An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (1/3711)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (2/3711)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (3/3711)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (4/3711)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (5/3711)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Age-related reductions in [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic brain regions of the fischer 344 rat. (6/3711)

In the present study, we used the potent cocaine analog [3H]WIN 35, 428 to map and quantify binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) within the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area in young (6-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), and aged (18- and 24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of indirect [3H]WIN 35,428 saturation curves revealed two-site binding for all four brain regions in every age group. The percentage of binding to the high- or low-affinity sites did not differ with age or region and was approximately 50%. However, significant age-related decreases in the overall density (Bmax) of [3H]WIN 35,428-binding sites were observed in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The Bmax within all brain regions declined by more than 15% every 6 months, with the Bmax in the aged (24-month-old) group being approximately half that measured in the young adult (6-month-old) group. Competition experiments indicated that nomifensine also exhibited two-site binding to the DAT in Fischer 344 rats. No consistent age-related differences in binding affinities were noted with either [3H]WIN 35,428 or nomifensine. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that functional DATs within the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems are down-regulated with age, without changing their affinity for ligands.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (7/3711)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (8/3711)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Looking for acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning? Find out information about acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning. a morbid condition caused by the action of poison on the body and accompanied by disruption of bodily systems and functions. In humans. Poisoning in humans... Explanation of acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning
Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in cocaine addiction, the effects of chronic cocaine on mPFC neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we performed visualized current-clamp recordings to determine the effects of repeated cocaine administration on the membrane excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices. Following repeated cocaine administration (15 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) with a 3-day withdrawal, alterations in membrane properties, including increased input resistance, reduced intensity of intracellular injected currents required for generation of Na+-dependent spikes (rheobase), and an increased number of spikes evoked by depolarizing current pulses were observed in mPFC neurons. The current-voltage relationship was also altered in cocaine-pretreated neurons showing reduced outward rectification during membrane depolarization and decreased inward rectification during membrane hyperpolarization. Application of the K+ channel blocker Ba2+ ...
Cocaine hydrochloride - Get up-to-date information on Cocaine hydrochloride side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Cocaine hydrochloride
The effects of cocaine on pulsatile secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in men were studied under controlled clinical research ward conditions. Eight men with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association Version III, revised, diagnosis of concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence provided their informed consent for participation in this study. After an overnight fast, a challenge dose of cocaine (30 mg i.v.) or placebo was administered under single-blind conditions in a randomized order on 2 study days. Blood samples were collected at 2-min intervals for 76 min during base line and for an additional 76 min after i.v. administration of the challenge dose. Peak plasma cocaine levels of 313.8 +/- 46.5 ng/ml were detected within 2 min after cocaine administration. The cluster analysis program originally described by Veldhuis and Johnson (1986) was used to characterize ACTH pulsatile secretion (Iranmanesh et al., 1990). Acute cocaine administration (30 mg ...
Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.. ...
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to stress as well as in the effects of cocaine.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, these syndromes present with different symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, energy, competence, sociability, and sexuality. Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and teeth grinding. With prolonged use, the drug can cause insomnia, anorexia, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, renal failure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long-term damage to dopamine neurons. Chronic intranasal usage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CREST in the nucleus accumbens core regulates cocaine conditioned place preference, cocaine-seeking behavior, and synaptic plasticity. AU - Alaghband, Yasaman. AU - Kramár, Enikö. AU - Kwapis, Janine L.. AU - Kim, Earnest S.. AU - Hemstedt, Thekla J.. AU - López, Alberto J.. AU - White, André O.. AU - Al-Kachak, Amni. AU - Aimiuwu, Osasumwen V.. AU - Bodinayake, Kasuni K.. AU - Oparaugo, Nicole C.. AU - Han, Joseph. AU - Lattal, Kennon (Matt). AU - Wood, Marcelo A.. PY - 2018/10/31. Y1 - 2018/10/31. N2 - Epigenetic mechanisms result in persistent changes at the cellular level that can lead to long-lasting behavioral adaptations. Nucleosome remodeling is a major epigenetic mechanism that has not been well explored with regards to drug-seeking behaviors. Nucleosome remodeling is performed by multi-subunit complexes that interact with DNA or chromatin structure and possess an ATP-dependent enzyme to disrupt nucleosome-DNA contacts and ultimately regulate gene expression. Calcium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
In the present study, we observed for the first time that the LV and coronary hemodynamic responses to a binge of cocaine were markedly and progressively attenuated in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. In general, tolerance to cocaine was manifest on rechallenge after a single dose, although progressive decline in the hemodynamic and neurohumoral response to cocaine was observed with subsequent doses. Furthermore, the tolerance was not a function of the increase in baseline hemodynamic measurements before subsequent cocaine doses as the acute hemodynamic effects of cocaine were maintained when baseline hemodynamics were increased independent of cocaine. Finally, the mechanism of tolerance to the LV and systemic effects of repeated cocaine administration did not involve end-organ desensitization to the adrenergic effects of cocaine (Figs 4⇑ and 5⇑) but rather attenuated cocaine-induced catecholamine release as demonstrated by declines in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses ...
Cocaine can be snorted, swallowed, injected, or smoked. Most deaths due to cocaine are accidental but may also be the result of body packing or stuffing with rupture in the gastrointestinal tract. Use of cocaine causes abnormally fast heart rhythms and a marked elevation of blood pressure (hypertension), which can be life-threatening. This can lead to death from acute myocardial infarction, acute respiratory failure (i.e., hypoxemia, with or without hypercapnia), stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, and sudden cardiac arrest.[13] Cocaine overdose may result in hyperthermia as stimulation and increased muscular activity cause greater heat production. Heat loss is also inhibited by the cocaine-induced vasoconstriction. Cocaine and/or associated hyperthermia may cause muscle cell destruction (rhabdomyolysis) and myoglobinuria resulting in kidney failure. Individuals with cocaine overdose should be transported immediately to the nearest emergency department, preferably by ambulance in case cardiac arrest ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains reward center from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Cocaine can cause psychological dependence (a strong desire to continue using the medicine because of the high feeling it produces). This may lead to cocaine abuse (more frequent use and/or use of larger amounts of cocaine) and to an increased chance of serious side effects. Cocaine abuse has caused death from heart or breathing failure.. Use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for an examination or surgery is not likely to cause psychological dependence or other serious side effects. However, if cocaine is absorbed into the body too quickly, serious side effects can occur. Also, some people are especially sensitive to the effects of cocaine. Unwanted effects may occur in these people even with small amounts of the medicine. Before receiving cocaine as a local anesthetic, you should discuss its use with your doctor.. Cocaine is applied only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
Cocaine Treatment: Early Results From Various Approaches (Letter Report, 06/07/96, GAO/HEHS-96-80).. Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the extent to which federally funded cocaine treatment therapies have proven successful and additional research initiatives that are needed to increase knowledge of cocaine treatment effectiveness.. GAO found that: (1) cocaine treatment research is still in its early stages; (2) preliminary study results have shown that relapse prevention, community reinforcement and contingency management, and neurobehavioral therapy may produce prolonged periods of abstinence among cocaine users; (3) relapse prevention programs have the highest abstinence rates, followed by community reinforcement and neurobehavioral programs; (4) community reinforcement programs have the highest retention rates, followed by relapse prevention and neurobehavioral programs; (5) pharmacological agents have not proven to be consistently effective in preventing cocaine use, and none ...
Cocaine addiction, a serious public health concern associated with significant medical, social, and economic consequences, is difficult to treat using traditional psychosocial and behavioral therapies. Despite testing of a number of different agents for cocaine dependency, there remains no proven pharmacologic treatment for cocaine addiction.. The addictive properties of cocaine have been associated with its actions on mesotelencephalic dopamine reward pathways in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine administration increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with sensations of pleasure and reward. Therefore, blocking cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels represents a valid pharmaceutical approach to the treatment of cocaine addiction.. Another neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suppresses striatal dopamine release, and attenuates cocaine-induced increases in extracellular and synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens in animal ...
A method for the determination of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (ECG) in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed. The analytes were isolated from human plasma by subsequent solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 narrow-bore column using an ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile/methanol gradient. A Turbolonspray® source was used for ionization. The analytes were characterized by their particular molecular ion and several fragments. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for isolation and quantitation. The assay was rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable. The method was applied to monitor the in vitro degradation of cocaine in plasma. Fresh unpreserved and preserved (0.25 % KF) plasma samples were spiked with 1000 ng cocaine/mL. Aliquots of both series were stored at 4°C and 20°C and were analyzed at selected storage times of up to 15 days. In all samples, degradation of cocaine ...
Cocaine abuse is a serious health problem in many areas of the world, yet there are no proven effective medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.Preclinical studies suggest that the reinforcing effect of cocaine that promotes its abuse is mediated by blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. This results in increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic or meso-accumbens dopamine reward system of brain. Development of new medications to treat cocaine dependence has focused on manipulation of this dopamine system, either by direct action on dopamine binding sites (transporter or receptors) or indirectly by affecting other neurotransmitter systems that modulate the dopamine system. In principle, a medication could act via one of three mechanisms: (i) as a substitute for cocaine by producing similar dopamine effects; (ii) as a cocaine antagonist by blocking the binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter; or (iii) as a modulator of cocaine effects by acting at other than the ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. Crack is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term crack refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
Wholesale crack traffickers purchase cocaine in kilogram or multikilogram allotments from traditional cocaine sources, including Colombian and Mexican organizations. They package the cocaine into ounce quantities or convert it into crack and then divide it into ounces for sale at the next level. Wholesalers usually are large groups responsible for most of the interstate transportation of crack and cocaine intended for crack conversion.. Retail distributors convert powdered cocaine into crack, usually in their own kitchens, using a safe and simple method of converting cocaine into cocaine base. Although it produces a product higher in purity than coca paste, the crack conversion process does not eliminate all of the impurities in the cocaine. Adulterants such as lidocaine, procaine, and benzocaine survive the crack conversion process and are inhaled by the user. Federal mandatory minimum sentences are higher for crack than for powdered cocaine, but crack cocaine provides a much higher profit ...
Criteria for Discontinuation Following Initiation:. Participants will be discharged if they have a positive breath test indicating use of alcohol or a urine test indicating illicit use of drugs while in the MED-VAMC, if they do not comply with study procedures, or if they do not tolerate the study drugs.. Subject Selection Criteria Rationale for Route of Administration:. Participants are required to have used cocaine by the IV or smoked route to avoid exposing participants to drugs by routes of administration that produce more intensive interoceptive effects than usually used by the participants. Prior experience with smoked cocaine is allowed (rather than restricting the population to those with experience with IV cocaine) because smoked cocaine reaches brain sites of action as rapidly as does intravenously administered cocaine and smoked cocaine produces effects that are comparable to IV cocaine. Speed of administration (and rate of delivery to brain) of stimulant drugs likely impacts ...
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist CP94253 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, mice underwent conditioning procedures while receiving the last of their daily injections, which were given either during or ≥2 h after CPP procedures. The CPP procedural timeline consisted of baseline preference testing (days 12-13 of the chronic regimen), conditioning (days 14-19, 2 daily 30-min sessions separated by 5 h), CPP test (day 21), extinction (days 22-34; no injections), CPP extinction test (day 35; no injections), and reinstatement test (day 36). Mice that had not extinguished received additional extinction sessions prior to
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine. It is structurally similar to cocaine, which is the methyl ester of benzoylecgonine. Cocaethylene is formed by the liver when cocaine and ethanol coexist in the blood. Cocaethylene is the byproduct of concurrent consumption of alcohol and cocaine as metabolized by the liver. Normally, metabolism of cocaine produces two primarily biologically inactive metabolites-benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester. The hepatic enzyme carboxylesterase is an important part of cocaines metabolism because it acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine in the liver, which produces these inactive metabolites. If ethanol is present during the metabolism of cocaine, a portion of the cocaine undergoes transesterification with ethanol, rather than undergoing hydrolysis with water, which results in the production of cocaethylene. cocaine + H2O → benzoylecgonine + methanol (with liver carboxylesterase 1) benzoylecgonine + ethanol → ...
Cocaine addiction has become a major problem and epidemic in this country. Thousands of individuals and families are negatively affected by the use and abuse of cocaine every year. Cocaine is expensive, but individuals who use the drug to enhance their nightlife experience or work longer hours certainly are not afraid of long term consequences and repercussions. But as the years went on, studies began to find that long-term cocaine users were at risk for heart disease, heart failure, liver problems and other serious concerns. In addition, the financial burden that cocaine puts on families often lead to broken homes and lost trust. It is apparent that the need for cocaine rehab is immediate and must be confronted and addressed as soon as possible. Cocaine rehab refers to the process of helping an individual overcome their physical and psychological addiction to cocaine. This is accomplished through detoxification, individual counseling and cognitive therapy. In addition, a recovering cocaine ...
Wei-Lun Sun WL, Zhou L, Nazarian A, Quinones- Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Acute cocaine differentially induces PKA phosphorylation substrates in male and female rats. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, in press.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Balouch B, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Region and context-specific intracellular responses associated with cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expression. Neuroscience 287:1-8.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Hazim R, Eltareb MH, Blank JC, Chang AJ, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2013). Sexually dimorphic intracellular responses after cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expressionBrain Res. 1520:121-33.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2012). Influence of sex differences and gonadal hormones on cocaine addiction ILAR J. 53:14-22.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2010). Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses. Horm Behav. 58:22-32.. Sun WL, Zhou L, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2009). Cocaine effects on dopamine and NMDA ...
Fig. 1 Prior alcohol use enhances persistence, motivation, and compulsivity for cocaine self-administration.. (A) Drug treatment paradigm to study alcohol and cocaine coadministration. Access to voluntary alcohol (10% alcohol, 2 hours per day) and voluntary cocaine (self-administration, 0.8 mg/kg per injection) was restricted to 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. and 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., respectively, to avoid metabolic interaction between the two drugs. (B) Alcohol self-administration. Animals in the alcohol-primed group began drinking alcohol on day 1 of the paradigm; animals in the alcohol-concurrent group began drinking on day 11. All groups start cocaine self-administration (0.8 mg/kg per infusion) on day 11. The average alcohol intake during the alcohol-priming period was 1 g/kg during the first 5 days, increasing to 1.2 g/kg during the second 5 days. Alcohol intake was similar in the alcohol-primed versus alcohol-concurrent groups from days 11 to 32 [two-way repeated-measures (RM) analysis of variance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine enhances serotonin autoregulation and serotonin uptake binding. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn A.. AU - Paris, Joseph M.. AU - Goeders, Nick E.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - Repeated cocaine intoxication can result in the development of behavioral sensitization in animals and psychosis in humans, phenomena that have been associated with alterations in dopamine (DA) function. Using electrophysiologic and autoradiographic techniques, modifications of central serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine; 5‐HT) systems were investigated in rats treated with a regimen of cocaine administration that produced behavioral sensitization. The inhibitory response of single 5‐HT neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) to (−)‐cocaine, the 5‐HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the 5‐HT1A agonist 8‐hydroxy‐2‐[di‐N‐propylamino]tetralin (8‐OHDPAT) was significantly enhanced in cocaine‐treated rats. Furthermore, several brain areas that contain either cell bodies (DR) or terminals ...
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If people use cocaine, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an overdose. When people take cocaine, they get intoxicated as well. When a person is intoxicated, they may do dangerous things, such as having unsafe sex with a person they do not know, or getting into a violent fight with a person. If a person uses cocaine for a long time, they can start to get strange feelings, like there are bugs crawling under their skin, or they can get paranoia (a feeling that there are people that want to hurt them). Cocaine is a very addictive drug. It can lead to psychological and/or physical dependence. When a person is addicted to a drug, they might do bad or criminal acts in order to get money for more drugs, such as crimes (for example theft, robbery, fraud, or prostitution). If the person tries to stop using cocaine, they will go through cocaine withdrawal. Another danger from using cocaine is the risk of infection when using unsafe ways of taking cocaine (like using dirty ...
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Projection Targets of Medium Spiny Neurons Govern Cocaine-Evoked Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens. AU - Baimel, C.. AU - McGarry, Laura M.. AU - Carter, Adam G.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the Carter lab and Nic Tritsch for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by a CIHR postdoctoral fellowship (C.B.), NIH grant T32 NS086750 (L.M.M.), and NIH R01 DA038138 (A.G.C.). Publisher Copyright: © 2019 The Authors. PY - 2019/8/27. Y1 - 2019/8/27. N2 - We examine synaptic connectivity and cocaine-evoked plasticity at specific networks within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We identify distinct subpopulations of D1+ medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that project to either the ventral pallidum (D1+VP) or the ventral tegmental area (D1+VTA). We show that inputs from the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), but not the basolateral amygdala (BLA), are initially biased onto D1+VTA MSNs. However, repeated cocaine exposure eliminates the bias of vHPC ...
senior study author Dr. Eric Nestler of New York Citys Mount Sinai School of Medicine said in a statement.. Nestler and colleagues combined highly sensitive genetic isolation and screening techniques to study regulation of gene transcription in the brains of mice repeatedly receiving cocaine. The researchers also found a previously unrecognized family of genes -- called the sirtuins -- involved in cocaine addiction. Chronic cocaine administration was linked with an increase in sirtuin gene transcription while increased sirtuin activity was associated the rewarding effects of cocaine being augmented, while pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins reduced the rewarding effects of cocaine and the motivation to self-administer the drug.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine disruption of estrous cyclicity in the rat. T2 - Dose-dependent effects. AU - King, T. S.. AU - Canez, M. S.. AU - Gaskill, S.. AU - Javors, M. A.. AU - Schenken, R. S.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The effects of cocaine on cyclic reproductive function in females remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to define the range of doses of cocaine effective in disrupting estrous cyclicity and inhibiting ovulation. Estrous cyclicity was monitored daily by vaginal cytology. Group 1 consisted of rats receiving no treatment. Group 2 consisted of rats injected daily with saline s.c. Groups 3 to 6 consisted of rats injected with 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl s.c., respectively. Group 7 consisted of rats that were food-restricted to allow weight gains comparable to those of group 6. Our results indicate a dose- dependent effect of cocaine on estrous cyclicity with an estimated IC50 of 8.5 mg/kg/day (i.e., the dose of cocaine required to inhibit the ...
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The self-administration of cocaine was compared with that of bupropion, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine, mazindol, methylphenidate and nomifensine, drugs that displace [3H]cocaine from its binding sites and have monoamine uptake inhibiting effects in common with those of cocaine. Squirrel monkeys responded under a second-order fixed-interval schedule of consequent i.v. drug injection, and dose-effect curves were established by determining stable rates of responding maintained by saline and a range of doses of each drug. Cocaine (0.01-0.56 mg/kg/injection), bupropion (0.1-3.0 mg/kg/injection), 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3- phenylpropyl)piperazine-(0.03-1.0 mg/kg/injection), methylphenidate (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/injection) and nomifensine (0.01-0.3 mg/kg) maintained comparable rates and patterns of responding in all subjects, whereas mazindol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) maintained self-administration behavior in only half the monkeys studied. The present results ...
While there has been a lack of consistency in the results from different studies on cocaine withdrawal, generally, symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include: Anxiety Erratic sleep Irritability Depression Sadness Cravings for cocaine Poor concentration Lethargy These may occur anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after the suspension of cocaine use. The symptoms can be managed by most people while at home and do not require hospitalization for detox.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus. T2 - A vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. AU - Hicks, Martin J.. AU - De, Bishnu P.. AU - Rosenberg, Jonathan B.. AU - Davidson, Jesse T.. AU - Moreno, Amira Y.. AU - Janda, Kim D.. AU - Wee, Sunmee. AU - Koob, George F.. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Kaminsky, Stephen M.. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Toth, Miklos. AU - Mezey, Jason G.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1- E3- adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer ...
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Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
The results of the present study demonstrate that cocaine self-administration alters dopamine transporter binding and that these changes follow a clear progression over time. In the initial stages of cocaine self-administration (5 d), DAT binding site levels were moderately reduced, whereas after more prolonged cocaine self-administration (3.3 months), large increases in the density of DAT sites were evident. These increases in DAT binding levels persisted even after protracted periods of self-administration (1.5 years). A key characteristic of the alterations in DAT binding was the dose-dependent nature of the effects. Chronic cocaine self-administration at the higher cocaine dose yielded more intense increases in the density of the DAT binding sites and encompassed a wider expanse of the caudal PCS than self-administration of the lower dose. Finally, the majority of significant changes in DAT binding density that occurred after chronic and long-term cocaine self-administration were focused in ...
Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a widely expressed scaffold protein known to interact via its PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-domain with several membrane proteins including the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), the primary target for cocaines reinforcing actions. Here, we establish the importance of PICK1 for behavioral effects observed after both acute and repeated administration of cocaine. In PICK1 knock-out (KO) mice, the acute locomotor response to a single injection of cocaine was markedly attenuated. Moreover, in support of a role for PICK1 in neuroadaptive changes induced by cocaine, we observed diminished cocaine intake in a self-administration paradigm. Reduced behavioral effects of cocaine were not associated with decreased striatal DAT distribution and most likely not caused by the ∼30% reduction in synaptosomal DA uptake observed in PICK1 KO mice. The PICK1 KO mice demonstrated preserved behavioral responses to DA receptor agonists supporting intact downstream DA ...
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration about ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between your mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. and nigrostriatal pathways (substantia nigra SN and dorsal caudate-putamen CPu). Inside the mesolimbic Mouse monoclonal to Histone 3.1. Histones are the structural scaffold for the organization of nuclear DNA into chromatin. Four core histones, H2A,H2B,H3 and H4 are the major components of nucleosome which is the primary building block of chromatin. The histone proteins play essential structural and functional roles in the transition between active and inactive chromatin states. Histone 3.1, an H3 variant that has thus far only been found in mammals, is replication dependent and is associated with tene activation and gene silencing. pathway reductions had been seen in NR1 and GluR5 ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
The short term effects of crack cocaine can be felt upon users initial hit of crack. The individual begins to feel the effects of crack cocaine immediately; they experience an increase in energy, temperature, mental alertness, heart rate, constricted blood vessels, as well as a decrease in appetite. These temporary effects of crack cocaine are as short lived as the users high. Because crack cocaine is smoked causing it to travel through the blood up to the brain much faster than cocaine which is snorted, the user experiences these short term effects more intensely. The duration and intensity of these short term effects of crack cocaine are based on the amount of crack cocaine that is used.. The long term effects of crack cocaine affect the user physically, mentally, and emotionally. An individuals long term effects from crack cocaine vary from person to person depending on their length and intensity of abuse. In general, the long term effects of crack cocaine include restlessness, mood change, ...
Cocaine aka coca, coke, flake, snow or blow is a powerful stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant found in South America. It is estimated that 90% percent of the cocaine that reaches the US originates in Colombia. In the US, cocaine is classified as a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act. Schedule II drugs are those which have a high potential for abuse and are currently recognized to have some medical value in the United States.. Cocaine can be snorted, injected, or when in the form of crack-cocaine, smoked. The most common method of use is snorting. The high from snorting cocaine can last anywhere from 15-30 minutes. The acute effects of cocaine use may include: increased energy levels, euphoria, elevated heart rate and blood pressure, and decreased appetite. Cocaines physical and mental manifestations are a result of the drugs effect on brain chemistry. The drug blocks the neurotransmitter dopamine from being reabsorbed resulting in elevated ...
Every fall, Duke offers free flu shots to combat the imminent storm of the virus. Thanks to the work of Professor of Pathology Herman Staats, a similar vaccine is on the horizon for those with another debilitating disease: cocaine addiction.. Staats worked with a team of six other researchers to publish a novel study providing evidence of a possible vaccination for cocaine addiction. Following vaccine injection in mice, the researchers were able induce an immune resistance to cocaine in the mice, while reducing the sense of euphoria which accompanies cocaine usage. The vaccine consisted of cocaine attached to carrier proteins, which were introduced in mouse mucosal tissue.. Just like the influenza vaccine induces antibodies that bind to the influenza virus and reduces the infectivity of influenza, our cocaine vaccine induces antibodies that bind to cocaine and reduce the ability of cocaine to cause the euphoria, Staats said. Over the course of one month, scientists infused different amounts of ...
We previously showed that chronic cocaine use by active illicit users produced a longer plasma half-life than expected based on acute low-dose cocaine studies. Here we report urinary excretion patterns of cocaine metabolites as benzoylecgonine (BE) equivalents from 18 of the same individuals, housed …
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Bacterial cocaine esterase: A protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal cocaine exposure alters sigma binding site density in the placenta. AU - Flynn, D. D.. AU - Sanchez-Ramos, L.. AU - Mash, D. C.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Fetal cocaine exposure in utero leads to direct neurotoxic effects and indirect consequences secondary to intrauterine growth retardation. Regulation of hormone and neurotransmitter receptors in the placenta by cocaine may contribute to the spectrum of adverse effects associated with cocaine use during pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that, in addition to blocking the reuptake of catecholamines, cocaine binds to the putative sigma receptor in brain and peripheral tissues. We report here the identification of a sigma recognition site in the human placenta that has pharmacological characteristics similar to the neural sigma binding site. Placental tissues were obtained from pregnant women that were matched on maternal demographic characteristics. Cocaine exposure was confirmed by toxicology screens ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Once is too much. T2 - Conditioned aversion develops immediately and predicts future cocaine self-administration behavior in rats. AU - Colechio, Elizabeth M.. AU - Imperio, Caesar G.. AU - Grigson, Patricia S.. PY - 2014/4/1. Y1 - 2014/4/1. N2 - Rats emit aversive taste reactivity (TR) behavior (i.e., gapes) following intraoral delivery of a cocainepaired taste cue and greater conditioned aversive TR at the end of training predicts greater drug-seeking and taking. Here, we examined the development of this conditioned aversive TR behavior on a trial-by-trial basis in an effort to determine when the change in behavior occurs and whether early changes in this behavior can be used to predict later drug taking. The results show that conditioned aversive TR to a cocaine-paired cue occurs very early in training (i.e., following as few as 1-2 taste-drug pairings) and, importantly, that it can be used to predict later drug seeking and drug taking in rats.. AB - Rats emit aversive taste ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - One-way generalization of clonidine to the discriminative stimulus produced by cocaine. AU - Wood, Douglas M.. AU - Lal, Harbans. AU - Yaden, Senka. AU - Emmett-Oglesby, M. W.. PY - 1985/10. Y1 - 1985/10. N2 - Rats were trained to discriminate the stimulus properties of either cocaine or clonidine using a food reinforced two-lever choice paradigm. After training, cocaine was generalized to the cocaine lever in a dose-dependent manner, and clonidine was generalized to the clonidine lever in a dose-dependent manner. Yohimbine, an alpha-2 antagonist, blocked the clonidine stimulus but not the cocaine stimulus. Cocaine was not generalized to the clonidine stimulus; however, clonidine was generalized to the cocaine stimulus, and this generalization was blocked by yohimbine. The one-way generalization of clonidine to cocaine suggests that clonidine has at least two discrete stimulus components: a major component that is not cocaine-like, and a minor component that can be detected by ...
The effects of cocaine (150 nM, 300 nM, and 150 μM) on human glioblastoma cell cultures were studied on tunneling nanotube formation (1-h cocaine treatment) and extracellular vesicle release (1-, 3-, and 8-h cocaine treatment). Cocaine significantly increased the number of tunneling nanotubes only at the lowest concentration used. The release of extracellular vesicles (mainly exosomes) into the medium was stimulated by cocaine at each concentration used with a maximum effect at the highest concentration tested (150 μM). Moreover, cocaine (150 nM) significantly increased the number of vesicles with 61-80 nm diameter while at concentrations of 300 nM and 150 μM, and the smaller vesicles (30-40 nm diameter) were significantly increased with a reduction of the larger vesicles (41-60 nm diameter). A time dependence in the release of extracellular vesicles was observed. In view of the proposed role of these novel intercellular communication modes in the glial-neuronal plasticity, it seems possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene Expression in Human Hippocampus from Cocaine Abusers Identifies Genes which Regulate Extracellular Matrix Remodeling. AU - Mash, Deborah C. AU - Ffrench-Mullen, Jarlath. AU - Adi, Nikhil. AU - Qin, Yujing. AU - Buck, Andrew. AU - Pablo, John. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - The chronic effects of cocaine abuse on brain structure and function are blamed for the inability of most addicts to remain abstinent. Part of the difficulty in preventing relapse is the persisting memory of the intense euphoria or cocaine rush. Most abused drugs and alcohol induce neuroplastic changes in brain pathways subserving emotion and cognition. Such changes may account for the consolidation and structural reconfiguration of synaptic connections with exposure to cocaine. Adaptive hippocampal plasticity could be related to specific patterns of gene expression with chronic cocaine abuse. Here, we compare gene expression profiles in the human hippocampus from cocaine addicts and age-matched ...
August 16, 2020 (Google Translation) - In a search and control operation, the Colombian Navy, in coordination with the National Police, seized a ton of cocaine hydrochloride during an inspection at a port dock in Santa Marta.. According to information from Naval Intelligence and in coordination with the National Anti-Narcotics Police, an inspection was carried out on a container belonging to the MAERKS Company, which was located in a port dock in the city, finding 1,000 rectangular packages containing substances inside. illicit.. Officials of the Judicial Police of the Anti-Narcotics Directorate carried out the Approved Preliminary Identification Test - PIPH to the seized material, yielding a positive result for cocaine hydrochloride.. The container coming from Turbo - Antioquia, made a stopover at a port dock in Santa Marta, where it was later to be loaded onto a ship that was heading to the city of Antwerp - Belgium, the destination where the cocaine would presumably be sold.. Thanks to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine is self-administered into the shell but not the core of the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats. AU - Rodd, Zachary. AU - McKinzie, David L.. AU - Li, Ting Kai. AU - Murphy, James M.. AU - McBride, William J.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The rewarding properties of cocaine have been postulated to be regulated, in part, by the mesolimbic dopamine system. However, the possibility that the rewarding properties of cocaine are mediated by direct activation of this system has yielded contradictory findings. The intracranial self-administration technique is used to identify specific brain regions involved in the initiation of response-contingent behaviors for the delivery of a reinforcer. The present study assessed whether adult Wistar rats would self-administer cocaine directly into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). For each subregion, subjects were placed in standard two-lever operant chambers and randomly assigned to one of five groups for each site ...
(Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Cognitive Development) Research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Albert Einstein Medical Center in Philadelphia states: Although numerous animal experiments and some human data show potent effects of cocaine on the central nervous system, we were unable to detect any difference in Performance, Verbal or Full Scale IQ
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive dysfunctions in recreational and dependent cocaine users. T2 - Role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, craving and early age at onset. AU - Vonmoos, Matthias. AU - Hulka, Lea M.. AU - Preller, Katrin H.. AU - Jenni, Daniela. AU - Baumgartner, Markus R.. AU - Stohler, Rudolf. AU - Bolla, Karen I.. AU - Quednow, Boris B.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. N2 - Background: Dependent cocaine users consistently display cognitive deficits but cognitive performance of recreational cocaine users has rarely been investigated. Aims: To examine whether cognitive performance is impaired in relatively pure recreational and dependent cocaine users. Method: The cognitive performance of recreational (n = 68) and dependent cocaine users (n = 30) was compared with the performance of stimulant-naive controls (n = 68) employing an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Moreover, the impact of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, craving and early age at onset was ...
Cocaine is an addictive stimulant of the central nervous system. Snorting, injecting and smoking cocaine are the main ways to for a person to use it. When sold on the street, it is common for dealers to cut their cocaine to stretch the supply and make more money. Cheap cocaine can sometimes be cut up to ninety percent. Called fillers, ingredients used for cutting cocaine include baking soda, Vitamin B12, cornstarch and talcum powder.. Recently, however, large supplies of cocaine are being cut with levamisole, a veterinary antibiotic that farmers normally use to deworm cattle, sheep and pigs. Drug cartels from South America are reportedly sending the cocaine overseas and into the U.S. already cut with levamisole, which is baffling officials.. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) first reported seeing significant amounts of levamisole-tainted cocaine in 2005. A 2010 DEA report found that between October 2007 and October 2009, the percentage of seized cocaine bricks containing levamisole ...
Searching for targeted information about cocaine withdrawal? Find answers to questions about withdrawal signs, symptoms, detox and treatment.
Cocaine use has been generally linked to DKA but whether its through its antagonizing effect on insulin action or more indirectly through its association with non-compliance with insulin, or both, is not totally clear. A retrospective study found cocaine users to account for 14% of all DKA admissions.1 Cocaine users were also less likely than…
DAVAO CITY (MindaNews/25 February) - Villagers recovered at least 39 bricks of cocaine off the coast of Barangay Santiago in the coastal town of Caraga, Davao Oriental on Sunday, police said.. Chief Supt. Marcelo Morales, regional director of Police Regional Office 11, suspected that the cocaine may have originated from drug syndicates based in Colombia or Mexico.. Morales added the bricks of cocaine found in Caraga, which is at least 260 kilometers from this city, has similarities in terms of packaging with the ones recovered in Dinagat Island, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur in the last two weeks.. Eighty eight bricks of cocaine were recovered off the waters of Dinagat Island and Siargao Island in Surigao del Norte while 34 more were found drifting in the coast of Tandag City, Surigao del Sur in the past week.. Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency regional director Antontio Rivera bared that the Dangerous Drugs Board placed the value of cocaine at P5300 per gram.. Only 36 bricks weighing a ...
Cocaine abuse has been associated with numerous cardiovascular consequences, such as depressed myocardial contractility, elevated blood pressure, coronary artery vasoconstriction, and myocardial ischemia and infarction. The multifactorial effects of cocaine often contribute to its sympathomimetic function. However, the direct cytotoxic effects of cocaine on the cardiovascular system, especially vascular endothelium, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was designed to examine the general hypothesis that cocaine induces apoptosis of coronary artery endothelium by suppressing nitric oxide synthesis, stimulating cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequently activation of the caspases cascade, which lead to endothelial cell apoptosis. We found that cocaine induces apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis by coaine is through the activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Cocaine-induced
Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder. The high relapse rate has often been attributed to the perseverance of drug-associated memories due to high incentive salience of stimuli learnt under the influence of drugs. Drug addiction has also been interpreted as a memory disorder since drug associated memories are unusually enduring and some drugs, such as cocaine, interfere with neuroepigenetic machinery known to be involved in memory processing. Here we used the honey bee (an established invertebrate model for epigenomics and behavioral studies) to examine whether or not cocaine affects memory processing independently of its effect on incentive salience. Using the proboscis extension reflex training paradigm we found that cocaine strongly impairs consolidation of extinction memory. Based on correlation between the observed effect of cocaine on learning and expression of epigenetic processes, we propose that cocaine interferes with memory processing independently of incentive salience by
(Maternal Cocaine Use and Birth Defects) Our data are from one of the first population-based studies in which trends for defects potentially caused by maternal cocaine use are examined; the results of our study show no significant change in the prevalence of multiple vascular disruption defects over time. We suspect that if cocaine is a teratogen, its teratogenicity is weak or is associated with a small subset of birth defects that are yet to be identified.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of the Serotonin 5-HT 2A Receptor Suppresses Cue-Evoked Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in a Rat Self-Administration Model. AU - Dhonnchadha, B. Á Nic. AU - Fox, R. G.. AU - Stutz, S. J.. AU - Rice, K. C.. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - The serotonin 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2AR) may play a role in reinstatement of drug-seeking. This study investigated the ability of a selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist to suppress reinstatement evoked by exposure to cues conditioned to cocaine self-administration. Cocaine self-administration (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL/6 s infusion; FR 4) was trained in naïve, free-fed rats to allow interpretation of results independent from changes related to food deprivation stress. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT 2AR antagonist M100907 (volinanserin) failed to reduce rates of operant responding for cocaine infusions. On the other hand, M100907 (0.001-0.8 mg/kg ip) significantly suppressed the cue-induced reinstatement of ...
Cocaine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug extracted from the leaves of coca plant. Listed as a Schedule II drug in the United States, it has a high potential for abuse. As such, the medical usage of cocaine is almost nonexistent and it is a mere recreational drug that surpasses its medical usage. Its only known medicinal usage is as a topical anaesthetic.. Cocaine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that speeds up respiration, blood pressure and heart rate. It also raises energy, alertness, wakefulness, focus and attention while suppressing appetite. Due to its ability to increase energy and confidence, it is a popular party drug at social events. According to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) report, an estimated 1.9 million people aged 12 and above are the current users of this illicit drug in the U.S.. In the absence of effective interventions, the chronic users of cocaine witness adverse impacts on their brain functions depending on the frequency of ...
By: Ashwin Mohan, Sandeep Denpyam. COLUMBIA, Mo. - About 2 million Americans currently use cocaine for its temporary side-effects of euphoria, which have contributed to making it one of the most dangerous and addictive drugs in the country. Cocaine addiction, which can cause severe biological and behavioral problems, is very difficult to overcome. Now, University of Missouri researchers Ashwin Mohan and Sandeep Pendyam, doctoral students in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, are utilizing computational models to study how the brains chemicals and synaptic mechanisms, or connections between neurons, react to cocaine addiction and what this could mean for future therapies. With cocaine addiction, addicts dont feel an urge to revolt because there is a strong connection in the brain from the decision-making center to the pleasure center, which overwhelms other normal rewards and is why they keep seeking it, Pendyam said. By using computational models, were targeting the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine exposure reorganizes cell type- and input-specific connectivity in the nucleus accumbens. AU - MacAskill, Andrew F.. AU - Cassel, John M.. AU - Carter, Adam G.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank members of the Carter laboratory, M. Farrant and R. Froemke for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript, P. Kennedy for advice on cocaine administration, and C. Farb, R. Sears and H. Seong for help with anatomy. This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (A.F.M.), and the Dana Foundation, McKnight Foundation and US National Institutes of Health R01DA038138 (A.G.C.).. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - Repeated exposure to cocaine alters the structural and functional properties of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes suggest a rewiring of the NAc circuit, with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connections onto MSNs. However, it is unknown how drug exposure alters the balance of long-range afferents onto different cell types in ...
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic system that projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to other forebrain sites, is the major substrate of reward and reinforcement for both natural rewards and addictive drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine high. Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation ...
Watch Reuters News - Season 0, Episode 0 - Did Cocaine Cause the Financial Crisis?: Cocaine - a drug that makes users feel like Masters of the Universe. Probably not what former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspa...
This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure statu
Area of Interest: Human stem cells; Cocaine addiction; Schizophrenia; Synaptogenesis; Estrogen hormones and synaptic plasticity. Project 1: Study the molecular mechanism of cocaine addiction using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (funded by National Institute of Drug Abuse/NIH). Cocaine abuse remains a major public health problem. The long-lasting nature of addiction leads to relapse and makes it especially difficult to treat. Despite decades of research, no effective treatment is available for cocaine addiction. A better understanding of the development of addiction is essential for creating effective therapy for cocaine addiction. Our knowledge about cocaine addiction has been generated mostly from studies with animal models, with limited contributions from information about human neuronal pathology obtained by analyzing PET (Positron emission tomography) images and postmortem brain tissues of end-stage cocaine addicts. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms of human cocaine ...
Powder cocaine (also called coke), freebase and crack are all forms of cocaine. When the effects start to wear off, people experience a long comedown, when they feel Although the powerful psychological dependence that can easily develop is more of a problem than the physical withdrawal symptoms, people who ...
Aaron King, also known as A-Mo, is the last of 24 people from Danbury and New York City sentenced for participating in a large-scale cocaine and crack cocaine distribution ring led by another Danbury resident, Alex Luna, according to the U.S. Attorneys office.|br/||br/|According to a press release from the U.S. Attorneys office, Luna regularly received kilogram-sized quantities of cocaine by individuals based in New York City.|br/||br/|The governments investigation revealed that King purchased cocaine from Lunas associates, which he then sold to his own customers, the release said.|br/||br/|Danbury police and Bridgeport-based members of the federal Drug Enforcement Administration conducted months of surveillance, including numerous purchases by undercover officers and federally authorized wiretaps on five telephones, the U.S. Attorneys office said.|br/||br/|A kilogram of cocaine goes for about $30,000 to $40,000 in todays market, although it was less expensive in 2005, according to Tom
If that went over your head, heres the simple version - The researchers have found a way to deliver a protein-based gene via virus that bonds to cocaine in the bloodstream. This protein prevents the cocaine from ever reaching the brain, thus stopping the effects of the drug.. So couldnt this vaccine be abused by people who would want to take cocaine without the negative side effects? The protein stops all the effects, including the high, thus making cocaine worthless to people who took the vaccine. It would be especially helpful for those trying to quit as they would no longer experience the high that they seek. Of course, there still is the problem that people may turn to other drugs once cocaine loses its splendor.. Still, this is the kind of innovation thats needed in the war on drugs. You can have all the law enforcement in the world, but people are still going to do drugs. You win if you can take away the only reason people use the drug in the first place.. [h/t: Sci-News ...
5.1 percent of residents in Perus capital of Lima abused cocaine in 2013, according to a report by a drug monitoring organization. 8.9 percent of the citys residents used marijuana.. Across the entire country, 2.4 percent of the population aged 12 to 65 abused cocaine in Peru, an increase of over 60 percent from the 1.5 percent who used cocaine in 2010. Marijuana use in Peru also increased during that time period, from 5.6 percent to 7.5 percent.. (Marijuana prices by country.). Source: Natalie Southwick, Cocaine Use in Peru Increases 60% in 3 Years, Insight Crime, November 7, 2013.. ...
Freud credits Dr. Bentleys report in the Detroit Therapeutic Gazette with demonstrating the use of cocaine as a treatment for morphine and alcohol addiction. Freud elaborated on its antimorphine properties, reaching an extreme claim in this part of his first paper: cocaine was so powerful a specific to morphine-addiction as well as alcoholism that inebriate asylums can be entirely dispensed with. Ueber Coca concluded with brief comments on cocaines use in asthma, as an aphrodisiac and, lastly, in local applications as an anesthetic. Its anesthetic effects are sketched in only one paragraph, a brevity for which Freud later reproached himself, since Rollers anesthetic application, made public a month after publication of Ueber Coca, eventually was the most applauded use of cocaine and remained so for years to come ...
We present three patients whose angiographic and pathological data suggest that vasospasm and/or thrombus formation may be important mechanisms of crack cocaine-induced cerebral infarction. Patients 1 and 3 had intra-arterial clot without angiographic evidence of vasospasm, and patient 2 had vasospasm without evidence of clot. The vasospasm changes were more prominent in the left- than the right-sided cerebral arteries, which, with the smaller size of the left-sided vessels at autopsy, is consistent in our opinion with more severe cerebral vasoconstriction on the left side.. Multiple mechanisms for the neurovascular complications of crack cocaine use have been previously proposed.1 2 3 4 5 Cocaine and its metabolites (norcocaine and benzoylecgonine) are potent vasoconstrictors, and the chronic use of crack cocaine may lead to prolonged vasoconstriction due to the more protracted half-lives of active metabolites,6 which are perhaps even longer in association with ethanol,7 as in our third ...
Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant. Physical effects of cocaine use, including crack, include constricted blood vessels and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Users may also experience feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety.10 Smoking crack delivers large quantities of the drug to the lungs, producing effects comparable to intravenous injection. These effects are felt almost immediately after smoking, are very intense, but do not last long.11 For example, the high from smoking cocaine may last from 5 to 10 minutes, while the high from snorting the drug can last for 15 to 20 minutes.12 Evidence suggests that users who smoke or inject cocaine may be at even greater risk of causing harm to themselves than those who snort the substance.. Cocaine smokers may suffer from acute respiratory problems including coughing, shortness of breath, and severe chest pains with lung trauma and bleeding.13 Smoking crack cocaine can also cause particularly ...
Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have identified an impairment in a brain region that might explain why it is difficult for persons with cocaine addiction to cease using the drug.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging data, the research team found among cocaine-addicted individuals an impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which governs impulse and self-control, possibly explaining why these individuals cannot form new associations for certain stimuli.. Our study data suggests that it will be hard for longtime cocaine users to unlearn what once was a positive experience if this unlearning or new learning relies on this brain region to be effective, said Anna Konova, PhD, formerly with the Icahn School and now a postdoctoral fellow at New York Universitys Center for Neural Science.. The study compared 18 chronic cocaine users to 15 non-using controls on extinction learning activities resembling the exposure therapy often used to treat anxiety ...
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The chemical cocaine hydrochloride is commonly known as crack. Some users chemically process cocaine in order to remove the hydrochloride. It is called
Security personnel in Qatar arrested 50 drug smugglers entering the country in 2012. Customs officials in the country cliam that they are able to catch 90 pecent of the drug smugglers attempting to enter the country.. A kilogram of cocaine can be sold for up to $90,000 in the Middle East, a value that is 3 times higher than the rate in the United States.. (More cocaine prices by country.). 75 percent of the cocaine seized in the Middle East region was shipped from Brazil.. Source: Charles Parkinson, Persian Gulf is Growing Drug Hub For LatAm Groups, Insight Crime, September 17, 2013.. ...
Medicinal agents, beside occupational and environmental agents, remain one of the most common causes for interstitial lung diseases (ILD). A major problem with ILD is the recognition of the causative agent. In some cases more or less characteristic features of presentation are described. Often, the connection between drug-use and the development of related inflammatory damage or idiosyncratic toxicities is hard to recognize and objectify. Cocaine, a xenobiotic and the most commonly used illicit drug, causes serious medical and social problems. An increasing incidence of lung toxicity related to cocaine or crack-use is being reported worldwide. However, the mechanism of the resulting lung injury is not fully understood. This review summarizes possible molecular mechanisms explaining intraindividual variability in cocaine response and lung toxicity. The importance of including pharmacogenomics in the work-up of patients with suspected drug-induced lung toxicity is highlighted ...
by Guerretto Question by desperatedesirex3: Can snorting cocaine cause a common cold or sinus infections? if it can would either illness be contagious to n
Antibody 7A1 hydrolyzes cocaine to produce nonpsychoactive metabolites ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid. Crystal structures of 7A1 Fab and six complexes with substrate cocaine, the transition state analog, products ecgonine methyl ester and benzoic acid together and individually, as well as h …
UK authorities found 1.2 tons of cocaine on a luxury yacht at the port of Southampton, in the countrys largest ever seizure of a Class A drug.. The drugs were found in June, but the seizure was only made public on Wednesday after several arrests were made in the Netherlands.. The yacht had been due to arrive in the Netherlands with its cargo. (See video below).. Authorities had been tracking the vessel since May, after suspicions were raised by French authorities while the boat was in the Caribbean. The drugs are believed to have originated in South America, and to have been packed and loaded onto the vessel in Venezuela.. A Dutch official said that about 40 percent of all cocaine brought into Europe is trafficked using smuggling routes from the Caribbean.. The cocaine was found in a hidden compartment after officials combed the 65-foot vessel for six days.. UK said that the cocaine, which was 90 percent pure, would have been cut with other substances to produce eight tons for sale on the ...
Abstract: Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health concern. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health indicate that the number of Americans who had used cocaine in the past month has remained relatively stable since 2002 and cocaine remains the most frequently mentioned drug in emergency-room admissions according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Because of the public-health concerns and costs associated with its abuse, identifying a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine dependence is a priority for the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Despite intense research efforts, a widely accepted medication for cocaine dependence has not yet been identified. A number of non-pharmacological treatments for cocaine dependence have also been examined. Specifically, behavioral treatments for cocaine dependence seek to reinforce non- drug related behaviors. For example, contingency management uses monetary incentives to decrease cocaine use and is associated with ...
Bolivias daily La Razón had an interesting feature on cocaine production in the country, last weekend. La Razón interviews Julio, a Bolivian drugs trafficker in jail, who has connections with Colombian traffickers. The Colombians go to Bolivia in order to look for high quality cocaine, Julio says. They make sure their business will turn out well. Julios wife or his daughter are the guarantee. If something turns out badly they hit you where it hurts most, he tells La Razón.. The cocaine is picked up by heavily armed men in small planes and brought to a foreign country. From there it is transported to the United States and Europe, according to Julio.. Bolivian authorities told that the situation isnt so bad yet and only mid level gangs operate in the country, but if Julio tells the truth there is a lot to worry about.. La Razón explains how Colombians train the Bolivians in production of cocaine. They teach them a quicker production process and they teach them how to use ...
"Cocaine". Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. "Amphetamines". AIC. Archived from ... Community impact: "In a 2004 survey, one percent of people aged 14 years and over indicated they had used cocaine in the ... This is a conglomerate run by triad bosses which focuses particularly on methamphetamine and cocaine. It has laundered money ... McKenna, Michael (13 February 2010). "Arrest of Colombian drug baron a blow for cocaine cartel". The Australian. Miller, Gary ( ...
Moore, Sam (14 January 2019). "People think that the secret ingredient in SpongeBob Squarepants' Krabby Patty is cocaine". ... Asarch, Steven (January 16, 2019). "Secret Ingredient In Krabby Patty? Cocaine! Says Internet". Newsweek. Archived from the ...
Cocaine, marijuana, repackaged illegally obtained prescription drugs, hashish, LSD, PCP and heroin were sold through Zagaria's ... cocaine. He was sentenced by the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio, to a term of imprisonment of ... cocaine, quaaludes, and other controlled substances. The narcotics network was overseen by Cleveland mobster, Carmen P. Zagaria ...
Caffeine, cocaine, codeine and nicotine are slightly soluble in water (with a solubility of ≥1g/L), whereas others, including ... Cocaine, caffeine, and cathinone are stimulants of the central nervous system. Mescaline and many indole alkaloids (such as ... "Cocaine". DrugBank. Retrieved 12 February 2013. "Codeine". DrugBank. Retrieved 12 February 2013. "Nicotine". DrugBank. ... Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine), ...
On February 17, 2006, Hunter was found dead from a cocaine-induced heart attack in his Lower East Side apartment. The Harold ... Sommers, Michael A. (2008). Cocaine. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 25. ISBN 1-4042-1379-1. Harold Hunter Foundation website ... Cocaine-related deaths in New York (state), Male actors from New York City, African-American male actors, People from the East ...
Moore, Sam (January 14, 2019). "People think that the secret ingredient in SpongeBob Squarepants' Krabby Patty is cocaine". ... Asarch, Steven (January 16, 2019). "SECRET INGREDIENT IN KRABBY PATTY? COCAINE! SAYS INTERNET". Newsweek. Archived from the ...
Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine and therefore increases its effects. During the 1950s, Bernard Katz and Paul Fatt observed ... Weiss, Mirin; Dr Steven M. Mirin; Dr Roxanne Bartel (1994). Cocaine. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-58562-138-5. ... Synapses are affected by drugs, such as curare, strychnine, cocaine, morphine, alcohol, LSD, and countless others. These drugs ...
Cocaine. PCP. You name it, I did it." According to an article originally appearing in the Frederick News-Post on August 12, ...
Dibenzoylmorphine Dibutyrylmorphine Dipropanoylmorphine Streatfeild D (2002). Cocaine. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-7535-0627-0 ...
Cocaine (??? / Channel 4); Coast (BBC Birmingham / BBC Two) Best Feature Winner: The Apprentice (Talkback Thames / BBC Two) ...
"Cocaine". National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). "Hallucinogens". National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Abuse, National ... Non-prescription stimulant drugs include cocaine and methamphetamine (commonly known as meth). The NIDA has reported that 11.4 ... of young adults aged 18-25 have used cocaine in their lifetime. Hallucinogens alter one's perceptions of reality as well as ...
"Britain's top 10 richest drug barons". Cocaine. 16 May 2004 - via BBC News. Elias, Richard (5 August 2007). "Goodbye to ...
Drugs such as cocaine and opiates are addictive for some users. A minority of users of such drugs may commit crimes to obtain ... "Cocaine". Retrieved 25 March 2013. "Social Problems in American Society , Reader's Digest". 15 January 2013 ...
Cocaine • Dichloropane • Difluoropine • N-(2'-Fluoroethyl-)-3β-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2β-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)nortropane (FE-β- ...
"Cocaine". Archived from the original on 2016-11-20. Retrieved 2016-12-26. "Safety (MSDS) data for cobalt (II) ...
Crack cocaine became popular in poor and working-class neighborhoods in major U.S. cities like New York during the 1980s. The ... Located near the Harlem River Drive in East Harlem, the mural serves as a warning against crack cocaine use, which was rampant ... She later died of a cocaine overdose. Although the current and original versions of Crack Is Wack differ, they both express ... "Cocaine". HISTORY. May 31, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2019. "War on Drugs". HISTORY. May 31, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2019 ... Retrieved 2010-10-01. Alexander, Harriet (20 October 2013). "Francisco Rafael Arellano Felix: Head of Tijuana ... Benjamin was extradited to the United States on 29 April 2011 to face charges of trafficking cocaine into California. On ... "How Officials Jolted a Cocaine Cartel". Nightline. ABC News. September 28, 2002. Fallece sacerdote que reunió a los Arellano ... s cocaine. Benjamín had six brothers:[citation needed] Francisco Rafael Arellano Félix (born 24 October 1949) - Shot dead by ...
"Coca Wine". Archived from the original on 2021-02-24. Retrieved 2013-09-29. Pride, William; Ferrell (29 December ... Most colas now use other flavoring (and caffeinating) ingredients with a similar taste and no longer contain cocaine. It became ... originally contained caffeine from the kola nut and cocaine from coca leaves, and was flavored with vanilla and other ...
Radden Keefe, Patrick (15 June 2012). "Cocaine Incorporated". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. ...
Cocaine City. Retrieved August 8, 2015. "I See Dead People". Retrieved March 20, 2015. "Allegheny AB". ... According to interviews, Ab was booked for charges related to crack cocaine and faced up to 3 years, which was hastened to 18 ... In 2008, West and Cassidy appeared on the Cocaine City street DVD, where the two collaborated on "City of Dreams" alongside a ... On November 19, 2019, West was found guilty of several counts of conspiracy and distribution of crack cocaine, heroin, and ...
... first meets Detective Inspector Jack Robinson while investigating a cocaine ring in Cocaine Blues, and becomes ... In Cocaine Blues, for instance she is the subject of the attentions of both Sasha De Lisse and his twin sister Ellie, but tells ... In Cocaine Blues, after a theft of jewelry belonging to a guest at a dinner party hosted by the Fishers, Phryne's father and ... In Cocaine Blues, she tells her maidservant and secretary Dot that during her youth, she "starved like Billy-o" and that her ...
ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Carlin, Marcello (April 2004). "Cocaine heights". Uncut. No. 83. p. 112. "American album certifications - ... "cocaine blizzard" from which Christine McVie's then-boyfriend, Beach Boy drummer Dennis Wilson, "never really came out." Music ...
ISBN 0-8047-2800-3. Carroll, Rory (2007-10-09). "Cocaine galore! Villagers live it up on profits from 'white lobster': Washed- ...
Operation Cocaine. New York: Pyramid Books. 1973. OCLC 1030954. Operation Hit Man. New York: Pyramid Books. 1974. ISBN ...
Coe, Tyler Mahan (May 4, 2021). "CR016/PH02 - Owen Bradley's Nashville Sound". Cocaine & Rhinestones. Retrieved September 21, ...
Peterson, RC (1997). "History of Cocaine" (PDF). In Robert C. Petersen; Richard C. Stillman (eds.). Cocaine: 1977. United ... Carroll E. (1997). "Coca: the plant and its use" (PDF). In Robert C. Petersen; Richard C. Stillman (eds.). Cocaine: 1977. ... Reutsch, Y; Boni, T; Borgeat, A (2001). "From cocaine to ropivacaine: the history of local anesthetic drugs". Current Topics in ... in 1860 Albert Niemann isolated cocaine, which thus became the first local anesthetic. In 1871, the German surgeon Friedrich ...
Coe, Tyler Mahan (January 18, 2022). "Another Lonely Song: The Tammy Wynette & George Richey Story". Cocaine & Rhinestones. ...
"cocaine/crack". Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007. "Deaths related to cocaine". Archived from ... cocaine from Erythroxylon coca and opium from opium poppy. Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may ...
Ever used cocaine. (any form of cocaine, such as powder, crack, or freebase, one or more times during their life). ... Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use National YRBS: 1991-2019. Percentages. Trend from ... counting cocaine, inhalants, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, or hallucinogens, one or more times during their life). ... Trends in the Prevalence of Marijuana, Cocaine, and Other Illegal Drug Use National YRBS: 1991-2019. ...
Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals. ... Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. ... Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals ... Taking too much cocaine, or taking a too-concentrated a form of cocaine ...
The ancient Incas of Peru believed cocaine to be a gift from the gods. However, it is a modern-day curse to the emergency ... Crack cocaine differs from cocaine salt in that it is stable to pyrolysis and can be smoked. Users of cocaine in its crack form ... Cocaine availability and use increased between 2015 and 2016 in the United States, with past-year cocaine initiates and cocaine ... Trauma is often associated with cocaine use. Even the absence of cocaine, after a cocaine binge, may precipitate an ED visit ...
Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011 Jan-Feb. 33(1):110-9. [QxMD ... Early adolescent cocaine use as determined by hair analysis in a prenatal cocaine exposure cohort. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011 ... encoded search term (Pediatric Cocaine Abuse) and Pediatric Cocaine Abuse What to Read Next on Medscape ... Fatal injuries after cocaine use as a leading cause of death among young adults in New York City. N Engl J Med. 1995 Jun 29. ...
Adverse health consequences of cocaine abuse / edited by A. Arif  Arif, Awni; World Health Organization (‎World Health ... Reviews what is known about the extent of cocaine abuse, its adverse effects on health, and methods available for treatment and ... Systematic review of pharmacological treatment of cocaine dependence  World Health Organization. Management of Substance ... WHO initiative on cocaine : meeting of project advisers, Geneva, 24-28 August 1992  ...
Heres a closer look at what cocaine does to the eyes, along with why you shouldnt judge someone based on their eyes. ... Using cocaine can also make your eyes appear bloodshot and watery. This happens because cocaine causes your blood vessels to ... Using cocaine does kill brain cells over time. Cocaine can alter individual brain cells and entire regions of the brain. ... While certain eye signs might suggest cocaine use, this isnt a reliable way to determine whether someones using cocaine. ...
The Australian admitted to taking the drugs, which included ecstasy and cocaine, ahead of some races, knowing that they would ...
An Experience with Cocaine & Various. It Was Like a Porno Movie by Co-joe ... When on cocaine I didnt feel much different like a weed high would be, just upbeat without any inhibitions. Later on it got ... I didnt do cocaine for nearly a month after that until right before I left for a thanksgiving trip to LA. After getting pretty ... My mouth was dry and I had a couple of beers, it felt like the cocaine was starting to hit. My shyness completely went away. I ...
... of cocaine seized in the Eastern Pacific has been brought to San Diego aboard a Coast Guard cutter. ... The cocaine offloaded Friday was seized in international waters off the coasts of Mexico and Central and South America. ... SAN DIEGO (AP) - More than 14,300 pounds (6,486 kilograms) of cocaine seized in the Eastern Pacific has been brought to San ... Alameda based Coast Guard crew seizes 14,300 pounds of cocaine. Published April 5, 2019. ...
Capturing crack cocaine use: estimating the prevalence of crack cocaine use in London using capture-recapture with covariates. ... Hard-drug users who were not confirmed as crack cocaine users had the longest diagnostic delays. Crack cocaine users had the ... TB patients who used crack cocaine were predominantly 20-49 years of age. Crack cocaine users and other drug users were ... particularly crack cocaine use (2). Numbers of crack cocaine users assessed while in police custody in London increased 3-fold ...
Mumbai Airport have made a cocaine bust worth around Rs 18 crore. Two passengers travelling from Ethiopia were intercepted ... Cocaine worth Rs 18 crore seized at Mumbai airport. Mirror Now , 03 Dec 2022, 08:26 PM IST. ... Mumbai Airport have made a cocaine bust worth around Rs 18 crore. Two passengers travelling from Ethiopia were intercepted ...
Freuds letters to Martha Barnays reveal his cocaine usage to alleviate nervousness before meetings. Telling remarks are made ... Cocaine 1886. Sigmund Freud. Excerpts from Freuds letters from Paris to his fiancée Martha Barnays in which Freud casually ... A little cocaine, to untie my tongue. It is quite all right of course for this news to be widely distributed in Hamburg and ... The bit of cocaine I have just taken is making me talkative, my little woman. I will go on writing and comment on your ...
Cocaine discoveries. Barbers however expressed alarm over reports of cocaine smuggling in the country, particularly the Isabela ... Aside from boldly sneaking cocaine in our sea and airports, drug syndicates have employed other schemes in smuggling cocaine ... Cocaine, one of the most dangerous drugs known to man, was initially developed as a painkiller. For thousands of years, people ... He further described cocaine as a worldwide, multibillion-dollar enterprise, with users from all ages, occupations and economic ...
... charged over a multi-million dollar cocaine syndicate. ... Police smash cocaine racket. Posted. Thu 26 Jul 2007 at 1:04am ... Two men and a woman will appear in Sydneys Central Local Court today, charged over a multi-million dollar cocaine syndicate. ... About 8:30pm (AEST) yesterday, police arrested the alleged kingpin of the cocaine racket, a 32-year-old West Pennant Hills man ... two kilograms of high-grade cocaine and numerous guns including a gold-plated .357 Magnum gun. ...
Called one of south Floridas original cocaine cowboys, Magluta was acquitted last year on drug smuggling charges but faced a ... The government contended the two masterminded cocaine smuggling operations on the Eastern Seaboard from the late 1970s until ... scale importation of cocaine through south Florida. --- Advertisement ...
Previously, there was an inequality in sentencing for crack cocaine and powder cocaine, at least at the federal level. However ... Kentucky law criminalizes the possession and sale or distribution (trafficking) of cocaine. Despite this, cocaine use and ... Kentucky law doesnt differentiate between crack and powder cocaine.. The following table outlines the main cocaine laws in ... Trafficking at least 4 grams of cocaine in one transaction or multiple transactions over a 90 day period is a Class C felony. ...
Upon touch, Cocaine Tits are said to resemble the feel of cheap sandwich baggies half full of water ... Referring to the deflated breasts of a female who abuses Cocaine. The appearance is generally accepted as unsightly: pickled ... Upon touch, Cocaine Tits are said to resemble the feel of cheap sandwich baggies half full of water ... Referring to the deflated breasts of a female who abuses Cocaine. The appearance is generally accepted as unsightly: pickled ...
COCAINE One of the most dangerous and widely abused drugs is cocaine, although they do not produce very severe physical ... The Effects Of Cocaine. Common names for Cocaine are: Coke; Charlie; Snow; and C Cocaine can be identified as a white powder ... Cocaine Essay. Cocaine First of all this research paper will examine the history of cocaine, answer exactly who used it, ... Mercantilism And Cocaine. From Tradition to Addiction; A Brief History of the Coca Leaf & Cocaine Today, the drug cocaine is ...
Former Labour MP Jared OMara tried to claim up to £30,000 to fund extensive cocaine habit ... The prosecutor said: "The reason for that appears to have been that he was funding a significant cocaine habit of which both ... A former MP tried to fraudulently claim up to £30,000 in taxpayers money to fund an "extensive cocaine habit", prosecutors ... was in poor mental health and was heavily addicted to cocaine that he was abusing in prodigious quantities." ...
A mouse experiment suggests deaths in US police custody may have been the result of an interaction between capsaicin and psychostimulant drugs
Stream Cocaine [Prod. by DJ Pain 1] the new song from I-20. Album: Celebrity Rehab. Release Date: November 12, 2014. ...
A hit-and-run accident investigation led to the seizure of drugs and a stolen firearm last week, police said in a press release Monday.
... "because I said I would expose the cocaine use including hers." (Lorraine has denied using cocaine, while the Proud Boys ... "I found this girl I dated is doing cocaine and sleeping with the proud boys I cannot agree with the drug lifestyle they follow ... He urged The Daily Beast to find evidence of Lorraine using cocaine at Harrys, and asked The Daily Beast to send a reporter to ... "Im sure people are shocked to hear there was cocaine at a party in DC too!" the group wrote. "Shocking development asshole." ...
A Canton man was sentenced to eight months in federal prison for selling cocaine, law enforcement officials announced. U.S. ...
Cocaine Blues (Phryne Fisher, #1) 3.82 avg rating - 24,600 ratings - published 1989 - 55 editions ... The Phryne Fisher series (pronounced Fry-knee, to rhyme with briny) began in 1989 with Cocaine Blues which was a great success ... The Phryne Fisher series (pronounced Fry-knee, to rhyme with briny) began in 1989 with Cocaine Blues which was a great success ...
5.1 billion worth of cocaine by end of 2022 - a huge target for criminals. But incinerators cant keep up. ... So much cocaine is being seized by customs in Belgium that the countrys incinerators are no longer able to keep up. Mia ... Belgian customs officers have seized so much cocaine that it is causing a backlog for the countrys incinerators, according to ... In a 2021 report, the UN said Antwerp was one of the ports forming the "epicenter" of Europes cocaine market. ...
By enhancing this growth, cocaine might be a super-learning stimulus that reinforces learning about the cocaine experience, she ... Mice given cocaine showed rapid growth in new brain structures associated with learning and memory, according to a research ... In the first of a series of experiments, the scientists gave cocaine injections to one group of mice and saline injections to ... In a third experiment, the researchers for a week gave the mice cocaine in one distinctive chamber and saline in another, using ...
JetBlue flight attendant was arrested Wednesday in New York after kicking off her heels and running when trying to get cocaine ... The cocaine weighed just over 68 pounds. Wholesale, the drugs would be worth about $750,000 in Los Angeles, said Special Agent ... LAX police soon after found 11 packages of cocaine wrapped in green cellophane and labeled, "BIG Ranch" inside one of the bags ... A JetBlue flight attendant who authorities say left behind 70 pounds of cocaine worth up to $3 million after flinging off her ...
Italys Guardia di Finanza announced last week that they had confiscated 130 grams of cocaine which had been concealed in a two ... Sneaky Drug Smugglers Hid Cocaine Inside Individual Coffee Beans. Italian police discovered the package which had over 500 ... 50 Million of Cocaine Discovered in Coffee Bean Shipment at a Nespresso Factory ... 44 Pounds of Cocaine Frosted Corn Flakes Seized by U.S. Customs ...
  • Cocaine abuse and addiction. (
  • We were having casual sex for a while without drugs but she started going broke from her addiction and the first time I bought a gram for her and we did some mediocre cocaine. (
  • A separate category was included for hard-drug users not known to use crack cocaine to have a group with comparable levels of social deprivation, addiction related problems, and difficulty in accessing health services. (
  • [1] X Trustworthy Source National Institute on Drug Abuse Agency in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services devoted to researching drug and drug abuse and educating the public Go to source If someone you care about is struggling with a cocaine addiction, recovery is possible. (
  • Help treat your loved one's cocaine addiction by acknowledging the addiction, getting initial treatment, and developing a long-term plan to maintain recovery. (
  • Learn as much as you can about cocaine addiction. (
  • This will help you to understand the treatment options as well as the physical effects you might experience as a result of a cocaine addiction. (
  • To learn about cocaine addiction. (
  • Know the signs of cocaine addiction. (
  • Understand that the behaviors that a person displays, such as being more excited, confident, energetic, and talkative than usual, may be due to cocaine addiction. (
  • According to new research led by the University at Buffalo's Panayotis (Peter) Thanos, Ph.D., Exercise can help prevent relapses into cocaine addiction. (
  • Cocaine addiction is often characterized by cycles of recovery and relapse, with stress and negative emotions, often caused by withdrawal itself, among the major causes of relapse," said Thanos. (
  • Cocaine is the second most abused stimulant drug, behind nicotine, making cocaine dependence and cocaine addiction common. (
  • Cocaine dependence is not the same thing as cocaine addiction. (
  • Cocaine addiction is also known as cocaine abuse . (
  • it's important not to confuse addiction with cocaine dependence. (
  • Cocaine dependence is a physical or psychological dependence on the drug, but cocaine addiction requires the individual continue using cocaine despite harmful consequences to themselves and others. (
  • Cocaine addiction also often involves illegal or harmful actions to afford the drug. (
  • It is the collective experience of the members of Cocaine Anonymous that addiction is a problem not limited to cocaine or any other mind-altering substance. (
  • This is the thing that leads to addiction when dealing with Cocaine. (
  • There are numerous approaches to treating a Cocaine addiction. (
  • If you want to learn more on how to fight back against cocaine addiction, Healing Properties is here for you, call now 866-470-7541 ! (
  • You gain Hyper Hyper for 1 turn and gain 3 turns of Cocaine Addiction , also you lose Cocaine Burnout if you have it. (
  • you'll lose Cocaine Addiction and Cocaine Burnout. (
  • Also, if you're Dead during an Effects Phase, you lose Cocaine Addiction . (
  • Passively removes and prevents getting Cocaine Addiction and Cocaine Burnout, also you don't die or lose Hyper Hyper (but don't gain another turn of duration of Hyper Hyper ) if you use Cocaine standardly while already having Hyper Hyper . (
  • Individuals abusing crack cocaine may swiftly find themselves in the cycle of dependence and addiction. (
  • Repeated cocaine use can easily lead to an increased tolerance and even addiction. (
  • According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 966,000 people in the United States age 12 and older met the criteria for a cocaine use disorder -more commonly referred to as a cocaine addiction-in 2017. (
  • Those who struggle with cocaine addiction should seek substance use treatment as soon as possible. (
  • Is It Food Addiction or Cocaine Abuse? (
  • They've done comparisons of brains in people who are cocaine abusers and those who are food addicted, according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale. (
  • As to date, human genetic studies have shown that cocaine addiction is heritable. (
  • We used univariate analyses to compare the characteristics of crack cocaine users, other hard-drug users (predominantly heroin users but excluding those who used only alcohol and marijuana), and those not known to use drugs. (
  • The Great Missing Manhole Cover Mystery of 2012 has been solved, and the explanation is exactly what you expected: Police say that 46-year-old Andrew Modica of Brooklyn, who was arrested yesterday and charged with the thefts, was selling the lids as scrap metal to feed his crack, cocaine, and heroin habits. (
  • At some point, she realized what was going on: Her cocaine was laced with fentanyl, a deadly opioid 50 times more potent than heroin. (
  • But she had switched to cocaine a year earlier, after her adult son became addicted to heroin. (
  • Some users combine cocaine with heroin-in what is termed a "speedball. (
  • Some users combine cocaine with heroin. (
  • Outcomes studied: Self-reported, heroin-associated exacerbations, history of heroin or cocaine use, and urine drug screen (UDS) results. (
  • Not only are people using heroin, but they are also using multiple other substances, including cocaine and prescription opioids. (
  • Smoking freebase cocaine (crack), on the other hand, causes it to happen almost immediately, and can last for up to 7 minutes. (
  • We hypothesize that crack cocaine is independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). (
  • In a case-control study of TB in London, 19 (86%) of 22 crack cocaine users with pulmonary TB were smear positive compared with 302 (36%) of 833 non-drug users. (
  • Respiratory damage caused by crack cocaine may predispose drug users to infectivity. (
  • The United Kingdom has seen a substantial increase in the prevalence of drug use in the past decade, particularly crack cocaine use ( 2 ). (
  • Numbers of crack cocaine users assessed while in police custody in London increased 3-fold from 1993 through 2003 ( 3 ). (
  • Evidence to directly link risk for TB with crack cocaine use is lacking, although an association with tuberculin positivity has been shown. (
  • Chest radiograph of a tuberculosis patient addicted to crack cocaine. (
  • Habitually smoking crack cocaine causes pulmonary damage (crack lung) ( Figure ). (
  • Several pulmonary complications are associated with the inhalation of crack cocaine (e.g., intensive cough, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, chest pain, acute bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, thermal airway injury, pneumothorax and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, production of carbonaceous sputum, and exacerbation of asthma) ( 9 ). (
  • We hypothesize that crack cocaine use increases the risk for smear-positive pulmonary TB and that a component of this risk relates to lung damage caused by crack cocaine inhalation. (
  • To test the hypothesis that smear positivity at diagnosis was associated with crack cocaine use, we used a multivariate model with backwards elimination to exclude variables that did not make a significant contribution to the model. (
  • TB patients who used crack cocaine were predominantly 20-49 years of age. (
  • Crack cocaine users and other drug users were significantly more likely than non-drug users to have been born in the United Kingdom, of white or black Caribbean ethnic origin, homeless, alcohol abusers, or have a history of imprisonment. (
  • Previously, there was an inequality in sentencing for crack cocaine and powder cocaine, at least at the federal level. (
  • However, Kentucky law doesn't differentiate between crack and powder cocaine. (
  • Absorption and Distribution of Cocaine Cocaine is most often administered via nasal insufflation, intravenous injection, the oral route and inhalation of crack cocaine vapours (unionized form of cocaine) (Fattinger et al. (
  • One of the most important criminal justice debates in recent history centers on the substantial difference in prison sentences for crack versus powdered cocaine possession, a disparity that has not only encouraged a misapplication of limited law enforcement resources, but more importantly, has been the source of unequal punishment for basically identical crimes. (
  • IMGCAP(1)]In March, the Senate unanimously approved the Fair Sentencing Act, legislation that reduces the disparity in sentences for crack and powdered cocaine possession, from 100 to 1, to 18 to 1. (
  • But the amount of crack cocaine needed to trigger the five- and 10-year mandatory sentences is significantly less - 100 times less - than that for powder cocaine. (
  • In reviewing data on federal prosecutions and sentences from the 10 years since the Anti-Drug Abuse Act was enacted, it became apparent that the disparity between powdered and crack cocaine sentences was failing on two points. (
  • Thus, giving substantially longer prison sentences for crack over powdered cocaine is as illogical as it is unfair. (
  • TORRINGTON -- Police have named six Winsted and Torrington residents charged with criminal intent to possess crack cocaine. (
  • Wayne Finkle, 46, of Torrington was also arrested on charges of possession of crack cocaine and possession of crack cocaine in a school zone, after allegedly buying crack cocaine from Creighton in the parking lot of Leo's Cafe on Church Street that day, according to the police report. (
  • Comorbidities associated with crack-cocaine use are one of the major challenges for those who provide psychiatric services to this population, however, there are few studies examining these comorbidities fees on users of crack-cocaine. (
  • To compare users of crack-cocaine with the general population in relation in antisocial behavior. (
  • Cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study, with a sample of 971 adults 18-59 years, chosen for convenience, divided into two groups - users of crack-cocaine and general population. (
  • The binary logistic regression analysis by the backward conditional method has generated conditional adjusted variables for the gravity model for crack-cocaine use: male, adults in their 30s and 39 years, with low education and being in the clinical classification for problems with antisocial personality (OR = 14.466). (
  • The results found emphasize the importance of early detection of antisocial behavior associated with crack-cocaine users, which might improve the treatment and get better prognosis. (
  • Although it will have minimal, or no, effect on Texas parole laws, the House of Representatives passed a bill yesterday that will change the disparity between sentencing for powdered cocaine and crack. (
  • Have you ever used cocaine, including crack or freebase, or other street drugs? (
  • In the past 12 months, how many days have you used cocaine, including crack or freebase, or other street drugs? (
  • This study describes the prevalence and profile of men and women, which are crack cocaine users, attended in three Therapeutic Communities in Zona da Mata, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (
  • To evaluate the prevalence, we initially interviewed all 34 individuals who entered the TCs in a two-month period, of whom, 82.4 % was for crack cocaine use. (
  • After making a stupid drunk decision, I decided to smoke crack-cocaine. (
  • I have noted your details, and it is unfortunate that you have developed cognitive dysfunction after smoking crack-cocaine just once. (
  • Crack cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant that can be smoked or snorted. (
  • Crack cocaine is a processed and less expensive form of the illegal street drug, cocaine. (
  • Crack cocaine can be identified as a white or off-white "rock" of powder, that makes a crackling noise when smoked. (
  • Snorting crack cocaine, or using this drug in any form, can lead to cardiovascular and mental health issues. (
  • When a person snorts crack cocaine (insufflation), they risk permanent damage to their nose and nasal passages. (
  • Snorting any drug can result in sores and infection inside the nose, and crack cocaine can cause holes (perforation) in a person's septum. (
  • What Happens When You Snort Crack Cocaine? (
  • Snorting crack cocaine causes side effects similar to cocaine, including extreme energy, increased body temperature, and dilated pupils. (
  • The high from crack cocaine is intense but short-lived. (
  • A person abusing crack cocaine will likely experience strong cravings for the drug soon after their last dose. (
  • This intense craving, coupled with the stimulant properties of crack cocaine, can cause a person to exhibit paranoia and violent behavior. (
  • Why Do People Snort Crack Cocaine? (
  • When powder cocaine is processed with other chemicals, it results in freebase or crack cocaine. (
  • Sometimes called an "upper," crack cocaine can result in feelings that range from excitement to paranoia. (
  • Crack cocaine speeds a person's entire body up, causing the heart to race and the body to overheat. (
  • A person may snort crack cocaine for a number of reasons, including curiosity about what happens if you snort crack instead of smoking it. (
  • Individuals addicted to crack cocaine may also be in a situation without the necessary paraphernalia (usually a glass pipe). (
  • When this happens, a person craving a hit of crack cocaine may resort to snorting the drug instead of smoking it. (
  • Some people may wrongly assume that snorting crack cocaine is safer than smoking it. (
  • There are serious health risks associated with snorting crack cocaine. (
  • When a person snorts crack cocaine, they also run the risk of damaging their nasal passages. (
  • Even one instance of crack cocaine use can result in a person suffering from hallucinations, delirium, and severe mood disturbances. (
  • Any amount of crack cocaine use can also result in fatal and nonfatal overdose. (
  • Crack cocaine is a highly processed chemical that can be diluted or "cut" with many different substances. (
  • When a person abuses crack cocaine through insufflation, they are ingesting large amounts of unknown substances along with high doses of the drug. (
  • Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, called crack. (
  • Eve Online mining bot crack cocaine 1 makes use of a voxel and slot machine, and let playing. (
  • Eve online mining bot crack cocaine 1 - Best Online Phishing Attacks - Blog - CYBER TERROR. (
  • Eve online mining bot crack cocaine 1_Loans_Agree on_Google_Docs_5_how_easy_it_gives_to_make_it_look_like_a_real_crack_deal a addictive drug, crack, street crack cocaine, a tablet that after its swallowed. (
  • they have been in the possession of crack cocaine. (
  • Pdfgrabber 8 0 Crack Cocaine.pdf 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate whether progression from first drug use to crack- cocaine use differs according to gender , and whether the report of sexual or physical violence impacts the time of progression. (
  • The rest, the other one in 10, might inject stimulants, like crack cocaine, and some inject various drugs or mixture of drugs. (
  • But this drug, whether smoked or snorted, is the riskiest form of cocaine and can cause long-term damage to the body and mind. (
  • Trafficking at least 4 grams of cocaine in one transaction or multiple transactions over a 90 day period is a Class C felony. (
  • Bruno Mars, who was arrested Sept. 19 after police allegedly found him with 2.6 grams of cocaine after a concert at Las Vegas' Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, will take a plea deal . (
  • Italy's Guardia di Finanza announced last week that they had confiscated 130 grams of cocaine which had been concealed in a two-kilogram shipment of coffee beans from Colombia, according to CNN . (
  • The 27-year-old Florida inmate was charged Monday with drug possession after jailers discovered 1.9 grams of cocaine stashed inside a cigar tube that the 350-pound Wilson had "concealed in a fat roll" at the bottom of his stomach. (
  • A first- or second-time cocaine possession charge of less than 14 grams is a category E felony , and the court will dismiss it if you complete a diversion program. (
  • Possessing 14 to less than 28 grams of cocaine is a category C felony carrying 1 to 5 years in prison and up to $10,000. (
  • Possessing 42 to less than 100 grams of cocaine is also a category B felony. (
  • Low-level cocaine trafficking (100 to less than 400 grams) is a category B felony. (
  • High-level cocaine trafficking (400 grams or more) is a category A felony . (
  • It takes 500 grams of powdered cocaine to trigger the same mandatory sentence. (
  • They reportedly were among the first smugglers to switch from marijuana to the large- scale importation of cocaine through south Florida. (
  • I hope he got a hell of a high out of that (cocaine)," said Brian Leighton, an assistant U.S. attorney in Fresno, Calif. He once prosecuted Thornton on a marijuana trafficking charge. (
  • The US Coast Guard offloaded more than 12 tons of cocaine and 1 ton of marijuana in Florida on Tuesday - a gigantic mound of drugs seized in international waters. (
  • The drug use section (variable name prefix DUQ) includes questions on lifetime and current use of marijuana, cocaine and the intravenous use of illicit drugs. (
  • University students report more habitual use of marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens and illicit drugs than noncollege students report. (
  • When I first tried coke was more than a month ago during my junior year in college (age 21) with this beautiful girl who had been heavily using cocaine for years. (
  • Knowingly and unlawfully possession any Schedule I or II narcotics , including cocaine (although technically coke isn't a narcotic ). (
  • When coke was created 120 years ago, it contained cocaine (Bayer 27). (
  • And not only that, some industrious drug trafficker has taken mixing coke and coffee to new culinary heights: Officials in Italy uncovered a shipment of cocaine that was hidden literally inside of individual coffee beans . (
  • All Our coke(cocaine powder) are vacuum packed with Silver paper, making it odorless and non Detectable. (
  • Buy Cocaine Online ,Cocaine also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. (
  • According to a 2022 study, close to 25 million people around the world use cocaine. (
  • I knew exactly what was going on my brain, the effect of cocaine on dopamine and serotonin, what I didn't know was how insanely addictive it was. (
  • Cocaine First of all this research paper will examine the history of cocaine, answer exactly who used it, effects of the drug and its addictive nature. (
  • Cocaine is a highly addictive illegal drug that stimulates the pleasure and movement aspects of the brain. (
  • Cocaine is an addictive substance that triggers the brain to release a chemical called dopamine, which produces a euphoric high . (
  • Cocaine Dependence and Is Cocaine Addictive? (
  • When considering, "is cocaine addictive? (
  • Cocaine is also the number one drug involved in emergency room visits, also indicating how dangerous and addictive cocaine is. (
  • Cocaine has been shown as the most addictive drug in animals and humans react similarly. (
  • Cocaine is considered highly addictive and this may partly be due to the fact that after ingesting the drug, the high is almost immediate and is short-lasting, encouraging the user to use more cocaine after the first high is over. (
  • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant. (
  • Cocaine is a highly addictive, illegal stimulant that can be snorted, smoked, or dissolved and injected into a vein. (
  • Probability and predictors of transition from abuse to dependence on alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. (
  • What is Cocaine Dependence? (
  • Cocaine dependence specifically involves becoming tolerant to the effects of cocaine and developing withdrawal symptoms when cocaine use stops. (
  • Many people who develop cocaine dependence go on to become cocaine addicts. (
  • Smoking cocaine increases the risk of cocaine dependence and injecting cocaine increases the risk further. (
  • A small, open-label study from Spanish researchers showed that patients with a clinical diagnosis of cocaine dependence had significant improvements in overall symptoms and significant decreases in impulsivity and craving after receiving daily aripiprazole treatment for 6 months. (
  • We still don't have good, definite treatments for cocaine dependence, like there is varenicline for nicotine dependence. (
  • It's not that there's a lack of individuals with cocaine dependence in the US. (
  • In males, received non-partner violence was associated with age, cocaine abuse/dependence and being Caucasian. (
  • Then and there unlawfully have in his control a certain controlled substance, cocaine," the reporting officer wrote in the report. (
  • Because Cocaine seems like a miracle drug, it makes the substance dangerous. (
  • On the contrary, cocaine is a substance that's acts quickly. (
  • Substance use and physical violence often co-occur, but little has been published on the correlates associated with receipt of partner versus non-partner physical violence for rural users of methamphetamine and/or cocaine. (
  • Thanos demonstrated how exercise can alter the brain's mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which is linked to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs such as cocaine. (
  • Second, we report that exogenous leptin, given systemically or directly into the ventral tegmental area, attenuates the ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, the ability of cocaine to establish a conditioned place preference, and the ability of cocaine-predictive stimuli to prolong responding in extinction of cocaine-seeking. (
  • It's an interesting shot in an interesting direction because cocaine works through dopamine, among other things, and aripiprazole works through dopamine as a partial agonist. (
  • Indeed, she shows that dopamine rushes in the body can work exactly the same way with food as with drugs like cocaine. (
  • They are strong stimulants that have similar effects to cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA and/or LSD. (
  • Research shows that drug overdose deaths involving stimulants like cocaine and psychostimulants with abuse potential (e.g., methamphetamine) have increased significantly and are disproportionately affecting racial and ethnic minority populations. (
  • Despite being overshadowed by opioids in recent years, cocaine remains one of the most common causes of drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. (
  • From 2013 to 2019, most racial and ethnic groups experienced increases in rates of overdoses involving both cocaine and opioids and rates of overdoses involving both psychostimulants and opioids. (
  • The Australian admitted to taking the drugs, which included ecstasy and cocaine, ahead of some races, knowing that they would be gone from his system by race day. (
  • The House of Representatives through the Dangerous Drugs committee will hold an inquiry on drug syndicates' alleged trafficking of cocaine in the country, the latest of which is the off-loading of P79.1-million worth of the drug off the waters of Isabela on February 5. (
  • Cocaine, one of the most dangerous drugs known to man, was initially developed as a painkiller. (
  • One of the most dangerous and widely abused drugs is cocaine, although they do not produce very severe physical dependent symptoms upon withdrawal. (
  • On a slightly related note (which is to say, odd effects of immigration patterns), I was reading an interesting essay on drug policy from the blogosphere's own Mark Kleiman in which he makes the point that America has a particularly acute cocaine problem because "illegal drugs have to be moved covertly and sold to trusted confederates, and common ethnicity is a key source of trust. (
  • We are certainly seeing fentanyl in cocaine, in methamphetamines, in pills, and a lot of other things," said forensic scientist Michael Rieders of NMS Laboratories in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania, which tests seized drugs for toxic ingredients. (
  • Have you ever used more cocaine, alcohol or other drugs than you planned? (
  • Has the use of cocaine, alcohol or other drugs ever interfered with your job? (
  • Is your use of cocaine, alcohol or other drugs causing problems within your relationships? (
  • Do you ever feel depressed, guilty, or remorseful after using cocaine, alcohol or other drugs? (
  • Do you use whatever cocaine, alcohol or other drugs you have, almost continually, until the supply is exhausted? (
  • Have you ever experienced physical problems due to your use of cocaine, alcohol or other drugs? (
  • Do you ever regret using cocaine, alcohol or other drugs for the first time? (
  • Do you ever obsess about getting cocaine, alcohol or other drugs when you do not have any? (
  • Are you experiencing financial difficulties due to your use of cocaine, alcohol or other drugs? (
  • Do you experience an anticipation high when you are about to use cocaine, alcohol or other drugs? (
  • Are you absorbed with the thought of using cocaine, alcohol or other drugs even while interacting with a friend or loved one? (
  • Have you begun to use cocaine, alcohol or other drugs while you're alone? (
  • Do you have to use more cocaine, alcohol or other drugs to get the same effects you once experienced? (
  • Have you tried to cut down on your use of cocaine, alcohol or other drugs only to find that you could not? (
  • Have you tried to stop using cocaine, alcohol or other drugs only to find that you could not stay stopped? (
  • Have any of your friends or family suggested that you may have a problem with cocaine, alcohol or other drugs? (
  • Have you ever lied to or misled people about how much cocaine, alcohol or other drugs you use? (
  • Do you use cocaine, alcohol or other drugs in your car, at work, in the bathroom, or in other public places? (
  • Are you afraid that if you stop using cocaine, alcohol or other drugs, your work will suffer or you will not be able to function? (
  • Do you spend time around people or go places you would normally stay away from if not for the availability of cocaine, alcohol or other drugs? (
  • ave you ever stolen money, cocaine, alcohol, or other drugs from friends or family? (
  • Peter Dale Scott is Professor Emeritus of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and is the author of Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America (1993) and Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (1996), both from UC Press. (
  • These days buying drugs online like cocaine, powdered cocaine online. (
  • Though this research controlled for environmental factors and only studied the effect of cocaine without it's interaction with other drugs, something impossible to do with humans, unlike human genetic studies, however, this study was not correlational. (
  • On December 18, 2016, 18 bricks of cocaine worth P100 million were found floating about 100 meters off the shores of Tiwi, Albay, along Lagunoy Gulf. (
  • Cocaine deaths rose 52% between 2015 and 2016. (
  • Deaths from cocaine, after holding steady for many years, increased an alarming 52% between 2015 and 2016, according to the CDC, with the trend continuing in the most recent federal data . (
  • Antwerp's port is expected to have seized 110 tons of cocaine by the end of the year. (
  • Aristide told the UN that each year Haiti is the transit point for nearly 50 tons of cocaine worth more than a billion dollars, providing Haiti's military rulers with $200 million in profits. (
  • While there are a number of potential signs of cocaine use, dilated pupils and bloodshot eyes are among them. (
  • This article lists the physical, behavioral, and psychological signs of cocaine use, as well as the symptoms of cocaine intoxication. (
  • Listed below are some of the physical, behavioral, and psychological signs of cocaine use. (
  • The present study determined if repeated cocaine injections alter the effect of cocaine on extracellular glutamate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (
  • The behavioral stimulant effect of cocaine was greater in cocaine-pretreated than saline-pretreated subjects, and the behavioral augmentation in cocaine-pretreated rats was partly blocked by SCH-23390. (
  • Police have made 10 arrests following the seizure of some 1.8 tonnes of cocaine transported by sea to the country's northwest. (
  • INTERPOL Secretary General Jürgen Stock said: "This major cocaine seizure underlines the need for an international coordinated approach to tackle the drug trade, save lives and take money out of the pockets of traffickers. (
  • Coast Guard officials cut netting away from a large bale of cocaine after a seizure on April 5. (
  • From 2004 to 2019, death rates for overdoses involving cocaine were generally higher among Black persons than other racial and ethnic groups, and death rates for overdoses involving psychostimulants were generally higher among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons than among other racial and ethnic groups. (
  • For instance, recent data show that while rates of past-year cocaine use among Black and White persons are not significantly different, cocaine-involved overdose death rates among Black persons were more than twice as high as those among White persons in 2019. (
  • At that point it took her over a gram and a half to be satisfied (if that was even possible on cocaine) and she is a skinny girl, no more than 110 pounds. (
  • SAN DIEGO (AP) - More than 14,300 pounds (6,486 kilograms) of cocaine seized in the Eastern Pacific has been brought to San Diego aboard a Coast Guard cutter. (
  • He was heavily armed, carried 77 pounds of cocaine in an Army duffel bag, and was attached to a parachute that had failed to open. (
  • A JetBlue flight attendant who authorities say left behind 70 pounds of cocaine worth up to $3 million after flinging off her heels and running from security at Los Angeles International Airport was arrested Wednesday in New York. (
  • The cocaine weighed just over 68 pounds. (
  • The massive pile of dope was the result of 17 separate drug-smuggling vessel seizures, including five hauls by the Legare that totaled more than 4,500 pounds of cocaine. (
  • Mathews and others shipped at least 15 kilograms (33 pounds) of cocaine from Puerto Rico to Orange and Osceola counties through the mail over three years, according to U. S. Attorney A. Lee Bentley III. (
  • News sources are reporting that a Carnival cruise passenger was busted at Port Canaveral with 12 pounds of cocaine in his suitcase after returning from a Caribbean cruise. (
  • Approximately 12 pounds of cocaine were inside the lining of the luggage. (
  • Cocaine comes from the coca plant. (
  • For thousands of years, people in South America have chewed and ingested coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca), the source of cocaine, for their stimulant effects, Barbers said. (
  • Cocaine When you reach into the refrigerator for a Coca-Cola, do you ever wonder where it got its name? (
  • This book tells everything you want to know about cocaine and coca leaf: Their history, effects, uses, pleasures, dangers. (
  • Cocaine is a stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant which is native to South America. (
  • Pure pink cocaine was originally extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush, which grew primarily in Peru and Bolivia. (
  • Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. (
  • Sean described his DJing experiences as "amazing", but with all the parties and the drug and alcohol use, things turned sour very quickly - and by March 2020, Sean was doing cocaine up to five times a week. (
  • Cocaine intoxication is a condition in which you're not only high from using the drug , but you also have body-wide symptoms that can make you ill and impaired. (
  • Amphetamine or cocaine intoxication is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus . (
  • Zeiger, Roni F.. "Amphetamine or Cocaine Intoxication. (
  • Emergency Central , (
  • We have already found some new capacity where several tonnes of cocaine have already been destroyed," Van Quickenborne said, per VRT. (
  • In addition to adverse effects experienced by cocaine users, body packers-people who swallow bags of cocaine in order to smuggle the drug from one country to another-may experience acute toxicity if any of the bags rupture. (
  • Who are the drug syndicates or individuals responsible for dumping cocaine into our shores? (
  • He further described cocaine as a worldwide, multibillion-dollar enterprise, with users from all ages, occupations and economic levels, according to the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (
  • Aside from boldly sneaking cocaine in our sea and airports, drug syndicates have employed other schemes in smuggling cocaine into the country, according to Barbers. (
  • Called one of south Florida's original 'cocaine cowboys,' Magluta was acquitted last year on drug smuggling charges but faced a second trial this year on the passport charges. (
  • The water system contains a higher concentration of this drug than in any other part of the continent, and bank notes are no longer tested for traces of cocaine. (
  • It's also the time frame when cocaine became America's drug of choice. (
  • As the new drug flowed free in dance clubs all around the country, drug cocaine was the star of the evening. (
  • What Changed for Drug Cocaine? (
  • I found this girl I dated is doing cocaine and sleeping with the proud boys I cannot agree with the drug lifestyle they follow," Navarro tweeted. (
  • Lorraine has denied using cocaine, while the Proud Boys describe themselves as "pro-drug. (
  • Andrew Carter Thornton II, a former narcotics officer and suspended lawyer who plunged to his death from a plane holding cocaine with a street value of $14 million, had a history of drug and arms involvement across the nation. (
  • In another experiment, they observed the mice before cocaine or saline treatment and then two hours afterward, and discovered that the animals that received cocaine were developing new dendritic spines within two hours after receiving the drug. (
  • Caucasian males are most likely to use cocaine, and low socioeconomic status, as well as lower levels of education, peer pressure, and living in areas that have high levels of crime and drug use may also increase a person's chances of using. (
  • What's a drug used to deworm livestock-a drug that can obliterate your immune system-doing in your cocaine? (
  • A 25-year-old Orlando drug trafficker faces as much as 40 years in federal prison after pleading guilty to his role in a Central Florida cocaine-distribution ring, officials said. (
  • Big haul: The Customs Department displays 4kg of cocaine valued at 12 million baht after a 26-year-old Thai woman was found carrying the drug in her backpack from Dubai. (
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 10% of those who start using cocaine go on to heavy use. (
  • There are two misdemeanor cocaine crimes under Nevada drug laws. (
  • But the drug, also known as gravel, creates a high similar to cocaine, and it is potentially more dangerous. (
  • A former British soldier who said he changed from a "war hero to a drug addict" and thought he had "ruined" his future when he nearly lost his life overdosing on cocaine has now set up a successful global fitness business and wants to inspire others. (
  • Blow, snow, and nose candy are all common terms for the infamous drug, cocaine. (
  • Cocaine, unlike any other drug, is hard on the heart. (
  • Cocaine is an exciting drug, as it bring an air of excitement, confidence, and what seems to be unlimited amounts of energy. (
  • Today, cocaine is a Schedule II drug, which means that it has high potential for abuse but can be administered by a doctor for legitimate medical uses, such as local anesthesia for some eye, ear, and throat surgeries. (
  • Cocaine was labeled the drug of the. (
  • However, cocaine is not a new drug. (
  • Today, cocaine is a Schedule II drug. (
  • Cocaine the highly addicting street drug is actually less addicting than sugar, according to a study on rats conducted by Dr. Serge Ahmed, of the University of Bordeaux in France. (
  • Aaronay is a trusted & reliable trader in research chemicals around the world and some other top quality products like Ketamine, Cocaine, MDMA, Crystal meth, Alpha-PvP at very affordable prices with a 100% Money back guarantee policy. (
  • These data support the hypotheses that repeated cocaine administration produces an increase in the capacity of D1 receptor stimulation to release glutamate in the VTA and that this mechanism partly mediates behavioral sensitization produced in rats treated with daily cocaine injections. (
  • All rats were treated with daily cocaine (15 mg/kg i.p. x 2 days, 30 mg/kg i.p. x 5 days) or saline for 7 days. (
  • A systemic injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg i.p.) elevated extracellular glutamate in the VTA of rats pretreated with daily cocaine but not in the daily saline-pretreated subjects. (
  • In a group of rats pretreated with daily cocaine, the D1 antagonist SCH-23390 (30 microM) was infused through the dialysis probe prior to the acute injections of saline and cocaine. (
  • Here we report reciprocal inhibition between the reward-related effects of leptin and the reward-related effects of cocaine in rats. (
  • The study reports that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusive between saccharin and intravenous cocaine, 94% or 40 out of 43 rats chose the cocaine over the sugar. (
  • What they did was allow male rats to self -administer cocaine for 60 days while the control group self -administered saline. (
  • The male offspring of "cocsired" rats (fathers who self-administered cocaine) when given the opportunity to self-administer cocaine, self-administered a significant less amount of cocaine, regardless of dosage offered, than male offspring of "salsired" (fathers who self-administered saline) rats. (
  • So, in order to ensure that it was an increase in BDNF protein causing reduced administration of cocaine in cocsire rats, they administered a TrkB antagonist called ANA-12. (
  • This study suggests that exposure to cocaine in father rats might cause some kind of protective effect in their male offspring. (
  • A subsequent search discovered approximately 50 kilograms of cocaine concealed inside the walls of cardboard boxes containing fresh oranges. (
  • Three Florida men have been charged in a conspiracy to import and distribute cocaine after authorities discovered and seized a shipment with nearly $2 million worth of cocaine. (
  • A greyhound that raced frequently at the Palm Beach Kennel Club over the last two years tested positive for cocaine at least once while racing in South Florida. (
  • Anyone who is concerned about testing positive for cocaine should review the dangers of cocaine use and consider stopping use. (
  • SCH-23390 prevented the increase in extracellular glutamate associated with the acute administration of cocaine. (
  • The goal of this study was to examine the influence of paternal cocaine self- administration of cocaine reinforcement in offspring. (
  • There was no difference between female offspring in regards to self-administration of cocaine, regardless of whether their fathers were cocsired or salsired. (
  • So because the antagonist would inhibit BDNF from binding, we should see a reverse or increase in administration of cocaine, and this is what they found. (
  • 2000). Cocaine is absorbed the fastest and has the most intense effects after smoking or intravenous injection. (
  • Cocaine withdrawal symptoms can include agitation, anxiety and psychosis. (
  • Recreational use of cocaine is illegal because it is dangerous and can lead to severe health consequences , including stroke, heart attack, and overdose . (
  • The arrests resulted from Operation Schoale, which has seized more than $18m in cash, $3.5m in assets, two kilograms of high-grade cocaine and numerous guns including a gold-plated .357 Magnum gun. (
  • As far as Spain is concerned, 7 people related to these events have been arrested, 4 of them in the province of Barcelona in 5 searches carried out, 400 kilograms of cocaine having been seized in an industrial warehouse inside a maritime container coming from Brazil and arriving at the port of Barcelona. (
  • Acute cocaine toxicity has three reported phases. (
  • Reynolds was charged with cocaine possession with intent to distribute. (
  • All faced a charge of possessing cocaine with intent to distribute, while the three Nigerians faced an additional charge of illegal entry. (
  • The penalties associated with trafficking rhinoceros horn are not aligned to its value," the Dalberg report declared, citing one potent example: In South Africa, poachers who are caught are apt to be fined about $14,000 while cocaine traffickers wind up in jail for five years. (
  • The government contended the two masterminded cocaine smuggling operations on the Eastern Seaboard from the late 1970s until 1991. (
  • A BuzzFeed News analysis shows that fentanyl is tainting cocaine through much of the Eastern Seaboard. (
  • Reviews what is known about the extent of cocaine abuse, its adverse effects on health, and methods available for treatment and prevention. (
  • R. was terribly nervous, I quite calm with the help of a small dose of cocaine, although his success was assured and I had reasons to fear making a blunder. (
  • They were surprised to discover that even after the first dose, the mice treated with cocaine grew more new dendritic spines than the saline-treated mice. (
  • Lastly, the dose of cocaine was increased at various quantities but yet the preference for the sweet compounds was surmountable. (
  • In a 2021 report , the UN said Antwerp was one of the ports forming the "epicenter" of Europe's cocaine market. (
  • A Former Cocaine User Whose Specialist Told Her She's Dying - Medscape - Feb 02, 2021. (
  • In the first of a series of experiments, the scientists gave cocaine injections to one group of mice and saline injections to another. (
  • A urine sample from the dog, tested at the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, showed Benzoylecgonine and Ecgonine Methyl Ester, both metabolites of cocaine, in the dog's blood stream. (
  • After last use, cocaine or its metabolites typically can show up on a blood or saliva test for up to 2 days, a urine test for up to 3 days, and a hair test for months to years. (
  • Cocaine or its metabolites typically can be detected in the blood and the saliva for up to 2 days after the last use. (
  • It's important to be aware of these signs, symptoms, and health effects of cocaine use, in order to break the habit and get treatment for it, if needed. (
  • Cocaine: pathophysiology and clinical toxicology. (
  • Know that the risk factors that caused someone to abuse cocaine initially may still be present once they have stopped using. (
  • Furthermore, dilated pupils and sensitivity to light are often present in those who abuse cocaine, as well as frequent nose bleeds and runny noses. (
  • Note that deaths involving cocaine are usually categorized separately from psychostimulants with abuse potential. (
  • What if there was some type of protective effect that could be passed down to offspring from a paternal or maternal cocaine abuse? (
  • The port of Antwerp - Europe's second-biggest port - in recent years has became the continent's largest entry point for cocaine, Reuters reported back in 2018 . (
  • Even stranger: The cocaine trade, in both smuggling and production, has fragmented in recent years (more on that in a minute). (
  • A first offense of cocaine possession for the purpose of sale is a category D felony, carrying 1 to 4 years in prison and up to $5,000. (
  • A first -time conviction of selling, transporting, or making cocaine is a category C felony in Nevada, carrying 1 to 5 years in prison and up to $10,000. (
  • There are Republicans who have supported rectifying the disparity for years (author case in point), including President Ronald Reagan, who proposed a 20-to-1 differential between the two forms of cocaine. (
  • Specifically, mice that grew the most new spines were those that developed the strongest preference for being in the enclosure where they received cocaine rather than in the enclosure where they received saline. (
  • Furthermore, the next morning, cocaine-induced spines accounted for almost four times more connections among nerve cells than was observed in saline-treated animals. (
  • In a third experiment, the researchers for a week gave the mice cocaine in one distinctive chamber and saline in another, using identical procedures. (
  • Meaning that, female offspring whose fathers self-administered cocaine self-administered the same amount of cocaine as female offspring whose fathers self-administered saline. (
  • Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the medial pre-frontal cortex is known to blunt the behavioral effects of cocaine. (
  • Are there effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure on delinquency during early adolescence? (
  • Thus, whereas leptin represents an endogenous antagonist of the habit-forming and habit-sustaining effects of cocaine, this antagonism is attenuated by cocaine and comes to be attenuated by the expectancy of cocaine. (
  • Cocaine : a selection of annotated papers from 1880 to 1984 concerning health effects / Lise Anglin. (
  • Some of the more negative side effects of Cocaine include muscle spasms, convulsions, high heart rate, and more. (
  • If you lose this effect during your Effects Phase, you gain Cocaine Burnout for 2 turns. (
  • You are addicted to Cocaine and suffer the side effects. (
  • What Are the Immediate Effects of Cocaine? (
  • So essentially, with a larger expression BDNF one would be less likely to experience the rewarding effects of cocaine. (