to the process of helping an individual overcome their physical and psychological addiction to cocaine. This is accomplished through detoxification, individual counseling and cognitive therapy. In addition, a recovering cocaine ...
Crack cocaine is a powerful stimulant that often causes hallucinations, erratic behavior and significant urges to repeat use. Crack addiction is a difficult habit to kick.
Along with Recovery Lighthouse, Worthing and the South Coast house many private Cocaine rehab clinics. Our Cocaine addiction treatment is well respected in the local community and is the default provider of cocaine addiction recovery for residents of wards, districts and neighbourhoods in Worthing such as Broadwater, Findon Valley, Goring and Durrington. A key component of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation, Worthing region is divided into 13 wards and is part of a two-tier structure of local government split between West Sussex County Council and Worthing Borough Council, who offer little in terms of public provision of Cocaine detox and rehabilitation treatment.. While residential Cocaine detox is the start of many of our patients recovery from addiction, it is not the end as we also offer a highly integrated behavioural rehabilitation programme. Most inhabitants of Heene, High Salvington, Offington, Salvington and West Tarring avail of our Care Quality Commission approved 28-day ...
Another name for Addicted to Cocaine is Cocaine Abuse. Facts about cocaine abuse: * At least 1.5 million Americans use cocaine. * Cocaine use is most ...
Toronto Mayor Rob Fords confessed criminal conduct including smoking crack cocaine should be front and centre in mayoral debates.
In this cross-sectional study, the researchers sought to classify a sample of HIV-positive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug ...
Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and
For help with cocaine addiction or other drug addictions call 1-877-340-0184 or visit us right away! We have support available 24\\7, around the clock.
Background: Lipid profiles in the blood are altered in human cocaine users, suggesting that cocaine exposure can induce lipid remodeling. ...
This from The Irish Examiner: 14 May 2008 700% rise in cocaine users seeking initial treatment By Cormac OKeeffe THERE has been a 700% rise in the number of cocaine users seeking treatment...
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"Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM Library, American ... Nicotine dependence Amphetamine dependence Cocaine dependence Substance use disorder American Psychiatric Association. " ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ... "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders". In American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...
The drug was also under development for the treatment of cocaine-related disorders, obesity, and schizophrenia, but development ... Human clinical studies also showed that ecopipam was an effective antagonist of the acute euphoric effects of cocaine. However ... As of 2021, Emalex Biosciences is investigating its potential use for central nervous system disorders. Open-label studies have ... Baik JH (October 11, 2013). "Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors". Front Neural Circuits. 7: 152. doi:10.3389/fncir. ...
Cocaine, Epigenetics, Substance-related disorders). ... Cocaine addiction is the compulsive use of cocaine despite ... They applied this knowledge to investigate whether these gene expression changes are involved in cocaine-related behavioral and ... Acute cocaine injections induced c-fos and CREB expression via D1 receptors and repeat cocaine administration, which is ... It was also found that the H3 acetylation induced by cocaine increased Sirt1 in the nucleus accumbens. Thus, repeated cocaine ...
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Volume 38, February 2020, 101496 Corina Roman-Filip, Aurelian Ungureanu, Ileana ... Article at Lucas M.Pessini, Tumefactive inflammatory leukoencephalopathy in cocaine users: Report of three ... Rare Neuroimmunologic Disorders Symposium [1] Mahad D. J., Ziabreva I., Campbell G., Lax N., White K., Hanson P. S., Lassmann H ...
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related ... alcohol-induced headache Headache induced by food components and additives Monosodium glutamate-induced headache Cocaine- ... jaws or related structures Headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder Headache attributed to ... attributed to other disorder of homoeostasis Headache attributed to disorder of cranial bone Headache attributed to disorder of ...
Alcohol use disorder Date rape drug Dependence (behavioral medicine) Drug addiction Drug-related crime Pimp Prenatal cocaine ... Having another mental health disorder: Other mental health disorders such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder can ... cocaine, crack cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, for sex workers at 16 to 19 years of age who have taken drugs, over 70% of them ... Cocaine and other stimulants have also been reported to increase the confidence of streetwalkers' ability to talk to strangers ...
Tovoli, Francesco (2015). "Clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders". World Journal of Clinical Cases. 3 (3 ... cocaine, and some retro-viral drugs Severe potassium deficiency Fibromyalgia Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Auto-immune disorders, ... Viral Compression injury leading to crush syndrome Drug-related Commonly fibrates and statins Occasionally ACE inhibitors, ... myalgia syndrome Barcoo Fever Herpes Hemochromatosis Delayed onset muscle soreness HIV/AIDS Generalized anxiety disorder Tumor- ...
... amphetamine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.300 - cocaine-related disorders MeSH F03.900.635 - marijuana abuse MeSH F03.900.650 ... alcohol-related disorders MeSH F03.900.100.050 - alcohol amnestic disorder MeSH F03.900.100.050.500 - korsakoff syndrome MeSH ... panic disorder MeSH F03.080.725 - phobic disorders MeSH F03.080.931 - stress disorders, traumatic MeSH F03.080.931.249 - combat ... conduct disorder MeSH F03.550.300 - child behavior disorders MeSH F03.550.325 - child development disorders, pervasive MeSH ...
... may often accompany a substance use disorder (SUD); if persistent substance-related problems exist, SUD ... cocaine F15. caffeine F16. hallucinogens F17. tobacco F18. volatile solvent F19. multiple drug use and use of other ... The ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders due to psychoactive substance use shows: F10. alcohol F11. opioids F12. ... Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 146-. ISBN 978-0-470-74520-5. ...
ISBN 978-0-19-530171-7. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alvin Ailey. Wikiquote has quotations related to Alvin Ailey. ... Following the death of his friend Joyce Trisler, a failed relationship, and bouts of heavy drinking and cocaine use, Ailey ... He was diagnosed as manic depressive, known today as bipolar disorder. During his rehabilitation, Judith Jamison served as co- ... Ailey died from an AIDS-related illness on December 1, 1989, at the age of 58. He asked his doctor to announce that his death ...
Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... Libido disorders, disorientation, and visual hallucinations are very rarely reported. Priapism is a very rare adverse event ... It should be used with extreme caution in people with bipolar disorder due to the potential induction of mania or hypomania. ... Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic (Chapter 2), and ...
Cocaine, [amphetamine], and methamphetamine are the major psychostimulants of abuse. The related drug methylphenidate is also ... Libido disorders, disorientation, and visual hallucinations are very rarely reported. Priapism is a very rare adverse event ... Despite the claim made by some urban legends, it is not a cocaine derivative nor analog; cocaine is a local anesthetic and ... It should be used with extreme caution in people with bipolar disorder due to the potential induction of mania or hypomania. ...
... including alcohol use disorder, cocaine use disorder, and opioid use disorder. Suvorexant has been studied in people with type ... It is structurally related to other orexin receptor antagonists like lemborexant, daridorexant, and seltorexant. The orexin ... Schipper SB, Van Veen MM, Elders PJ, van Straten A, Van Der Werf YD, Knutson KL, Rutters F (November 2021). "Sleep disorders in ... In addition, orexin signaling appears to change with age, and this may be involved in age-related sleep disturbances. Orexin ...
... is classified as a delusional disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( ... It may be related to excess dopamine in the brain's striatum, resulting from diminished dopamine transporter (DAT) function, ... Several drugs, legal or illegal, such as amphetamines, dopamine agonists, opioids, and cocaine may also cause the skin ... anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and affective or substance-induced psychoses or other conditions such as ...
Cocaine-related deaths in Minnesota, Drug-related deaths in Minnesota, Grunge musicians, Musicians from San Diego, Musicians ... Weiland revealed in 2001 he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. In a 2005 interview with Esquire, Weiland said that while ... "Police: Cocaine Found On Scott Weiland's Tour Bus, Arrest Made". CBS Minnesota. December 4, 2015. Archived from the original on ... In 1995, Weiland was convicted of buying crack cocaine. He was sentenced to one year of probation. His drug use did not end ...
According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine ... A related alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some ... Kedzior KK, Laeber LT (May 2014). "A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders ... "Cannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis". ...
... but might be considered to be a controlled substance analogue of cocaine on the grounds of its related chemical structure, in ... It showed promising effects in alleviating the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in an animal model of the disorder. It is not ... the opposite way round compared to natural cocaine. It is structurally related to benztropine and has similar anticholinergic ... "The discovery of an unusually selective and novel cocaine analog: difluoropine. Synthesis and inhibition of binding at cocaine ...
Narcotics Anonymous Cocaine Anonymous Methadone Suboxone List of twelve-step groups Recovery model Self-help groups for mental ... "The impact of alcoholics anonymous on other substance abuse-related twelve-step programs". Recent Dev Alcohol. Recent ... health Substance use disorder "Local Drug and Alcohol Counseling Resources - Ashwood Recovery". "Heroin Anonymous - Heroin ...
Code and its State documents and sponsored legislation providing health care coverage for autism and its related disorders. ... He sponsored legislation to treat heroin, cocaine, and crack cocaine the same when it comes to punishing drug traffickers. ...
Cocaine-related deaths in California, Drug-related deaths in California, Accidental deaths in California, People from East St. ... Rasool said she talked to Turner about his bipolar disorder and witnessed its effects. "I would come in the room and see him ... He was convicted of cocaine intoxication and driving under the influence of cocaine in January 1990. The next month he was ... He took the cocaine home and tried it one night while writing songs at the piano. Turner said he liked the reduced need for ...
... as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Addiction is believed to be a disorder of experience-dependent brain plasticity. The ... E-cigarette related videos Robbing the Future - Advertising Aimed at Children. E-cigarettes - An Emerging Public Health ... The nicotine in e-cigarettes can also prime the adolescent brain for addiction to other drugs such as cocaine. Exposure to ... Other risks include mood disorders and permanent problems with impulse control-failure to fight an urge or impulse that may ...
... as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Addiction is believed to be a disorder of experience-dependent brain plasticity. The ... In 2019-2020, there was an outbreak of vaping-related lung illness in the US and Canada, primarily related to vaping THC with ... Substance-related disorders, Non-tobacco nicotine products, 2003 introductions, 21st-century inventions, Articles containing ... There is no research available on vaping for reducing harm in high-risk groups such as people with mental disorders. A 2014 PHE ...
... underlying disorder coexist with the jealousy The course of morbid jealousy closely relates to that of the underlying disorder ... cocaine, amphetamines, marijuana.), organic brain disorders (i.e. Parkinson's, Huntington's), schizophrenia, neurosis, ... Unlike other delusional disorders, people who suffer from this disorder have a strong association with stalking, cyberstalking ... It can be found in the context of schizophrenia and delusional disorder, such as bipolar disorder, but is also associated with ...
Activity-Dependent Epigenetic Remodeling in Cocaine Use Disorder. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2019;10.1007/164_2019_257. doi:10.1007/ ... Calipari found that when hormones related to fertility are high, women make stronger associations to clues in their environment ... Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Alters the Pharmacodynamic Properties of Cocaine in Female Mice. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2019; ... "Cues play a critical role in estrous cycle-dependent enhancement of cocaine reinforcement". Neuropsychopharmacology. 44 (7): ...
Related Disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal 294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS 307.9 Communication Disorder NOS Conduct Disorder 312.81 ... or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior 307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder 307.45 Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Cocaine ... Related Disorder NOS 301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder 307.44 Hypersomnia related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II ... Related Disorder NOS 307.42 Insomnia Related to...[Indicate the Axis I or Axis II Disorder] 312.34 Intermittent Explosive ...
"What Are Anxiety Disorders?". Retrieved 2020-04-30. "Social Anxiety Disorder , Anxiety and Depression ... In regard to substance abuse, cocaine-dependent individuals report greater cravings for cocaine following exposure to a social ... and occupational prestige were all related to lower mortality in men. In women, however, only household income was related to ... This can lead to the development of an anxiety disorder (panic attacks, social anxiety, OCD, etc.). Social anxiety disorder is ...
This alteration is suggested to be related to the pathology, since antipsychotics do not regulate the expression of DARPP-32. A ... as well as being involved in the action of drugs including cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, LSD, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and ... DARPP-32 levels are decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lymphocytes of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ... "The leukocytes expressing DARPP-32 are reduced in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Progress in Neuro- ...
Furthermore, nightmares related to PTSD would be more stressful than idiopathic ones. However, further studies have to be ... Amphetamines, antidepressants, and stimulants like cocaine and caffeine can cause nightmares. Blood pressure medication, ... Dissociative disorders are usually paired with Nightmare Disorder 57% of the time. Nightmare disorder is believed to be ... Nightmare disorder, also known as dream anxiety disorder, is a sleep disorder characterized by frequent nightmares. The ...
Cluttering is a speech disorder that is related to pressure of speech in that the speech of a clutterer sounds improperly ... Psychostimulants such as cocaine or amphetamines may cause speech resembling pressured speech in individuals with pre-existing ... Bipolar disorder, Communication disorders, Symptoms and signs: Speech and voice). ... In many psychotic disorders, use of certain drugs amplifies certain expressions of symptoms, and stimulant-induced pressured ...
Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Inhalant 305.90 Abuse 304.60 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder ... Related disorder NOS Nicotine 305.1 Dependence 292.9 -Related disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal Opioid 305.50 Abuse 304.00 ... disorder 307.46 Sleep terror disorder 307.46 Sleepwalking disorder 307.47 Parasomnia NOS Sleep disorder Sleep disorder due to ...
Potential causes of brain hypoxia are suffocation, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe anemia, and use of drugs such as cocaine ... Baldwin, Robert C. (2005). "Is vascular depression a distinct sub-type of depressive disorder? A review of causal evidence". ... A closely related disease to brain ischemia is brain hypoxia. Brain hypoxia is the condition in which there is a decrease in ... "Cerebral Hypoxia Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. National Institutes of Health. ...
... -related posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychological disorder that can develop in women who have recently given ... Some physicians, many of whom had been using painkillers for the past fifty years, including opium, cocaine, and quinine, ... Around one per cent of women with eclampsia die.[medical citation needed] A puerperal disorder or postpartum disorder is a ... Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine ...
The drug has no taste or smell and causes mental disorders, which are accompanied by impaired coordination, a weakening ... Ukraine portal Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volodymyr Klychko. Official website Boxing record for Wladimir Klitschko ... citing problems with depression after testing positive for cocaine. The rematch with Klitschko was cancelled as a result. Days ...
Downey was arrested numerous times on charges related to drugs including cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. He went through drug ... and that previous attempts to diagnose him with any kind of psychiatric or mood disorder have always been skewed because "the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert Downey, Jr.. Wikiquote has quotations related to Robert Downey Jr.. Robert Downey ... Downey was under the influence of a controlled substance and in possession of cocaine and Valium. Despite the fact that, if ...
Hayashi T, Su TP (2004). "Sigma-1 receptor ligands: potential in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders". CNS Drugs. 18 (5 ... the effects of cocaine abuse, and cancer. Much is known about the binding affinity of hundreds of synthetic compounds to the σ1 ... There has been much interest in the sigma-1 receptor and its role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's ... as well as various structurally and pharmacologically distinct psychoactive chemicals such as haloperidol and cocaine, and ...
Through her mother, Brown was related to many singers and entertainers: her maternal grandmother was singer Cissy Houston of ... Blankstein, Andrew; Sewell, Abby (April 5, 2012). "Whitney Houston: Cocaine In System Not a Fatal Dose ..." Los Angeles Times. ... People with disorders of consciousness, Whitney Houston). ... Drug-related deaths in Georgia (U.S. state), Deaths from ... According to the statement, "marijuana, alcohol (ethanol), benzoylecgonine (a cocaine metabolite), benzodiazepines (medications ...
... such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, complaining disorders and bonding disorders (emotional ... A minority have a series of periodic relapses related to the menstrual cycle. Complete recovery, with a resumption of normal ... it was first described in cocaine and amphetamine addicts, but can also complicate ergot and bromocriptine prescribed to ... The prevalence and burden of bipolar disorder: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Bipolar Disorders 18: 440 ...
Bolla, K. I.; Brown, K.; Eldreth, D.; Tate, K.; Cadet, J. L. (2002-11-12). "Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana ... Forum, Addiction Policy (2020-09-18). "Ask the Expert: How do you treat methamphetamine use disorder". APF. Retrieved 2020-09- ... "Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in abstinent cocaine abusers performing a decision-making task". NeuroImage. 19 (3): 1085-1094 ...
... post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), "nervous breakdown" (psychotic episode), cocaine addiction, and the psychological ... Bogen related that some researchers regard that following the surgery of "splitting of the brain," a "single mind is cut into ... the author relates a case from the 1970s where a university student he was counseling for anxiety and depression seemed to ... The author then relates that when he had started to undergo psychoanalysis by Elvin Semrad as part of his psychiatric training ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to Theodore Dalrymple. Manhattan Institute Scholar - Theodore Dalrymple Anthony Daniels ... Coups and Cocaine: Two Journeys in South America (1986) Fool or Physician: The Memoirs of a Sceptical Doctor (1987) Zanzibar to ... Disorder and Incivility in British Hospitals: The Case For Zero Tolerance (book published by the Social Affairs Unit, 2002) ...
Media related to Unsolved deaths at Wikimedia Commons Portals: Law Lists (Harv and Sfn no-target errors, Webarchive template ... She had died of cocaine intoxication - ruled to be neither an accident nor a homicide - one day before the discovery of her ... Parekh, Rauf (2015-04-27). "Creativity and mental disorder: Urdu poets and writers who committed suicide". Retrieved ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to Brain. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brain. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 ... Research has shown that the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a central role: addictive drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, and ... Brain-computer interface Central nervous system disease List of neuroscience databases Neurological disorder Optogenetics ... The cerebellum modulates the outputs of other brain systems, whether motor-related or thought related, to make them certain and ...
This complication is related to the impact that alpha and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists have on blood vessels combined with the ... Amphetamines, nicotine, and cocaine can result in marked plasma norepinephrine levels. Lifestyle and Diet: As with most lab ... The National Organization for Rare Disorders is a United States-based advocacy parent organization with the goal of promoting ... Following resection, tumor-related hyperglycemia is likely to resolve. Hypoglycemia: After the tumor is removed, insulin is no ...
The cocaine experience: Refuting the concept of a model psychosis? Psychopathol 1992; 25: 71-78. K. Abe, N. Oda, R. Araki, et ... Macropsia is related to other conditions dealing with visual perception, such as aniseikonia and Alice in Wonderland Syndrome ( ... Children who experience nocturnal hallucinations accompanied by macropsia may seek medical care for panic attack disorders and ... Vitreomacular traction caused by the excessive adhesion of vitreous fluid to the retina is related to aniseikonia due to the ...
It can be a side effect of crying, exposure to cold temperatures, cocaine abuse, or drug withdrawal, such as from methadone or ... Rhinorrhea can also be the side effect of several genetic disorders, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia. In most cases, ... chronic congestion or sneezing not related to allergies), occupational asthma, pregnancy, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), ... ISBN 978-81-312-3501-0. Myon L, Delforge A, Raoul G, Ferri J (February 2010). "[Palatal necrosis due to cocaine abuse]". Rev ...
24 June 1989, Oria (Brindisi): Roberto Di Giovanni, 26 years old, suffering from a mental disorder that worsened after his ... Impounded 100 KGS of pure cocaine. 18 July 2009, fraction Bosco di Nanto, Vicenza: blitz to capture Battista Zanellato, 84 ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gruppo Intervento Speciale. Gruppo di Intervento Speciale (Italy) (CS1 Italian-language ... to qualify for the missions related to the direction from the ground of the airstrikes and the designation to the pilots of the ...
The settlement is related to the company's illegal promotion of prescription drugs, its failure to report safety data, bribing ... It has been argued that the design of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the expansion of the ... A drug was considered misbranded if it contained alcohol, morphine, opium, cocaine, or any of several other potentially ... There have been related accusations of disease mongering (over-medicalising) to expand the market for medications. An inaugural ...
The SNPs rs3785143 and rs11568324 have been related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Thus far, however, the only ... Cocaine is a powerful psychostimulant and known to be one of the most widely used substances recreationally. Cocaine is a ... There is evidence suggesting a relationship between NET SNPs and various disorders such as ADHD psychiatric disorders, postural ... may be less sensitive compared to normally functioning alpha-2 receptors and thus relate to elevated NE levels in the disorder ...
... is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss-related therapeutic benefits; however, in ... Reviews that cover attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and phenethylamine indicate that several studies have found ... of amphetamine or cocaine self-administration (Risner and Jones, 1977; Shannon and Thompson, 1984). In another study, high ... Scassellati C, Bonvicini C, Faraone SV, Gennarelli M (October 2012). "Biomarkers and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: ...
ISBN 978-0-09-189753-6. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robbie Williams. Wikiquote has quotations related to Robbie ... People with mood disorders, Port Vale F.C., Robbie Williams Band members, Take That members, World Music Awards winners, ... use of alcohol and cocaine brought him into conflict with Martin-Smith over the behaviour rules for Take That members. In ... Williams has a number of tattoos, many of which are related to British culture. These include: an Ace of Spades, commemorating ...
Movie related to the "stolen babies" case. Night of the Pencils (1986), directed by Héctor Olivera. A Wall of Silence (1993), ... social and political disorder. The months preceding his return were marked by important social movements as in the rest of ... Stefano Delle Chiaie and major drug lords mount the bloody Cocaine Coup of Luis García Meza Tejada in neighboring Bolivia. They ... Movie related to the Mansión Sere case. The Disappeared (2007), directed by Peter Sanders. Our Disappeared (2008), directed by ...
A number of other disorders, such as bipolar disorder and some sleep disorders such as delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), are ... ISBN 978-0-674-13581-9. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythm at Curlie (Wikipedia articles ... genetic manipulations of clock genes profoundly affect cocaine's actions. In 2017, Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael W. Young, and ... such as Advanced sleep phase disorder Delayed sleep phase disorder Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder Chronobiology CLOCK ...
This led to abuse of drugs such as cocaine, which quickly escalated into addiction. The catalysts for change eventually came in ... In 2019, Leigh revealed that she had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder a decade earlier. In mid-2020, Leigh published a ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chyler Leigh. Chyler Leigh at IMDb (CS1 French-language sources (fr), All articles with ... People with bipolar disorder, 21st-century LGBT people, Year of birth missing (living people)). ...
For example, an abnormal increase of CCL7 worsens many disorders, like HIV or lesional psoriasis. Furthermore, CCL7 is ... June 2016). "Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages". ... CCL7 is a small protein that belongs to the CC chemokine family and is most closely related to CCL2 (previously called MCP1). ...
Cocaine addiction is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly. Cocaine overdose may result in cardiovascular and brain ... Marijuana and related cannabis products are used by some clubgoers; for example, some Rohypnol and ketamine users mix the ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (ed.). ... The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the amount taken and the route of administration. Cocaine can be in the form of ...
... even when administered after cocaine exposure. Recently, he detailed the treatment of cocaine addiction with viruses. Janda and ... implicating nornicotine in the pathology of both age-related macular degeneration as well as smoking-related developmental ... protein glycation and thus provides an unrecognized pathway for the development of the pathology of tobacco use disorder; ... Carrera, M. R. A.; Kaufmann, G. F.; Mee, J. M.; Meijler, M. M.; Koob, G. F.; Janda, K. D. (June 28, 2004). "Treating cocaine ...
Nicotine and cocaine activate similar patterns of neurons, which supports the existence of common substrates among these drugs ... One person dies every six seconds from a tobacco related disease. Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the ... In 2015, a meta-analysis found that smokers were at greater risk of developing psychotic disorder. Tobacco has also been ... One study published by the NIH found that tobacco use may be linked to cocaine addiction and marijuana use. The study stated ...
There is a link between chronic tic disorders, which include Tourette syndrome and other disorders like ADHD and OCD. According ... Ness RB, Grisso JA, Hirschinger N, Markovic N, Shaw LM, Day NL, Kline J (February 1999). "Cocaine and tobacco use and the risk ... Mahid SS, Minor KS, Stromberg AJ, Galandiuk S (April 2007). "Active and passive smoking in childhood is related to the ... for the child to have a chronic tic disorder. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with psychiatric disorders ...
Pamela relates Jared's troubled childhood, and explains that she had only wanted to help him. Pamela appears again on June 3, ... Eventually, Jamie's criminal behaviour (including running a crack cocaine factory with drug lord Dante Medina, killing a fellow ... Harry soon engages in romance with Niki Smith, a personality symptom of Victoria's multiple personality disorder. The ... cocaine dealer, and kidnapping Cassie Callison) caught up with him and he was sent to Statesville Prison for a life sentence. ...
... opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disorders at 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100. Public ... It is a form of substance-related disorder. Differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal ... The terms "dual diagnosis" or "co-occurring disorders," refer to having a mental health and substance use disorder at the same ... For example, the US, devoid of such measures, has seen large increases in drug-related deaths since 2000 (mostly related to ...
The earliest reported use of cocaine dates back to times when the ancient inhabitants of Peru used the leaves for religious ... Cocaine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found within the leaves of a shrub, Erythroxylon coca. ... encoded search term (Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders) and Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders What to Read Next on ... Cocaine-Related Psychiatric Disorders Treatment & Management. Updated: Nov 18, 2021 * Author: Christopher P Holstege, MD; Chief ...
Systematic review of pharmacological treatment of cocaine dependence  World Health Organization. Management of Substance ... "Cocaine-Related Disorders". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Substance Related Disorders/. * Drug User/. * ((cocaine or heroin or crack or meth or opioid or inject$ methamphetamine or drug ... substance abusers OR drug users) AND (mental disorders prevention) The MEDLINE_OVID search for the literature on integration ... and mental disorder), drug use, integration (index term delivery of health care, integrated) ...
79] This association may be related to metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders. ... 11] including for people with any depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and phobic disorders have symptoms that make suicide a possibility. Persons struggling with ... Medication use is based on the patients underlying mental disorder. Each mental disorder requires specific medications and ...
... also called crack cocaine, is a highly addictive stimulant. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Learn about health effects ... Cocaine Smoking (National Institutes of Health) * Cocaine-Related Disorders (National ... Substance use -- cocaine (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Tips for Teens: The Truth about Cocaine (Substance Abuse and ... Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders [‎3]‎. Coinfection [‎4]‎. Comité régional de lEurope, 36e session [‎1]‎. ...
Categories: Cocaine-Related Disorders Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Cocaine* / administration & dosage * Cocaine-Related Disorders / physiopathology* * Extinction, Psychological* * Heroin ... Cocaine-seeking behaviour was reinstated by cocaine and amphetamine, but not by heroin. Interestingly, locomotor sensitization ... Heroin-seeking behaviour was reinstated by heroin (0.25 mg/kg), amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) and cocaine (10 mg/kg). In addition, ... Rats were allowed to self-administer heroin (50 microg/kg per inj., 14 daily sessions), cocaine (500 microg/kg per inj., 10 ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders. Psilocybin. Substance-Related Disorders. Chemically-Induced Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... Desire to cease cocaine use as indicated by a goal of complete cocaine abstinence on the Thoughts about Abstinence ... History of bipolar I or II disorder. *First or second-degree relatives with any psychotic disorders, or bipolar I or II ... Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
79] This association may be related to metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders. ... 11] including for people with any depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and phobic disorders have symptoms that make suicide a possibility. Persons struggling with ... Medication use is based on the patients underlying mental disorder. Each mental disorder requires specific medications and ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders *cocaine-related disorders. Loading. Connect with NLM * * * National Library of Medicine. 8600 ... Search Related Registry and CAS Registry/EC Number/UNII Code/NCBI Taxonomy ID Number (RN) ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders. 2. [disabled in preview]. 0. This preview shows a limited data set. Subscribe for full access, or ... reducing stimulated craving for cocaine in cocaine dependent individuals denied access to cocaine in inpatient unit. ... reducing stimulated craving for cocaine in cocaine dependent individuals denied access to cocaine in inpatient unit. ... Glutaminergic Agents for Cocaine Abuse - 5. Completed. Yale University. Phase 1. 1994-09-01. The purpose of this study is to ...
D23.946.833.850.325.220.244 Cocaine-Related Disorders C25.300 C25.775.300 Cocarcinogenesis C4.697.160 C4.697.98.875 C23.550. ... C25.775.100.87 Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System C25.100.87.193 C25.775.100.87.193 Alcohol-Related Disorders C25.775. ... C25.775.835 Substance-Related Disorders C25.775 Sweating G7.700.100.693 G7.700.345.421.693 G16.100.57.500.535.693 Swiss 3T3 ... D1.625.62.374 Amphetamine-Related Disorders C25.225 C25.775.225 Analgesics, Opioid D27.505.696.663.850.14.520 D27.505.696.277. ...
These may also be symptoms of a condition called antisocial behavioral disorder. ... Cocaine can cause antisocial behaviors like violence, stealing, lying and criminal activity. ... Cocaine use and antisocial behavioral disorder frequently occur together. Learn how these two conditions relate and how they ... Personality Disorders Co-Occurring Disorders Personality Disorders Statistics Cocaine Statistics Cocaine Addiction Cocaine & ...
Cocaine Medicine & Life Sciences 53% * Cocaine-Related Disorders Medicine & Life Sciences 11% ... Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D2R/D3R) appear critical to addictive disorders. Cocaine-use disorder (CUD) is associated ... N2 - Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D2R/D3R) appear critical to addictive disorders. Cocaine-use disorder (CUD) is ... AB - Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D2R/D3R) appear critical to addictive disorders. Cocaine-use disorder (CUD) is ...
Observational studies suggest that CBD may reduce problems related with crack-cocaine addiction, such as withdrawal symptoms, ... motivation to self-administer cocaine and METH, context- and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine and priming-induced ... are necessary to fully evaluate the potential of CBD as an intervention for cocaine and methamphetamine addictive disorders. ... Several studies have proposed that cannabidiol (CBD) could be a promising treatment for substance use disorders. In the present ...
Complete and unabridged definition of Narcissistic Personalty Disorder available on the Internet ... especially related to cocaine). Histrionic, borderline, antisocial, and paranoid personality disorders may be associated with ... Those who relate to individuals with narcissistic personality disorder typically find an emotional coldness and lack of ... Gender-Related Diagnostic Issues. Of those diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder, 50%-75% are male. ...
Cannabis and cocaine related mental disorders. Alexithymia in mental disorders. 39. Types and symptomatology of schizophrenia ... Anxiety disorders (amiety, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder) /2 x 2 hrs/. Conditions which mimic physical ... somatoform pain disorder) /2 x 2 hrs/. Psychosomatic disorders /2 x 2 hrs/. Psychosexual disorders/dysfunction and paraphilia / ... Alcohol related amnestic disorder (Korsakow syndrome). Types, diagnosis and treatment of suicidal behaviour. 30. Types of ...
Keywords : primary prevention; cognitive therapy; cocaine related disorders. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders 1 0 Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders 1 0 ... Panic Disorder 1 0 Note: The number of publications displayed in this table will differ from the number displayed in the HuGE ...
Palavras-chave : Crack-cocaine; cocaine-related disorders; population characteristics. · resumo em Português , Espanhol · texto ... problems related to family and social ties, high presence of psychological and psychiatric symptoms, beginning of crack ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders Entry term(s). Cocaine Related Disorders Cocaine-Related Disorder Disorder, Cocaine-Related Disorders ... Cocaine-Related Disorder. Dependence, Cocaine. Dependences, Cocaine. Disorder, Cocaine-Related. Disorders, Cocaine-Related. ... Abuse, Cocaine. Addiction, Cocaine. Cocaine Abuse. Cocaine Addiction. Cocaine Dependence. Cocaine Related Disorders. ... Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.. Allowable Qualifiers:. BL blood. CF cerebrospinal fluid. CL classification ...
... heroin-related disorder, alcohol-related disorder, cocaine-related disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood ... major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As if the other mental illnesses are not serious? ... Not danger to others but mostly stories with text related to violent crime (25%). Thirteen percent of the stories were related ... The percentage of students who self-reported family experience of a mental disorder ranged from 12% in India to 34% in Finland. ...
79] This association may be related to metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders. ... 11] including for people with any depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and phobic disorders have symptoms that make suicide a possibility. Persons struggling with ... Medication use is based on the patients underlying mental disorder. Each mental disorder requires specific medications and ...
Cocaine-Related Disorders Medicine & Life Sciences 90% * Impulsive Behavior Medicine & Life Sciences 79% ... and cocaine cue reactivity (responsivity to cocaine-associated stimuli) cited as two key phenotypes that contribute to relapse ... and cocaine cue reactivity (responsivity to cocaine-associated stimuli) cited as two key phenotypes that contribute to relapse ... and cocaine cue reactivity (responsivity to cocaine-associated stimuli) cited as two key phenotypes that contribute to relapse ...
Cocaine-induced organic mental disorder Active Synonym false false 78287018 Cocaine-related disorder Active Synonym false false ... Cocaine induced mental disorder Active Synonym false false 4670024012 Organic mental disorder caused by cocaine Active Synonym ... Organic mental disorder caused by cocaine (disorder). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Organic mental disorder caused by ...
exp cocaine OR exp cocaine-related disorders OR exp crack cocaine OR] AND [exp Myocardial Infarction OR myocardial ... He has had pain for 50 minutes after nasal cocaine. He is an occasional cocaine user who has not had chest pain previously. He ... Acute non-Q wave cocaine-related myocardial infarction. Chest1989;96:617-21. ... They also enrol patients who have taken cocaine hours before symptomatology, this contradicts the known pharmacology of cocaine ...
Substance-related disorders -- congressesNLM classification: WM 280 Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this ... 44Publication details: Rome : UNICRI, 1991. Description: 419 pISBN: 9290780185Subject(s): Cocaine -- congresses , ... Cocaine today : its effects on the individual and society , proceedings of the international seminar organized by the United ...
  • Most medical problems related to illicit drugs concerned cocaine and cannabis and mainly included sympathomimetic toxicity and/or psychiatric disorders confirming data from the prior year. (
  • Across studies, patients with addictive behaviors - the GD group and the SUD group, which included those addicted to nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, or cannabis ― and healthy control persons did not differ with respect to age and sex. (
  • reSET® is a 12-week duration, FDA-cleared prescription digital therapeutic to be used in conjunction with standard outpatient treatment for substance use disorder related to stimulants, cannabis, cocaine, and alcohol. (
  • This educational activity reviews other substance use disorders that often co-occur with opioid use disorder (OUD), including benzodiazepines and other tranquilizers, cocaine and stimulants, and cannabis. (
  • current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. (
  • In 2018, about one in every ten arrests made in South Dakota were related to cannabis, according to data by South Dakotans for Better Marijuana Laws. (
  • Many scientific reports have concluded that cannabis is much less harmful than heroin and cocaine, and some suggest even alcohol. (
  • Moreover, it is expected that cannabis can be applied as a reliever to syndromes of mobility impairment, physical drug dependence, neuronal disorder and psychiatric disease. (
  • The law enforcement cost to crack down on cannabis-related crimes is not worth the physical harm of cannabis itself. (
  • And the whole time I did this, I smoked cannabis nightly to alleviate Service-related injuries. (
  • Method: 298 outpatients (23% women) with CocUD underwent standardized assessments of substance dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-mental disorders, fourth edition, text revised), impulsiveness, resilience, and childhood trauma, using validated tools. (
  • DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Investigator's Abstract): For the majority of inner-city women with crack/cocaine dependence, chronic traumatic victimizations and their far-reaching psychological consequences are ongoing obstacles to achieving abstinence in early recovery from drug addiction. (
  • The proposed study aims to examine the efficacy of an enhanced cocaine treatment based on relapse prevention (RPT) which includes a specific manualized component geared towards coping with and reducing PTSD symptomatology for women with cocaine dependence. (
  • This randomized two-armed clinical trial will assess the relative efficacy of PTSDRPT versus RPT alone in treating inner- city women with cocaine dependence and comorbid PTSD over a three month period with repeated measures at baseline, completion of treatment (3 months), 3-month post-treatment follow-up and 6 month post-treatment follow-up. (
  • Methylation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is dysregulated by cocaine dependence in the human striatum. (
  • Cocaine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disorder caused by lasting changes in the brain. (
  • however, it is unclear how methylation is related to cocaine dependence in humans. (
  • We generated methylomic profiles of the nucleus accumbens using human postmortem brains from a cohort of individuals with cocaine dependence and healthy controls (n = 25 per group). (
  • These results suggest that cocaine dependence alters the epigenetic regulation of dopaminergic signaling genes. (
  • Patients diagnosed with an addiction and meet at least three of the above Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria should seek and enter chemical dependence programs that offer within them a plan that is solely focused on helping them overcome their dependence and prevent relapses. (
  • Individuals abusing crack cocaine may swiftly find themselves in the cycle of dependence and addiction. (
  • Cocaine Cocaine is an addictive stimulant drug made from leaves of the coca plant. (
  • Cocaine is a strong stimulant that increases alertness, causes euphoria, and makes people feel powerful. (
  • Cocaine (COC) is a potent CNS stimulant that is metabolized to benzoylecgonine (BE) and further metabolized to minor metabolites such as m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine (m-HOBE). (
  • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug that increases alertness, focus, and energy. (
  • Cocaine is an addictive stimulant drug that can be smoked, inhaled, or injected into the bloodstream. (
  • Crack cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant that can be smoked or snorted. (
  • This intense craving, coupled with the stimulant properties of crack cocaine, can cause a person to exhibit paranoia and violent behavior. (
  • Indeed, the metabolic disturbances observed between normal mice and those with an impaired dopamine D2 receptor signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons is greatly enhanced by cocaine, a substance of abuse and psychomotor stimulant, as shown in the pie charts. (
  • Being a stimulant, cocaine can trigger the release of chemicals and endorphins in the brain. (
  • Purchase Solaraze gel : Cocaine is a stimulant and an addictive drug. (
  • Misusing drugs such as cocaine is one such antisocial behavior. (
  • Cocaine use increases the likelihood of violent behavior. (
  • While personality disorders are thought to be life-long patterns of behavior, their symptoms can be managed effectively. (
  • Substance use disorders generally involve behavior patterns in which people continue to use a substance despite having problems caused by its use. (
  • Antagonism of the orexin system attenuates motivation for cocaine, escalation of cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior. (
  • In this study, we focus on the response of the MHb to reinstatement of cocaine-associated behavior, demonstrating that cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference engages habenula circuitry. (
  • Seems that counties with higher lithium levels in the water had a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of homicide, suicide, arrests for opiates and cocaine, and violent criminal behavior. (
  • Nevertheless, it was very poorly understood and it was generally thought that the solution was to eat less and burn more calories, and that the inability to achieve desired results was related to laziness and undisciplined behavior. (
  • For a number of reasons, people receiving treatment for the movement disorder Parkinson's disease have increased risks for the onset of sex addiction, a form of behavioral addiction centered on recurring, dysfunctional participation in sexual fantasy, thought or behavior. (
  • However, affected individuals may underreport sex-related changes in thinking or behavior to their doctors. (
  • People dealing with Parkinson's disease may deny or overlook addiction-related changes in their sexual thinking or behavior. (
  • The categories used were: heroin-related disorder, alcohol-related disorder, cocaine-related disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. (
  • Some researchers say people must already have a predisposition for a mental disorder like schizophrenia for these types of negative reactions to occur, while others disagree. (
  • Other researchers say drugs, nicotine, and other factors that aren't pot muddy up the results in studies searching for a real correlation between pot and schizophrenia, nor other mental disorders. (
  • The average reduction in life expectancy in people with bipolar disorder is between 9 and 20 years, it's 10-20 years for schizophrenia, between 9 and 24 years for drug and alcohol abuse, and around 7-11 years for recurrent depression. (
  • Mental, neurological and substance use disorders include common mental health conditions such as depressive and anxiety disorders, severe mental disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and, common among children, conduct disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity and developmental disorders. (
  • Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder that causes changes in your thoughts, perceptions, emotions and behaviours. (
  • Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder that causes changes in a person's thoughts, perceptions, emotions and behaviours. (
  • Family history: Being related to other family members with schizophrenia can increase a person's risk of getting schizophrenia. (
  • the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA) found that 1 in 12 American adults (over 18 million) had a substance use disorder in 2017. (
  • Compared with healthy control persons, patients with a gambling disorder (GD) or substance abuse disorder (SUD) showed decreased activation of the striatum, a core region of the brain reward circuit, during "reward anticipation. (
  • Alternatively, the increased vulnerability to addictive disorders in people with ADHD may also be related with some of the core symptoms of this neurodevelopmental disorder, such as impulsivity, which is also a significant feature of substance abuse. (
  • The person answering the call to the NJ addiction hotline has the training and specialized knowledge in mental health and substance abuse to help them deal with people in a variety of situations related to addiction, including alcoholism treatment. (
  • In this regard, it has been found that university substances has long-term effects and is associated with students are the population that is most vulnerable to the many risks, including poor health, quality of life ( 6 ) and risk of substance abuse and addiction-related problems. (
  • Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D 2 R/D 3 R) appear critical to addictive disorders. (
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (a part of the National Institutes of Health), cocaine affects the brain by increasing the levels of dopamine, a natural chemical messenger in the brain's reward circuit. (
  • Unlike natural dopamine, cocaine use causes a buildup of the chemical between nerve cells and interrupts normal communication. (
  • In 1984, after interviewing thousands of cocaine addicts, Gold and colleagues proposed a novel dopamine theory to explain cocaine addiction and withdrawal. (
  • In addition, drugs that increase dopamine levels, such as cocaine, disrupt circadian metabolic profiles in the liver, which is exacerbated by loss of D2R signaling in MSNs. (
  • Benzodiazepines are the first-line therapy in treating patients who are intoxicated from cocaine and are extremely agitated. (
  • Cocaine-induced hypertension is treated first with benzodiazepines. (
  • Benzodiazepines decrease the cocaine-induced sympathomimetic drive from the CNS. (
  • The profile of subjects investigated indicates a higher prevalence of male, single, homeless, average age 35, average schooling of 8 years, problems related to family and social ties, high presence of psychological and psychiatric symptoms, beginning of crack consumption in adulthood, poliusers of psychoactive substances and no history of treatment. (
  • A consecutive sample of 50 cocaine addicts received a clinical psychiatric interview. (
  • Subjects with vs. without RRSB did not differ in terms of sex ratio, age, education, occupation, predisposing habits, duration of cocaine use, hours of sleep, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and concomitant use of other drugs. (
  • METHODS: A sample of nighty eight individuals were screened for DSM-V substance use disorders, including substance use, impulsiveness, and psychiatric symptoms. (
  • Most participants presented with concomitant mental health disorders, particularly alcohol use disorder (87.8%), as well high rates of psychiatric symptomatology and impulsiveness. (
  • One psychiatric consequence of chronic victimization is developing a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (
  • Inhalant-related psychiatric disorders are a heterogenous group of illnesses caused by the abuse of solvents, glues, paint, fuels, or other volatile substances. (
  • The lack of biological validity of the current classification systems of mental disorders, namely the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) [ 1 ] and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) [ 2 ], is considered to be one of the major reasons why psychiatry has made little progress in translating biomedical research findings into clinical practice. (
  • Another key factor in understanding their increased vulnerability to substance use and abuse is the high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, including depressive and anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, or conduct disorders. (
  • Additionally, many mental health professionals today follow a principle published by the American Psychiatric Association known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). (
  • Once admitted, the patient will be given a full assessment and medical exam, to confirm if they have a substance use disorder and to find any potential co-occurring psychiatric conditions. (
  • Background: Adverse psychological effects have been associated with COVID-19-related disease containment measures, but little is known about the psychiatric symptoms and distress. (
  • Inclusion Criteria for "Remitted MDD" group: - Meets inclusion criteria for all subjects, plus: - History of MDD as defined by DSM-5, but in remission for the past two months - Absence of anxiety disorder for the past two months Exclusion Criteria for all participants: - History of psychiatric illnesses, other than depression or anxiety disorders among the Current MDD and Remitted MDD groups. (
  • The video game maker also tried to toss out the court action by arguing that there is no clear definition of a video game disorder - an opinion supported by the American Psychiatric Association, which said the subject needs further research. (
  • Martell et al conducted a phase IIb randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy of a cocaine vaccine in cocaine-dependent and opioid-dependent individuals. (
  • While tramadol is often considered to be one of the "safer" opioid drugs in contrast to morphine, heroin, and hydrocodone, regular misuse of tramadol creates a risk of developing an opioid use disorder. (
  • Once someone takes tramadol over the long-term, an opioid use disorder may occur. (
  • When used over a long period there is a high likelihood that an opioid use disorder will occur. (
  • When a person with an opioid use disorder stops taking tramadol or other opioid drugs, they will experience withdrawal symptoms. (
  • Misusing tramadol may lead to an opioid use disorder. (
  • Fortunately, compared to other opioid analgesics, tramadol use disorders are rarely a major risk to patients. (
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than 2 million Americans suffer "from substance use disorders related to prescription opioid pain relievers …" This raises the question as to which addiction is more difficult to kick, opioids or drug profits. (
  • In fact, according to The Washington Post, "decriminalized marijuana is associated with lower rates of opioid abuse and fewer opioid-related fatalities. (
  • NA also provides resources such as drug information and support hotlines, such as weed addiction hotlines, heroin addiction hotlines, meth addiction hotlines, cocaine addiction hotlines, and opioid addiction hotlines. (
  • Conduct disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disorders, and anxiety and mood disorders are the most common comorbid disorders in childhood and adolescence. (
  • Using an innovative multi-modal imaging approach, this study investigates the role of the neurochemical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), brain activity, as well as hormones in understanding sex differences in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). (
  • Hispanic Americans who experience racism have a higher chance of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) while African Americans have a higher chance of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (
  • Following a 3-week extinction period, reinstatement tests were performed to evaluate priming effects of amphetamine, cocaine and heroin on nonreinforced drug-seeking behaviour. (
  • Heroin-seeking behaviour was reinstated by heroin (0.25 mg/kg), amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) and cocaine (10 mg/kg). (
  • Cocaine-seeking behaviour was reinstated by cocaine and amphetamine, but not by heroin. (
  • Interestingly, locomotor sensitization to amphetamine, but not heroin, was observed in animals with a history of cocaine self-administration. (
  • Since its first description in amphetamine and cocaine addicts, data on punding has only derived from studies performed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). (
  • The LDP consists of attorneys, law students, law school graduates pending bar exam results and/or admission, and others in the legal field who were diagnosed at one point or another in their lives, with major depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder, or another mental illness. (
  • abstract = "Cocaine abuse and addiction remain great challenges on the public health agendas in the U.S. and the world. (
  • ABSTRACT For the past 50 years, there has been a systematic effort to expand and improve treatment services for individuals with substance use disorders by developing an evidence base to guide practice. (
  • ABSTRACT This review describes systems-level innovations that may enhance accessibility, economy and integration of treatment services for substance-related disorders. (
  • Kind of blue': creativity, mental disorder and jazz. (
  • Iatrogenic stigma is stigma resulting from the attitudes and behaviors of healthcareprofessionals this may limit help seeking when symptoms of a mental disorder first appear. (
  • We believe that such biology-based subclasses of mental disorders will serve as better treatment targets than purely symptom-based disease entities, and help in tailoring the right treatment to the individual patient suffering from a mental disorder. (
  • Currently, the diagnosis of a mental disorder is based on predominantly self-reported symptoms (e.g., feeling sad). (
  • Likewise, there is a significant association between ADHD and substance use disorders, constituting one of the most common forms of dual diagnosis, a term used for the co-occurrence of an addictive disorder and at least one other mental disorder. (
  • Psychoanalytic theory views mental disorder as the outcome of unconsciously determined symbolic efforts that only partially resolve these intrapsychic conflicts, resulting in pathological adjustments to the vicissitudes of psychosexual development. (
  • D2R signaling in medium spiny neurons is key for striatal output and is essential for regulating the first response to the cellular and rewarding effects of cocaine," said Borrelli. (
  • One study found that people with ASPD are likely to have a substance-induced mood disorder like depression or psychosis . (
  • 1b) maintaining retention rates in cocaine abuse 2) The research aims to assess the impact of potential predictors (including baseline severity of cocaine use, PTSD, depression and intensity of other services received) on cocaine use and PTSD symptomatology over follow-up. (
  • Cessation of cocaine consumption can lead to withdrawal symptoms including depression, anxiety, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and strong cravings. (
  • The novelty of BeCOME lies in the dynamic in-depth phenotyping and omics characterization of individuals with mental disorders from the depression and anxiety spectrum of varying severity. (
  • Even those with bipolar disorder or major depression who have no real symptomatic improvement seem to have less suicidal thoughts and suicides while on lithium. (
  • Finally, drug use often exacerbates and triggers mental disorders, such as anxiety or depression. (
  • These symptoms are harder to recognize as part of the disorder and can be mistaken for laziness or depression. (
  • University students report more habitual use of marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens and illicit drugs than noncollege students report. (
  • Substance use disorders are often prevalent among people with different personality disorders . (
  • In adults, personality disorders are also highly prevalent. (
  • Cocaine is more dangerous when combined with other drugs or alcohol. (
  • We also will monitor the impact of psilocybin- facilitated treatment on the use of other drugs and outcomes relevant to cocaine involvement (e.g., criminal involvement). (
  • Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapies for addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulant drugs. (
  • Increasingly sophisticated perspectives on addiction to cocaine and other drugs of abuse have evolved with concerted research efforts over the last 30 years. (
  • Substance misuse and other substance-related disorders can arise when drugs that directly activate the brain's reward system are taken for the feelings of pleasure they induce. (
  • Drugs in the 10 classes vary in how likely they are to cause a substance use disorder. (
  • Among the 50'624 attendances at the ED, 210 were directly related to acute toxicity of recreational drugs. (
  • A relationship may exist between inhalant use and an increased risk of frequent drinking, binge-type drinking, smoking, and the use of other drugs, making inhalant-related disorders a new public health problem deserving of more attention. (
  • Patients are often enrolled in long-term programs if they have problems that cannot be treated in a short-term addiction treatment facility, such as continued attempts to acquire drugs or alcohol, a history of relapse into drug abuse, or if there are other related issues or co-occurring disorders that must be addressed in conjunction with the treatment for cocaine addiction. (
  • Abusers also often use other drugs in combination with cocaine, which increases the risk of harm from all of the drugs being used - alcohol, for example, combines with cocaine in the liver to form a substance with a greater chance to cause sudden death than cocaine or alcohol alone. (
  • Addiction is a chronic brain disorder which causes an individual to repeatedly engage in the use of substances such as drugs or alcohol despite their detrimental. (
  • People who take drugs such as cocaine or heroin often do so to experience feelings of pleasure, relaxation, satisfaction, power, self-confidence, and increased energy. (
  • Going beyond current studies on substance use disorders, which focus on the impact of addictive drugs on the brain, this new research highlights an existing connection between specific neurons and peripheral organs. (
  • Leggio told NPR that for societal reasons, alcohol feels less risky than other drugs - including opioids, meth and cocaine - that have also seen a surge in use during the pandemic. (
  • Thus, repeated exposure to drugs of abuse creates experience-dependent learning and related brain changes, which can lead to maladaptive patterns of drug use. (
  • Every year, there are more than 1.5 million arrests in the U.S. for drug-related offenses, with over 85% of those solely for possessing drugs - one every 23 seconds on average. (
  • People with a cocaine use disorder display more antisocial behaviors in their lifestyles. (
  • Substance use disorders like cocaine dependency often come with hurtful and antisocial behaviors. (
  • Orexin antagonism generally does not alter adaptive behaviors like food or water intake, nor does it change cocaine-induced locomotion. (
  • Taken together, these preclinical findings suggest that orexin system antagonism selectively reduces motivation for cocaine, as well as other maladaptive cocaine-associated behaviors. (
  • This research will translate findings from preclinical research and provide the initial evidence that orexin antagonism reduces motivation for cocaine, as well as other cocaine-associated maladaptive behaviors in active cocaine users. (
  • This reduced activation is also in line with the incentive sensitization theory, according to which addictive behaviors "highjack" the brain's reward system, resulting in reduced striatal responses to nondrug-related cues but increased responses to drug-related cues. (
  • As part of two ongoing large-scale behavioral genetic studies in heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, we have created two preclinical biobanks using well-validated long access (LgA) models of intravenous cocaine and oxycodone self-administration (SA) and comprehensive characterization of addiction-related behaviors. (
  • 60 percent of susceptibility to addiction is largely related to genetic factors and not only does it develop as a result of using mood altering substances, but also due to certain behaviors or process, such as eating, sex or gambling as it generally stems from a malfunction in the reward circuitry of the brain. (
  • and a behavioral learning theory, offering treatments designed to eliminate the behaviors that characterize the mental disorders. (
  • Through our research we explored how the disruption of normal neuronal functions affects metabolic activity and may move the body to an altered state away from homeostasis, which could contribute to the drug seeking behaviors exhibited by people with substance use disorders. (
  • APPROACH: A structured search was completed in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Scopus and Biomed Central, to collect case reports and case series on corneal complications attributed to crack cocaine smoking. (
  • The introduction and widespread use of crack cocaine in the 1980s, the severity of the addiction, and comorbid problems prompted the scientific community to investigate treatment options. (
  • People who abuse cocaine present with many different medical symptoms. (
  • The compromised biological validity of the current classification system for mental disorders impedes rather than supports the development of treatments that not only target symptoms but also the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. (
  • Likewise, some personality traits and symptoms that are generally genetically determined and are frequently associated with both ADHD and addictive disorders- such as novelty seeking, sensation seeking, harm avoidance, low self-esteem, and altered executive functions- may also increase the link to developing a dual diagnosis. (
  • In addition, factors that increase risk and symptoms of heat-related illnesses were more thoroughly defined. (
  • In bipolar 1 disorder, carbamazepine has been found to decrease mania symptoms in a clinically significant manner according to the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). (
  • Binge drinking and alcohol-related symptoms may underlie patterns of dynamic brain oscillations of resource allocation during high-fidelity driving simulation Banz B , Camenga D, Crowley M, Vaca F. Binge drinking and alcohol-related symptoms may underlie patterns of dynamic brain oscillations of resource allocation during high-fidelity driving simulation Traffic Injury Prevention 2022, 1-2. (
  • In a study by Morgan et al, modafinil was evaluated for its ability to normalize sleep patterns in chronic cocaine users. (
  • Chronic cocaine use is also linked to retraction of the upper eyelid, which occurs when your eyelid sits too high on your eye. (
  • NIDA uses the term "addiction" to describe the most severe and chronic form of substance use disorder that is characterized by changes in the brain's reward, stress, and self-control systems. (
  • Opioids were pinned on Asian Americans, cocaine was pinned on African Americans and marijuana was pinned on Hispanic Americans. (
  • Among individuals with ADHD, conduct disorder not only increases the risk of developing a substance use disorder, it is also associated with an earlier onset of substance use, a greater severity of the addictive disorder, and an overall worse outcome of both disorders. (
  • 16 Interestingly, carbamazepine was the first anticonvulsant used to treat individuals with bipolar disorder. (
  • 3 , 16 Carbamazepine is also indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and mixed manic-depressive episodes caused by bipolar I disorder. (
  • People who stopped using cocaine can still feel strong cravings for the drug, sometimes even years later. (
  • A person abusing crack cocaine will likely experience strong cravings for the drug soon after their last dose. (
  • To this end, non-treatment seeking human subjects meeting diagnostic criteria for cocaine use disorder will sample doses of intravenous cocaine in experimental sessions following maintenance on a range of oral suvorexant doses. (
  • This report discusses trends in the prevalence of mental illness, substance use disorders, or both among adolescents and adults in the United States. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if nimodipine is more effective than placebo in reducing stimulated craving for cocaine in cocaine dependent individuals denied access to cocaine in inpatient unit. (
  • He theorized the presence of a basic force of psychic energy (libido) driving development, with human personality being shaped during childhood by psychological experiences related to the demands imposed by fixed stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic). (
  • Drug uses decreases the individual's ability to care for themselves and increases the likelihood of having health-related issues. (
  • This happens because cocaine causes your blood vessels to constrict, which increases blood pressure. (
  • The current study aimed to extend investigations of CUD-related alterations in D 2 R and D 3 R availability using regional and source-based analyses of [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography (PET) of 26 individuals with CUD and 26 matched healthy comparison (HC) participants. (
  • Individuals with this disorder have a grandiose sense of self-importance (Criterion 1). (
  • Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder are often preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love (Criterion 2). (
  • Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder believe that they are superior, special, or unique and expect others to recognize them as such (Criterion 3). (
  • Individuals with this disorder believe that their needs are special and beyond the ken of ordinary people. (
  • Individuals with this disorder generally require excessive admiration (Criterion 4). (
  • Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder generally have a lack of empathy and have difficulty recognizing the desires, subjective experiences, and feelings of others (Criterion 7). (
  • OBJECTIVE: São Paulo's Crackland is the biggest and oldest open drug use scene in Brazil, yet little is known about the profile of crack cocaine treatment-seeking individuals living in this region. (
  • BeCOME intends to include at least 1000 individuals with a broad spectrum of affective, anxiety and stress-related mental disorders as well as 500 individuals unaffected by mental disorders. (
  • Magellan Health has announced the launch of reSET therapy, a pilot initiative using the first-ever FDA cleared prescription digital therapeutic from PEAR Therapeutics to improve outcomes for individuals struggling with Substance Use Disorders (SUD) and other related conditions. (
  • We found hypermethylation in a cluster of CpGs within the gene body of tyrosine hydroxylase containing a putative binding site for the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor, which is hypermethylated in the caudate nucleus of cocaine-dependent individuals. (
  • Individuals with a substance use disorder related to tramadol may choose to enter a rehab program. (
  • Individuals addicted to crack cocaine may also be in a situation without the necessary paraphernalia (usually a glass pipe). (
  • As a result, it is extremely important that individuals with substance use disorders seek the help they need in order to recover. (
  • The cycling course of cocaine intake, abstinence and relapse is tied to a multitude of behavioral and cognitive processes including impulsivity (a predisposition toward rapid unplanned reactions to stimuli without regard to the negative consequences), and cocaine cue reactivity (responsivity to cocaine-associated stimuli) cited as two key phenotypes that contribute to relapse vulnerability even years into recovery. (
  • 5-HT) neurotransmission in key neural circuits may contribute to these interlocked phenotypes well as the altered neurobiological states evoked by cocaine that precipitate relapse events. (
  • As such, 5-HT is an important target in the quest to understand the neurobiology of relapse-predictive phenotypes, to successfully treat this complex disorder and improve diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. (
  • Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. (
  • A long-term treatment process, which lasts ninety days or longer, that utilizes behavioral and cognitive therapy is the best way to eliminate cocaine use and help the patient to avoid relapse. (
  • But alcohol-related illnesses kill more than 88,0000 Americans each year, according to the NIAAA. (
  • If you are seeking drug and alcohol related addiction rehab for yourself or a loved one, the hotline is a confidential and convenient solution. (
  • The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and estimate the efficacy of psilocybin- facilitated treatment for cocaine use. (
  • and 8) administer cognitive-behavioral treatment for cocaine use. (
  • On top of medical treatment for cocaine withdrawal, ASPD and cocaine use are usually treated together with psychotherapy . (
  • Cunningham, KA & Anastasio, NC 2014, ' Serotonin at the nexus of impulsivity and cue reactivity in cocaine addiction ', Neuropharmacology , vol. 76, no. (
  • However, these CUD-related alterations in D 2 R and D 3 R have not been concurrently detected using available dopaminergic radioligands. (
  • In addition, they found that activation of dopaminergic circuits by acute cocaine administration reprograms the circadian liver metabolome. (
  • In the present series, 38% of the cocaine addicts met the proposed diagnostic criteria for a RRSB and 8% were considered punders. (
  • It has been argued that our current diagnostic classification approach and the way it defines mental disorders hinders the translation of biological knowledge into the clinic [ 4 ]. (
  • draft intersectoral global action plan on epilepsy and other neurological disorders. (
  • She indicated that it was obvious that CBD has been beneficial to so many people suffering from seizures and epilepsy as well as other neurological disorders. (
  • Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, called crack. (
  • exp cocaine OR exp cocaine-related disorders OR exp crack cocaine OR] AND [exp Myocardial Infarction OR myocardial OR exp Chest Pain OR chest] LIMIT to human, English AND abstracts. (
  • Recent crack cocaine use was also tested using biologic specimens. (
  • ISSUES: Use of crack cocaine and associated medical complications persists globally. (
  • While the need for treatment approaches to address such problems has been demonstrated empirically, and the clinical literature attests to the potential of such approaches, to date there are not known controlled studies which examine the efficacy of manualized treatments with crack/cocaine-dependent women who are suffering from PTSD. (
  • Cocaine can come in the form of a powder (cocaine hydrochloride) or a rock crystal (crack). (
  • Cocaine that comes in the form of rock crystals is called crack because it makes a crackling sound when heated. (
  • Crack cocaine is a processed and less expensive form of the illegal street drug, cocaine. (
  • Crack cocaine can be identified as a white or off-white "rock" of powder, that makes a crackling noise when smoked. (
  • Snorting crack cocaine, or using this drug in any form, can lead to cardiovascular and mental health issues. (
  • When a person snorts crack cocaine (insufflation), they risk permanent damage to their nose and nasal passages. (
  • Snorting any drug can result in sores and infection inside the nose, and crack cocaine can cause holes (perforation) in a person's septum. (
  • What Happens When You Snort Crack Cocaine? (
  • Snorting crack cocaine causes side effects similar to cocaine, including extreme energy, increased body temperature, and dilated pupils. (
  • The high from crack cocaine is intense but short-lived. (
  • Why Do People Snort Crack Cocaine? (
  • When powder cocaine is processed with other chemicals, it results in freebase or crack cocaine. (
  • Sometimes called an "upper," crack cocaine can result in feelings that range from excitement to paranoia. (
  • Crack cocaine speeds a person's entire body up, causing the heart to race and the body to overheat. (
  • A person may snort crack cocaine for a number of reasons, including curiosity about what happens if you snort crack instead of smoking it. (
  • When this happens, a person craving a hit of crack cocaine may resort to snorting the drug instead of smoking it. (
  • Some people may wrongly assume that snorting crack cocaine is safer than smoking it. (
  • There are serious health risks associated with snorting crack cocaine. (
  • When a person snorts crack cocaine, they also run the risk of damaging their nasal passages. (
  • Even one instance of crack cocaine use can result in a person suffering from hallucinations, delirium, and severe mood disturbances. (
  • Any amount of crack cocaine use can also result in fatal and nonfatal overdose. (
  • Crack cocaine is a highly processed chemical that can be diluted or "cut" with many different substances. (
  • When a person abuses crack cocaine through insufflation, they are ingesting large amounts of unknown substances along with high doses of the drug. (
  • Smoking freebase cocaine (crack), on the other hand, causes it to happen almost immediately, and can last for up to 7 minutes. (
  • Progressive cocaine abstinence is associated with disruptive sleep outcomes. (
  • They also enrol patients who have taken cocaine hours before symptomatology, this contradicts the known pharmacology of cocaine. (
  • 3) The research will also assess the impact of potential mediators, representing acquisition of intervention components, on cocaine use and PTSD symptomatology over the three assessment periods, especially examining concurrent level of PTSDRPT and RPT alone skill and concurrent level of perceived self-efficacy to use these skills. (
  • Acute cocaine intoxication is usually self limited and can be managed with supportive care. (
  • Acute hyperthermia syndromes associated with acute cocaine intoxication have been reported, and the use of neuroleptics with the risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome may confuse this situation. (
  • The combustion of powder cocaine at very high temperature can cause considerable breakdown of the drug and produces a strong, acidic, and foul-smelling smoke. (
  • Smoking freebase coke, a mixture of powder cocaine containing crystalline rock crystals, is another popular way to take the drug. (