An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (1/3711)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (2/3711)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (3/3711)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (4/3711)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (5/3711)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Age-related reductions in [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic brain regions of the fischer 344 rat. (6/3711)

In the present study, we used the potent cocaine analog [3H]WIN 35, 428 to map and quantify binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) within the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area in young (6-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), and aged (18- and 24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of indirect [3H]WIN 35,428 saturation curves revealed two-site binding for all four brain regions in every age group. The percentage of binding to the high- or low-affinity sites did not differ with age or region and was approximately 50%. However, significant age-related decreases in the overall density (Bmax) of [3H]WIN 35,428-binding sites were observed in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The Bmax within all brain regions declined by more than 15% every 6 months, with the Bmax in the aged (24-month-old) group being approximately half that measured in the young adult (6-month-old) group. Competition experiments indicated that nomifensine also exhibited two-site binding to the DAT in Fischer 344 rats. No consistent age-related differences in binding affinities were noted with either [3H]WIN 35,428 or nomifensine. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that functional DATs within the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems are down-regulated with age, without changing their affinity for ligands.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (7/3711)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (8/3711)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Looking for acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning? Find out information about acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning. a morbid condition caused by the action of poison on the body and accompanied by disruption of bodily systems and functions. In humans. Poisoning in humans... Explanation of acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning
Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in cocaine addiction, the effects of chronic cocaine on mPFC neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we performed visualized current-clamp recordings to determine the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the membrane excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices. Following repeated cocaine administration (15 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) with a 3-day withdrawal, alterations in membrane properties, including increased input resistance, reduced intensity of intracellular injected currents required for generation of Na+-dependent spikes (rheobase), and an increased number of spikes evoked by depolarizing current pulses were observed in mPFC neurons. The current-voltage relationship was also altered in cocaine-pretreated neurons showing reduced outward rectification during membrane depolarization and decreased inward rectification during membrane hyperpolarization. Application of the K+ channel blocker Ba2+ ...
Cocaine hydrochloride - Get up-to-date information on Cocaine hydrochloride side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Cocaine hydrochloride
The effects of cocaine on pulsatile secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in men were studied under controlled clinical research ward conditions. Eight men with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association Version III, revised, diagnosis of concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence provided their informed consent for participation in this study. After an overnight fast, a challenge dose of cocaine (30 mg i.v.) or placebo was administered under single-blind conditions in a randomized order on 2 study days. Blood samples were collected at 2-min intervals for 76 min during base line and for an additional 76 min after i.v. administration of the challenge dose. Peak plasma cocaine levels of 313.8 +/- 46.5 ng/ml were detected within 2 min after cocaine administration. The cluster analysis program originally described by Veldhuis and Johnson (1986) was used to characterize ACTH pulsatile secretion (Iranmanesh et al., 1990). Acute cocaine administration (30 mg ...
Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.. ...
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to stress as well as in the effects of cocaine.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, these syndromes present with different symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, energy, competence, sociability, and sexuality. Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and teeth grinding. With prolonged use, the drug can cause insomnia, anorexia, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, renal failure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long-term damage to dopamine neurons. Chronic intranasal usage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CREST in the nucleus accumbens core regulates cocaine conditioned place preference, cocaine-seeking behavior, and synaptic plasticity. AU - Alaghband, Yasaman. AU - Kramár, Enikö. AU - Kwapis, Janine L.. AU - Kim, Earnest S.. AU - Hemstedt, Thekla J.. AU - López, Alberto J.. AU - White, André O.. AU - Al-Kachak, Amni. AU - Aimiuwu, Osasumwen V.. AU - Bodinayake, Kasuni K.. AU - Oparaugo, Nicole C.. AU - Han, Joseph. AU - Lattal, Kennon (Matt). AU - Wood, Marcelo A.. PY - 2018/10/31. Y1 - 2018/10/31. N2 - Epigenetic mechanisms result in persistent changes at the cellular level that can lead to long-lasting behavioral adaptations. Nucleosome remodeling is a major epigenetic mechanism that has not been well explored with regards to drug-seeking behaviors. Nucleosome remodeling is performed by multi-subunit complexes that interact with DNA or chromatin structure and possess an ATP-dependent enzyme to disrupt nucleosome-DNA contacts and ultimately regulate gene expression. Calcium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
In the present study, we observed for the first time that the LV and coronary hemodynamic responses to a binge of cocaine were markedly and progressively attenuated in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. In general, tolerance to cocaine was manifest on rechallenge after a single dose, although progressive decline in the hemodynamic and neurohumoral response to cocaine was observed with subsequent doses. Furthermore, the tolerance was not a function of the increase in baseline hemodynamic measurements before subsequent cocaine doses as the acute hemodynamic effects of cocaine were maintained when baseline hemodynamics were increased independent of cocaine. Finally, the mechanism of tolerance to the LV and systemic effects of repeated cocaine administration did not involve end-organ desensitization to the adrenergic effects of cocaine (Figs 4⇑ and 5⇑) but rather attenuated cocaine-induced catecholamine release as demonstrated by declines in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses ...
Cocaine can be snorted, swallowed, injected, or smoked. Most deaths due to cocaine are accidental but may also be the result of body packing or stuffing with rupture in the gastrointestinal tract. Use of cocaine causes abnormally fast heart rhythms and a marked elevation of blood pressure (hypertension), which can be life-threatening. This can lead to death from acute myocardial infarction, acute respiratory failure (i.e., hypoxemia, with or without hypercapnia), stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and sudden cardiac arrest.[13] Cocaine overdose may result in hyperthermia as stimulation and increased muscular activity cause greater heat production. Heat loss is also inhibited by the cocaine-induced vasoconstriction. Cocaine and/or associated hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction (rhabdomyolysis) and myoglobinuria resulting in kidney failure. Individuals with cocaine overdose should be transported immediately to the nearest emergency department, preferably by ambulance in case cardiac arrest ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains reward center from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Cocaine can cause psychological dependence (a strong desire to continue using the medicine because of the high feeling it produces). This may lead to cocaine abuse (more frequent use and/or use of larger amounts of cocaine) and to an increased chance of serious side effects. Cocaine abuse has caused death from heart or breathing failure.. Use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for an examination or surgery is not likely to cause psychological dependence or other serious side effects. However, if cocaine is absorbed into the body too quickly, serious side effects can occur. Also, some people are especially sensitive to the effects of cocaine. Unwanted effects may occur in these people even with small amounts of the medicine. Before receiving cocaine as a local anesthetic, you should discuss its use with your doctor.. Cocaine is applied only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Cocaine Treatment: Early Results From Various Approaches (Letter Report, 06/07/96, GAO/HEHS-96-80).. Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the extent to which federally funded cocaine treatment therapies have proven successful and additional research initiatives that are needed to increase knowledge of cocaine treatment effectiveness.. GAO found that: (1) cocaine treatment research is still in its early stages; (2) preliminary study results have shown that relapse prevention, community reinforcement and contingency management, and neurobehavioral therapy may produce prolonged periods of abstinence among cocaine users; (3) relapse prevention programs have the highest abstinence rates, followed by community reinforcement and neurobehavioral programs; (4) community reinforcement programs have the highest retention rates, followed by relapse prevention and neurobehavioral programs; (5) pharmacological agents have not proven to be consistently effective in preventing cocaine use, and none ...
Cocaine addiction, a serious public health concern associated with significant medical, social, and economic consequences, is difficult to treat using traditional psychosocial and behavioral therapies. Despite testing of a number of different agents for cocaine dependency, there remains no proven pharmacologic treatment for cocaine addiction.. The addictive properties of cocaine have been associated with its actions on mesotelencephalic dopamine reward pathways in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine administration increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with sensations of pleasure and reward. Therefore, blocking cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels represents a valid pharmaceutical approach to the treatment of cocaine addiction.. Another neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suppresses striatal dopamine release, and attenuates cocaine-induced increases in extracellular and synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens in animal ...
A method for the determination of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (ECG) in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed. The analytes were isolated from human plasma by subsequent solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 narrow-bore column using an ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile/methanol gradient. A Turbolonspray® source was used for ionization. The analytes were characterized by their particular molecular ion and several fragments. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for isolation and quantitation. The assay was rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable. The method was applied to monitor the in vitro degradation of cocaine in plasma. Fresh unpreserved and preserved (0.25 % KF) plasma samples were spiked with 1000 ng cocaine/mL. Aliquots of both series were stored at 4°C and 20°C and were analyzed at selected storage times of up to 15 days. In all samples, degradation of cocaine ...
Cocaine abuse is a serious health problem in many areas of the world, yet there are no proven effective medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.Preclinical studies suggest that the reinforcing effect of cocaine that promotes its abuse is mediated by blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. This results in increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic or meso-accumbens dopamine reward system of brain. Development of new medications to treat cocaine dependence has focused on manipulation of this dopamine system, either by direct action on dopamine binding sites (transporter or receptors) or indirectly by affecting other neurotransmitter systems that modulate the dopamine system. In principle, a medication could act via one of three mechanisms: (i) as a substitute for cocaine by producing similar dopamine effects; (ii) as a cocaine antagonist by blocking the binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter; or (iii) as a modulator of cocaine effects by acting at other than the ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term crack refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
Wholesale crack traffickers purchase cocaine in kilogram or multikilogram allotments from traditional cocaine sources, including Colombian and Mexican organizations. They package the cocaine into ounce quantities or convert it into crack and then divide it into ounces for sale at the next level. Wholesalers usually are large groups responsible for most of the interstate transportation of crack and cocaine intended for crack conversion.. Retail distributors convert powdered cocaine into crack, usually in their own kitchens, using a safe and simple method of converting cocaine into cocaine base. Although it produces a product higher in purity than coca paste, the crack conversion process does not eliminate all of the impurities in the cocaine. Adulterants such as lidocaine, procaine, and benzocaine survive the crack conversion process and are inhaled by the user. Federal mandatory minimum sentences are higher for crack than for powdered cocaine, but crack cocaine provides a much higher profit ...
Criteria for Discontinuation Following Initiation:. Participants will be discharged if they have a positive breath test indicating use of alcohol or a urine test indicating illicit use of drugs while in the MED-VAMC, if they do not comply with study procedures, or if they do not tolerate the study drugs.. Subject Selection Criteria Rationale for Route of Administration:. Participants are required to have used cocaine by the IV or smoked route to avoid exposing participants to drugs by routes of administration that produce more intensive interoceptive effects than usually used by the participants. Prior experience with smoked cocaine is allowed (rather than restricting the population to those with experience with IV cocaine) because smoked cocaine reaches brain sites of action as rapidly as does intravenously administered cocaine and smoked cocaine produces effects that are comparable to IV cocaine. Speed of administration (and rate of delivery to brain) of stimulant drugs likely impacts ...
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist CP94253 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, mice underwent conditioning procedures while receiving the last of their daily injections, which were given either during or ≥2 h after CPP procedures. The CPP procedural timeline consisted of baseline preference testing (days 12-13 of the chronic regimen), conditioning (days 14-19, 2 daily 30-min sessions separated by 5 h), CPP test (day 21), extinction (days 22-34; no injections), CPP extinction test (day 35; no injections), and reinstatement test (day 36). Mice that had not extinguished received additional extinction sessions prior to
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine. It is structurally similar to cocaine, which is the methyl ester of benzoylecgonine. Cocaethylene is formed by the liver when cocaine and ethanol coexist in the blood. Cocaethylene is the byproduct of concurrent consumption of alcohol and cocaine as metabolized by the liver. Normally, metabolism of cocaine produces two primarily biologically inactive metabolites-benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester. The hepatic enzyme carboxylesterase is an important part of cocaines metabolism because it acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine in the liver, which produces these inactive metabolites. If ethanol is present during the metabolism of cocaine, a portion of the cocaine undergoes transesterification with ethanol, rather than undergoing hydrolysis with water, which results in the production of cocaethylene. cocaine + H2O → benzoylecgonine + methanol (with liver carboxylesterase 1) benzoylecgonine + ethanol → ...
Cocaine addiction has become a major problem and epidemic in this country. Thousands of individuals and families are negatively affected by the use and abuse of cocaine every year. Cocaine is expensive, but individuals who use the drug to enhance their nightlife experience or work longer hours certainly are not afraid of long term consequences and repercussions. But as the years went on, studies began to find that long-term cocaine users were at risk for heart disease, heart failure, liver problems and other serious concerns. In addition, the financial burden that cocaine puts on families often lead to broken homes and lost trust. It is apparent that the need for cocaine rehab is immediate and must be confronted and addressed as soon as possible. Cocaine rehab refers to the process of helping an individual overcome their physical and psychological addiction to cocaine. This is accomplished through detoxification, individual counseling and cognitive therapy. In addition, a recovering cocaine ...
Wei-Lun Sun WL, Zhou L, Nazarian A, Quinones- Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Acute cocaine differentially induces PKA phosphorylation substrates in male and female rats. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, in press.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Balouch B, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Region and context-specific intracellular responses associated with cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expression. Neuroscience 287:1-8.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Hazim R, Eltareb MH, Blank JC, Chang AJ, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2013). Sexually dimorphic intracellular responses after cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expressionBrain Res. 1520:121-33.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2012). Influence of sex differences and gonadal hormones on cocaine addiction ILAR J. 53:14-22.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2010). Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses. Horm Behav. 58:22-32.. Sun WL, Zhou L, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2009). Cocaine effects on dopamine and NMDA ...
Fig. 1 Prior alcohol use enhances persistence, motivation, and compulsivity for cocaine self-administration.. (A) Drug treatment paradigm to study alcohol and cocaine coadministration. Access to voluntary alcohol (10% alcohol, 2 hours per day) and voluntary cocaine (self-administration, 0.8 mg/kg per injection) was restricted to 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. and 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., respectively, to avoid metabolic interaction between the two drugs. (B) Alcohol self-administration. Animals in the alcohol-primed group began drinking alcohol on day 1 of the paradigm; animals in the alcohol-concurrent group began drinking on day 11. All groups start cocaine self-administration (0.8 mg/kg per infusion) on day 11. The average alcohol intake during the alcohol-priming period was 1 g/kg during the first 5 days, increasing to 1.2 g/kg during the second 5 days. Alcohol intake was similar in the alcohol-primed versus alcohol-concurrent groups from days 11 to 32 [two-way repeated-measures (RM) analysis of variance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine enhances serotonin autoregulation and serotonin uptake binding. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn A.. AU - Paris, Joseph M.. AU - Goeders, Nick E.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - Repeated cocaine intoxication can result in the development of behavioral sensitization in animals and psychosis in humans, phenomena that have been associated with alterations in dopamine (DA) function. Using electrophysiologic and autoradiographic techniques, modifications of central serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine; 5‐HT) systems were investigated in rats treated with a regimen of cocaine administration that produced behavioral sensitization. The inhibitory response of single 5‐HT neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) to (−)‐cocaine, the 5‐HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the 5‐HT1A agonist 8‐hydroxy‐2‐[di‐N‐propylamino]tetralin (8‐OHDPAT) was significantly enhanced in cocaine‐treated rats. Furthermore, several brain areas that contain either cell bodies (DR) or terminals ...
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If people use cocaine, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an overdose. When people take cocaine, they get intoxicated as well. When a person is intoxicated, they may do dangerous things, such as having unsafe sex with a person they do not know, or getting into a violent fight with a person. If a person uses cocaine for a long time, they can start to get strange feelings, like there are bugs crawling under their skin, or they can get paranoia (a feeling that there are people that want to hurt them). Cocaine is a very addictive drug. It can lead to psychological and/or physical dependence. When a person is addicted to a drug, they might do bad or criminal acts in order to get money for more drugs, such as crimes (for example theft, robbery, fraud, or prostitution). If the person tries to stop using cocaine, they will go through cocaine withdrawal. Another danger from using cocaine is the risk of infection when using unsafe ways of taking cocaine (like using dirty ...
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Projection Targets of Medium Spiny Neurons Govern Cocaine-Evoked Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens. AU - Baimel, C.. AU - McGarry, Laura M.. AU - Carter, Adam G.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the Carter lab and Nic Tritsch for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by a CIHR postdoctoral fellowship (C.B.), NIH grant T32 NS086750 (L.M.M.), and NIH R01 DA038138 (A.G.C.). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Authors. PY - 2019/8/27. Y1 - 2019/8/27. N2 - We examine synaptic connectivity and cocaine-evoked plasticity at specific networks within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We identify distinct subpopulations of D1+ medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that project to either the ventral pallidum (D1+VP) or the ventral tegmental area (D1+VTA). We show that inputs from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), but not the basolateral amygdala (BLA), are initially biased onto D1+VTA MSNs. However, repeated cocaine exposure eliminates the bias of vHPC ...
senior study author Dr. Eric Nestler of New York Citys Mount Sinai School of Medicine said in a statement.. Nestler and colleagues combined highly sensitive genetic isolation and screening techniques to study regulation of gene transcription in the brains of mice repeatedly receiving cocaine. The researchers also found a previously unrecognized family of genes -- called the sirtuins -- involved in cocaine addiction. Chronic cocaine administration was linked with an increase in sirtuin gene transcription while increased sirtuin activity was associated the rewarding effects of cocaine being augmented, while pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins reduced the rewarding effects of cocaine and the motivation to self-administer the drug.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine disruption of estrous cyclicity in the rat. T2 - Dose-dependent effects. AU - King, T. S.. AU - Canez, M. S.. AU - Gaskill, S.. AU - Javors, M. A.. AU - Schenken, R. S.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The effects of cocaine on cyclic reproductive function in females remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to define the range of doses of cocaine effective in disrupting estrous cyclicity and inhibiting ovulation. Estrous cyclicity was monitored daily by vaginal cytology. Group 1 consisted of rats receiving no treatment. Group 2 consisted of rats injected daily with saline s.c. Groups 3 to 6 consisted of rats injected with 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl s.c., respectively. Group 7 consisted of rats that were food-restricted to allow weight gains comparable to those of group 6. Our results indicate a dose- dependent effect of cocaine on estrous cyclicity with an estimated IC50 of 8.5 mg/kg/day (i.e., the dose of cocaine required to inhibit the ...
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The self-administration of cocaine was compared with that of bupropion, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine, mazindol, methylphenidate and nomifensine, drugs that displace [3H]cocaine from its binding sites and have monoamine uptake inhibiting effects in common with those of cocaine. Squirrel monkeys responded under a second-order fixed-interval schedule of consequent i.v. drug injection, and dose-effect curves were established by determining stable rates of responding maintained by saline and a range of doses of each drug. Cocaine (0.01-0.56 mg/kg/injection), bupropion (0.1-3.0 mg/kg/injection), 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3- phenylpropyl)piperazine-(0.03-1.0 mg/kg/injection), methylphenidate (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/injection) and nomifensine (0.01-0.3 mg/kg) maintained comparable rates and patterns of responding in all subjects, whereas mazindol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) maintained self-administration behavior in only half the monkeys studied. The present results ...
While there has been a lack of consistency in the results from different studies on cocaine withdrawal, generally, symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include: Anxiety Erratic sleep Irritability Depression Sadness Cravings for cocaine Poor concentration Lethargy These may occur anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after the suspension of cocaine use. The symptoms can be managed by most people while at home and do not require hospitalization for detox.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus. T2 - A vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. AU - Hicks, Martin J.. AU - De, Bishnu P.. AU - Rosenberg, Jonathan B.. AU - Davidson, Jesse T.. AU - Moreno, Amira Y.. AU - Janda, Kim D.. AU - Wee, Sunmee. AU - Koob, George F.. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Kaminsky, Stephen M.. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Toth, Miklos. AU - Mezey, Jason G.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1- E3- adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
The results of the present study demonstrate that cocaine self-administration alters dopamine transporter binding and that these changes follow a clear progression over time. In the initial stages of cocaine self-administration (5 d), DAT binding site levels were moderately reduced, whereas after more prolonged cocaine self-administration (3.3 months), large increases in the density of DAT sites were evident. These increases in DAT binding levels persisted even after protracted periods of self-administration (1.5 years). A key characteristic of the alterations in DAT binding was the dose-dependent nature of the effects. Chronic cocaine self-administration at the higher cocaine dose yielded more intense increases in the density of the DAT binding sites and encompassed a wider expanse of the caudal PCS than self-administration of the lower dose. Finally, the majority of significant changes in DAT binding density that occurred after chronic and long-term cocaine self-administration were focused in ...
Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a widely expressed scaffold protein known to interact via its PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-domain with several membrane proteins including the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), the primary target for cocaines reinforcing actions. Here, we establish the importance of PICK1 for behavioral effects observed after both acute and repeated administration of cocaine. In PICK1 knock-out (KO) mice, the acute locomotor response to a single injection of cocaine was markedly attenuated. Moreover, in support of a role for PICK1 in neuroadaptive changes induced by cocaine, we observed diminished cocaine intake in a self-administration paradigm. Reduced behavioral effects of cocaine were not associated with decreased striatal DAT distribution and most likely not caused by the ∼30% reduction in synaptosomal DA uptake observed in PICK1 KO mice. The PICK1 KO mice demonstrated preserved behavioral responses to DA receptor agonists supporting intact downstream DA ...
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration about ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between your mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. and nigrostriatal pathways (substantia nigra SN and dorsal caudate-putamen CPu). Inside the mesolimbic Mouse monoclonal to Histone 3.1. Histones are the structural scaffold for the organization of nuclear DNA into chromatin. Four core histones, H2A,H2B,H3 and H4 are the major components of nucleosome which is the primary building block of chromatin. The histone proteins play essential structural and functional roles in the transition between active and inactive chromatin states. Histone 3.1, an H3 variant that has thus far only been found in mammals, is replication dependent and is associated with tene activation and gene silencing. pathway reductions had been seen in NR1 and GluR5 ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
Cocaine abuse has become the most abused major stimulant in the USA and statistics show that emergency room visits for it are increasing. Cocaine abuse has been around for as long as anyone can remember.. Derived from the innocent cocoa plant, it is considered the champagne of drugs, one of its street names. There is an array of street names describing the different uses.. There are various ways that an addict will use this drug, amongst them being snorting, smoking one of the derivatives known as crack or rock. Historically, cocaine was known as the rich mans drug. This is changing rapidly as teenagers have found a new sensation in mixing it with marijuana.. The highly addictive nature of cocaine makes it an extremely dangerous drug and many a user will tell you that theyre not addicted. This is so far from the truth to be ridiculous. If cocaine abuse isnt a problem to the addict, how come they are still using it?. No-one would willingly remain addicted. The penalties are extreme. ...
The short term effects of crack cocaine can be felt upon users initial hit of crack. The individual begins to feel the effects of crack cocaine immediately; they experience an increase in energy, temperature, mental alertness, heart rate, constricted blood vessels, as well as a decrease in appetite. These temporary effects of crack cocaine are as short lived as the users high. Because crack cocaine is smoked causing it to travel through the blood up to the brain much faster than cocaine which is snorted, the user experiences these short term effects more intensely. The duration and intensity of these short term effects of crack cocaine are based on the amount of crack cocaine that is used.. The long term effects of crack cocaine affect the user physically, mentally, and emotionally. An individuals long term effects from crack cocaine vary from person to person depending on their length and intensity of abuse. In general, the long term effects of crack cocaine include restlessness, mood change, ...
Cocaine aka coca, coke, flake, snow or blow is a powerful stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant found in South America. It is estimated that 90% percent of the cocaine that reaches the US originates in Colombia. In the US, cocaine is classified as a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act. Schedule II drugs are those which have a high potential for abuse and are currently recognized to have some medical value in the United States.. Cocaine can be snorted, injected, or when in the form of crack-cocaine, smoked. The most common method of use is snorting. The high from snorting cocaine can last anywhere from 15-30 minutes. The acute effects of cocaine use may include: increased energy levels, euphoria, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and decreased appetite. Cocaines physical and mental manifestations are a result of the drugs effect on brain chemistry. The drug blocks the neurotransmitter dopamine from being reabsorbed resulting in elevated ...
Every fall, Duke offers free flu shots to combat the imminent storm of the virus. Thanks to the work of Professor of Pathology Herman Staats, a similar vaccine is on the horizon for those with another debilitating disease: cocaine addiction.. Staats worked with a team of six other researchers to publish a novel study providing evidence of a possible vaccination for cocaine addiction. Following vaccine injection in mice, the researchers were able induce an immune resistance to cocaine in the mice, while reducing the sense of euphoria which accompanies cocaine usage. The vaccine consisted of cocaine attached to carrier proteins, which were introduced in mouse mucosal tissue.. Just like the influenza vaccine induces antibodies that bind to the influenza virus and reduces the infectivity of influenza, our cocaine vaccine induces antibodies that bind to cocaine and reduce the ability of cocaine to cause the euphoria, Staats said. Over the course of one month, scientists infused different amounts of ...
We previously showed that chronic cocaine use by active illicit users produced a longer plasma half-life than expected based on acute low-dose cocaine studies. Here we report urinary excretion patterns of cocaine metabolites as benzoylecgonine (BE) equivalents from 18 of the same individuals, housed …
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Bacterial cocaine esterase: A protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal cocaine exposure alters sigma binding site density in the placenta. AU - Flynn, D. D.. AU - Sanchez-Ramos, L.. AU - Mash, D. C.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Fetal cocaine exposure in utero leads to direct neurotoxic effects and indirect consequences secondary to intrauterine growth retardation. Regulation of hormone and neurotransmitter receptors in the placenta by cocaine may contribute to the spectrum of adverse effects associated with cocaine use during pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in addition to blocking the reuptake of catecholamines, cocaine binds to the putative sigma receptor in brain and peripheral tissues. We report here the identification of a sigma recognition site in the human placenta that has pharmacological characteristics similar to the neural sigma binding site. Placental tissues were obtained from pregnant women that were matched on maternal demographic characteristics. Cocaine exposure was confirmed by toxicology screens ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Once is too much. T2 - Conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. AU - Colechio, Elizabeth M.. AU - Imperio, Caesar G.. AU - Grigson, Patricia S.. PY - 2014/4/1. Y1 - 2014/4/1. N2 - Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocainepaired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial-by-trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1-2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug seeking and drug taking in rats.. AB - Rats emit aversive taste ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - One-way generalization of clonidine to the discriminative stimulus produced by cocaine. AU - Wood, Douglas M.. AU - Lal, Harbans. AU - Yaden, Senka. AU - Emmett-Oglesby, M. W.. PY - 1985/10. Y1 - 1985/10. N2 - Rats were trained to discriminate the stimulus properties of either cocaine or clonidine using a food reinforced two-lever choice paradigm. After training, cocaine was generalized to the cocaine lever in a dose-dependent manner, and clonidine was generalized to the clonidine lever in a dose-dependent manner. Yohimbine, an alpha-2 antagonist, blocked the clonidine stimulus but not the cocaine stimulus. Cocaine was not generalized to the clonidine stimulus; however, clonidine was generalized to the cocaine stimulus, and this generalization was blocked by yohimbine. The one-way generalization of clonidine to cocaine suggests that clonidine has at least two discrete stimulus components: a major component that is not cocaine-like, and a minor component that can be detected by ...
The effects of cocaine (150 nM, 300 nM, and 150 μM) on human glioblastoma cell cultures were studied on tunneling nanotube formation (1-h cocaine treatment) and extracellular vesicle release (1-, 3-, and 8-h cocaine treatment). Cocaine significantly increased the number of tunneling nanotubes only at the lowest concentration used. The release of extracellular vesicles (mainly exosomes) into the medium was stimulated by cocaine at each concentration used with a maximum effect at the highest concentration tested (150 μM). Moreover, cocaine (150 nM) significantly increased the number of vesicles with 61-80 nm diameter while at concentrations of 300 nM and 150 μM, and the smaller vesicles (30-40 nm diameter) were significantly increased with a reduction of the larger vesicles (41-60 nm diameter). A time dependence in the release of extracellular vesicles was observed. In view of the proposed role of these novel intercellular communication modes in the glial-neuronal plasticity, it seems possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene Expression in Human Hippocampus from Cocaine Abusers Identifies Genes which Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling. AU - Mash, Deborah C. AU - Ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath. AU - Adi, Nikhil. AU - Qin, Yujing. AU - Buck, Andrew. AU - Pablo, John. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine rush. Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched ...
August 16, 2020 (Google Translation) - In a search and control operation, the Colombian Navy, in coordination with the National Police, seized a ton of cocaine hydrochloride during an inspection at a port dock in Santa Marta.. According to information from Naval Intelligence and in coordination with the National Anti-Narcotics Police, an inspection was carried out on a container belonging to the MAERKS Company, which was located in a port dock in the city, finding 1,000 rectangular packages containing substances inside. illicit.. Officials of the Judicial Police of the Anti-Narcotics Directorate carried out the Approved Preliminary Identification Test - PIPH to the seized material, yielding a positive result for cocaine hydrochloride.. The container coming from Turbo - Antioquia, made a stopover at a port dock in Santa Marta, where it was later to be loaded onto a ship that was heading to the city of Antwerp - Belgium, the destination where the cocaine would presumably be sold.. Thanks to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine is self-administered into the shell but not the core of the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats. AU - Rodd, Zachary. AU - McKinzie, David L.. AU - Li, Ting Kai. AU - Murphy, James M.. AU - McBride, William J.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The rewarding properties of cocaine have been postulated to be regulated, in part, by the mesolimbic dopamine system. However, the possibility that the rewarding properties of cocaine are mediated by direct activation of this system has yielded contradictory findings. The intracranial self-administration technique is used to identify specific brain regions involved in the initiation of response-contingent behaviors for the delivery of a reinforcer. The present study assessed whether adult Wistar rats would self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). For each subregion, subjects were placed in standard two-lever operant chambers and randomly assigned to one of five groups for each site ...
(Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Cognitive Development) Research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia states: Although numerous animal experiments and some human data show potent effects of cocaine on the central nervous system, we were unable to detect any difference in Performance, Verbal or Full Scale IQ
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive dysfunctions in recreational and dependent cocaine users. T2 - Role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, craving and early age at onset. AU - Vonmoos, Matthias. AU - Hulka, Lea M.. AU - Preller, Katrin H.. AU - Jenni, Daniela. AU - Baumgartner, Markus R.. AU - Stohler, Rudolf. AU - Bolla, Karen I.. AU - Quednow, Boris B.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Background: Dependent cocaine users consistently display cognitive deficits but cognitive performance of recreational cocaine users has rarely been investigated. Aims: To examine whether cognitive performance is impaired in relatively pure recreational and dependent cocaine users. Method: The cognitive performance of recreational (n = 68) and dependent cocaine users (n = 30) was compared with the performance of stimulant-naive controls (n = 68) employing an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Moreover, the impact of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, craving and early age at onset was ...
Cocaine is an addictive stimulant of the central nervous system. Snorting, injecting and smoking cocaine are the main ways to for a person to use it. When sold on the street, it is common for dealers to cut their cocaine to stretch the supply and make more money. Cheap cocaine can sometimes be cut up to ninety percent. Called fillers, ingredients used for cutting cocaine include baking soda, Vitamin B12, cornstarch and talcum powder.. Recently, however, large supplies of cocaine are being cut with levamisole, a veterinary antibiotic that farmers normally use to deworm cattle, sheep and pigs. Drug cartels from South America are reportedly sending the cocaine overseas and into the U.S. already cut with levamisole, which is baffling officials.. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) first reported seeing significant amounts of levamisole-tainted cocaine in 2005. A 2010 DEA report found that between October 2007 and October 2009, the percentage of seized cocaine bricks containing levamisole ...
Searching for targeted information about cocaine withdrawal? Find answers to questions about withdrawal signs, symptoms, detox and treatment.
Cocaine use has been generally linked to DKA but whether its through its antagonizing effect on insulin action or more indirectly through its association with non-compliance with insulin, or both, is not totally clear. A retrospective study found cocaine users to account for 14% of all DKA admissions.1 Cocaine users were also less likely than…
DAVAO CITY (MindaNews/25 February) - Villagers recovered at least 39 bricks of cocaine off the coast of Barangay Santiago in the coastal town of Caraga, Davao Oriental on Sunday, police said.. Chief Supt. Marcelo Morales, regional director of Police Regional Office 11, suspected that the cocaine may have originated from drug syndicates based in Colombia or Mexico.. Morales added the bricks of cocaine found in Caraga, which is at least 260 kilometers from this city, has similarities in terms of packaging with the ones recovered in Dinagat Island, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur in the last two weeks.. Eighty eight bricks of cocaine were recovered off the waters of Dinagat Island and Siargao Island in Surigao del Norte while 34 more were found drifting in the coast of Tandag City, Surigao del Sur in the past week.. Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency regional director Antontio Rivera bared that the Dangerous Drugs Board placed the value of cocaine at P5300 per gram.. Only 36 bricks weighing a ...
Cocaine abuse has been associated with numerous cardiovascular consequences, such as depressed myocardial contractility, elevated blood pressure, coronary artery vasoconstriction, and myocardial ischemia and infarction. The multifactorial effects of cocaine often contribute to its sympathomimetic function. However, the direct cytotoxic effects of cocaine on the cardiovascular system, especially vascular endothelium, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was designed to examine the general hypothesis that cocaine induces apoptosis of coronary artery endothelium by suppressing nitric oxide synthesis, stimulating cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequently activation of the caspases cascade, which lead to endothelial cell apoptosis. We found that cocaine induces apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis by coaine is through the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Cocaine-induced
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by
(Maternal Cocaine Use and Birth Defects) Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of the Serotonin 5-HT 2A Receptor Suppresses Cue-Evoked Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in a Rat Self-Administration Model. AU - Dhonnchadha, B. Á Nic. AU - Fox, R. G.. AU - Stutz, S. J.. AU - Rice, K. C.. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - The serotonin 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2AR) may play a role in reinstatement of drug-seeking. This study investigated the ability of a selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist to suppress reinstatement evoked by exposure to cues conditioned to cocaine self-administration. Cocaine self-administration (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL/6 s infusion; FR 4) was trained in naïve, free-fed rats to allow interpretation of results independent from changes related to food deprivation stress. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist M100907 (volinanserin) failed to reduce rates of operant responding for cocaine infusions. On the other hand, M100907 (0.001-0.8 mg/kg ip) significantly suppressed the cue-induced reinstatement of ...
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug extracted from the leaves of coca plant. Listed as a Schedule II drug in the United States, it has a high potential for abuse. As such, the medical usage of cocaine is almost nonexistent and it is a mere recreational drug that surpasses its medical usage. Its only known medicinal usage is as a topical anaesthetic.. Cocaine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that speeds up respiration, blood pressure and heart rate. It also raises energy, alertness, wakefulness, focus and attention while suppressing appetite. Due to its ability to increase energy and confidence, it is a popular party drug at social events. According to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) report, an estimated 1.9 million people aged 12 and above are the current users of this illicit drug in the U.S.. In the absence of effective interventions, the chronic users of cocaine witness adverse impacts on their brain functions depending on the frequency of ...
By: Ashwin Mohan, Sandeep Denpyam. COLUMBIA, Mo. - About 2 million Americans currently use cocaine for its temporary side-effects of euphoria, which have contributed to making it one of the most dangerous and addictive drugs in the country. Cocaine addiction, which can cause severe biological and behavioral problems, is very difficult to overcome. Now, University of Missouri researchers Ashwin Mohan and Sandeep Pendyam, doctoral students in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, are utilizing computational models to study how the brains chemicals and synaptic mechanisms, or connections between neurons, react to cocaine addiction and what this could mean for future therapies. With cocaine addiction, addicts dont feel an urge to revolt because there is a strong connection in the brain from the decision-making center to the pleasure center, which overwhelms other normal rewards and is why they keep seeking it, Pendyam said. By using computational models, were targeting the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine exposure reorganizes cell type- and input-specific connectivity in the nucleus accumbens. AU - MacAskill, Andrew F.. AU - Cassel, John M.. AU - Carter, Adam G.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank members of the Carter laboratory, M. Farrant and R. Froemke for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript, P. Kennedy for advice on cocaine administration, and C. Farb, R. Sears and H. Seong for help with anatomy. This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (A.F.M.), and the Dana Foundation, McKnight Foundation and US National Institutes of Health R01DA038138 (A.G.C.).. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - Repeated exposure to cocaine alters the structural and functional properties of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes suggest a rewiring of the NAc circuit, with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connections onto MSNs. However, it is unknown how drug exposure alters the balance of long-range afferents onto different cell types in ...
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic system that projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to other forebrain sites, is the major substrate of reward and reinforcement for both natural rewards and addictive drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine high. Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation ...
Watch Reuters News - Season 0, Episode 0 - Did Cocaine Cause the Financial Crisis?: Cocaine - a drug that makes users feel like Masters of the Universe. Probably not what former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspa...
This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure statu
Area of Interest: Human stem cells; Cocaine addiction; Schizophrenia; Synaptogenesis; Estrogen hormones and synaptic plasticity. Project 1: Study the molecular mechanism of cocaine addiction using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (funded by National Institute of Drug Abuse/NIH). Cocaine abuse remains a major public health problem. The long-lasting nature of addiction leads to relapse and makes it especially difficult to treat. Despite decades of research, no effective treatment is available for cocaine addiction. A better understanding of the development of addiction is essential for creating effective therapy for cocaine addiction. Our knowledge about cocaine addiction has been generated mostly from studies with animal models, with limited contributions from information about human neuronal pathology obtained by analyzing PET (Positron emission tomography) images and postmortem brain tissues of end-stage cocaine addicts. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms of human cocaine ...
Powder cocaine (also called coke), freebase and crack are all forms of cocaine. When the effects start to wear off, people experience a long comedown, when they feel Although the powerful psychological dependence that can easily develop is more of a problem than the physical withdrawal symptoms, people who ...
Aaron King, also known as A-Mo, is the last of 24 people from Danbury and New York City sentenced for participating in a large-scale cocaine and crack cocaine distribution ring led by another Danbury resident, Alex Luna, according to the U.S. Attorneys office.|br/||br/|According to a press release from the U.S. Attorneys office, Luna regularly received kilogram-sized quantities of cocaine by individuals based in New York City.|br/||br/|The governments investigation revealed that King purchased cocaine from Lunas associates, which he then sold to his own customers, the release said.|br/||br/|Danbury police and Bridgeport-based members of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration conducted months of surveillance, including numerous purchases by undercover officers and federally authorized wiretaps on five telephones, the U.S. Attorneys office said.|br/||br/|A kilogram of cocaine goes for about $30,000 to $40,000 in todays market, although it was less expensive in 2005, according to Tom
If that went over your head, heres the simple version - The researchers have found a way to deliver a protein-based gene via virus that bonds to cocaine in the bloodstream. This protein prevents the cocaine from ever reaching the brain, thus stopping the effects of the drug.. So couldnt this vaccine be abused by people who would want to take cocaine without the negative side effects? The protein stops all the effects, including the high, thus making cocaine worthless to people who took the vaccine. It would be especially helpful for those trying to quit as they would no longer experience the high that they seek. Of course, there still is the problem that people may turn to other drugs once cocaine loses its splendor.. Still, this is the kind of innovation thats needed in the war on drugs. You can have all the law enforcement in the world, but people are still going to do drugs. You win if you can take away the only reason people use the drug in the first place.. [h/t: Sci-News ...
5.1 percent of residents in Perus capital of Lima abused cocaine in 2013, according to a report by a drug monitoring organization. 8.9 percent of the citys residents used marijuana.. Across the entire country, 2.4 percent of the population aged 12 to 65 abused cocaine in Peru, an increase of over 60 percent from the 1.5 percent who used cocaine in 2010. Marijuana use in Peru also increased during that time period, from 5.6 percent to 7.5 percent.. (Marijuana prices by country.). Source: Natalie Southwick, Cocaine Use in Peru Increases 60% in 3 Years, Insight Crime, November 7, 2013.. ...
We present three patients whose angiographic and pathological data suggest that vasospasm and/or thrombus formation may be important mechanisms of crack cocaine-induced cerebral infarction. Patients 1 and 3 had intra-arterial clot without angiographic evidence of vasospasm, and patient 2 had vasospasm without evidence of clot. The vasospasm changes were more prominent in the left- than the right-sided cerebral arteries, which, with the smaller size of the left-sided vessels at autopsy, is consistent in our opinion with more severe cerebral vasoconstriction on the left side.. Multiple mechanisms for the neurovascular complications of crack cocaine use have been previously proposed.1 2 3 4 5 Cocaine and its metabolites (norcocaine and benzoylecgonine) are potent vasoconstrictors, and the chronic use of crack cocaine may lead to prolonged vasoconstriction due to the more protracted half-lives of active metabolites,6 which are perhaps even longer in association with ethanol,7 as in our third ...
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant. Physical effects of cocaine use, including crack, include constricted blood vessels and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Users may also experience feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety.10 Smoking crack delivers large quantities of the drug to the lungs, producing effects comparable to intravenous injection. These effects are felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense, but do not last long.11 For example, the high from smoking cocaine may last from 5 to 10 minutes, while the high from snorting the drug can last for 15 to 20 minutes.12 Evidence suggests that users who smoke or inject cocaine may be at even greater risk of causing harm to themselves than those who snort the substance.. Cocaine smokers may suffer from acute respiratory problems including coughing, shortness of breath, and severe chest pains with lung trauma and bleeding.13 Smoking crack cocaine can also cause particularly ...
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified an impairment in a brain region that might explain why it is difficult for persons with cocaine addiction to cease using the drug.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data, the research team found among cocaine-addicted individuals an impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which governs impulse and self-control, possibly explaining why these individuals cannot form new associations for certain stimuli.. Our study data suggests that it will be hard for longtime cocaine users to unlearn what once was a positive experience if this unlearning or new learning relies on this brain region to be effective, said Anna Konova, PhD, formerly with the Icahn School and now a postdoctoral fellow at New York Universitys Center for Neural Science.. The study compared 18 chronic cocaine users to 15 non-using controls on extinction learning activities resembling the exposure therapy often used to treat anxiety ...
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The chemical cocaine hydrochloride is commonly known as crack. Some users chemically process cocaine in order to remove the hydrochloride. It is called
Security personnel in Qatar arrested 50 drug smugglers entering the country in 2012. Customs officials in the country cliam that they are able to catch 90 pecent of the drug smugglers attempting to enter the country.. A kilogram of cocaine can be sold for up to $90,000 in the Middle East, a value that is 3 times higher than the rate in the United States.. (More cocaine prices by country.). 75 percent of the cocaine seized in the Middle East region was shipped from Brazil.. Source: Charles Parkinson, Persian Gulf is Growing Drug Hub For LatAm Groups, Insight Crime, September 17, 2013.. ...
Medicinal agents, beside occupational and environmental agents, remain one of the most common causes for interstitial lung diseases (ILD). A major problem with ILD is the recognition of the causative agent. In some cases more or less characteristic features of presentation are described. Often, the connection between drug-use and the development of related inflammatory damage or idiosyncratic toxicities is hard to recognize and objectify. Cocaine, a xenobiotic and the most commonly used illicit drug, causes serious medical and social problems. An increasing incidence of lung toxicity related to cocaine or crack-use is being reported worldwide. However, the mechanism of the resulting lung injury is not fully understood. This review summarizes possible molecular mechanisms explaining intraindividual variability in cocaine response and lung toxicity. The importance of including pharmacogenomics in the work-up of patients with suspected drug-induced lung toxicity is highlighted ...
by Guerretto Question by desperatedesirex3: Can snorting cocaine cause a common cold or sinus infections? if it can would either illness be contagious to n
Antibody 7A1 hydrolyzes cocaine to produce nonpsychoactive metabolites ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid. Crystal structures of 7A1 Fab and six complexes with substrate cocaine, the transition state analog, products ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid together and individually, as well as h …
UK authorities found 1.2 tons of cocaine on a luxury yacht at the port of Southampton, in the countrys largest ever seizure of a Class A drug.. The drugs were found in June, but the seizure was only made public on Wednesday after several arrests were made in the Netherlands.. The yacht had been due to arrive in the Netherlands with its cargo. (See video below).. Authorities had been tracking the vessel since May, after suspicions were raised by French authorities while the boat was in the Caribbean. The drugs are believed to have originated in South America, and to have been packed and loaded onto the vessel in Venezuela.. A Dutch official said that about 40 percent of all cocaine brought into Europe is trafficked using smuggling routes from the Caribbean.. The cocaine was found in a hidden compartment after officials combed the 65-foot vessel for six days.. UK said that the cocaine, which was 90 percent pure, would have been cut with other substances to produce eight tons for sale on the ...
Abstract: Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health concern. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that the number of Americans who had used cocaine in the past month has remained relatively stable since 2002 and cocaine remains the most frequently mentioned drug in emergency-room admissions according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Because of the public-health concerns and costs associated with its abuse, identifying a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence is a priority for the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Despite intense research efforts, a widely accepted medication for cocaine dependence has not yet been identified. A number of non-pharmacological treatments for cocaine dependence have also been examined. Specifically, behavioral treatments for cocaine dependence seek to reinforce non- drug related behaviors. For example, contingency management uses monetary incentives to decrease cocaine use and is associated with ...
Bolivias daily La Razón had an interesting feature on cocaine production in the country, last weekend. La Razón interviews Julio, a Bolivian drugs trafficker in jail, who has connections with Colombian traffickers. The Colombians go to Bolivia in order to look for high quality cocaine, Julio says. They make sure their business will turn out well. Julios wife or his daughter are the guarantee. If something turns out badly they hit you where it hurts most, he tells La Razón.. The cocaine is picked up by heavily armed men in small planes and brought to a foreign country. From there it is transported to the United States and Europe, according to Julio.. Bolivian authorities told that the situation isnt so bad yet and only mid level gangs operate in the country, but if Julio tells the truth there is a lot to worry about.. La Razón explains how Colombians train the Bolivians in production of cocaine. They teach them a quicker production process and they teach them how to use ...
To directly examine the in vivo activity of VTA DA neurons 24 h after a single cocaine exposure, we recorded the extracellular activity from single VTA DA neurons identified according to their electrophysiological properties (Grace and Bunney, 1984; Jalabert et al., 2011; Ungless and Grace, 2012). We found a shift in activity distribution of VTA DA neurons toward higher frequencies following cocaine exposure (Fig. 1A-C; saline, 24 h, n = 45 cells/9 rats; cocaine, 24 h, n = 46 cells/8 rats; Kolmogorov-Smirnov comparison: D(91) = 0.2271; p , 0.05), and a significant increase in both firing rate and bursting activity of VTA DA neurons in cocaine-treated compared with saline-treated rats (Fig. 1D; saline, 24 h, n = 45 cells/9 rats; cocaine, 24 h, n = 46 cells/9 rats; firing rate: saline, 24 h, 3.79 ± 0.3 Hz; cocaine, 24 h, 5.98 ± 0.35 Hz, t(89) = 4.8, p , 0.0001; bursting rate: saline, 24 h, 0.64 ± 0.08 Hz; cocaine, 24 h, 0.98 ± 0.1 Hz, t(89) = 2.7, p = 0.0074; mean spike/burst: saline, 24 h, ...
Cocaine analogues[edit]. Main article: List of cocaine analogues. Hundreds of cocaine analogues have been created, all of them ... Main article: Cocaine. Cocaine is an SNDRI. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the mountain ... In Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is a white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a ... Trozak D, Gould W (1984). "Cocaine abuse and connective tissue disease". J Am Acad Dermatol. 10 (3): 525. doi:10.1016/S0190- ...
... but cocaine addiction has had notably less success.[22] Hart argues that the varied results across cocaine users needs to serve ... "Developing Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis and Cocaine Use Disorders"[edit]. In this review, Hart and Lynch discuss a variety of ... He cites the criminalization of crack cocaine (which is typically associated with black communities) and lack of similar ... One such example is the difference in sentencing between crack and cocaine, which are essentially the same drug. Hart is ...
Cocaine[edit]. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine use results in a smaller brain, which results in learning ... Cocaine puts the fetus at a higher risk of being stillborn or premature. Cocaine use also results in low birthweight, damage to ...
Cocaine[edit]. Cocaine has a similar potential to induce temporary psychosis[17] with more than half of cocaine abusers ... Elliott A.; Mahmood T.; Smalligan R. D. (2012). "Cocaine Bugs: A Case Report of Cocaine-Induced Delusions of Parasitosis". The ... Brady KT, Lydiard RB, Malcolm R, Ballenger JC (1991). "Cocaine-induced psychosis". J Clin Psychiatry. 52: 509-512.. ... Cocaine-induced psychosis shows sensitization toward the psychotic effects of the drug. This means that psychosis becomes more ...
Modulation of cocaine reward[edit]. Researchers investigated the effects of CB2 agonists on cocaine self-administration in mice ... Systemic administration of JWH-133 reduced the number of self-infusions of cocaine in mice, as well as reducing locomotor ... Systemic administration of JWH-133 also reduced basal and cocaine-induced elevations of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus ... "Brain Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Modulate Cocaine's Actions in Mice". Nature Neuroscience. 14 (9): 1160-1166. doi:10.1038/nn. ...
Cocaine[edit]. They should also be avoided in patients with a history of cocaine use or in cocaine-induced tachycardia.[ ... Beta blockers should not be used as a first-line treatment in the acute setting for cocaine-induced acute coronary syndrome ( ... Page RL, Utz KJ, Wolfel EE (December 2007). "Should beta-blockers be used in the treatment of cocaine-associated acute coronary ... and because cocaine users may be prone to continue to abuse the substance, thus complicating the effect of drug therapy.[54] ...
Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Acute intoxication from hallucinogens (bad trip). *Hallucinogen persisting perception ...
Cocaine. *SID *Cocaine intoxication. *SUD *Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder ...
Cocaine group. Substitution in positions 2 and 3 Cocaine, ecgonine [56][58] ... Caffeine,[162] cocaine,[163] codeine[164] and nicotine[165] are slightly soluble in water (with a solubility of ≥1g/L), whereas ... Cocaine, caffeine, and cathinone are stimulants of the central nervous system.[211][212] Mescaline and many indole alkaloids ( ... Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine),[ ...
Cocaine. Clear (No change) d-Amphetamine HCl. Strong reddish orange - Dark reddish brown ...
Cocaine. *SID *Cocaine intoxication. *SUD *Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder ...
Cocaine 2 to 5 days (with exceptions for heavy users who can test positive up to 4/6 weeks, and individuals with certain kidney ... For example, heroin and cocaine can only be detected for a few hours after use, but their metabolites can be detected for ... The presence of EME confirms actual ingestion of cocaine by a human being, while the presence of BZ is indicative only. BZ ... Drugs of abuse that can be detected include Cannabis, Cocaine, Amphetamines and drugs new to the UK such as Mephedrone. ...
Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Acute intoxication from hallucinogens (bad trip). *Hallucinogen persisting perception ...
... triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: ...
Cocaine. Deep orange yellow Codeine. Dark olive d-Amphetamine. Moderate bluish green ...
Two songs from the album, "Cocaine" and "Fastlane", had music videos to accompany their release. The Internet has a song ...
... the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine.[67] Since then, Coca-Cola uses a cocaine-free ... "Cocaine Facts - How to Tell Use of Cocaine - Questions, Myths, Truth". ... When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the ... Coca - cocaine. Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup (approximately 37 g/L), a significant dose; ...
"Deaths related to cocaine". Archived from the original on 17 July 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2007.. ... "cocaine/crack". Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.. ... cocaine from Erythroxylon coca and opium from opium poppy. Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may ...
"Mondo Generator: Cocaine Rodeo". Allmusic. Retrieved December 29, 2009.. *^ "Internal Void: Unearthed". Allmusic. Retrieved ...
"Cocaine Decisions". *"Baby Take Your Teeth Out". *"In France". *"The Girl in the Magnesium Dress" ...
"Cocaine Decisions". *"Baby Take Your Teeth Out". *"In France". *"The Girl in the Magnesium Dress" ...
Cocaine Nights (1996). *Super-Cannes (2000). *Millennium People (2003). *Kingdom Come (2006) ...
Peterson, RC (1997). "History of Cocaine". In Robert C. Petersen; Richard C. Stillman. Cocaine: 1977 (PDF). United States ... Cocaine: 1977 (PDF). United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, ...
Cocaine users who inject intravenously can easily overdose accidentally, as the margin between a pleasurable drug sensation and ...
The high risk-factor obtained is a product not of the fact that so many marijuana users use cocaine but that so many cocaine ... In December 2002, a study by RAND investigating whether cannabis use results in the subsequent use of cocaine and heroin was ... "RAND Study Casts Doubt on Claims that Marijuana Acts as "Gateway" to the Use of Cocaine and Heroin". RAND. 2002-12-02. Archived ... The risk of progression from marijuana to cocaine to heroin is now well documented."[125] ...
Rockso, the rock and roll clown! I do cocaine!". He admits in "Cleanso" that not only does he use cocaine, but also huffs paint ... Rockso (inconsistently spelled with an "s" or "z") is a self-described "rock and roll clown" and he does cocaine. He is known ... He was formerly addicted to crack cocaine, but has since become sober. A young Candynose looks very much like Poison drummer ... The band quickly became successful; however, Rockso insisted on being paid in cocaine, and was fired for his violent and ...
Cocaine Decisions». Другие композиции. *«Absolutely Free». *«The Adventures of Greggery Peccary». *«America Drinks and Goes ...
"Footballer denies cocaine charge". BBC Sport. 3 August 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2009. "Soccer star denies cocaine charge". BBC ... The exact charge was 'attempting to possess 1.17 kg (2.5 lb) of crack cocaine with intent to supply'. The Prosecution claimed ... Lowe was arrested by British police in April 2004 for trafficking £117,000 worth of crack cocaine, he denied the charges. ...
Streatfeild D (17 June 2003). Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography. Macmillan. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-312-42226-4. . Retrieved 14 ... and cocaine,[8] have bronchodilating effects and were used often for asthma due to the lack of effective β2-adrenergic agonists ...
Cocaine - 6:37 Tracce 4,6,7 registrate 12 febbraio, 1978 a Santa Monica Civic Auditorim. ...
1. Conspiracy to distribute cocaine, 21 U.S.C. § 846. 2. W.D. Ark.. 2. 1985. 2. Distribution of cocaine, 21 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1) ... Conspiracy to distribute cocaine, distribution of cocaine, and using a communications facility to facilitate distribution of ... Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and to distribute cocaine, possession with intent to distribute cocaine, use of ... Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine and to distribute cocaine, 21 U.S.C. § 846. ...
Fish found in Washingtons Puget Sound are tripping on cocaine, Prozac, Advil, Benadryl, and Lipitor. Unfortunately, there is ... Fish found in Washingtons Puget Sound are tripping on cocaine, Prozac, Advil, Benadryl, and Lipitor. Unfortunately, there is ... Gills and pills: Fish testing positive for cocaine, anti-depressants 25 Feb, 2016 02:12 ...
... is a highly addictive stimulant drug made from the coca plant grown in the Andean Ridge of South America. Both U.S. ... Cocaine use and its consequences continue to have a significant harmful effect on the security and well-being of our citizens. ... Likewise, U.S. interdiction agencies seized a record amount of cocaine in fiscal year 2016 and are working directly with their ... ONDCP and our Federal, state, and local partners are working to build a comprehensive approach to reduce cocaine availability ...
Cocaine Anonymous (January 1993). Hope, Faith and Courage: Stories from the Fellowship of Cocaine Anonymous. Los Angeles, ... While many CA members have been addicted to cocaine, crack, speed or similar substances, identifying specifically as a cocaine ... Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a twelve-step program for people who seek recovery from drug addiction. CA is patterned very closely ... Co-Anon (formerly CocAnon) is a program for families of cocaine users, analogous to Al-Anon for the friends and family of ...
Crude cocaine preparation intermediates are marketed as cheaper alternatives to pure cocaine to local markets while the more ... Basuco ("bazooka") is the term used for cocaine paste in Colombia, the worlds second biggest cocaine producer after Peru. ... In South America, coca paste, also known as cocaine base and, therefore, often confused with cocaine freebase in North America ... In Argentina, cocaine paste used to go[when?] for about 30 cents (in USD) a dose, enough for a powerful two-minute high.[3] ...
... also called crack cocaine, is a highly addictive stimulant. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Learn about health effects ... Cocaine (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in Spanish * Mind Over Matter: The Brains Response to Cocaine (National ... Substance use -- cocaine (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Tips for Teens: The Truth about Cocaine (Substance Abuse and ... Cocaine Smoking (National Institutes of Health) * Cocaine-Related Disorders (National ...
Also, in the USA cocaine is one of the most... ... cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe. An ... Ventral Tegmental Area Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Cocaine Abuse Cocaine User Cocaine Dependence These ... Tiagebine increases cocaine-free urines in cocaine-dependent methadone treated patients: results of a randomized pilot study. ... Also, in the USA cocaine is one of the most prevalent illicit drugs, with an annual prevalence of seven million people. Cocaine ...
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... everything you need for studying or teaching Cocaine. ... Immediately download the Cocaine summary, chapter-by-chapter ... Cocaine The abuse of cocaine is a major public-health problem in the United States. In the 1970s, people began taking cocaine ... Cocaine OFFICIAL NAMES: Powder cocaine, crack cocaine STREET NAMES: Base, Bernice, blow, C, coke, dream, dust, flakes, nose ... Cocaine What Kind of Drug Is It? Cocaine is a natural substance that comes from the leaves of the coca (pronounced KOH-kuh) ...
COCAINE SUBSTITUTES. Br Med J 1924; 2 doi: (Published 02 August 1924) Cite this as: Br ...
Is crack cocaine illegal?. Yes, crack cocaine is illegal. Crack cocaine is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled ... What is crack cocaine?. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and powerful stimulant that is derived from powdered cocaine using ... Crack Cocaine. Fast Facts. Questions and Answers - What is crack cocaine?. - How is it produced?. - What does it look like?. - ... Street Terms for Crack Cocaine. 24-7. Badrock. Beat. Candy. Chemical. Cloud. Cookies. Crumbs. Crunch & munch. Devil drug. Dice ...
Cocaine dosage and cocaine addiction. Wellcome L0016413.jpg 1,122 × 1,674; 1.09 MB. ... Cocaine dosage and cocaine addiction. Wellcome L0016412.jpg 1,250 × 1,477; 662 KB. ... Cocaine dosage and cocaine addiction. Wellcome L0016414.jpg 1,250 × 1,460; 713 KB. ... US Navy 080913-N-0000F-071 In this photo released by the U.S. Coast Guard, some of the 37 bales of cocaine are seen in one of ...
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... ANSWER The drug sends high levels of dopamine, a natural chemical messenger in your body, into the ... What are the short-term effects of cocaine?. More Answers On Substance Abuse and Addiction. *What are some serious side effects ... "What are the long-term effects of cocaine use?" "What is Cocaine?" ... "What are the long-term effects of cocaine use?" "What is Cocaine?" ...
... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ...
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Henry Trey Radel is apologizing to his constituents after being busted on a cocaine possession charge, acknowledging he also ... The cocaine possession charge, a misdemeanor, carries a statutory maximum of six months in prison and a fine of $1,000. Radel ... Authorities allege that Radel knowingly possessed cocaine on Oct. 29. A one-sentence charging document did not add any details ... 20, 2013, leaving court after pleading guilty to a misdemeanor charge of cocaine possession and was sentenced to a years ...
... have used cocaine in the past year. The same data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health suggest that about 9,000 have ... Sewage Tested for Signs of Cocaine. Fairfax Participating In Federal Program To Assess Drug Use. By Bill Turque. Washington ... It also is premature, officials said, to conclude that levels of metabolized cocaine in sewage offer a more accurate index of ... According to the Times of London, they concluded that the Po carried the equivalent of about four kilograms of cocaine and ...
Cocaine Angel. 2007. 5 Reviews 500+ Ratings You might also like. Private Road A Very Murray Christmas How Murray Saved ... Critic Reviews for Cocaine Angel. All Critics (5) , Top Critics (3) , Fresh (3) , Rotten (2) ... Movies about addicts are a dime a dozen, but Cocaine Angel does its own thing, mixing humor with bleakness and resisting the ... Movies about addicts are a dime a dozen, but Cocaine Angel does its own thing, mixing humor with bleakness and resisting the ...
Cocaine clogs the brains delicate message system. Cocaine interferes with the brains normal handling of dopamine, a brain ... Cocaine played a role in the death of this talented comic, and the drug has had a hand in many other deaths. Cocaine can ... Heres how cocaine can cause a heart attack: "Cocaine increases the amount of oxygen needed by the heart because it stimulates ... With repeated exposure to cocaine, the brain becomes unable to process dopamine normally. "Many cocaine users report that they ...
Whats interesting about it is that it is occasionally found as an adulterant in cocaine (PDF) - and it popped up again ... Cocaine acts by stimulating dopamine production in the brain, and the "cocaine chemists" down in Colombia have discovered that ... Filter off the levamisole and then evaporate off the alcohol from the cocaine solution and you will have mostly pure cocaine ... So if you want to use cocaine I suggest you learn a few chemical processing techniques. Cocaine Hydrochloride is freely soluble ... ...
Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals. ... Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. ... Taking too much cocaine, or too concentrated a form of cocaine. *Using cocaine when the weather is hot, which leads to more ... Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals ...
Find out more about cocaine and its effects. ... Cocaine is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant drug. ... Cocaine is a white powder that comes from the dried leaves of the coca plant, which is found in South America. Crack cocaine is ... Crack cocaine looks like white or tan pellets (sort of like gerbil or dry cat food). Both cocaine and crack are very addictive ... Cocaine is a stimulant, which means that it produces a fast, intense feeling of power and energy. Then it wears off (crack ...
Cocaine vaccine. January 5, 2008 6:04 AM Subscribe. Cocaine vaccine in the works Ethical questions include whether parents ... Because cocaine molecules are too small to be recognized by antibodies, the researchers have hooked some cocaine molecules onto ... And cocaine seems somewhat of a special case, along with nicotine, in terms of targeting ability.. posted by daksya at 6:19 AM ... As for the cocaine vaccine, its an attractive notion for folks who decide on their own to clean up. And quite a creepy one if ...
David O. Russell Considers COCAINE COWBOYS With Mark Wahlberg. by Brendan Bettinger February 22, 2011 ... Exclusive: Mark Wahlberg on THE RAVEN, FIVE BROTHERS, THE BRAZILIAN JOB, COCAINE COWBOYS, and THE FIGHTER. by Steve Frosty ... Mark Wahlberg has since 2008 been attached to Cocaine Cowboys, based on the Billy Corben documentary of the same name about ...
  • Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a twelve-step program for people who seek recovery from drug addiction. (
  • He worked in the film industry and saw a number of people who had difficulty finding help from anyone knowledgeable about the special difficulties presented by cocaine addiction. (
  • Addiction recovery groups List of twelve-step groups Cocaine Anonymous (2007-11-13). (
  • This chapter describes the mechanism of action of cocaine, how addiction and tolerance develop, and the physiological and psychological risks of cocaine use. (
  • Nestler E. The neurobiology of cocaine addiction. (
  • Cocaine, in any form, is a powerfully addictive drug, and addiction seems to develop more quickly when the drug is smoked--as crack is--than snorted--as powdered cocaine typically is. (
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: "A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Treating Cocaine Addiction," "Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction," "What Are Stimulants? (
  • Experts say this finding, if applicable to humans, could have huge implications for treatment of cocaine addiction. (
  • Cocaine Addiction Uses Same Brain Paths as Salt Cravings. (
  • Cocaine addiction continues to be a major health and social problem in the United States and other countries. (
  • Results presented demonstrate a strategy in the continuing efforts to find effective treatments for cocaine addiction and suggest the application of this protein-based treatment for other drug abuse syndromes. (
  • Despite intensive efforts, effective therapies for cocaine craving and addiction remain elusive. (
  • Unlike the historically successful methadone treatment for heroin addiction, there is no proven pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse ( 4 ). (
  • Unquestionably, an improved pharmacotherapy would increase the effectiveness of such programs, and alternative strategies for treating cocaine addiction are needed if progress is to be made. (
  • A different antibody-based approach to cocaine addiction treatment uses catalytic antibodies specific for cocaine and the cleavage of its benzoyl ester ( 18 - 23 ). (
  • A single-dose vaccine capable of providing immunity against the effects of cocaine offers a novel and groundbreaking strategy for treating cocaine addiction is described in an article published Instant Online in Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ( The article is available free online at the Human Gene Therapy website ( (
  • This is a very novel approach for addressing the huge medical problem of cocaine addiction," says James M. Wilson, MD, PhD, Editor-in-Chief, and Director of the Gene Therapy Program, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia. (
  • Nicotine and Cocaine: Similar Addiction? (
  • According to the research, the effects of nicotine on the regions of the brain associated with addiction are similar to those of cocaine""both create lasting changes in a person's brain by affecting similar mechanisms of memory on first contact. (
  • While the results of the experiment also pose possible strategies for preventing or treating cocaine and nicotine addictions, the use of D5 blockers to treat addiction may be further in the future""currently all known blockers of the D5 receptor also block the D1 dopamine receptor, which is important for healthy motivation and movement. (
  • All three methods of cocaine abuse can lead to addiction and other severe health problems, including increasing the risk of contracting HIV and other infectious diseases. (
  • With repeated use, cocaine can cause long-term changes in the brain's reward system and in other brain systems as well, which may eventually lead to addiction. (
  • Dr Alun Morinan, from the National Addiction Centre & Hope UK, a Christian drug education charity, says that young people using cocaine will not realise what they are taking. (
  • Cocaine addiction: Have scientists found a cure. (
  • Scientists say they have found a protein which may be specifically responsible for the development of cocaine addiction. (
  • SCIENTISTS believe they could be on the way to curing cocaine addiction after successfully defeating dependency to the drug in mice. (
  • Mount Sinai researchers in New York say they have identified a protein produced by the immune system - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - which may be specifically responsible for the development of cocaine addiction. (
  • According to National Geographic , scientists around the world are looking at medications to treat cocaine addiction and some are even using electromagnetic treatments such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). (
  • A TMS patient, Patrick Perotti from Genoa, Italy told the magazine that the electromagnetic technique has finally suppressed his addiction to cocaine. (
  • Cocaine is a stimulant that effects the central nervous system, giving users a quick, intense feeling of Euphoria, power and energy mostly resulting in addiction. (
  • ADDICTION: Even after one use, cocaine and crack can create both physical and psychological cravings that make it very, very difficult for users to stop. (
  • cocaine will really help your baby develop a cocaine addiction. (
  • TUESDAY, May 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction treatments. (
  • Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research pinpoints how these addictive drugs interfere with the dopamine transporter and normal signaling in the brain, bringing us closer to developing effective treatments for people who are addicted to cocaine and amphetamines," Eric Gouaux, a senior scientist at the university's Vollum Institute, said in a university news release. (
  • The dustbin of pharmaceutical history is full of previous failures to treat cocaine addiction-- more than 50 molecules have been tried without success, Tom Kosten told the Chronicle. (
  • Traditionally, coca paste has been relatively abundant in South American countries such as Colombia where it is processed into cocaine hydrochloride ("street cocaine") for distribution to the rest of the world. (
  • Crack Crack (sometimes called crack-co-caine) is an illicit drug, the smokable form of CO-CAINE, made by adding the bases ammonia or baking soda and water to cocaine hydrochloride. (
  • Cocaine Hydrochloride is freely soluble in ethanol. (
  • Crack is the street name for a type of cocaine that has had the hydrochloride removed, making it possible to smoke. (
  • The powdered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. (
  • Cocaine hydrochloride, the cocaine that is "snorted," can be converted to a smokable form in two ways. (
  • Altering cocaine hydrochloride by freebasing is potentially very dangerous," says Wadler, "because the chemicals used to remove the hydrochloride are highly flammable and freebased cocaine is smoked. (
  • The powder, usually cocaine hydrochloride, is diluted with a variety of substances, the most common being sugars such as lactose, inositol, and mannitol, and local anesthetics such as lidocaine. (
  • Cocaine hydrochloride is generally snorted or dissolved in water and injected. (
  • Cocaine hydrochloride (Goprelto), an ester local anesthetic, was approved for medical use in the United States in December 2017, and is indicated for the introduction of local anesthesia of the mucous membranes for diagnostic procedures and surgeries on or through the nasal cavities of adults. (
  • Cocaine hydrochloride (Numbrino) was approved for medical use in the United States in January 2020. (
  • Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug made from the coca plant grown in the Andean Ridge of South America. (
  • Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and powerful stimulant that is derived from powdered cocaine using a simple conversion process. (
  • Cocaine is highly addictive and may be the most reinforcing of all drugs of abuse ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • The findings from the experiment suggest a reason for why both cocaine and nicotine are such highly addictive substances. (
  • Cocaine is a highly addictive and a naturally occurring anesthetic, or pain blocker. (
  • Not only is the recreational use of cocaine illegal, it is highly addictive and is banned by all sports organizations including the NCAA and the International Olympic Committee. (
  • Cocaine is highly addictive, illegal, and deadly drug, which destroys virtually everyone misguided enough to try it. (
  • In urine testing, the most common drug test specimen type, the positivity rate for cocaine increased seven percent in the general U.S. workforce (0.28% in 2016 versus 0.30% in 2017). (
  • In the federally-mandated, safety-sensitive workforce, for which only urine testing is permitted, cocaine positivity increased by eleven percent (0.28% in 2016 versus 0.31% percent in 2017), representing the third consecutive year of increases in this workforce segment. (
  • Likewise, U.S. interdiction agencies seized a record amount of cocaine in fiscal year 2016 and are working directly with their investigative partners to dismantle the criminal organizations smuggling cocaine into the United States. (
  • A new RAND report puts spending on marijuana, heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine at $146 billion in 2016. (
  • Police in Australia seized over a ton of cocaine from a local drug syndicate in 2016, including 1,102 pounds (500kg) on Christmas Day. (
  • National vital statistics data on causes of death found that in 2017, 1 in 5 drug overdose deaths (nearly 14,000 cases) involved cocaine, representing "a 34.4% increase from 2016," Kariisa and colleagues reported. (
  • Crack Crack (sometimes called crack cocaine) is the form of cocaine that is smoked. (
  • Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. (
  • Alkaloid cocaine is the form of cocaine found in crack cocaine , and is also known as freebase cocaine . (
  • Crack," the chunk or "rock" form of cocaine, is a ready-to-use freebase. (
  • Juma was indicted in absentia for smuggling 85 tons of cocaine into the US and for laundering $850 million for Los Zetas. (
  • C olombian police said on Sunday they seized their largest domestic haul ever of illegal drugs: eight tons of cocaine from the Usuga Clan, the country's leading organised crime ring. (
  • P olice said in a statement that early Sunday in Turbo, in the northwestern Uraba region near the border with Panama, they found the cache 'of almost eight tons of cocaine belonging to the Usuga Clan,' that was hidden on a banana plantation . (
  • Defense minister Luis Carlos Villegas said that nearly 1.5 tons of cocaine was wrapped 'and ready to go out to the export market. (
  • A uthorities say the Usuga Clan, which emerged after the mass demobilisation of right-wing paramilitaries a decade ago, ships tons of cocaine from Colombia to Central America and on to the United States. (
  • Six men arrested after authorities shut down a warehouse where a record 21 tons of cocaine was seized pleaded innocent to drug charges before a federal magistrate today. (
  • Mickey Munday describes flying more than 10 tons of cocaine from Columbia to the United States, in Cocaine Cowboys . (
  • These so-called semi-submersibles were built to transport tons of cocaine. (
  • Roughly one third of the 305 metric tons of cocaine that the U.S. government estimates Peru produces each year travels by foot. (
  • Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez says authorities have confiscated some 2.5 metric tons of cocaine and arrested 11 suspected drug smugglers in a raid on a hidden airstrip in a remote eastern region. (
  • The analysis of 2017 data also suggests shifting patterns of drug use, with cocaine and amphetamines positivity surging in some areas of the country and marijuana positivity rising sharply in states with newer recreational use statutes. (
  • June 2017: NYC Health Department announced the presence of fentanyl in cocaine is contributing to an increase in drug overdose deaths . (
  • In fact, of the more than 70,000 lives lost to drug overdoses in 2017, "nearly a third involved cocaine, psychostimulants or both," reports a team led by researcher Mbabazi Kariisa, of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Nearly three-quarters of cocaine-involved deaths in 2017 also involved opioids," they reported, as did about half of deaths involving psychostimulants such as meth. (
  • Cocaine is a white powder. (
  • Center for Substance Abuse Research: "Cocaine (Powder). (
  • During an inspection of the bar, powder cocaine was located in the kitchen, police said. (
  • Cocaine is a white powder that comes from the dried leaves of the coca plant, which is found in South America. (
  • Crack is made by cooking cocaine powder with baking soda, then breaking it into small pieces called rocks. (
  • The federal government imposed mandatory sentences on those convicted of crack possession that were literally 100 times more severe than sentences imposed on those convicted of powder cocaine possession. (
  • That doesn't mean getting caught using crack gets someone 100 times as long a sentence as someone caught with powder cocaine. (
  • It means it takes 100 times more powder cocaine to get the same penalty as crack. (
  • But powder cocaine, from which crack is made and without which crack wouldn't exist, has much shorter prison sentences related to its possession. (
  • Five grams of crack gets you five years in prison, but it takes 500 grams of powder cocaine to receive the same sentence. (
  • Since more-affluent whites typically constitute users of powder cocaine, many feel the disparity in arrests and sentencing has racist overtones. (
  • I don't know what was in the minds of the legislators when they enacted the disparity between the handling of both powder and crack cocaine, but clearly the result has been a racial divide in this country," said Terry J. Hatter, a federal judge in Los Angeles. (
  • If you're doing the powder cocaine in a corporate boardroom, nothing is probably ever going to happen to you. (
  • And they are serving much longer sentences than people who are arrested for the sale or possession of an equivalent amount of powder cocaine. (
  • That ought to be addressed by making sure that powder cocaine and crack cocaine penalties are the same," Bush said on CNN. (
  • Powder Play -- more information on the cocaine vaccine. (
  • Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. (
  • Cocaine in powder form is usually "snorted" into the nostrils or rubbed on the mucous lining of the mouth and lips. (
  • The cocaine is a white powder and the drugs it's being mixed with are also white powder. (
  • Illegal cocaine is usually distributed as a white crystalline powder or as an off-white chunky material. (
  • A chemist for the Drug Enforcement Administration testified Thursday that no cocaine was found in a sample of white-and-brown powder taken from the red speedboat of William Bennett, charged with participating in a huge smuggling operation. (
  • During testimony Wednesday in federal court in West Palm Beach, a U.S. Coast Guard officer had said a field test showed cocaine was present in the powder. (
  • Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste. (
  • Crude cocaine preparation intermediates are marketed as cheaper alternatives to pure cocaine to local markets while the more expensive end product is exported to US and European markets. (
  • RIO DE JANEIRO - Brazilian police have arrested a Chilean woman about to fly to Paris carrying 17.6 pounds of pure cocaine for delivery to Italy, a police spokesman said Monday. (
  • Filter off the levamisole and then evaporate off the alcohol from the cocaine solution and you will have mostly pure cocaine except for other cuts that may be soluble in ethanol. (
  • Diluting the cocaine enables the seller to make more profit by "stretching" the amount of pure cocaine they have to sell. (
  • Pure cocaine was first isolated in the 1880s. (
  • The first cocaine laboratory found inside the Medellin's urban area was uncovered earlier this month, where Colombian authorities found nearly 9 pounds of pure cocaine power that could have been converted into 26 pounds of the drug for distribution, likely in local markets, officials said. (
  • Cocaine was first used natives of South America who chewed the leaves of the coca plant, and then later isolated and purified for medical use as a local anesthetic. (
  • Cocaine is sometimes used in medicine as a local anesthetic, especially for the eyes, nose, or throat. (
  • Cocaine is used medically as a local anesthetic . (
  • Cocaine is more addictive than amphetamines, and withdrawal produces sleep and eating disorders, irritability, lack of motivation and depression as well as a craving for the drug. (
  • I also discovered that caffeine is a psychostimulant with the same effects to the nervous system as cocaine and amphetamines, which explained why the speed-lover in me liked it so much. (
  • Currently, there are no approved drug therapies for amphetamine abuse, and people addicted to amphetamines and cocaine have a high relapse rate, the researchers said. (
  • Amphetamines and cocaine block dopamine signaling by interfering with the functioning of the dopamine transporter, the researchers explained. (
  • Secaucus, NJ, May 8, 2018 - Driven by increases in cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana, drug use by the American workforce remains at its highest rate in more than a decade, according to a new analysis released today by Quest Diagnostics, the world's leading provider of diagnostic information services. (
  • The University of Arizona Methamphetamine and Other Illicit drug Education: "Cocaine Overdose. (
  • Bogota (AFP) - Colombian authorities seized 6.1 tonnes of cocaine in the northern port city of Barranquilla as it was about to be shipped to Spain in a cargo of scrap metal, the government said Sunday. (
  • Finally, there's a storage compartment in the bow with space for eight tonnes of cocaine. (
  • This doesn't really seem like a boon for coke addicts as I would think the last thing someone heavily addicted to cocaine would want is for it to stop working. (
  • In the 1980s, ruthless Colombian cocaine barons invaded Miami with a brand of violence unseen in this country since Prohibition-era Chicago - and it put the city on the map. (
  • A Colombian police officer standing guard over eight tons of seized cocaine in Turbo, Antioquia department. (
  • H e said this was the largest seizure ever of cocaine on Colombian territory, though there may have been slightly larger cocaine seizures at sea . (
  • Police reported a record cocaine seizure today--92 pounds found on a Colombian ship--increasing fears that Japan may soon be faced with the kind of Western-style drug epidemic it has so far managed to avoid. (
  • An investigation into last year's record cocaine seizure at a Sylmar warehouse shows that Colombian drug cartels have shipped vast quantities of cocaine along America's interstate highway system despite law enforcement efforts to choke it off, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. (
  • Big talkers among them are Mickey Munday , who made many millions running cocaine from Colombia into Florida, and Jorge "Rivi" Ayala , top hit man for Colombian crime godmother Griselda Blanco , the notorious "Black Widow. (
  • Recently, US and Colombian authorities have got better at detecting the semi-subs, and that has led to another technological innovation in cocaine smuggling. (
  • Basuco (" bazooka ") is the term used for cocaine paste in Colombia , the world's second biggest cocaine producer after Peru. (
  • Two brothers from Colombia were convicted in federal court Wednesday on drug charges following the largest-ever cocaine seizure in Orange County. (
  • Colombia is the centre of the world's cocaine trade, and traffickers are always seeking new ways to avoid detection - including going underwater. (
  • In this country that overtook Colombia in 2012 as the world's No. 1 cocaine-producing nation, Borda regularly hikes within a few hours of the Machu Picchu tourist mecca, bound for Cuzco with drugs. (
  • A task force of lawmen waited for a small plane from Colombia to land on a rural airstrip, then seized more than 1,000 pounds of cocaine and arrested the pilot and an accomplice on drug trafficking charges, officials said Wednesday. (
  • This photo taken with a cellphone shows Rep. Henry "Trey" Radel, R-Fla. leaving court in Washington, Wednesday, Nov. 20, 2013, leaving court after pleading guilty to a misdemeanor charge of cocaine possession and was sentenced to a year's probation. (
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - Florida Rep. Henry "Trey" Radel is apologizing to his constituents after being busted on a cocaine possession charge, acknowledging he also struggles with alcoholism and intends to seek treatment and counseling. (
  • The 37-year-old freshman Republican was charged with cocaine possession Tuesday after what a federal law enforcement official described as a "buy and bust" operation. (
  • The cocaine possession charge, a misdemeanor, carries a statutory maximum of six months in prison and a fine of $1,000. (
  • Indiana State Excise Police Officers arrested two men for possession of cocaine and cited and Indianapolis bar early Saturday morning on drug related violations. (
  • Both men were booked into the Marion County Jail on the preliminary felony charges of possession of cocaine. (
  • Rodolfo Trujillo, 46, and Henry Trujillo, 38, who had been living in New York City, were convicted in U.S. District Court on charges of possession with intent to distribute cocaine, said Assistant U.S. Atty. Jeffrey W. Johnson. (
  • (CNN) -- Paris Hilton entered guilty pleas on two misdemeanor counts in a Las Vegas court and was placed on probation for a year Monday morning under a plea deal to settle a cocaine possession charge. (
  • A felony cocaine possession charge was dropped in exchange for Hilton's guilty pleas on misdemeanor charges of drug possession and obstruction of an officer. (
  • That student, Derek Oatis, was arrested on April 23 and charged in connection with illegal possession of cocaine said to be worth $300,000. (
  • Coolio has officially been charged with felony cocaine possession -- and two other misdemeanors -- after cops say they found drugs in his luggage at LAX last week. (
  • After cannabis, cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe. (
  • Also, in the USA cocaine is one of the most prevalent illicit drugs, with an annual prevalence of seven million people. (
  • Yet today little is known about how the plant actually creates cocaine, in part because of its highly illicit nature-few, if any, U.S. labs are permitted to grow coca or study cocaine, which is part of a group of compounds called tropane alkaloids. (
  • 10 May 2011 - The issue of illicit drugs took centre stage at a G8+ Ministerial Meeting held on 9 and 10 May in Paris as representative countries met to enhance their efforts in the international fight against transatlantic cocaine trafficking. (
  • In welcoming the Plan of Action and Political Declaration, Mr. Fedotov stated: "It is necessary for the European and North American States to tackle this problem in a coordinated, combined manner through the implementation of policies aimed at reducing demand for cocaine, tracking the illicit movement of drugs and successfully confiscating criminal assets. (
  • Cocaine Anonymous is a Fellowship of, by and for addicts seeking recovery. (
  • Will a Cocaine Vaccine Keep Addicts from Using? (
  • July 11, 2001 -- Cocaine addicts' drug cravings may increase, rather than decrease, over time after cocaine use has stopped, finds a study on rats by the National Institute on Drug Abuse published in the July 12 issue of Nature. (
  • When addicts receive the cue, their cravings for cocaine intensify. (
  • Vaccine May Hold Cure for Cocaine Addicts and Doctors , from Mental Health Net. (
  • Finally, pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions available to treat cocaine dependence are discussed. (
  • Cocaine dependence: a disease of the brain's reward centers. (
  • Cocaine Treatment: Behavioral Approaches In the medical community, there is no general agreement as to the best way to treat cocaine dependence. (
  • To investigate this hypothesis, the researchers randomly assigned 55 individuals who were seeking treatment for cocaine dependence to receive either a 40-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or midazolam (multiple brands) (0.025 mg/kg) in a 5-week trial. (
  • Experiments with animals suggest that cocaine is perhaps the most powerful drug of all in producing dependence. (
  • Coast Guard Petty Petty Officer 3rd Class Joshua Martin, a crewmember aboard the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with a wholesale value of more than $22 million, at Coast Guard Base Miami Beach. (
  • HUANTA, Peru (AP) - He slides two T-shirts, shorts, canned tuna, toasted corn and boiled potatoes into the rucksack atop 11 pounds of semi-refined cocaine. (
  • Anchored offshore from the estate was a disabled blue speedboat packed with 2,350 pounds of cocaine worth about $37 million, investigators said. (
  • After arresting Thrasher, the pilot, and Marin, the agents found 1,028 pounds of cocaine inside the plane, according to a spokesman for the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office. (
  • Instead she was taken to a hospital where she excreted pellets containing 1.5 pounds of cocaine. (
  • Fluctuations in nucleus accumbens dopamine concentration during intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats. (
  • Whereas unvaccinated mice exhibited hyperactivity when exposed to intravenous cocaine, the immunized mice showed no effects, according to authors Jonathan Rosenberg, et al. (
  • It produces a sudden, extreme euphoria, even more intense than that experienced with intravenous cocaine, that lasts only five to 10 minutes. (
  • A disbarred lawyer who once represented Casey Anthony has been convicted of conspiring to fly a plane filled with $13 million worth of cocaine from Ecuador to Honduras. (
  • Fourteen students have been expelled from Choate Rosemary Hall School in Wallingford, Conn., following the arrest of one for allegedly trying to smuggle $300,000 worth of cocaine into the country. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys" is the true story of how Miami became the drug, murder and cash capital of the United States, told by the people who made it all happen. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys is narrowly focused on how Miami became the drug capital and the most dangerous city in the United States during the late 1970s and the early 1980s. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys is documentary film-making as tabloid journalism. (
  • Mark Wahlberg has since 2008 been attached to Cocaine Cowboys, based on the Billy Corben documentary of the same name about late 70s/early 80s Miami drug trafficker Jon Roberts. (
  • A few weeks ago I posted part of my exclusive interview with Mark Wahlberg that covered The Raven, The Brazilian Job (the sequel to The Italian Job), Five Brothers (the sequel to Four Brothers), Cocaine Cowboys and The Fighter. (
  • Arriving in theaters to rescue those lolling in the depths of a well-meaning documentary funk is Billy Corben 's 'Cocaine Cowboys,' which tells a sordid and shamefully entertaining history of the heights of the Miami cocaine wars. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys' may make use of the finest in cheesy period graphics and a synthesizer soundtrack by 'Miami Vice' theme composer Jan Hammer , but it is still of the talking-head/archival footage school, and the opening third, in which a former high-level dealer Jon Pernell Roberts and smuggler Mickey Munday recount the good ol' days of the lax late 70s, does drag a bit. (
  • Griselda Blanco, glimpsed only in photos (in which she sports a rakish fedora), is the horrifying and compelling heart of 'Cocaine Cowboys. (
  • What 'Cocaine Cowboys' hammers in, intentionally or not, are the disturbingly porous walls between life and pop culture. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys is the real deal - a down-and-dirty look at the high living and illegal drugs that dominated south Florida in the 1980s. (
  • In short, the "cocaine cowboys. (
  • Using sobering statistics, Cocaine Cowboys assesses how illegal drug money infused Miami's legitimate businesses, building the city as we now know it. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys also shows how the tide turned, leaving many pushers dead or jailed. (
  • Roberts, who was featured in the 2006 documentary Cocaine Cowboys, just released a book he co-wrote with journalist Evan Wright called American Desperado: My Life - from Mafia Soldier to Cocaine Cowboy to Secret Government Asset . (
  • People who stopped using cocaine can still feel strong cravings for the drug, sometimes even years later. (
  • Cocaine is a well-known addictive stimulant drug and scientific literature concerning its various pharmacological properties dates back to the nineteenth century. (
  • Drug Warriors Peddle Fears About Cocaine. (
  • In the 1970s, people began taking cocaine as a recreational drug. (
  • Cocaine: Withdrawal The signs and symptoms of withdrawal from depressant drugs, such as alcohol or heroin, are much easier to recognize than the symptoms of withdrawal from the stimulant drug cocaine. (
  • Cocaine What Kind of Drug Is It? (
  • Once considered a harmless source of pleasure and therapeutic benefit, today the drug cocaine is vilified as the cause of great misery and suffering for many who have succumbed to its euphoric effects. (
  • Until recently, cocaine had the reputation of being a 'safe drug. (
  • It was considered non-addicting and many people who had never taken any kind of illegal drug, started taking cocaine for 'recreation. (
  • Smoking crack cocaine delivers large quantities of the drug to the lungs, producing an immediate and intense euphoric effect. (
  • Individuals of all ages use crack cocaine--data reported in the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicate that an estimated 6,222,000 U.S. residents aged 12 and older used crack at least once in their lifetime. (
  • The survey also revealed that hundreds of thousands of teenagers and young adults use crack cocaine--150,000 individuals aged 12 to 17 and 1,003,000 individuals aged 18 to 25 used the drug at least once. (
  • Besides alcohol and tobacco, cocaine is the most common cause of drug-related emergency room visits in the United States. (
  • In 2005, cocaine was associated with 31% of ER visits related to drug misuse and abuse. (
  • The 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 35.3 million Americans older than twelve years old have used cocaine at least once. (
  • When people smoke cocaine, they inhale the drug's vapor into the lungs, feeling the effects of the drug almost as quickly as when one injects it. (
  • First, cocaine increases the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the "pleasure center" of the brain, causing excess amounts to build up and produce the euphoria associated with the use of the drug. (
  • Foundation for a Drug-Free World: "Effects of Cocaine. (
  • U.S. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment onboard the HNLMS Van Amstel, of the Royal Netherlands Navy, assisted in recovering 42 bales of cocaine during a counter drug patrol in the Caribbean Sea ((U.S Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Sabrina Elgammal. (
  • A Drug Enforcement Administration official said Radel allegedly bought cocaine from an undercover agent in Washington's Dupont Circle neighborhood on Oct. 29. (
  • Cocaine played a role in the death of this talented comic, and the drug has had a hand in many other deaths. (
  • In 2001, there were 193,034 hospital emergency-department cases involving cocaine nationwide, or 10 percent more than in 2000 (according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2002). (
  • I work as a forensic drug chemist, and we see Levamisole in Cocaine all the time. (
  • Alternatively lobby your congressperson to legalize cocaine so you may purchase a pure product from the drug store. (
  • Currently, no medications are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cocaine use disorder, the authors note. (
  • Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. (
  • Cocaine intoxication is a condition in which you're not only high from using the drug , but you also have body-wide symptoms that can make you ill and impaired. (
  • Crack cocaine is a form of the drug that gives a very quick, intense high. (
  • Cocaine vaccine is a helluva drug. (
  • Researchers say rats addicted to cocaine are about four times as persistent in trying to obtain a dose of the drug 60 days after quitting than they were after one drug-free day. (
  • Before lever presses for cocaine, there was an increase in dopamine that coincided with the initiation of drug-seeking behaviours. (
  • W e've previously mapped the world according to cannabis , alcohol and cigarette consumption , here - ahead of a new two-part ITV documentary on the drug, presented by the chef Gordon Ramsay - we're looking at cocaine. (
  • Cocaine Particle Sniffer a tool for the drug war, from the Tactical Technology Office of ARPA. (
  • Fact Sheet on Cocaine from the Missouri Dept. of Mental Health, Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. (
  • Key Figure in Record Cocaine Seizure Convicted : Courts: Raid at Sylmar warehouse netted 21.4 tons of the drug. (
  • Hector Tapia Anchondo, a Texas man whose rented Sylmar warehouse was the site of the largest cocaine seizure in history, was found guilty Tuesday of drug charges and of running a massive criminal conspiracy. (
  • But the idea that nicotine is working on the same circuitry as cocaine does point to why so many people have a hard time quitting tobacco, and why so many who experiment with the drug end up becoming addicted. (
  • Cocaine is a powdered drug processed from the leaves of the Erythroxylon coca plant. (
  • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. (
  • In order to sustain the high, a cocaine abuser has to administer the drug again. (
  • When people consume two or more psychoactive drugs together, such as cocaine and alcohol, they compound the danger each drug poses and unknowingly perform a complex chemical experiment within their bodies. (
  • This may sound like an anti drug scare film, but according to Good Morning America a new type of cocaine is hitting the streets of Los Angeles and New York that will eat your flesh. (
  • Cocaine cut with the veterinary drug, levamisole has apparently been linked to a number of cases of rotting flesh, according to Good Morning America. (
  • In 1906, Congress passed the Federal Pure Food and Drug Act, which regulated the distribution of both cocaine and narcotics. (
  • Darke S, Kaye S, Duflou J. Comparative cardiac pathology among deaths due to cocaine toxicity, opioid toxicity and non-drug-related causes. (
  • Much of the seized cocaine is found to have been cut with phenacetin - a pharmaceutical drug banned some years ago in Britain and most other nations for causing kidney failure and cancer. (
  • Cocaine is bad for you anyway - it can cause heart problems among other things - but the phenacetin is a drug that was banned here many years ago because it was found to be linked to kidney failure and renal cancer. (
  • Drug trade's lowest rung: Peru's expendable cocaine couriers Hauling cocaine out of the valley is about the only way to earn decent cash in this economically depressed region where a farmhand earns less than $10 a day. (
  • Crack cocaine is being injected - not just smoked - by a significant number of US drug users, reveals the first large survey of the practice. (
  • Cocaine is a Schedule II drug in the United States . (
  • A Lansdale, Montgomery County, man has been arrested and charged with drug offenses after nine bags of cocaine were allegedly found in the SUV he was driving, police said. (
  • A prominent Sydney cocaine and heroin dealer explains the economics of the drug trade. (
  • A scientific drug, dexmedetomidine, reverses the effects cocaine has on the cardiovascular system. (
  • Crack: Cocaine, Corruption & Conspiracy examines not only the personal devastation caused by the drug, but also the shadowy origins of the crisis and the resultant, ongoing marginalization of Black and Brown people trapped by the U.S. prison and healthcare systems. (
  • You also write about cocaine as a casual drug you dabbled in earlier. (
  • Cocaine use constitutes a major drug problem in the United States. (
  • A drug smuggler packed his stash of cocaine inside sticks of deodorant, ink markers and hundreds of buttons - only to be busted by alert customs officers at JFK Airport who noticed a strong odor coming from his suitcase, authorities said today. (
  • Jon Roberts is the man considered most responsible for bringing cocaine into the US during the 1970s and '80s through the Medellin drug cartel. (
  • In a press conference this afternoon about the arrest of Lindsay Lohan, cops say they found a "usable amount" of a drug at the scene, which they say was cocaine. (
  • FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. (AP) - A woman faces federal drug charges after authorities say she swallowed 68 cocaine pellets before flying from Jamaica to Fort Lauderdale. (
  • Cocaine is the second most frequently used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. (
  • What are some effects of marijuana and cocaine? (
  • Marijuana is no where near cocaine. (
  • Ketamine modulates NMDAR but may have additional downstream effects on other neurotransmitter systems, as well as prefrontal synaptogenesis, mechanisms that may be relevant to the treatment of cocaine use disorder. (
  • Successful treatment of cocaine use disorder has been undermined by craving, low motivation, and high behavioral reactivity, the authors note. (
  • Finally, ONDCP and our Federal and community-based partners are working to encourage the adoption of quality, evidence-based prevention programs and services to reduce consumption of cocaine. (
  • 1. Zhu N, LeGatt D,Turner R. Agranulocytosis after consumption of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. (
  • As a result of the experiment, Mao discovered two receptors necessary for synaptic plasticity in the VTA: the acetylcholine receptor located on the dopamine neurons, and the D5 dopamine receptor""a component previously associated with the consumption of cocaine. (
  • She alleges that he and twenty-or-so named colleagues collectively abused "alcohol, cocaine , mushrooms, Special-K, heroin. (
  • Savage was apprehended in Lansdale Aug. 14 after police acting on a search warrant found 7.5 grams of cocaine in the SUV's glove compartment. (
  • Cocaine clogs the pump, allowing dopamine levels to rise to abnormally high levels, just like a clogged water pump will make a swimming pool overflow and produce a flood. (
  • Spector, Munjal, and Schmidtâs study on rats found that Levamisole increases dopamine levels in the brainâs euphoric center similarly to the psychoactive effects of cocaine in the human brain (2). (
  • Consequently, Zhu, LeGatt, and Turner hypothesize that adding Levamisole to the cocaine could therefore increase its effects by achieving higher dopamine levels in the brain (1). (
  • Here's how cocaine can cause a heart attack: "Cocaine increases the amount of oxygen needed by the heart because it stimulates the heart to beat faster and stronger," explains NIDA's Dr. Gorelick. (
  • After lever presses, there were further increases in dopamine concentration at the concurrent presentation of cocaine-related cues. (
  • Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that increases levels of dopamine, a brain chemical (or neurotransmitter) associated with pleasure and movement, in the brain's reward circuit. (
  • Many cocaine abusers report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first exposure. (
  • Cocaine abusers can also experience severe paranoia -- a temporary state of full-blown paranoid psychosis -- in which they lose touch with reality and experience auditory hallucinations. (
  • Regardless of the route or frequency of use, cocaine abusers can experience acute cardiovascular or cerebrovascular emergencies, such as a heart attack or stroke, which may cause sudden death. (
  • The U.S. Coast Guard says it rescued a sea turtle in the Pacific Ocean that had become tangled in floating bales of cocaine worth more than $53 million. (
  • A single ketamine infusion combined with mindfulness-based relapse prevention therapy (MBRP) improves abstinence and cuts cravings in cocaine-dependent adults, new research suggests. (
  • Anti-narcotics agents found the cocaine in a container loaded with scrap iron and steel destined for the Spanish port of Algeciras. (
  • Police agents at Rio's international airport found bags of cocaine tied around her body, he said. (
  • What's interesting about it is that it is occasionally found as an adulterant in cocaine (PDF) - and it popped up again recently. (
  • Cocaine, Spices, Hormones Found in Drinking Water. (
  • Hilton admitted to the judge that cocaine found in a purse she was carrying after a traffic stop last month was hers and that she lied about it. (
  • The office of Acting U.S. Attorney Bridget M. Rohde says Todd Macaluso was found guilty last Friday in Brooklyn of international cocaine distribution conspiracy. (
  • Cocaine was found in the luggage of one of the students. (
  • Mr. Kaufman said customs agents found about three-quarters of a pound of cocaine, which he said is worth up to $300,000 on the street in packets in the student's pockets and luggage. (
  • The CDC team found that some demographics are being hit harder by the resurgence of cocaine and psychostimulant abuse than others. (
  • SCIENTISTS believe they have finally found a cure for cocaine dependency after treating mice with drugs which have already been proved safe for humans. (
  • Cocaine and traces of thallium were found in Vivek Moitra?s body at AIIMS, just hours after Apollo Hospital announced that Rahul Mahajan, whose party he was at, had ?conclusively tested negative for drugs. (
  • However, a doctor in the department of forensic medicine at AIIMS said, "We found cocaine and traces of thallium in Moitra's body. (
  • It is found in rat poison, which is sometimes used to adulterate cocaine. (
  • He dealt drugs, was addicted to cocaine by the time he was 13, and found himself constantly in trouble with the law. (
  • He was then brought to a private room where officers opened his particularly heavy black suitcase, noticed an ammonia smell and found the cocaine after examining a large marker. (
  • Contribution of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2 receptor subtypes to the hyperlocomotor effects of cocaine: acute and chronic pharmacological analyses. (
  • Also, depending on the method of administration, the effects of cocaine may vary. (
  • What are the long-term effects of cocaine use? (
  • they speculate that cocaine producers or suppliers believe that the active agent enhances the cocaineâs effect or eases the side effects (1). (
  • In animal studies, NMDAR modulators have been shown to disrupt reinforcing effects of cocaine, but such modulators have not shown similar efficacy in human beings. (
  • Researchers show that in invertebrates levamisole appears to synergize with cocaine, increasing effects. (
  • Acute effects of cocaine on human brain activity and emotion. (
  • An alternative is to use protein-based therapeutics that can eliminate the load of cocaine, thereby attenuating its effects. (
  • These antibody-displaying constructs were examined by using a locomotor activity rodent model to assess the ability of the phage-displayed proteins to block the psychoactive effects of cocaine. (
  • One such strategy is to use protein-based therapeutics, whereby proteins are designed to bind cocaine, thereby blocking its effects, and/or degrade cocaine via hydrolysis of the benzoyl ester, thus rendering it less psychoactive ( 12 ). (
  • Over the last decade, several groups have reported the successful blocking of the psychostimulatory effects of cocaine by anticocaine antibodies with both active and passive immunization in rodent models. (
  • Finally, groups using butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the major cocaine-metabolizing enzyme present in the plasma of humans and other mammals ( 25 , 26 ) have reported that i.v. pretreatment with either wild-type or genetically engineered BChE can mitigate the behavioral and physiological effects of cocaine and accelerate its metabolism ( 27 - 29 ). (
  • The protein is a monoclonal antibody that sequesters cocaine, making the vaccinated mice resistant to the drug's effects. (
  • What Adverse Effects Does Cocaine Have on Health? (
  • Abusing cocaine has a variety of adverse effects on the body. (
  • Different methods of taking cocaine can produce different adverse effects. (
  • Both are derived from cocaine and the effects are similar but freebase and crack are not created equal. (
  • What are the effects of cocaine on performance? (
  • Whether snorted, smoked or injected into a vein, cocaine exerts most of its effects directly in the brain and to a lesser extent on the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • What are the adverse physical health effects of cocaine? (
  • The list of adverse health effects of cocaine is long and affects many organ systems of the body. (
  • The Cardiovascular Effects of Cocaine. (
  • Brunt TM, van den Berg J, Pennings E, Venhuis B. Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk assessment. (
  • [4] Cocaine abuse during pregnancy has many ill effects. (
  • Smoking delivers large quantities of cocaine to the lungs, producing effects comparable to intravenous injection. (
  • A list of effects of taking cocaine is given below. (
  • I heard cocaine wipes out the effects of the antibiotic. (
  • If you use cocaine on occasion what kind of effects does it have on the baby? (
  • The side effects of cocaine are so many to the systems of the body. (
  • Cocaine is known to have severe side effects on the nervous system which limits its ability to function properly. (
  • What are the effects of mixing cocaine with steroids being taken to treat poison ivy? (
  • How do you counteract the effects of cocaine? (
  • The side effects of cocaine can be short term or long term depending on usage. (
  • What effects can cocaine have on you when you get old? (
  • There is absolutely no difference in the effects of Cocaine with any race. (
  • They are the side effects from cocaine usage. (
  • How long does it take to feel the effects of crack cocaine? (
  • What are the side effects of taking benadryl with cocaine to help with nasal congestion? (
  • General effects of cocaine use include? (
  • Cocaine and derivitives of cocaine can worsen the side effects of depo. (
  • Cocaine vs extasy physical harmful effects? (
  • The cardiovascular consequences of cocaine use are numerous and can be severe, with mechanisms of cardiotoxicity unique to cocaine that include sympathomimetic effects, blockade of sodium and potassium channels, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, and disruption of excitation-contraction coupling. (
  • This groundbreaking research arms the pharmaceutical industry with specific information about targets for treatment, opening the door for new therapeutic approaches for blocking the effects of cocaine and amphetamine. (
  • Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. (
  • Crack cocaine smoking also can cause aggressive and paranoid behavior. (
  • Ito, R., Dalley, J. W., Howes, S. R., Robbins, T. W. & Everitt, B. J. Dissociation in conditioned dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in response to cocaine cues and during cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. (
  • With large amounts of cocaine or with repeated administration over time, cocaine users often exhibit bizarre, erratic or violent behavior. (
  • Goldstein R, DesLauriers C, Burda A. Cocaine history, social implications and toxicity a review. (
  • Antidepressant drugs appear to enhance cocaine induced toxicity. (
  • Fatal excited delirium following cocaine use: epidemiologic findings provide new evidence for mechanisms of cocaine toxicity. (
  • How is hypoxia treated in cocaine toxicity? (
  • Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. (
  • Cocaine is a natural substance that comes from the leaves of the coca (pronounced KOH-kuh) plant. (
  • Crack cocaine is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled Substances Act. (
  • the combined use of cocaine and alcohol signals the liver to produce a third substance called cocaethylene. (
  • Get the Facts: Cocaine/Crack , from the New York State Office of Alcoholism & Substance Abuse Services. (
  • One method is called freebasing and the other produces a substance that is called crack cocaine, so called because of the cracking sound it makes when heated. (
  • Karbinder - known to his workmates as 'K' - is testing to see if the substance inside the wraps is cocaine, and if so, how pure it is. (
  • Cocaine is an illegal substance. (
  • Cocaine is more dangerous when combined with other drugs or alcohol. (
  • The map below shows the world according to prevalence of cocaine use as a percentage of the population, according to the most recent statistics available on the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime website . (
  • Cocaine Synthesis from Recreational Drugs: A Complete Guide to Manufacturing . (
  • Understanding how cocaine is made in the coca plant might therefore lead to new anesthetic drugs without the addictive qualities, the study authors say. (
  • Cocaine Rolls Down America's Interstates : Drugs: After last year's record Sylmar bust, the DEA finds that it is stopping only a small portion of the massive coast-to-coast flow. (
  • However, cocaine and its derivative, crack cocaine, are widely used as illegal recreational drugs. (
  • Other drugs used for cutting or 'bashing' cocaine include lignocaine (a dental painkiller), tetramisole (used for de-worming pets) and boric acid (used to kill cockroaches). (
  • Sixty percent of Peru's cocaine comes from the remote Apurimac, Ene and Mantaro river valley, and the backpackers trek for three to five days to deliver cocaine to traffickers who move the drugs on for export. (
  • Many of the therapeutic applications of raw, "natural" cocaine are now obsolete due to the development of safer drugs, either synthesized products from the natural coca extract or man-made using some of the natural products chemical components. (
  • Addressing the G8 and other members at the meeting, the UN's anti-drugs chief, UNODC Executive Director Yury Fedotov commented on what he called "the dramatic evolution of the international market for cocaine" over the past decade. (
  • Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime. (
  • For example, experts assume that snorting cocaine produces a high that ranges from 15 to 30 minutes while injecting/smoking only lasts for 5 to 10 minutes. (
  • Three routes of administration are commonly used for cocaine: snorting, injecting, and smoking. (
  • Injecting or smoking cocaine produces a quicker, stronger high than snorting. (
  • Injecting cocaine can bring about severe allergic reactions and increased risk for contracting HIV and other blood-borne diseases. (
  • Injecting cocaine can give you hepatitis or AIDS if you share needles with other users. (
  • A hardy lot, cocaine backpackers are mostly native Quechua speakers like Borda and hail from the isolated peasant communities that suffered the worst atrocities of Peru's 1980-2000 dirty war with Shining Path rebels. (
  • Similar to Lexie, an overdose of cocaine may present as cardiac arrest from a heart attack due to the insufficient blood flow to keep up with the heart. (
  • There is no definitive treatment for a cocaine overdose - management is mostly supportive and tailored to the patient's symptoms. (
  • One protégé even died of a cocaine overdose in 2003. (
  • The efficacy of catalytic antibodies has been demonstrated in rodent models of cocaine overdose and reinforcement, but kinetic constants for all reported antibody catalysts are marginal and, thus, improved rates will be required before clinical development is warranted ( 24 ). (
  • Much of the world's cocaine now originates in the mountains of Peru, where young, poor farmers risk their lives making the difficult and dangerous trek to deliver cocaine to traffickers. (
  • An increase in heat production combined with a decrease in heat loss associated with cocaine abuse impairs the body's ability to regulate its temperature during physical activity. (
  • In addition to other toxicities associated with cocaine abuse, cocaine smokers suffer from acute respiratory problems including cough, shortness of breath, and severe chest pains with lung trauma and bleeding. (
  • In South America, coca paste, also known as cocaine base and, therefore, often confused with cocaine freebase in North America, is relatively inexpensive and is widely used by low-income populations. (
  • Freebase cocaine paste preparations can be smoked. (
  • Cocaine For centuries, Peruvian natives have chewed the leaves of the coca plant because of their stimulating and exhilarating effect. (
  • Cocaine comes from the coca plant. (
  • Cocaine is a common stimulant derived from the Erythroxylum coca plant. (
  • Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant prepared from the leaves of the South American coca plant, Erythroxylon coca. (
  • Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca), which is indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America. (
  • Eighty to 90 percent of users, however, snort cocaine, which produces a euphoria that peaks more slowly, taking five to 15 minutes. (
  • This report documents the development of a two-state Markovian model of the demand for cocaine and includes the estimation of incidence, prevalence, cohort retention, and consumption. (
  • THURSDAY, May 2, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- As the United States battles an ongoing epidemic of opioid abuse and deaths, new data shows that fatalities tied to cocaine and methamphetamines are also surging. (
  • Simply adding a small amount of ethanol to your sample will dissolve all the cocaine leaving levamisole behind. (
  • Starting in 2009, cocaine cut with levamisole (a veterinary and human dewormer) began being increasingly reported and resulted in numerous hospitalizations and a few deaths across the United States. (
  • The Stranger (an awesome alt paper in Seattle) has done an excellent series of articles on Levamisole-tainted cocaine. (
  • Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine Nephrotoxicity: Ultrastructural Features. (
  • As for the cocaine vaccine, it's an attractive notion for folks who decide on their own to clean up. (
  • Knuepfer M. Cardiovascular disorders associated with cocaine use: myths and truths. (
  • Cardiovascular consequences of cocaine use. (
  • In 2007, crackdowns in Peru and Bolivia forced traffickers to move to Argentina to produce cocaine which, according to the Los Angeles Times , is ideal for its "advanced chemical industry, [its] porous border with Bolivia and a notoriously corrupt police force. (
  • Many cocaine traffickers are based in the Pacific port of Buenaventura, where poverty and unemployment are high. (
  • Sohler Everingham, Susan S. and C. Peter Rydell, Modeling the Demand for Cocaine. (
  • Both strategies reduce cocaine-induced locomotor activity and self-administration in rats. (
  • Is Ritalin 'chemically similar' to cocaine? (
  • A New York Times rundown of the report notes that Ritalin is "chemically similar to cocaine. (
  • Despite the drug's infamy, cocaine is chemically similar to a host of anesthetics and stimulants used legally every day. (