An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (1/3711)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (2/3711)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (3/3711)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (4/3711)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (5/3711)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Age-related reductions in [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic brain regions of the fischer 344 rat. (6/3711)

In the present study, we used the potent cocaine analog [3H]WIN 35, 428 to map and quantify binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) within the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area in young (6-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), and aged (18- and 24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of indirect [3H]WIN 35,428 saturation curves revealed two-site binding for all four brain regions in every age group. The percentage of binding to the high- or low-affinity sites did not differ with age or region and was approximately 50%. However, significant age-related decreases in the overall density (Bmax) of [3H]WIN 35,428-binding sites were observed in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The Bmax within all brain regions declined by more than 15% every 6 months, with the Bmax in the aged (24-month-old) group being approximately half that measured in the young adult (6-month-old) group. Competition experiments indicated that nomifensine also exhibited two-site binding to the DAT in Fischer 344 rats. No consistent age-related differences in binding affinities were noted with either [3H]WIN 35,428 or nomifensine. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that functional DATs within the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems are down-regulated with age, without changing their affinity for ligands.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (7/3711)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (8/3711)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

"Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a term used in the medical and psychiatric fields to refer to a group of conditions related to the use of cocaine, a powerful stimulant drug. These disorders are classified and diagnosed based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

The two main categories of Cocaine-Related Disorders are:

1. Cocaine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of cocaine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms within a 12-month period. These symptoms may include using larger amounts of cocaine over a longer period than intended, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cocaine use, spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cocaine, and continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by cocaine.
2. Cocaine-Induced Disorders: These disorders are directly caused by the acute effects of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal. They include:
* Cocaine Intoxication: Presents with a reversible syndrome due to recent use of cocaine, characterized by euphoria, increased energy, and psychomotor agitation. It may also cause elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as pupillary dilation.
* Cocaine Withdrawal: Occurs when an individual who has been using cocaine heavily for a prolonged period abruptly stops or significantly reduces their use. Symptoms include depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, vivid and unpleasant dreams, and insomnia.

Cocaine-Related Disorders can have severe negative consequences on an individual's physical health, mental wellbeing, and social functioning. They often require professional treatment to manage and overcome.

Dopamine uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission and activity.

These drugs are used in various medical conditions where dopamine is implicated, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. They can also be used to treat substance abuse disorders, such as cocaine addiction, by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and reducing the rewarding effects of the drug.

Examples of dopamine uptake inhibitors include:

* Bupropion (Wellbutrin), which is used to treat depression and ADHD
* Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), which is used to treat ADHD
* Amantadine (Symmetrel), which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and also has antiviral properties.

It's important to note that dopamine uptake inhibitors can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. They may also have the potential for abuse and dependence, particularly in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Crack cocaine is a potent and highly addictive form of the drug cocaine, which is made into a rock crystal that can be smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated and vaporized. Crack cocaine is abused for its euphoric effects, which are intensified and more immediate than those of powdered cocaine. Its use can lead to severe health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular complications, respiratory problems, and neurological damage.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Addictive behavior is a pattern of repeated self-destructive behavior, often identified by the individual's inability to stop despite negative consequences. It can involve a variety of actions such as substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs), gambling, sex, shopping, or using technology (e.g., internet, social media, video games).

These behaviors activate the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Over time, the individual may require more of the behavior to achieve the same level of pleasure, resulting in tolerance. If the behavior is stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Addictive behaviors can have serious consequences on an individual's physical, emotional, social, and financial well-being. They are often associated with mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help the individual overcome the addiction and develop healthy coping mechanisms.

Drug-seeking behavior is a term used in the medical field to describe a pattern of actions taken by a person who is trying to obtain drugs, typically prescription medications, for non-medical reasons or in a manner that is considered inappropriate or abusive. This can include behaviors such as:

* Exaggerating symptoms or faking illness to obtain drugs
* Visiting multiple doctors or pharmacies to obtain multiple prescriptions (a practice known as "doctor shopping")
* Using false names or identities to obtain drugs
* Stealing, forging, or altering prescriptions
* Offering to sell or trade prescription medications

Drug-seeking behavior can be a sign of a substance use disorder, such as addiction, and may require medical intervention and treatment. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs of drug-seeking behavior and to take appropriate measures to ensure that patients are receiving the care and treatment they need while also protecting the integrity of the healthcare system.

A reinforcement schedule is a concept in behavioral psychology that refers to the timing and pattern of rewards or reinforcements provided in response to certain behaviors. It is used to shape, maintain, or strengthen specific behaviors in individuals. There are several types of reinforcement schedules, including:

1. **Fixed Ratio (FR):** A reward is given after a fixed number of responses. For example, a salesperson might receive a bonus for every 10 sales they make.
2. **Variable Ratio (VR):** A reward is given after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule is commonly used in gambling, as the uncertainty of when a reward (winning) will occur keeps the individual engaged and motivated to continue the behavior.
3. **Fixed Interval (FI):** A reward is given after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. For example, an employee might receive a paycheck every two weeks, regardless of how many tasks they completed during that period.
4. **Variable Interval (VI):** A reward is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed since the last reward, regardless of the number of responses during that time. This schedule can be observed in foraging behavior, where animals search for food at irregular intervals.
5. **Combined schedules:** Reinforcement schedules can also be combined to create more complex patterns, such as a fixed ratio followed by a variable interval (FR-VI) or a variable ratio followed by a fixed interval (VR-FI).

Understanding reinforcement schedules is essential for developing effective behavioral interventions in various settings, including healthcare, education, and rehabilitation.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

"Extinction, Psychological" refers to the process by which a conditioned response or behavior becomes weakened and eventually disappears when the behavior is no longer reinforced or rewarded. It is a fundamental concept in learning theory and conditioning.

In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response (CR). For example, if a person learns to associate a tone (CS) with a puff of air to the eye (US), causing blinking (CR), but then the tone is presented several times without the puff of air, the blinking response will become weaker and eventually disappear.

In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a reinforcer is no longer provided following a behavior, leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of that behavior. For example, if a child receives candy every time they clean their room (reinforcement), but then the candy is withheld, the child may eventually stop cleaning their room (extinction).

It's important to note that extinction can be a slow process and may require multiple trials or repetitions. Additionally, behaviors that have been extinguished can sometimes reappear in certain circumstances, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. It is a "downer" or depressant that affects the brain's pleasure systems and interferes with the brain's ability to perceive pain.

Heroin can be injected, smoked, or snorted. It is sold as a white or brownish powder or as a black, sticky substance known as "black tar heroin." Regardless of how it is taken, heroin enters the brain rapidly and is highly addictive.

The use of heroin can lead to serious health problems, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis. Long-term use of heroin can lead to physical dependence and addiction, a chronic disease that can be difficult to treat.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

Benztropine is an anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as rigidity, tremors, and muscle spasms. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in the regulation of motor function.

Benztropine is also used to treat side effects caused by certain medications, such as antipsychotics, that can cause Parkinson-like symptoms. It may be prescribed to help reduce drooling or to manage muscle stiffness and restlessness.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or a solution for injection and is typically taken orally once or twice a day. Common side effects of benztropine include dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and constipation. More serious side effects may include hallucinations, confusion, and irregular heartbeat.

It's important to note that benztropine can interact with other medications, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the drugs you are taking before starting this medication. Additionally, benztropine should be used cautiously in older adults, people with glaucoma or enlarged prostate, and those with a history of heart problems.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including butyrylcholine and acetylcholine. It is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, brain, and plasma. BChE plays a role in the metabolism of certain drugs and neurotransmitters, and its activity can be inhibited by certain chemicals, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Elevated levels of BChE have been found in some neurological disorders, while decreased levels have been associated with genetic deficiencies and liver disease.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Dopamine antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with various functions including movement, motivation, and emotion. These drugs work by binding to dopamine receptors and preventing dopamine from attaching to them, which can help to reduce the symptoms of certain medical conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There are several types of dopamine antagonists, including:

1. Typical antipsychotics: These drugs are primarily used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia and delusional disorders. Examples include haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and fluphenazine.
2. Atypical antipsychotics: These drugs are also used to treat psychosis but have fewer side effects than typical antipsychotics. They may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and depression. Examples include risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
3. Antiemetics: These drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting. Examples include metoclopramide and prochlorperazine.
4. Dopamine agonists: While not technically dopamine antagonists, these drugs work by stimulating dopamine receptors and can be used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, they can also have the opposite effect and block dopamine receptors in high doses, making them functionally similar to dopamine antagonists.

Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include sedation, weight gain, and movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. It's important to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

The Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) is a collection of neurons located in the midbrain that is part of the dopamine system. It is specifically known as the A10 group and is the largest source of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These neurons project to various regions, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, and are involved in reward, motivation, addiction, and various cognitive functions. The VTA also contains GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that modulate dopamine release and have various other functions.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

The corpus striatum is a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in movement, learning, and cognition. It consists of two structures called the caudate nucleus and the putamen, which are surrounded by the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus. Together, these structures form the basal ganglia, a group of interconnected neurons that help regulate voluntary movement.

The corpus striatum receives input from various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and other brainstem nuclei. It processes this information and sends output to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then project to the thalamus and back to the cerebral cortex. This feedback loop helps coordinate and fine-tune movements, allowing for smooth and coordinated actions.

Damage to the corpus striatum can result in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. These conditions are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements, muscle stiffness, and difficulty initiating or controlling voluntary movements.

"Saimiri" is the genus name for the group of primates known as squirrel monkeys. These small, agile New World monkeys are native to Central and South America and are characterized by their slim bodies, long limbs, and distinctive hairless faces with large eyes. They are omnivorous and known for their active, quick-moving behavior in the trees. There are several species of squirrel monkey, including the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) and the much more widespread common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Dopamine D3 receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. They are classified as part of the D2-like family of dopamine receptors, which also includes the D2 and D4 receptors. The D3 receptor is primarily expressed in the limbic areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, where it plays a role in regulating motivation, reward, and cognition.

D3 receptors have been found to be involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra results in a decrease in dopamine levels and an increase in D3 receptor expression. This increase in D3 receptor expression has been linked to the development of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia and rigidity.

In schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications that block D2-like receptors, including D3 receptors, are used to treat positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. However, selective D3 receptor antagonists have also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy and anhedonia.

In drug addiction, D3 receptors have been found to play a role in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and amphetamines. Selective D3 receptor antagonists have shown promise in reducing drug-seeking behavior and preventing relapse in animal models of addiction.

Overall, dopamine D3 receptors play an important role in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, and further research is needed to fully understand their functions and potential therapeutic uses.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Methadone is a synthetic opioid agonist, often used as a substitute for heroin or other opiates in detoxification programs or as a long-term maintenance drug for opiate addiction. It works by changing how the brain and nervous system respond to pain signals. It also helps to suppress the withdrawal symptoms and cravings associated with opiate dependence.

Methadone is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solutions, and injectable solutions. It's typically prescribed and dispensed under strict medical supervision due to its potential for abuse and dependence.

In a medical context, methadone may also be used to treat moderate to severe pain that cannot be managed with other types of medication. However, its use in this context is more limited due to the risks associated with opioid therapy.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Dextroamphetamine is available as a prescription medication and is sold under various brand names, including Adderall and Dexedrine. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare professional, as it can have potentially serious side effects if used improperly.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. It is used medically to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity, due to its appetite-suppressing effects.

Amphetamines can be prescribed in various forms, including tablets, capsules, or liquids, and are available under several brand names, such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse. They are also known by their street names, such as speed, uppers, or wake-ups, and can be abused for their euphoric effects and ability to increase alertness, energy, and concentration.

Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to dependence, tolerance, and addiction, as well as serious health consequences, such as cardiovascular problems, mental health disorders, and malnutrition. It is essential to use amphetamines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their instructions carefully.

Quinpirole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a synthetic compound used in research and medicine. It's a selective agonist for the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, which means it binds to and activates these receptors, mimicking the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes such as movement, motivation, reward, and cognition.

Quinpirole is used primarily in preclinical research to study the role of dopamine receptors in different neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and others. It helps researchers understand how dopamine systems work and contributes to the development of new therapeutic strategies for these disorders.

It is important to note that quinpirole is not used as a medication in humans or animals but rather as a research tool in laboratory settings.

Tropane alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. This ring is composed of a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms, one of which is part of a piperidine ring. Tropane alkaloids are found in various plants, particularly those in the Solanaceae family, which includes nightshade, belladonna, and datura. Some well-known tropane alkaloids include atropine, scopolamine, and cocaine. These compounds have diverse pharmacological activities, such as anticholinergic, local anesthetic, and central nervous system stimulant effects.

Benzazepines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a diazepine ring. In the context of pharmaceuticals, benzazepines refer to a group of drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Some examples of benzazepine-derived drugs include clozapine, olanzapine, and loxoprofen. These drugs have complex mechanisms of action, often involving multiple receptor systems in the brain.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

Discrimination learning is a type of learning in which an individual learns to distinguish between two or more stimuli and respond differently to each. It involves the ability to recognize the differences between similar stimuli and to respond appropriately based on the specific characteristics of each stimulus. This type of learning is important for many aspects of cognition, including perception, language, and problem-solving.

In discrimination learning, an individual may be presented with two or more stimuli and reinforced for responding differently to each. For example, a person might be trained to press a button in response to the color red and to do nothing in response to the color green. Through this process of differential reinforcement, the individual learns to discriminate between the two colors and to respond appropriately to each.

Discrimination learning is often studied in animals as well as humans, and it is thought to involve a range of cognitive processes, including attention, memory, and perception. It is an important aspect of many forms of learning and plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

Flupenthixol is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor blocking activity, which makes it effective in managing various psychiatric disorders.

Flupenthixol is primarily used for the treatment of chronic schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders. It can help alleviate symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, and hostility. Additionally, flupenthixol may also be used off-label to manage depression, anxiety, and aggression in individuals with developmental disabilities or dementia.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Flupenthixol decanoate) for short-term use and a long-acting depot injection (Flupenthixol dihydrochloride) that can be administered every 2-4 weeks, providing sustained therapeutic levels of the drug.

As with any medication, flupenthixol should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other drugs. Common side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), sedation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and metabolic disorders.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohols and carboxylates. This group includes several subclasses of enzymes such as esterases, lipases, and thioesterases. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and signal transduction. They are widely used in industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

Disulfiram is a medication used to treat chronic alcoholism. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which is responsible for breaking down acetaldehyde, a toxic metabolite produced when alcohol is consumed. When a person taking disulfiram consumes alcohol, the buildup of acetaldehyde causes unpleasant symptoms such as flushing, nausea, palpitations, and shortness of breath, which can help discourage further alcohol use.

The medical definition of Disulfiram is:

A medication used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism, which works by inhibiting the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to an accumulation of acetaldehyde when alcohol is consumed, causing unpleasant symptoms that discourage further alcohol use. Disulfiram is available as a tablet for oral administration and is typically prescribed under medical supervision due to its potential for serious interactions with alcohol and other substances.

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Cocaine is a 1922 British crime film directed by Graham Cutts and starring Hilda Bayley, Flora Le Breton, Ward McAllister and ... Cocaine at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use British English from May 2016, ... It depicts the distribution of cocaine by gangsters through a series of London nightclubs and the revenge a man seeks after his ...
The cocaine boom was a stark increase in the illegal production and trade of the drug cocaine that first began in the mid to ... Throughout the 1970s cocaine sales increased sevenfold and began to outsell heroin for the first time. Cocaine in general was ... and instead began to prefer cocaine due to a mystique of prestige that was developing around it. This increase in cocaine trade ... Demand for cocaine by La Compania was met by Colombian coca growers who were pushed to organize their operations due to the ...
Cocaine Crabs from Outer Space Methgator Collis, Clark. "There is now a 'Cocaine Shark' movie and, trust us, you really need to ... The film was rebranded to Cocaine Shark in order to profit from the release of Cocaine Bear. In the United States, the film was ... Cocaine Bear' director Elizabeth Banks says she'd make 'Cocaine Shark'". EW.com. Retrieved 2023-07-30. "Elizabeth Banks Says ... She'd Be Interested in Making Cocaine Shark: 'Jaws with Cocaine'". Peoplemag. Retrieved 2023-07-30. "Cocaine Shark Trailer Lets ...
... (January 1993). Hope, Faith and Courage: Stories from the Fellowship of Cocaine Anonymous. Los Angeles, ... Cocaine Anonymous (C.A.) is a twelve-step program formed in 1982 for people who seek recovery from drug addiction. It is ... While many C.A. members have been addicted to cocaine, crack, speed or similar substances, C.A. accepts all who desire freedom ... Co-Anon (formerly CocAnon) is a program for families of cocaine users, analogous to Al-Anon for the friends and family of ...
Cocaine' drink ads will no longer refer to real thing - Apr. 19, 2007". money.cnn.com. Retrieved 2019-07-05. "'Cocaine' energy ... According to the Las Vegas Sun, Kirby made over $1.5 million in sales three months after Cocaine's debut. In 2007, Cocaine was ... Beginning in February 2008, the old Cocaine name was used again. In addition to the FDA, Cocaine also faced trouble from ... Latif, Ray (2011-06-01). "Cocaine Energy, Now In Shot Format". BevNet. Retrieved 2019-07-05. Cocaine Energy Drink official site ...
... can also be injected intravenously with the same effect as powder cocaine. However, whereas powder cocaine ... Crack cocaine, commonly known simply as crack, and also known as rock, is a free base form of the stimulant cocaine that can be ... Crack cocaine is popularly thought to be the most addictive form of cocaine. However, this claim has been contested: Morgan and ... Crack cocaine is commonly used as a recreational drug. Effects of crack cocaine include euphoria, supreme confidence, loss of ...
... at IMDb Cocaine Godmother at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... At least in her later, allegedly cocaine-addicted years, you can blame it on the drugs.)" "Cocaine Godmother". EnergaCAMERIMAGE ... Cocaine Godmother is a 2017 American biographical crime drama film directed by Guillermo Navarro and written by David McKenna. ... She does business with Pablo Escobar back in Colombia, and becomes the queen of the cocaine trade. As a result, Miami sees a ...
... is the third album released by rapper Andre Nickatina, who was previously known as "Dre Dog." It was released In ...
... is the final studio album by American bluesman Gary B.B. Coleman. To record this release in 1993, he left Ichiban ... Records with which he had spent his previous five years and issued Cocaine Annie on his own imprint called Boola Boo. Later in ...
Black cocaine Black tar heroin Crack cocaine Ronald K. Siegel (1985), "New Patterns of Cocaine Use: Changing Doses and Routes ... Crude cocaine preparation intermediates are marketed as cheaper alternatives to pure cocaine to local markets while the more ... In South America, coca paste, also known as cocaine base and, therefore, often confused with cocaine sulfate in North America, ... In Argentina, cocaine paste was sold for about 30 cents per dose in 2006, enough for a powerful two-minute high. However, its ...
"Pure Cocaine" is a song by American rapper Lil Baby from his mixtape Street Gossip. It was produced by Quay Global and Mattazik ... He and the others are all dressed in white and the insides of the mansion are white as well, as a reference to cocaine. Lil ... Mahadevan, Tara C. (March 8, 2019). "Lil Baby Parties in All-White Mansion in New Video for "Pure Cocaine"". Complex. Zidel, ... Saponara, Michael (March 8, 2019). "Lil Baby Abandons Hustlin' to Pursue His Rap Dreams in New 'Pure Cocaine' Video: Watch". ...
... (CocE) was identified in bacteria (Rhodococcus) that use cocaine as its sole source of carbon and nitrogen and ... In a Phase 2 study, TNX-1300 at 100 mg or 200 mg i.v. doses was well tolerated and interrupted cocaine effects after cocaine 50 ... The enzyme cocaine esterase (EC 3.1.1.84, CocE, hCE2, hCE-2, human carboxylesterase 2; systematic name cocaine benzoylhydrolase ... "European eels found to suffer muscle damage due to cocaine in the water". Rapid and robust protection against cocaine-induced ...
"Cocaine dependence" as a classification (diagnosis) under "Disorders due to use of cocaine". The use of cocaine creates ... Past year cocaine users with a cocaine use disorder in 2019 was 1 million for people aged 12 or older. When broken into age ... Cocaine Use and Its Effects Walsh, Karen (October 2010). "Teen Cocaine Use". Inspirations for Youth and Family. Archived from ... Cocaine dependence is a neurological disorder that is characterized by withdrawal symptoms upon cessation from cocaine use. It ...
... at IMDb Cocaine Wars at Rotten Tomatoes Cocaine Wars at AllMovie v t e v t e v t e (Webarchive template wayback ... Cocaine Wars is one of the ten films that Roger Corman produced in Argentina during the 1980s. Miami-based DEA agent Cliff ... Cocaine Wars is a 1985 Argentine-American action film directed by Héctor Olivera and starring John Schneider, Federico Luppi, ... the biggest cocaine exporter in South America. Cliff's significant other, Janet Meade (Kathryn Witt), is a reporter trying to ...
... was released on December 19, and would be Juicy J's fourth mixtape that year and French Montana's third. Cocaine ... Cocaine Mafia is a collaborative mixtape by rappers French Montana, Juicy J and Project Pat. The mixtape was announced in mid ... "Mixtape Of The Week: French Montana, Juicy J & Project Pat Cocaine Mafia". Stereogum. December 21, 2011. Retrieved December 26 ... "French Montana, Juicy J & Project Pat - Cocaine Mafia". datpiff.com. December 19, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2015. "French ...
Cocaine is the thirteenth solo studio album by American rapper Z-Ro. It was released on October 27, 2009, via Rap-A-Lot Records ... "Cocaine - Z-Ro , Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Archived from the original on 2012-08-19. Retrieved March 21, 2020. "Z-Ro ... Z-Ro - Cocaine at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
... may refer to: Cocaine Cowboys (1979 film), a crime drama directed by Ulli Lommel Cocaine Cowboys (2006 film), a ... "Cocaine Cowboys", a 1999 song by W.A.S.P. from the album Helldorado "Cocaine Cowboys", a 2012 song by Crashdïet from the album ... documentary Cocaine Cowboys 2, a 2008 sequel to the 2006 film Cocaine Cowboys: The Kings of Miami, a 2021 crime docuseries " ... The Savage Playground "Cocaine Cowboys", a 2017 song by Margo Price from the album All American Made Miami drug war This ...
... is a compilation album by punk rock band Dwarves, released on the Recess label in February 1999. It includes their ... ". "Free cocaine" "Dead brides in white" "Let's get pregnant" "Fukking life" "Eat you to survive" "She's dead" "I'm in a head ... " "I wanna kill your boyfriend" (alternative version) "Fukkhead" Kennedy, Patrick "Free Cocaine Review", AllMusic, retrieved ...
Cocaine (data page) Cocaine may also refer to: Cocaine (film), a 1922 British crime film directed by Graham Cutts The Pace That ... "Cocaine Blues", c. 1947 Cocaine (PaaS), an open source project Cocaine (drink), a highly caffeinated energy drink that does not ... also known as Cocaine Madness and The Cocaine Fiends, a 1935 film directed by William A. O'Conner Cocaine: An Unauthorized ... Look up cocaine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Cocaine is a naturally occurring organic compound, an alkaloid, present in ...
"Winnie the Pooh: Cocaine Bear (The Asylum)". "Winnie the Pooh: Cocaine Bear new cover . . . For how long?". "Bought this ebook ... "Cocaine Bear (2023)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved April 19, 2023. "Cocaine Bear (2023)". The Numbers. Nash Information ... "Cocaine Bear". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on February 24, 2023. Retrieved August 24, 2023. "Cocaine Bear ... "Cocaine Bear" in 2015. The film's plot differs from real-life events in a number of ways. Notably, the real-life Cocaine Bear ...
"Cocaine '80s - The Pursuit [Mixtape] - OnSMASH". OnSMASH. Retrieved 9 March 2015. "No I.D. Presents: Cocaine 80s - The Pursuit ... "Common & Cocaine 80's - Ghost Lady Ep". DatPiff. Retrieved 9 March 2015. "FreEP: Cocaine 80's - Ghost Lady - Get Right Music". ... "Me and the Cocaine 80s is made up of musicians, singers and producers. I told them I wanted to be a part of the Cocaine 80s. I ... which credits Cocaine 80s as the featured performers. Cocaine 80s: The Pursuit (2011) Track listing "Nameless" "Summer Madness ...
... is an EP by hip hop duo Mobb Deep, and the duo's first release following Prodigy's release from prison. The ... "Black Cocaine EP - Mobb Deep". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved January 10, 2016. Cusenza, Michael (2011-11-28). "Mobb ... Horowitz, Steven J. (2011-10-19). "Mobb Deep Reveal Tracklist For "The Black Cocaine" EP, Features Nas". HipHop DX. Retrieved ... Rabin, Nathan (November 29, 2011). "Mobb Deep: Black Cocaine". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved January 10, 2016. Garcia, ...
"COCAINE NIGHTS , Kirkus Reviews". Wikiquote has quotations related to Cocaine Nights. The Terminal Collection: JG Ballard Book ... Cocaine Nights is a 1996 novel by J. G. Ballard. Like Super-Cannes that followed it, it deals with the idea of dystopian resort ... Martin Bright (24 August 1997). "Paperback of the Week: Cocaine Nights". The Guardian. " ...
... is a podcast about country music history by Tyler Mahan Coe. The 14-episode first season debuted in ... Freeman, Jon (28 May 2018). "Hear 'Cocaine and Rhinestones' Host Tyler Mahan Coe on 'Walking the Floor'". RollingStone.com. ... Deusner, Stephen M. (12 March 2018). ""Cocaine & Rhinestones" Is the Country Podcast You Need to Hear to Believe". Pitchfork. ... Freeman, Jon (4 April 2018). "'Cocaine and Rhinestones' Host Tyler Mahan Coe on Hit Country Podcast". RollingStone.com. ...
Cocaine PaaS (official site, archived), archived from the original on 2015-02-14. "Search Engine Giant Yandex Launches Cocaine ... "Russian Google Yandex Free Cloud Service Cocaine", The Guardian, 2013-10-17. "Free Cocaine giveaway from Russian Search Engine ... Cocaine served these purposes. Now, Cocaine is used in the Yandex infrastructure. The cloud is made up of one or more ... Initially, Cocaine was a personal project for Sibiryov. However, this changed when Yandex discovered an internal need for a ...
"HONEY COCAINE ANNOUNCES "LIKE A DRUG" RELEASE DATE", DJ Charisma, August 26, 2014. Lilah, Rose. "Honey Cocaine Reveals Artwork ... Honey Cocaine", HotNewHipHop, January 15, 2014. "Honey Cocaine Releasing Two Mixtapes This Year! Archived 2014-12-17 at the ... TYGA ASSOCIATE HONEY COCAINE SHOT AFTER NEBRASKA CONCERT, MTV Gun Shots Fired at Tyga's Tour Bus, Artist Honey Cocaine Wounded ... Honey Cocaine, Allmusic Tyga Associate Honey Cocaine Shot After Nebraska Concert - Music, Celebrity, Artist News , MTV.com Two ...
"Cocaine Rodeo - Mondo Generator". AllMusic. "Mondo Generator Cocaine Rodeo". Heavy Psych Sounds. Retrieved June 18, 2022. ( ... Cocaine Rodeo is the debut studio album by American rock band Mondo Generator, released on Southern Lord Records in 2000. It ... In 2009, Cocaine Rodeo was re-issued with a bonus disk featuring live material collected from the 2003/2004 tour. In 2020, ... Cocaine Rodeo was rereleased as a "20th Anniversary Repress" by Oliveri's current label Heavy Psych Sounds Records. Rex ...
A. "Cocaine Decisions" - 2:56 B. "SEX" - 3:00 François Couture. "Cocaine Decisions - Frank Zappa : Listen, Appearances, Song ... "Cocaine Decisions" is a 1983 single by American musician Frank Zappa, from the album The Man from Utopia. A live version was on ... During a concert in Palermo, Italy in 1982, a riot occurred during "Cocaine Decisions" in which the police shot tear gas into ... "Frank Zappa - Cocaine Decisions (Vinyl) at Discogs". Discogs.com. 1983. Retrieved 2012-09-20. (Articles with short description ...
... also called crack cocaine, is a highly addictive stimulant. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Learn about health effects ... Can a person overdose on cocaine?. Its possible to overdose on cocaine. This happens when a person uses so much cocaine that ... Cocaine (National Institute on Drug Abuse) * Research Report: What is Cocaine? (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in ... What is cocaine?. Cocaine is a very addictive drug that is made from leaves of the coca plant found in South America. It is ...
... to more impulsive decision-making and to poorer performance on tests of learning and memory than does use of either cocaine or ... Scientists have found that cocaine abuse coupled with use of alcohol leads ... studied the interactive effects of cocaine and alcohol in 56 adult cocaine abusers. Roughly half the study participants also ... Cite this: Cocaine and Alcohol Combined are More Damaging to Mental Ability Than Either Drug Alone - Medscape - Jun 29, 2000. ...
By the late 1970s, modifications in cocaine processing led to the development of freebase and crack cocaine. Cocaine (C17 H21 ... Deliberate extraction of cocaine from coca leaves began in the second half of the 19th century. Several uses of cocaine were ... The soft mass that forms is left to harden into a rock or slab of crack cocaine. This form of cocaine is the cheapest and most ... Cocaine, in the form of tetracaine, adrenalin, and cocaine (TAC), continues to be used in medicine, primarily for its topical ...
... death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants increased across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, county urbanization ... death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants increased across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, county urbanization ... Overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants continue to increase. During 2015-2016, age-adjusted cocaine-involved ... Rates of overdose deaths involving cocaine and any opioid increased from 2013 to 2017, and those involving cocaine and ...
Capturing crack cocaine use: estimating the prevalence of crack cocaine use in London using capture-recapture with covariates. ... Hard-drug users who were not confirmed as crack cocaine users had the longest diagnostic delays. Crack cocaine users had the ... TB patients who used crack cocaine were predominantly 20-49 years of age. Crack cocaine users and other drug users were ... particularly crack cocaine use (2). Numbers of crack cocaine users assessed while in police custody in London increased 3-fold ...
... cocaine Coca alkaloids Coca eradication Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript Cocaine Anonymous Cocaine Cowboys Cocaine ... Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into ... Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt, typically cocaine ... Natural cocaine remains the lowest cost and highest quality supply of cocaine. Formation of inactive stereoisomers (cocaine has ...
A Gai Waterhouse thoroughbred has been found with traces of cocaine in its blood. The champion trainer confirmed yesterday that ... Asked if the horse tested positive for cocaine, she said: Ask the stewards. ...
... (Dec-1935). Original Title: The Pace That Kills. Director: William A. OConnor. Keywords: Drama, Cocaine. ...
Many observers contend that the uptick in Colombian cocaine production-due to a sharp increase in coca acres planted by small ... Regional demand for cocaine fluctuates-its down in the United States, but up in Europe, for example. Overall it remains more ... Armando says at least six different FARC columns and fronts are running cocaine and other drugs in Cauca, which has long been a ... Over the last couple of years, Colombia has replaced Peru as the worlds top exporter of cocaine. Nose-candy production levels ...
Martina Hingis is handed a two-year ban for cocaine use. ... Tennis Cocaine Ban. Martina Hingis is handed a two-year ban for ...
... directions and info on Cocaine Bear in Lexington, Kentucky. ... Cocaine Bear: Despite being dead for nearly 40 years, Cocaine ... Lexington, Kentucky - Meet The Real Cocaine Bear!. Cocaine Bear: The legend. The nightmare. Cocaine Bear expert Griffin ... Cocaine Bear. Famous bear that died after eating $15 million in cocaine dropped from a plane by a drug smuggler, who also died ... Lexington, Kentucky - Ask an Expert: Why Does Everyone Love Cocaine Bear?. Ask an Expert: Cocaine Bear: Seemingly magical bear ...
State Cocaine Laws. Cocaine is listed by the federal government as a Schedule I narcotic, so although state cocaine laws might ... Cocaine Statutes in Iowa. Cocaine laws and penalties can vary based on your jurisdiction. The chart below lists the details of ... In fact, selling cocaine in Iowa could get you up to 50 years in prison and a $1,000,000 fine. These heavy penalties are a ... Iowa Cocaine Laws: Related Resources. As weve seen in other states, drug laws tend to reflect local attitudes towards drugs ...
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Missouri State Highway Patrol troopers recovered 88 pounds of cocaine during a recent traffic stop. ... MSHP offered a visual of what that looks like in an X post Tuesday, stacking up dozens of bags of apparent cocaine on top of a ... Missouri State Highway Patrol troopers recovered 88 pounds of cocaine during a recent traffic stop. ... Police searched the vehicle, finding 88 pounds of cocaine.. ... Missouri traffic stop ends with 88-pound cocaine bust. Joey ...
Among the items seized from the couples home was 5.5 pounds of cocaine worth about $250,000, as well as $110,000 in cash and ... Mendoza, who was arrested Tuesday following an undercover drug buy, faces six counts of trafficking cocaine and two counts of ... Nash couple accused of trafficking cocaine. Gavino Mendoza and his wife, Martina Hernandez Uribe face numerous charges in ... possession with intent to sell cocaine, maintaining a place for the purpose of keeping and storing a controlled substance and ...
Canadian biosciences company Sunshine Earth Labs announced Thursday it has been licensed to produce and sell cocaine, ... Canadian companies licensed to sell cocaine. Licensing deal comes after a radical policy shift to address an opioid overdose ... OTTAWA: Canadian biosciences company Sunshine Earth Labs announced Thursday it has been licensed to produce and sell cocaine, ... sell and distribute coca leaf and cocaine," as well as morphine, MDMA (ecstasy) and heroin. ...
... the link rats formed between the pleasurable effect of eating Oreos and a specific environment was as strong as for cocaine or ... What are the effects of cocaine on the brain?. Cocaine is a stimulant drug that is highly addictive. If a person uses cocaine, ... Cocaine may make some people have bowel movements. However, it may not necessarily be the drug, cocaine hydrochloride, that ... If a person uses cocaine regularly and suddenly stops, they may experience withdrawal symptoms. Learn more about cocaine ...
One of the violations alleges Smith was in possession of cocaine on September 9, 2022, when the Demons season ended with a ... Smith has been provisionally suspended since October, when he was notified of a positive cocaine test after the Demons round- ... Gawn said he had no indication that Smith had allegedly been texting teammates offering cocaine, and insisted that the Demons ... Sport Integrity Australia has alleged that Smith trafficked or attempted to traffick cocaine in September 2022. ...
... Researchers say the ADHD drug helps normalize brain function in addicts. ... The researchers took adults who were addicted to cocaine, gave them either a Ritalin pill or a placebo and then took MRIs of ... They both increase dopamine levels in the brain, but Ritalins "uptake" in the brain is slower than cocaines. (Via The ... Fighting drugs with drugs? A new study shows using Ritalin might be the answer to breaking cocaine addiction. ...
Orgies, Cocaine, and the Dangers of Boring Sins. The temptations of the flesh dont have to be dramatic to be detrimental. ... The Bible speaks nowhere directly of cocaine, but it does address orgies in several places. The apostle Paul warns the church ... "No ones ever invited me to a cocaine party or an orgy, and Ive been working in Washington for years." ... whether its true that members of Congress are snorting cocaine and organizing sex parties. I stared back blankly, wondering if ...
However, new neurobiological knowledge of how the brain is changed by chronic pharmacological insult with cocaine is revealing ... The development of pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction has been disappointingly slow. ... Neurobiology of cocaine addiction: implications for new pharmacotherapy Am J Addict. 2007 Mar-Apr;16(2):71-8. doi: 10.1080/ ... However, new neurobiological knowledge of how the brain is changed by chronic pharmacological insult with cocaine is revealing ...
... were part of a gang that supplied cocaine and cannabis to the Chadwell St Mary and Grays areas of Essex. ... Cocaine pair who wanted to be the next Kray twins jailed for 25 years. Robert Smith, 37, and Ismet Salih, 33, were part of a ... The cocaine seized at Twiggs home had been supplied by Sheaves, who also handed drugs to Salih and was in contact with the ... Low was jailed after 40kg of cocaine worth around £3.2m was discovered in the boot of a black Jaguar XF in Brentford, west ...
For over a decade the main product being moved north was cocaine from South America, but now opium and heroin from Afghanistan ...
Cocaine effects are particularly seen in the brain and heart. Read more. ... Harmful cocaine effects and cocaine side effects can be seen in all body organs. ... Cocaine Effects: Cocaine Effects on the Body. Effects of cocaine (read: What is cocaine? Cocaine Facts) can be seen in every ... Cocaine effects can be seen in every organ in the body. Whatever form, powder cocaine, crack cocaine or freebase, cocaine has ...
Cocaine hotspots. Pharmacokinetics. Rats on speedballs. Addiction and reward. Cocaine discrimination. Cocaine highs and lows. ... We propose that withdrawal from chronic cocaine in rats may serve as a useful animal model of depressive disorders. Cocaine. ... cocaine.wiki. Future Opioids. BLTC Research. MDMA/Ecstasy. Superhapiness?. Utopian Surgery?. The Abolitionist Project. The ... BACKGROUND: Withdrawal from long-term cocaine use is accompanied by symptoms resembling major depression. Because acute cocaine ...
Cocaine & Kool-Aid. * Cocaine & Kool-Aid. http://www.thesmokinggun.com/file/cocaine-kool-aid ... SEPTEMBER 14--A cop yesterday interrupted a man as he prepared to use a syringe to shoot up a mixture of liquid cocaine and ... Cops: Man Mixed Liquid Cocaine With Kool-Aid. Officer found orange liquid in suspects syringe. ... Seen above, Moore, who has been on probation since mid-June, also has prior arrests for theft, trespass, cocaine possession, ...
Todd Kaminsky, Khalil Abdullah, Henry Butler, James Rosemond, DEA, cocaine * ‹ previous Document Accused Hooker Busted By Phony ... Cocaine Ring Used Music Label To Ship Drugs. Feds: Pickups and deliveries made from Interscope. ... SEPTEMBER 15--Members of a narcotics ring that sent large amounts of cocaine and cash back and forth across the U.S. in music " ... Investigators allege that kilos of cocaine were shipped via Rock-It from L.A. to New York, where "members of the Rosemond ...
  • [ 4 ] However, accidental ingestion of cocaine, passive inhalation of crack cocaine smoke, and transmission through breast milk have been reported as means of cocaine exposure in infants. (medscape.com)
  • Several pulmonary complications are associated with the inhalation of crack cocaine (e.g., intensive cough, hemoptysis, shortness of breath, chest pain, acute bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, thermal airway injury, pneumothorax and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, production of carbonaceous sputum, and exacerbation of asthma) ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Missouri State Highway Patrol troopers recovered 88 pounds of cocaine during a recent traffic stop. (yahoo.com)
  • Police searched the vehicle, finding 88 pounds of cocaine. (yahoo.com)
  • Among the items seized from the couple's home was 5.5 pounds of cocaine worth about $250,000, as well as $110,000 in cash and marijuana. (wral.com)
  • As seen in the above evidence photo, agents subsequently discovered about five pounds of cocaine duct taped to Gomez's legs. (thesmokinggun.com)
  • Other long-term effects of cocaine use may include malnutrition and movement disorders , including Parkinson's disease . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Another form of the drug is crack cocaine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Crack cocaine has been heated to make it into a rock crystal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Crack cocaine is smoked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The high potency and relatively cheap cost of crack cocaine created another US cocaine epidemic. (medscape.com)
  • By the late 1970s, modifications in cocaine processing led to the development of freebase and crack cocaine. (medscape.com)
  • Crack cocaine is formed when the aqueous hydrochloride salt is mixed with baking soda and then heated. (medscape.com)
  • We hypothesize that crack cocaine is independently associated with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). (cdc.gov)
  • In a case-control study of TB in London, 19 (86%) of 22 crack cocaine users with pulmonary TB were smear positive compared with 302 (36%) of 833 non-drug users. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory damage caused by crack cocaine may predispose drug users to infectivity. (cdc.gov)
  • The United Kingdom has seen a substantial increase in the prevalence of drug use in the past decade, particularly crack cocaine use ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Numbers of crack cocaine users assessed while in police custody in London increased 3-fold from 1993 through 2003 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence to directly link risk for TB with crack cocaine use is lacking, although an association with tuberculin positivity has been shown. (cdc.gov)
  • Chest radiograph of a tuberculosis patient addicted to crack cocaine. (cdc.gov)
  • Habitually smoking crack cocaine causes pulmonary damage (crack lung) ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesize that crack cocaine use increases the risk for smear-positive pulmonary TB and that a component of this risk relates to lung damage caused by crack cocaine inhalation. (cdc.gov)
  • We used univariate analyses to compare the characteristics of crack cocaine users, other hard-drug users (predominantly heroin users but excluding those who used only alcohol and marijuana), and those not known to use drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • A separate category was included for hard-drug users not known to use crack cocaine to have a group with comparable levels of social deprivation, addiction related problems, and difficulty in accessing health services. (cdc.gov)
  • To test the hypothesis that smear positivity at diagnosis was associated with crack cocaine use, we used a multivariate model with backwards elimination to exclude variables that did not make a significant contribution to the model. (cdc.gov)
  • TB patients who used crack cocaine were predominantly 20-49 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • Crack cocaine users and other drug users were significantly more likely than non-drug users to have been born in the United Kingdom, of white or black Caribbean ethnic origin, homeless, alcohol abusers, or have a history of imprisonment. (cdc.gov)
  • It can also then be turned into free base form (typically crack cocaine), in which it can be heated until sublimated and then the vapours can be inhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocaine can be snorted (insufflated), injected and in certain preparations, known as "crack," can be smoked. (palmpartners.com)
  • WATERVILLE - Police arrested two men after seizing thousands of dollars in crack cocaine during a drug raid on Spruce Street Wednesday afternoon. (pressherald.com)
  • While executing a search warrant at the apartment, police found 40 grams of crack cocaine, $4,200 in cash, and drug paraphernalia, such as digital scales, pans and packaging. (pressherald.com)
  • This home at 35 Spruce St. in Waterville was scene of a police drug raid Wednesday that resulted in the seizure of $6,000 worth of crack cocaine. (pressherald.com)
  • The amount of crack cocaine found has a street value of about $6,000, Ryder said. (pressherald.com)
  • Fletcher was charged with the lower class crime after police allegedly found him trying to flush the crack cocaine down the toilet during the raid, Ryder said. (pressherald.com)
  • Gold MS. Cocaine (and crack): clinical aspects. (medscape.com)
  • Availability of highly biologically active forms, such as crack cocaine , has worsened the problem of cocaine dependence. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The resultant precipitate (crack cocaine ) is volatilized by heating (it is not burned) and inhaled. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Have you ever used cocaine, including crack or freebase, or other street drugs? (cdc.gov)
  • In the past 12 months, how many days have you used cocaine, including crack or freebase, or other street drugs? (cdc.gov)
  • Jean Lud Cadet, MD, of NIDA's Intramural Research Program in Baltimore, Maryland, and Karen Bolla, PhD, of Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, studied the interactive effects of cocaine and alcohol in 56 adult cocaine abusers. (medscape.com)
  • On the other hand, though, chronic and prolonged use of cocaine may reduce the overall levels of dopamine, therefore making it harder for cocaine abusers to experience feeling good or generally positive. (palmpartners.com)
  • Uribe was arrested Thursday morning and charged with one count each of manufacturing marijuana, possessing drug paraphernalia, possession with intent to sell cocaine, maintaining a place for the purpose of keeping and storing a controlled substance and trafficking cocaine. (wral.com)
  • He is currently engaged in the study of the social effects of the trade in narcotics on the Mosquito Coast, examining its influence on local people from early beginnings in the 1980s, when marijuana was the main item of trade, to the present, in which cocaine has come to prominence. (uel.ac.uk)
  • Some countries, such as the Netherlands, make the distinction between soft and hard drugs (e.g. alcohol and marijuana vs cocaine). (bvsalud.org)
  • Trends in the prevalence of marijuana, cocaine , and other illegal drug use national YRBS: 1991-2019. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The drug use section (variable name prefix DUQ) includes questions on lifetime and current use of marijuana, cocaine and the intravenous use of illicit drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants continue to increase. (cdc.gov)
  • From 2016 to 2017, death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants increased across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, county urbanization levels, and multiple states. (cdc.gov)
  • Death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants, with and without opioids, have increased. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine, psychostimulants with abuse potential (psychostimulants), or both substances combined increased 42.4% from 12,122 in 2015 to 17,258 in 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC analyzed 2016-2017 changes in age-adjusted death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants by demographic characteristics, urbanization levels, U.S. Census region, 34 states, and the District of Columbia (DC). (cdc.gov)
  • Provisional data from 2018 indicate that deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants are continuing to increase. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased surveillance and evidence-based multisectoral prevention and response strategies are needed to address deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants and opioids. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2021, the U.S. age-adjusted drug overdose death rate involving cocaine was 7.3 deaths per 100,000 standard population. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14 with a multiple cause-of-death code T40.5. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC also examined trends in age-adjusted cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates from 2003 to 2017 overall, as well as with and without co-involvement of opioids. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2017, opioids were involved in 72.7% and 50.4% of cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved overdoses, respectively, and the data suggest that increases in cocaine-involved overdose deaths from 2012 to 2017 were driven primarily by synthetic opioids. (cdc.gov)
  • Age-adjusted death rates †† were examined for the period 2016- 2017 for cocaine and psychostimulants. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2017, the Global Burden of Disease study found that cocaine use caused around 7,300 deaths annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 2015-2016, age-adjusted cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates increased by 52.4% and 33.3%, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • From 2015 to 2016, cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates increased 52.4% and 33.3%, respectively ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • According to the international organization, Colombian coca farmers grew enough coca to produce more than 850 tons of cocaine in 2016. (colombiareports.com)
  • Cocaine is a very addictive drug that is made from leaves of the coca plant found in South America. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the Erythroxylon coca and other Erythroxylon trees indigenous to Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Indonesia, and the West Indies. (medscape.com)
  • Deliberate extraction of cocaine from coca leaves began in the second half of the 19th century. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine ingestion increased with use of several preparations, including beverages such as early 20th century Coca Cola. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine (from French: cocaïne, from Spanish: coca, ultimately from Quechua: kúka) is a tropane alkaloid that acts as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sunshine Earth Labs said in a statement it received permission from Health Canada to "legally possess, produce, sell and distribute coca leaf and cocaine," as well as morphine, MDMA (ecstasy) and heroin. (com.pk)
  • The use of coca leaves is something that industry is understandably coy about given its links to cocaine, even if decocainised leaves are legal in most countries. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The use of cocaine can be traced back to the South American Andean Indians, approximately 5000 years ago, who chew on the leaves of the Erythroxylon Coca plant for social, medical and religious reasons. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cocaine , an alkaloid present in the leaves of the coca plant, enhances norepinephrine , dopamine , and serotonin activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems by blocking the reuptake of biogenic amines. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cocaine is a stimulant that can make people feel like they have more energy and are extra alert. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Psychiatric researchers found Ritalin, a stimulant prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, helps regulate the nerve pathways that go out of control in the brains of cocaine addicts. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Ritalin is a powerful stimulant that has a similar chemical structure to cocaine. (scrippsnews.com)
  • In all cases cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant which affects how the brain processes the feel-good chemical dopamine. (palmpartners.com)
  • Cocaine is a sympathomimetic drug with central nervous system stimulant and euphoriant properties. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although some absorption and systemic effects may occur, the use of cocaine as a topical anesthetic and vasoconstrictor is generally safe, rarely causing cardiovascular toxicity, glaucoma, and pupil dilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • After an introduction the reader will be guided towards medical aspects of addictive disorders, where history, toxicity, manifestations of toxicity and the mechanisms of action of cocaine are explained. (bvsalud.org)
  • Darke S, Kaye S, Duflou J. Comparative cardiac pathology among deaths due to cocaine toxicity, opioid toxicity and non-drug-related causes. (medscape.com)
  • Fatal excited delirium following cocaine use: epidemiologic findings provide new evidence for mechanisms of cocaine toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Several uses of cocaine were marketed and advocated. (medscape.com)
  • University of East London (UEL) anthropologist Dr Mark Jamieson has been examining the uses of cocaine money by the Miskitu, an indigenous people living on Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast, showing how this trade and the money that it generates affects local lives in this remote part of Central America. (uel.ac.uk)
  • "The institute examined Red Bull Cola in an elaborate chemical process and found traces of cocaine," ​ said Bernhard Kuehnle, head of the food safety department at the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Illegal drugs are so common that 13 per cent of people have traces of cocaine on their fingers even though they don't take drugs, a new study has revealed. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Large amounts of cocaine can lead to bizarre, unpredictable, and violent behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The licensing deal comes after a radical policy shift to address an opioid overdose crisis that has killed thousands, by decriminalizing small amounts of cocaine, heroin and other hard drugs . (com.pk)
  • C.A. groups are meant to be safe places where people gather for the primary purpose of staying sober and helping others to achieve freedom from addiction to cocaine and all other mind-altering substances. (ca.org)
  • The second part discusses the social aspects of the addiction to cocaine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chest pain associated with cocaine: an assessment of prevalence in suburban and urban emergency departments. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine use increases levels of the brain chemical dopamine, which results in the "high" described by users. (palmpartners.com)
  • If someone who is dependent on cocaine stops using it, they will have withdrawal symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Addicts who abstain from cocaine may experience craving and drug withdrawal symptoms, with depression, decreased libido, decreased ability to feel pleasure, and fatigue being most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Withdrawal manifests primarily as depression, difficulty concentrating, and somnolence ( cocaine washout syndrome). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Tolerance to cocaine occurs, and withdrawal from heavy use is characterized by somnolence, difficulty concentrating, increased appetite, and depression. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some people inject a combination of cocaine and heroin , called a "speedball. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common drug found was cocaine, but one per cent had come into contact with heroin, according to University of Surrey researchers. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The team tested the fingerprints of 50 drug free volunteers and 15 drug users in the UK who testified to taking either cocaine or heroin in the previous 24 hours. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Around 13 per cent of fingerprints were found to contain cocaine and one per cent contained a metabolite of heroin. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Although cocaine and heroin can be transferred by shaking hands with a drug user, the cut-off level established allowed researchers to distinguish between drug use and secondary transfer. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • One in ten Britons have tried cocaine at least once, despite it being deemed a Class A substance and in the same bracket at heroin. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • OTTAWA: Canadian biosciences company Sunshine Earth Labs announced Thursday it has been licensed to produce and sell cocaine, reflecting the federal health agency´s bid to improve safety conditions for the country´s addicts. (com.pk)
  • New York (MedscapeWire) Jun 29 - Scientists have found that cocaine abuse coupled with use of alcohol leads to more impulsive decision-making and to poorer performance on tests of learning and memory than does use of either cocaine or alcohol alone. (medscape.com)
  • Synthetic opioids appear to be the primary driver of cocaine-involved death rate increases, and recent data point to increasing synthetic opioid involvement in psychostimulant-involved deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of cocaine increases the overall risk of death, and intravenous use potentially increases the risk of trauma and infectious diseases such as blood infections and HIV through the use of shared paraphernalia for use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Trimbos Institute's survey on drug use among adults has been running since 1997, and the share of respondents stating to have used cocaine at least once in their lives as of 2021 was 6.5 percent. (statista.com)
  • In 2021, 0.8 percent of all respondents answered to have used cocaine in the last month. (statista.com)
  • Repeated use of cocaine can also lead to cocaine use disorder, also called addiction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the treatments for cocaine use disorder? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The treatments for cocaine use disorder are different types of behavioral therapies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among the same age group, the percentage with a past year cocaine use disorder declined from 0.4% (105,000 adolescents) in 2002 to less than 0.1% (5,000 adolescents) in 2019. (medscape.com)
  • Whether the person has a mood disorder , like depression, for which they turn to drugs like cocaine, or they have not experienced depression before, the user turns to cocaine and depression worsens. (palmpartners.com)
  • In this article an elaboration will be made on the etiology, mechanisms of action and treatment of cocaine addictive disorder by unraveling its impacts on society and the human body. (bvsalud.org)
  • The relation between cocaine and Anti-Social Personality Disorder are unraveled followed by issues such as priming, stress and relapse. (bvsalud.org)
  • People snort cocaine powder through the nose or rub it into their gums. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It comes after worrying research last May suggested just a single snort of cocaine could be enough to get addicted. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Seen above, Moore, who has been on probation since mid-June, also has prior arrests for theft, trespass, cocaine possession, possession of drug paraphernalia, and possession of the painkiller oxycodone. (thesmokinggun.com)
  • He was in uniform and driving a marked Border Patrol vehicle when he took possession of the cocaine, the complaint added. (armytimes.com)
  • Some people use cocaine along with other drugs or alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since 1961, the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • This time, instead of feeding them Oreos and rice cakes, they injected them with addictive drugs - such as cocaine and morphine - when they were on one side of the maze, or saline, when they were on the other side. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Certain drugs currently being tested in clinical trials tap into the underlying cocaine-induced neuroplasticity, including drugs promoting GABA or inhibiting glutamate transmission. (nih.gov)
  • Defence solicitor Bryan Wrench told the court the 29-year-old underwent urine and hair testing soon after he was caught with a resealable bag of cocaine on May 5 , proving he did not take the drug, and had not used drugs in previous weeks. (smh.com.au)
  • David Nutt, the former Government drugs tsar sacked after claiming that horse riding was as safe as taking ecstasy, has said that the banking crisis was caused by too many workers taking cocaine. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Cocaine use, although still relatively low compared to other drugs such as cannabis or ecstasy , is on the rise. (statista.com)
  • Once inside, they found an undisclosed amount of cocaine and cannabis as well as other drugs paraphernalia. (coventrytelegraph.net)
  • It is, in fact, about a bear that does cocaine - more specifically, it's based on the true story of a real bear that gobbled up tons of drugs after encountering the aftermath of drug runner's plane crash. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • According to the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, the percentage who were past year cocaine users decreased from 2.1% (508,000 adolescents) in 2002 to 0.4% (97,000 adolescents) in 2019. (medscape.com)
  • Globally, in 2019, cocaine was used by an estimated 20 million people (0.4% of adults aged 15 to 64 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • Critically, it also helps to establish a quantifiable high threshold for environmental drug traces, further establishing the validity of our commercial fingerprint-based drug test for cocaine, opiates, cannabis and amphetamines. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Repeated use of cocaine can lead to tolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A single dose of cocaine induces tolerance to the drug's effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children and adolescents rarely experiment with an illicit drug such as cocaine prior to trying alcohol and cigarettes. (medscape.com)
  • All participants abstained from both cocaine and alcohol during the 4-week study. (medscape.com)
  • The results of this study support the view that cocaine abuse can have a major negative impact on the brain and these effects are compounded by the concurrent use of alcohol," explained Dr. Cadet. (medscape.com)
  • Between 2008 and 2022, cocaine prices in the Netherlands remained stable at around 50 euros per gram. (statista.com)
  • In 2022, a gram of cocaine in the Netherlands sold for 52 euros. (statista.com)
  • Winbery S, Blaho K, Logan B, Geraci S. Multiple cocaine-induced seizures and corresponding cocaine and metabolite concentrations. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaethylene: a current understanding of the active metabolite of cocaine and ethanol. (medscape.com)
  • Agranulocytosis after consumption of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. (medscape.com)
  • Observations regarding levamisole in the cocaine supply. (medscape.com)
  • A group of students and a professor of neuroscience have discovered that Oreo cookies may be as addictive as cocaine or morphine - to lab rats at least. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The study shows that for rats, the association between the pleasurable effects of eating Oreos and a specific environment were as strong as for cocaine or morphine and a specific environment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They found Oreos stimulated many more neurons than cocaine or morphine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The drug cocaine will be used as a role model for explaining addictive disorders. (bvsalud.org)
  • A family history of substance abuse may be a risk factor for early cocaine use and for rapid dependence on cocaine. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine (C 17 H 21 NO 4 ), when treated with hydrochloric acid, becomes a water-soluble hydrochloride salt, which can be absorbed through the nasal mucosa and can be taken intravenously (IV). (medscape.com)
  • After extraction from the plant, and further processing into cocaine hydrochloride (powdered cocaine), the drug is administered by being either snorted, applied topically to the mouth, or dissolved and injected into a vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers say this study was strictly a brain imaging one, so it didn't affirm that this could be an actual treatment for cocaine addicts. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Kenny-Dowall appeared in Downing Centre Local Court on Tuesday, and pleaded guilty to possessing 0.29 grams of cocaine. (smh.com.au)
  • Cocaine, cannabis, cash and mobile phones were seized during a raid on a house in Bedworth. (coventrytelegraph.net)
  • Red Bull Cola has been banned in at least six German states after the newest offering from the world's leading energy drink maker was found to contain cocaine. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Cocaine is found in waterproof bales on the shores of the mainland and of the Cays, the tiny desert islands on Nicaragua's Caribbean coastline, where they wash up surprisingly often after having been discarded by traffickers fleeing coastguard patrols. (uel.ac.uk)
  • The most recent survey found that of 20-24 year olds, 5.5 percent had used cocaine in the past year. (statista.com)
  • In more extreme cases, the cocaine abuser's nose "collapses" and leaves them with a distinct physical appearance . (palmpartners.com)
  • Recreational and fashionable use brought increasing reports of cocaine-related morbidities and several fatalities. (medscape.com)
  • Most cocaine users are episodic recreational users. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cocaine gives the individual a big burst of energy called euphoria, what can be the reason why it is so popular amongst certain groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cocaine stimulates the reward pathway in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cocaine crosses the blood-brain barrier via a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter and (to a lesser extent) via passive diffusion across cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers took adults who were addicted to cocaine, gave them either a Ritalin pill or a placebo and then took MRIs of their brain activity. (scrippsnews.com)
  • However, new neurobiological knowledge of how the brain is changed by chronic pharmacological insult with cocaine is revealing novel targets for drug development. (nih.gov)
  • Armed with rationales derived from a neurobiological perspective that cocaine addiction is a pharmacologically induced disease of neuroplasticity in brain circuits mediating normal reward learning, one can expect novel pharmacotherapies to emerge that directly target the biological pathology of addiction. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers from the University of Michigan and the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center conducted a study that suggests that long-term cocaine use may cause damage to brain cells that help produce feelings of pleasure. (palmpartners.com)
  • In another study, funded in part by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, that was published in the January 2003 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry , Dr. Karley Little and her colleagues studied samples of brain tissue gathered from the autopsies of 35 long-term cocaine users and 35 non-users. (palmpartners.com)
  • Her findings suggest that long-term cocaine use may cause actual changes to the brain that might make it harder for a person to experience pleasure. (palmpartners.com)
  • Cocaine in the brain / edited by Nora D. Volkow and Alan C. Swann. (who.int)
  • The formation of cocaethylene and clinical presentation of ED patients testing positive for the use of cocaine and ethanol. (medscape.com)
  • Who are the cocaine users? (statista.com)
  • Cardiac arrest in cocaine users. (medscape.com)
  • Because cocaine is such a short-acting drug, heavy users may inject it or smoke it repeatedly every 10 to 15 minutes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Colombia's security forces have confiscated 12 metric tons of cocaine in the country's biggest drug bust ever, President Juan Manuel Santos announced on Wednesday. (colombiareports.com)
  • Elaborate levels of cocaine production, smuggling, and distribution have challenged efforts to diminish supply. (medscape.com)
  • Prospective multicenter evaluation of cocaine-associated chest pain. (medscape.com)
  • Cocaine Associated Chest Pain (COCHPA) Study Group. (medscape.com)
  • The study's findings aren't too out there, either, simply because Ritalin and cocaine have a lot in common. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Injecting cocaine also puts a person at higher risk of getting diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mechanisms by which cocaine effects the body will be discussed in detail in the medical section of this article, first however, emphasis will be made upon the history of cocaine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cocaine also blocks the serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter, inhibiting reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft into the pre-synaptic axon terminal and increasing activation of serotonin receptors and norepinephrine receptors in the post-synaptic neuron, contributing to the mental and physical effects of cocaine exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, the person using cocaine already suffers from depression and uses coke to self-medicate. (palmpartners.com)
  • Cocaine and depression go hand-in-hand. (palmpartners.com)
  • Cocaine and depression are co-occurring even in short-term use. (palmpartners.com)
  • The short-lived, intense high experienced by the user is immediately followed by the opposite: cocaine and depression, irritability and cravings for more cocaine. (palmpartners.com)
  • In this way, too, cocaine and depression are closely linked. (palmpartners.com)
  • This probably contributes, in part, to the high rates of depression reported among people who abuse cocaine. (palmpartners.com)
  • You can look at the words "Cocaine Bear" and think you know what they mean . (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Cocaine Bear is the title of a dark comedy from the Pitch Perfect 2 director that's coming to theatres February 24. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • All the stars are out to see what happens when Hollywood takes the seemingly serious story of a bear doing cocaine and flips it into a surreal, adrenaline-fuelled roller coaster ride. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Someone who uses cocaine over a long period of time can be extremely agitated and has violent mood swings. (palmpartners.com)