Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Benztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Disulfiram: A carbamate derivative used as an alcohol deterrent. It is a relatively nontoxic substance when administered alone, but markedly alters the intermediary metabolism of alcohol. When alcohol is ingested after administration of disulfiram, blood acetaldehyde concentrations are increased, followed by flushing, systemic vasodilation, respiratory difficulties, nausea, hypotension, and other symptoms (acetaldehyde syndrome). It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (1/3711)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (2/3711)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (3/3711)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (4/3711)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (5/3711)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Age-related reductions in [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic brain regions of the fischer 344 rat. (6/3711)

In the present study, we used the potent cocaine analog [3H]WIN 35, 428 to map and quantify binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) within the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area in young (6-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), and aged (18- and 24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of indirect [3H]WIN 35,428 saturation curves revealed two-site binding for all four brain regions in every age group. The percentage of binding to the high- or low-affinity sites did not differ with age or region and was approximately 50%. However, significant age-related decreases in the overall density (Bmax) of [3H]WIN 35,428-binding sites were observed in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The Bmax within all brain regions declined by more than 15% every 6 months, with the Bmax in the aged (24-month-old) group being approximately half that measured in the young adult (6-month-old) group. Competition experiments indicated that nomifensine also exhibited two-site binding to the DAT in Fischer 344 rats. No consistent age-related differences in binding affinities were noted with either [3H]WIN 35,428 or nomifensine. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that functional DATs within the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems are down-regulated with age, without changing their affinity for ligands.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (7/3711)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (8/3711)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Looking for acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning? Find out information about acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning. a morbid condition caused by the action of poison on the body and accompanied by disruption of bodily systems and functions. In humans. Poisoning in humans... Explanation of acute cocaine hydrochloride poisoning
Cocaine abuse may contribute to the diverse forms of renal injury. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed a large subcapsular renal haematoma after cocaine intoxication at 18-week gestation. She stabilized on conservative management and presented again at 29-week gestation with pre-eclampsia, acute renal failure and fetal demise. She required caesarean section delivery and intensive antihypertensive therapy to control severe pre-eclampsia associated with cocaine intoxication. This case is unique in that it is the first report of cocaine intoxication in pregnancy complicated by subcapsular haemorrhage. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the occurrence of this complication.. ...
Cannabinoid signaling via the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor modulates the effects of drugs of abuse and the response to exposure to stressors. In addition, exposure to stressors can alter the effects of drugs of abuse. This study examined the effects of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in CB1 receptor knockout (CB1 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, using cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) to compare their response to cocaine. Mice were untreated or exposed to 2 weeks of CUS. After this period, the acquisition of a cocaine CPP was examined with one of three doses (3.2, 10.0, or 17.0 mg/kg) of cocaine. Untreated CB1 KO and WT mice both acquired the cocaine CPP; however, exposure to CUS enhanced the acquisition of the cocaine CPP in CB1 KO mice, but did not significantly alter the effects of cocaine in WT mice. Taken together, these findings support earlier evidence suggesting a role for the CB1 receptor in the response to stress as well as in the effects of cocaine.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, these syndromes present with different symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being, euphoria, energy, competence, sociability, and sexuality. Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and teeth grinding. With prolonged use, the drug can cause insomnia, anorexia, tachycardia, hallucinations, and paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, abnormal heart rhythms, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, renal failure, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long-term damage to dopamine neurons. Chronic intranasal usage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Self-administration of cocaine increases the release of acetylcholine to a greater extent than response-independent cocaine in the nucleus accumbens of rats. AU - Mark, Gregory. AU - Hajnal, Andras. AU - Kinney, Anthony E.. AU - Keys, Alan S.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Rationale: The neurochemical effects of psychostimulant exposure may depend on how these drugs are encountered. A useful method for examining this issue is to compare neurotransmitter release following response-dependent, or self-administered, drug exposure and response-independent exposure. Objectives: This experiment examined the effect of active and passive cocaine administration on acetylcholine (ACh) efflux in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in rats. Methods: One group of rats (CSA: cocaine self-administration) was trained to lever-press for intravenous infusions of cocaine (0.42 mg/kg per infusion) on a fixed-ratio-1 schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine infusions were accompanied by the onset ...
In the present study, we observed for the first time that the LV and coronary hemodynamic responses to a binge of cocaine were markedly and progressively attenuated in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. In general, tolerance to cocaine was manifest on rechallenge after a single dose, although progressive decline in the hemodynamic and neurohumoral response to cocaine was observed with subsequent doses. Furthermore, the tolerance was not a function of the increase in baseline hemodynamic measurements before subsequent cocaine doses as the acute hemodynamic effects of cocaine were maintained when baseline hemodynamics were increased independent of cocaine. Finally, the mechanism of tolerance to the LV and systemic effects of repeated cocaine administration did not involve end-organ desensitization to the adrenergic effects of cocaine (Figs 4⇑ and 5⇑) but rather attenuated cocaine-induced catecholamine release as demonstrated by declines in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine responses ...
On February 14, 2011, two Swiss psychologists published two years research on cocaine addiction. They found that addicts who gambled were less likely to use cocaine or to relapse on cocaine. They think gambling may refocus the brains "reward center" from cocaine to gambling. They said that psychotherapy should be used along with gambling. More research is being done on long-term relapse rates (the number of people who eventually start using cocaine again).[33][34][better source needed] However, a more recent study looked at prize-based contingency management: a treatment method that offers addicts chances to win prizes if they do not use cocaine. This study found that prize-based contingency management helped cocaine addicts stay off cocaine, whether or not they had gambled recently. This suggests that it is the chance of a reward, not the gambling itself, that helps cocaine addicts stay off of cocaine.[35] ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Cocaine has damaging effects on the brain, the heart and the mucous membrane of the nose. Significant symptoms of cocaine abuse are therefore paranoia, heart attacks and perforation of the nasal septum. The physical and mental effects of cocaine use are equally severe. The body and mind of a cocaine addict are both at risk.. Cocaine abuse and cocaine addiction cannot easily be distinguished because there may be no withdrawal symptoms. Similarly, users of crack cannot easily be distinguished from crack addicts. The boundary between drug use and drug abuse is not clear-cut and there may be no precise addiction symptoms.. The medical features and physical withdrawal characteristics of cocaine addiction are not as precise as they are in alcoholism or in addiction to some other drugs, such as heroin. Therefore the medical treatment of cocaine and crack abuse differs from that of other drugs.. Blood tests or urine tests would not distinguish between cocaine and crack but can show what other drugs have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Divergent effects of cocaine on cytokine production by lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. T2 - HIV-1 enhancement by cocaine within the blood-brain barrier. AU - Fiala, A. M.. AU - Gan, X. H.. AU - Newton, T.. AU - Chiappelli, F.. AU - Shapshak, P.. AU - Kermani, V.. AU - Kung, M. A.. AU - Diagne, A.. AU - Martinez, O.. AU - Way, D.. AU - Weinand, M.. AU - Witte, M.. AU - Graves, M.. PY - 1996/10/2. Y1 - 1996/10/2. N2 - Cocaine-related immunosuppression is assumed to have serious consequences, but its evaluation in drug-addicted subjects is lacking. In this study performed with materials from addicted subjects receiving intravenous cocaine and normal control subjects, acute cocaine effects on cytokine production in vivo and in mononuclear cells in vitro were determined. Acute intravenous cocaine administration resulted in (a) increased white blood cell and lymphocyte courts, (b) decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 serum levels; (c) depressed ...
A cocaine vaccine has the following potential advantages over existing drug treatments for cocaine dependence: it blocks cocaine from entering the brain; it may have fewer side effects than drugs that act on the brain, and it may produce better patient compliance and treatment outcome than existing oral drugs.. If a cocaine vaccine proves effective in human clinical trials, it will be ethically justifiable to use it to treat cocaine dependent patients who have given free and informed consent to its use. The major ethical issues are ensuring that the treatment is safe and effective and that patients give free and informed consent to treatment. Protection of patient privacy and confidentiality is not likely to be a major concern. The major uncertainties about its safety arise because it will not completely block the effects of smoked or injected cocaine. Patients who attempt to subvert its effects by increasing their cocaine dose or using other stimulant drugs may put themselves at risk of adverse ...
Cocaine can cause psychological dependence (a strong desire to continue using the medicine because of the "high" feeling it produces). This may lead to cocaine abuse (more frequent use and/or use of larger amounts of cocaine) and to an increased chance of serious side effects. Cocaine abuse has caused death from heart or breathing failure.. Use of cocaine as a local anesthetic for an examination or surgery is not likely to cause psychological dependence or other serious side effects. However, if cocaine is absorbed into the body too quickly, serious side effects can occur. Also, some people are especially sensitive to the effects of cocaine. Unwanted effects may occur in these people even with small amounts of the medicine. Before receiving cocaine as a local anesthetic, you should discuss its use with your doctor.. Cocaine is applied only by or under the immediate supervision of your doctor.. This product is available in the following dosage forms:. ...
... (Letter Report, 06/07/96, GAO/HEHS-96-80).. Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed the extent to which federally funded cocaine treatment therapies have proven successful and additional research initiatives that are needed to increase knowledge of cocaine treatment effectiveness.. GAO found that: (1) cocaine treatment research is still in its early stages; (2) preliminary study results have shown that relapse prevention, community reinforcement and contingency management, and neurobehavioral therapy may produce prolonged periods of abstinence among cocaine users; (3) relapse prevention programs have the highest abstinence rates, followed by community reinforcement and neurobehavioral programs; (4) community reinforcement programs have the highest retention rates, followed by relapse prevention and neurobehavioral programs; (5) pharmacological agents have not proven to be consistently effective in preventing cocaine use, and none ...
Cocaine addiction, a serious public health concern associated with significant medical, social, and economic consequences, is difficult to treat using traditional psychosocial and behavioral therapies. Despite testing of a number of different agents for cocaine dependency, there remains no proven pharmacologic treatment for cocaine addiction.. The addictive properties of cocaine have been associated with its actions on mesotelencephalic dopamine reward pathways in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine administration increases the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with sensations of pleasure and reward. Therefore, blocking cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels represents a valid pharmaceutical approach to the treatment of cocaine addiction.. Another neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suppresses striatal dopamine release, and attenuates cocaine-induced increases in extracellular and synaptic dopamine levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens in animal ...
A method for the determination of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (ECG) in plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed. The analytes were isolated from human plasma by subsequent solid-phase extraction and were separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 narrow-bore column using an ammonium acetate buffer/acetonitrile/methanol gradient. A Turbolonspray® source was used for ionization. The analytes were characterized by their particular molecular ion and several fragments. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for isolation and quantitation. The assay was rapid, highly sensitive, and reliable. The method was applied to monitor the in vitro degradation of cocaine in plasma. Fresh unpreserved and preserved (0.25 % KF) plasma samples were spiked with 1000 ng cocaine/mL. Aliquots of both series were stored at 4°C and 20°C and were analyzed at selected storage times of up to 15 days. In all samples, degradation of cocaine ...
Cocaine abuse is a serious health problem in many areas of the world, yet there are no proven effective medications for the treatment of cocaine dependence.Preclinical studies suggest that the reinforcing effect of cocaine that promotes its abuse is mediated by blockade of the presynaptic dopamine transporter. This results in increased dopamine activity in the mesolimbic or meso-accumbens dopamine reward system of brain. Development of new medications to treat cocaine dependence has focused on manipulation of this dopamine system, either by direct action on dopamine binding sites (transporter or receptors) or indirectly by affecting other neurotransmitter systems that modulate the dopamine system. In principle, a medication could act via one of three mechanisms: (i) as a substitute for cocaine by producing similar dopamine effects; (ii) as a cocaine antagonist by blocking the binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter; or (iii) as a modulator of cocaine effects by acting at other than the ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. The powdered form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected. "Crack" is the street name given to the form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal, which, when heated, produces vapors that are smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound produced by the rock as it is heated. The street names of cocaine are coke, snow, flake and blow.. Cocaine usually makes the user feel euphoric and energetic, but also increases body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Users risk heart attacks, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, abdominal pain, and nausea. In rare cases, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly afterwards.. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) estimates that in 2008 there were 1.9 million current (past-month) cocaine users, of which approximately 359,000 were current crack users. Adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current cocaine ...
Wholesale crack traffickers purchase cocaine in kilogram or multikilogram allotments from traditional cocaine sources, including Colombian and Mexican organizations. They package the cocaine into ounce quantities or convert it into crack and then divide it into ounces for sale at the next level. Wholesalers usually are large groups responsible for most of the interstate transportation of crack and cocaine intended for crack conversion.. Retail distributors convert powdered cocaine into crack, usually in their own kitchens, using a safe and simple method of converting cocaine into cocaine base. Although it produces a product higher in purity than coca paste, the crack conversion process does not eliminate all of the impurities in the cocaine. Adulterants such as lidocaine, procaine, and benzocaine survive the crack conversion process and are inhaled by the user. Federal mandatory minimum sentences are higher for crack than for powdered cocaine, but crack cocaine provides a much higher profit ...
Criteria for Discontinuation Following Initiation:. Participants will be discharged if they have a positive breath test indicating use of alcohol or a urine test indicating illicit use of drugs while in the MED-VAMC, if they do not comply with study procedures, or if they do not tolerate the study drugs.. Subject Selection Criteria Rationale for Route of Administration:. Participants are required to have used cocaine by the IV or smoked route to avoid exposing participants to drugs by routes of administration that produce more intensive interoceptive effects than usually used by the participants. Prior experience with smoked cocaine is allowed (rather than restricting the population to those with experience with IV cocaine) because smoked cocaine reaches brain sites of action as rapidly as does intravenously administered cocaine and smoked cocaine produces effects that are comparable to IV cocaine. Speed of administration (and rate of delivery to brain) of stimulant drugs likely impacts ...
5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) modulate behavioral effects of cocaine. Here we examined the effects of the 5-HT1BR agonist CP94253 on spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotion and on cocaine-primed reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice given daily repeated injections of either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) for 20 days. In the locomotor activity experiment, testing occurred both 1 and 20 days after the final injection. In the CPP experiment, mice underwent conditioning procedures while receiving the last of their daily injections, which were given either during or ≥2 h after CPP procedures. The CPP procedural timeline consisted of baseline preference testing (days 12-13 of the chronic regimen), conditioning (days 14-19, 2 daily 30-min sessions separated by 5 h), CPP test (day 21), extinction (days 22-34; no injections), CPP extinction test (day 35; no injections), and reinstatement test (day 36). Mice that had not extinguished received additional extinction sessions prior to
Cocaethylene (ethylbenzoylecgonine) is the ethyl ester of benzoylecgonine. It is structurally similar to cocaine, which is the methyl ester of benzoylecgonine. Cocaethylene is formed by the liver when cocaine and ethanol coexist in the blood. Cocaethylene is the byproduct of concurrent consumption of alcohol and cocaine as metabolized by the liver. Normally, metabolism of cocaine produces two primarily biologically inactive metabolites-benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester. The hepatic enzyme carboxylesterase is an important part of cocaines metabolism because it acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of cocaine in the liver, which produces these inactive metabolites. If ethanol is present during the metabolism of cocaine, a portion of the cocaine undergoes transesterification with ethanol, rather than undergoing hydrolysis with water, which results in the production of cocaethylene. cocaine + H2O → benzoylecgonine + methanol (with liver carboxylesterase 1) benzoylecgonine + ethanol → ...
Wei-Lun Sun WL, Zhou L, Nazarian A, Quinones- Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Acute cocaine differentially induces PKA phosphorylation substrates in male and female rats. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, in press.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Balouch B, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2015). Region and context-specific intracellular responses associated with cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expression. Neuroscience 287:1-8.. Nygard SK, Klambatsen A, Hazim R, Eltareb MH, Blank JC, Chang AJ, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2013). Sexually dimorphic intracellular responses after cocaine-induced conditioned place preference expressionBrain Res. 1520:121-33.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2012). Influence of sex differences and gonadal hormones on cocaine addiction ILAR J. 53:14-22.. Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2010). Progesterone attenuates cocaine-induced responses. Horm Behav. 58:22-32.. Sun WL, Zhou L, Quinones-Jenab V and Jenab S. (2009). Cocaine effects on dopamine and NMDA ...
Fig. 1 Prior alcohol use enhances persistence, motivation, and compulsivity for cocaine self-administration.. (A) Drug treatment paradigm to study alcohol and cocaine coadministration. Access to voluntary alcohol (10% alcohol, 2 hours per day) and voluntary cocaine (self-administration, 0.8 mg/kg per injection) was restricted to 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. and 11 a.m. to 2 p.m., respectively, to avoid metabolic interaction between the two drugs. (B) Alcohol self-administration. Animals in the alcohol-primed group began drinking alcohol on day 1 of the paradigm; animals in the alcohol-concurrent group began drinking on day 11. All groups start cocaine self-administration (0.8 mg/kg per infusion) on day 11. The average alcohol intake during the alcohol-priming period was 1 g/kg during the first 5 days, increasing to 1.2 g/kg during the second 5 days. Alcohol intake was similar in the alcohol-primed versus alcohol-concurrent groups from days 11 to 32 [two-way repeated-measures (RM) analysis of variance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine enhances serotonin autoregulation and serotonin uptake binding. AU - Cunningham, Kathryn A.. AU - Paris, Joseph M.. AU - Goeders, Nick E.. PY - 1992/6. Y1 - 1992/6. N2 - Repeated cocaine intoxication can result in the development of behavioral sensitization in animals and psychosis in humans, phenomena that have been associated with alterations in dopamine (DA) function. Using electrophysiologic and autoradiographic techniques, modifications of central serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine; 5‐HT) systems were investigated in rats treated with a regimen of cocaine administration that produced behavioral sensitization. The inhibitory response of single 5‐HT neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) to (−)‐cocaine, the 5‐HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the 5‐HT1A agonist 8‐hydroxy‐2‐[di‐N‐propylamino]tetralin (8‐OHDPAT) was significantly enhanced in cocaine‐treated rats. Furthermore, several brain areas that contain either cell bodies (DR) or terminals ...
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If people use cocaine, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an "overdose". When people take cocaine, they get intoxicated as well. When a person is intoxicated, they may do dangerous things, such as having unsafe sex with a person they do not know, or getting into a violent fight with a person. If a person uses cocaine for a long time, they can start to get strange feelings, like there are bugs crawling under their skin, or they can get paranoia (a feeling that there are people that want to hurt them). Cocaine is a very addictive drug. It can lead to psychological and/or physical dependence. When a person is addicted to a drug, they might do bad or criminal acts in order to get money for more drugs, such as crimes (for example theft, robbery, fraud, or prostitution). If the person tries to stop using cocaine, they will go through cocaine withdrawal. Another danger from using cocaine is the risk of infection when using unsafe ways of taking cocaine (like using dirty ...
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
senior study author Dr. Eric Nestler of New York Citys Mount Sinai School of Medicine said in a statement.. Nestler and colleagues combined highly sensitive genetic isolation and screening techniques to study regulation of gene transcription in the brains of mice repeatedly receiving cocaine. The researchers also found a previously unrecognized family of genes -- called the sirtuins -- involved in cocaine addiction. Chronic cocaine administration was linked with an increase in sirtuin gene transcription while increased sirtuin activity was associated the rewarding effects of cocaine being augmented, while pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins reduced the rewarding effects of cocaine and the motivation to self-administer the drug.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic cocaine disruption of estrous cyclicity in the rat. T2 - Dose-dependent effects. AU - King, T. S.. AU - Canez, M. S.. AU - Gaskill, S.. AU - Javors, M. A.. AU - Schenken, R. S.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The effects of cocaine on cyclic reproductive function in females remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to define the range of doses of cocaine effective in disrupting estrous cyclicity and inhibiting ovulation. Estrous cyclicity was monitored daily by vaginal cytology. Group 1 consisted of rats receiving no treatment. Group 2 consisted of rats injected daily with saline s.c. Groups 3 to 6 consisted of rats injected with 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of cocaine HCl s.c., respectively. Group 7 consisted of rats that were food-restricted to allow weight gains comparable to those of group 6. Our results indicate a dose- dependent effect of cocaine on estrous cyclicity with an estimated IC50 of 8.5 mg/kg/day (i.e., the dose of cocaine required to inhibit the ...
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While there has been a lack of consistency in the results from different studies on cocaine withdrawal, generally, symptoms of cocaine withdrawal include: Anxiety Erratic sleep Irritability Depression Sadness Cravings for cocaine Poor concentration Lethargy These may occur anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after the suspension of cocaine use. The symptoms can be managed by most people while at home and do not require hospitalization for detox.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cocaine analog coupled to disrupted adenovirus. T2 - A vaccine strategy to evoke high-titer immunity against addictive drugs. AU - Hicks, Martin J.. AU - De, Bishnu P.. AU - Rosenberg, Jonathan B.. AU - Davidson, Jesse T.. AU - Moreno, Amira Y.. AU - Janda, Kim D.. AU - Wee, Sunmee. AU - Koob, George F.. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Kaminsky, Stephen M.. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Toth, Miklos. AU - Mezey, Jason G.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Based on the concept that anticocaine antibodies could prevent inhaled cocaine from reaching its target receptors in the brain, an effective anticocaine vaccine could help reverse cocaine addiction. Leveraging the knowledge that E1- E3- adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a novel vaccine platform for addictive drugs by covalently linking a cocaine analog to the capsid proteins of noninfectious, disrupted Ad vector. The Ad-based anticocaine vaccine evokes high-titer ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
The results of the present study demonstrate that cocaine self-administration alters dopamine transporter binding and that these changes follow a clear progression over time. In the initial stages of cocaine self-administration (5 d), DAT binding site levels were moderately reduced, whereas after more prolonged cocaine self-administration (3.3 months), large increases in the density of DAT sites were evident. These increases in DAT binding levels persisted even after protracted periods of self-administration (1.5 years). A key characteristic of the alterations in DAT binding was the dose-dependent nature of the effects. Chronic cocaine self-administration at the higher cocaine dose yielded more intense increases in the density of the DAT binding sites and encompassed a wider expanse of the caudal PCS than self-administration of the lower dose. Finally, the majority of significant changes in DAT binding density that occurred after chronic and long-term cocaine self-administration were focused in ...
Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a widely expressed scaffold protein known to interact via its PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-domain with several membrane proteins including the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), the primary target for cocaines reinforcing actions. Here, we establish the importance of PICK1 for behavioral effects observed after both acute and repeated administration of cocaine. In PICK1 knock-out (KO) mice, the acute locomotor response to a single injection of cocaine was markedly attenuated. Moreover, in support of a role for PICK1 in neuroadaptive changes induced by cocaine, we observed diminished cocaine intake in a self-administration paradigm. Reduced behavioral effects of cocaine were not associated with decreased striatal DAT distribution and most likely not caused by the ∼30% reduction in synaptosomal DA uptake observed in PICK1 KO mice. The PICK1 KO mice demonstrated preserved behavioral responses to DA receptor agonists supporting intact downstream DA ...
Previous examination of binge cocaine self-administration and 2 week withdrawal from cocaine self-administration about ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit (iGluRs) protein levels revealed significant alterations in iGluR protein levels that differed between your mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways. and nigrostriatal pathways (substantia nigra SN and dorsal caudate-putamen CPu). Inside the mesolimbic Mouse monoclonal to Histone 3.1. Histones are the structural scaffold for the organization of nuclear DNA into chromatin. Four core histones, H2A,H2B,H3 and H4 are the major components of nucleosome which is the primary building block of chromatin. The histone proteins play essential structural and functional roles in the transition between active and inactive chromatin states. Histone 3.1, an H3 variant that has thus far only been found in mammals, is replication dependent and is associated with tene activation and gene silencing. pathway reductions had been seen in NR1 and GluR5 ...
Background Homologous cocaine self-administration procedures in laboratory animals and humans may facilitate translational research for medications development to treat cocaine dependence. This study, therefore, sought to establish choice between cocaine and an alternative reinforcer in rhesus monkeys responding under a procedure back-translated from previous human studies and homologous to a human laboratory procedure described in a companion paper. Methods Four rhesus monkeys with chronic indwelling intravenous catheters had access to cocaine injections (0, 0.043, 0.14, or 0.43 mg/kg/injection) and food (0, 1, 3, or 10 1 g banana-flavored food pellets). During daily 5 h sessions, a single cocaine dose and a single food-reinforcer magnitude were available in 10 30-min trials. During the initial
Cocaine abuse has become the most abused major stimulant in the USA and statistics show that emergency room visits for it are increasing. Cocaine abuse has been around for as long as anyone can remember.. Derived from the "innocent" cocoa plant, it is considered the "champagne" of drugs, one of its street names. There is an array of street names describing the different uses.. There are various ways that an addict will use this drug, amongst them being snorting, smoking one of the derivatives known as crack or rock. Historically, cocaine was known as the rich mans drug. This is changing rapidly as teenagers have found a new sensation in mixing it with marijuana.. The highly addictive nature of cocaine makes it an extremely dangerous drug and many a user will tell you that theyre not addicted. This is so far from the truth to be ridiculous. If cocaine abuse isnt a problem to the addict, how come they are still using it?. No-one would willingly remain addicted. The penalties are extreme. ...
Cocaine addiction is a serious issue. It affects all people and social classes. Cocaine addiction can cause death, imprisonment, and misery. It destroys lives and families. Dont let cocaine addiction ruin your life; get effective cocaine addiction treatment today!
Because DSM-IV cocaine dependence (CD) is heterogeneous, it is not an optimal phenotype to identify genetic variation contributing to risk for cocaine use and related behaviors (CRBs). We used a cluster analytic method to differentiate homogeneous, highly heritable subtypes of CRBs and to compare their utility with that of the DSM-IV CD as traits for genetic association analysis. Clinical features of CRBs and co-occurring disorders were obtained via a poly-diagnostic interview administered to 9,965 participants in genetic studies of substance dependence. A subsample of subjects (N = 3,443) were genotyped for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 130 candidate genes related to addiction. Cluster analysis of clinical features of the sample yielded five subgroups, two of which were characterized by heavy cocaine use and high heritability: a heavy cocaine use, infrequent intravenous injection group and an early-onset, heavy cocaine use, high comorbidity group. The utility of ...
You can become addicted to cocaine, meaning that you crave and need more and more cocaine. If this happens cocaine use can become an expensive habit to keep and can spiral out of control. You may lose your job, home; and your relationships with friends and family can be damaged or destroyed.. Cocaine can make you feel depressed and run down after using it. It can bring previous mental health problems to the surface. You can develop serious problems with anxiety, paranoia and panic attacks. Large or frequent use of coke tends to knock sexual desire on the head.. Cocaine is highly risky for anybody with high blood pressure or a heart condition. Perfectly healthy, young people can have a fit or heart attack after taking too much coke and you may not know youve got a pre-existing heart condition. ...
Cocaine is a stimulant, which means that it produces a fast, intense feeling of power and energy. Then it wears off (crack wears off very quickly) and the user feels depressed and nervous and craves more of the drug to feel good again.. Cocaine is so addictive that someone can get hooked after trying it just once.. Snorting cocaine can damage the septum between the nostrils, causing a hole in the middle of the nose.. Cocaine makes the heart beat faster and blood pressure and body temperature go up. It also can make the heart beat abnormally. Cocaine is so dangerous that using it just once can cause a heart attack, stroke, or even death.. ...
Cocaine is a stimulant, which means that it produces a fast, intense feeling of power and energy. Then it wears off (crack wears off very quickly) and the user feels depressed and nervous and craves more of the drug to feel good again.. Cocaine is so addictive that someone can get hooked after trying it just once.. Snorting cocaine can damage the septum between the nostrils, causing a hole in the middle of the nose.. Cocaine makes the heart beat faster and blood pressure and body temperature go up. It also can make the heart beat abnormally. Cocaine is so dangerous that using it just once can cause a heart attack, stroke, or even death.. ...
We investigated the interaction between ontogeny, stress and environment where the drug is administered on the behavioral sensitization to cocaine and related neuroadaptations. This study was divided in two parts. In the first one we evaluated the behavioral sensitization to cocaine and alterations of glutamate receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme following repeated cocaine administrations or stress exposure on adolescent rats. These alterations were evaluated from adolescence to adulthood. The results showed that cocaine administration during adolescence produced long-term behavioral sensitization to cocaine until adulthood and increased of GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit in the medial prefrontal cortex. The stress-induced behavioral sensitization was evident during adolescence but did not reach adulthood. In the second part, we evaluated the environmental modulation of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and alterations of CREB and upstream kinases activation in adult rats. The results ...
This invention includes an antigenic conjugate of ecgonine and a carrier which elicits anti-benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) serum useful for the detection of cocaine metabolites in human organs a
1] M. Gossop, V. Manning, and G. Ridge, "Concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine: differences in patterns of use and problems among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder," Alcohol Alcohol., vol. 41, pp. 121-125, 2006.. [2] H. R. Sumnall, G. F. Wagstaff, and J. C. Cole, "Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users," J. Psychopharmacol., vol. 18, pp. 75-82, 2004.. [3] M. Graziani, P. Nencini, and R. Nisticò, "Genders and the concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol: Pharmacological aspects," Pharmacol. Res., vol. 87, pp. 60-70, 2014.. [4] L. J. Bierut, J. R. Strickland, J. R. Thompson, S. E. Afful, and L. B. Cottler, "Drug use and dependence in cocaine dependent subjects, community-based individuals, and their siblings," Drug Alcohol Depend., vol. 95, pp. 14-22, 2008.. [5] T. Apantaku-Olajide, C. D. Darker, and B. P. Smyth, "Onset of cocaine use: Associated alcohol intoxication and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in substance abuse treatment," J. Addict. Med., vol. 7, pp. ...
There is a chemical out and about in the world today called cocaine hydrochloride. We commonly refer to it as cocaine. Some cocaine users, in order to make the drug more potent, remove the hydrochloride, a process call "freebasing." The solid form of this freebased cocaine is called "crack", getting its name from the snapping and cracking sounds it makes when being heated and smoked. Once considered a rich mans drug, it is currently being sold at prices that even juveniles can afford-at least in the beginning. Once addicted, the crack habit increases along with the cost. Continue reading →. ...
Define cocaine. cocaine synonyms, cocaine pronunciation, cocaine translation, English dictionary definition of cocaine. n. A colorless or white crystalline alkaloid, C17H21NO4, extracted from coca leaves, sometimes used in medicine as a local anesthetic especially for the...
Of all substance of abuse, the kind of cocaine abuse destructions in human life is very painful. Cocaine abuse effects on human health are growing very fast among the middle-class communities. According to a report released by a Police Foundation recently, it was stated that there are 120,000 regular users and 360,000 occasional users of cocaine, with 180,000 taking crack cocaine the report concludes. This drug is no respecter of anyone and social status is not a factor when it comes to drug addiction. Everyone is vulnerable and we must face the problem boldly without fear. Doctor Akoury MD, is a veteran addiction expert who is taking the initiative to help you get the best of your life in this article by focusing on the discussion topic which is "destructions cocaine abuse cause on human health". The chilling revelations doctor Akoury is about to share with us are just but a very small fraction of what this drug is capable of doing in your life. It would be appropriate that even as you go ...
WILMINGTON - United States Attorney Thomas G. Walker announced that in federal court today Senior United States District Judge James C. Fox sentenced LARRY DONNELL TAYLOR, 40, of Dunn, North Carolina, to 240 months in prison followed by 5 years of supervised released for conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute 280 grams or more of cocaine base (crack) and 5 kilograms or more of cocaine and conspiracy to commit money laundering. TAYLOR previously pled guilty to these charges on January 2, 2013.. The investigation revealed that from at least 2000 to October 2012, TAYLOR was an upper-level drug trafficker who received large quantities of cocaine and crack cocaine from several suppliers. Upon receiving the drugs, TAYLOR utilized several individuals to distribute his drugs throughout the Eastern District of North Carolina. TAYLOR also converted substantial quantities of cocaine into crack cocaine for resale.. On October 3, 2012, investigators served a federal arrest warrant on ...
The purpose of this data collection was to investigate the possible increase in gang involvement within cocaine and rock cocaine trafficking. Investigators also examined the relationships among gangs, cocaine trafficking, and increasing levels of violence. They attempted to determine the effects of increased gang involvement in cocaine distribution in terms of the location of an incident, the demographic profiles of suspects, and the level of firearm use. They also looked at issues such as whether the connection between gangs and cocaine trafficking yielded more drug-related violence, how the connection between gangs and cocaine trafficking affected police investigative processes such as intra-organizational communication and the use of special enforcement technologies, what kinds of working relationships were established between narcotics units and gang control units, and what the characteristics were of the rock trafficking and rock house technologies of the dealers. Part 1 (Sales Arrest ...
Several risk factors for cocaine addiction have been identified. These include endogenous (presumably genetic) factors (such as trait impulsivity and novelty seeking), exogenous (environmental) factors (such as prior use and dependence on nicotine, alcohol, or marijuana), and psychiatric disorders (such as lifetime personality disorder or attention deficit hyperactive disorder). Controlling for multiple predictors, alcohol dependence, together with mood disorder, is second in importance-after cannabis dependence-as predictors of cocaine dependence (2). Although many rodent studies have tested cross-sensitization between different drug classes, the significance of these studies to drug addiction vulnerability is often confounded by behavioral models that focus on the early stages of drug experimentation rather than on addiction. Here, we have used a rodent model of compulsive cocaine use to test, on both a behavioral and molecular level, the epidemiological hypothesis that alcohol acts as a ...
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain.. Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush in the mid-19th century. In the early 1900s it became the main stimulant drug used in most of the tonics and elixirs that were developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses. It quickly became popular as an ingredient in patented medicines (throat lozenges and tonics) and other products (such as Coca Cola, from which it was later removed).. Concern soon mounted due to instances of addiction, psychotic behavior, convulsion, and death. A series of steps, including passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, were taken to combat health and behavioral problems associated with the use of cocaine. Finally, the Harrison Act of 1914 outlawed the use of cocaine in over-the-counter products and made it available only by prescription. Cocaine use soon dropped dramatically and remained at minimal levels for nearly half a century.. In the 1960s, illicit ...
Irrespective of ongoing analysis into the cure of cocaine abuse, efficient medications for acute toxicity or Long-term addiction are still lacking. Cocaine capabilities being a molecular blocker of dopamine transporters, and thus drug detoxification inside the CNS by using its displacement from transporter binding websites poses a fascinating conundrum. We hypothesized that an immunopharmacotherapeutic treatment method technique for cocaine-connected toxicity would endorse drug efflux in the CNS via binding cocaine from the periphery. Cocaine vaccines circumvent the prerequisite of the central mechanism to effect cocaine trafficking, a barrier which includes confirmed insurmountable to other pharmacotherapeutic strategies ...
People who are addicted to cocaine have less grey matter in the frontal parts of their brain and in their hippocampi. The frontal parts of the brain are important for paying attention and organising ones behaviour while the hippocampus is important in learning and memory. A team of researchers led by Nelly Alia-Klein at the U.S. Department of Energys Brookhaven National Laboratory have found that people with a certain genetic make up may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of cocaine use than other people. The researchers studied 82 people. 40 of them were addicted to cocaine and 42 were healthy controls. The researchers took DNA samples and scanned the subjects brains. The cocaine addicts with a low MAOA (monoamine oxidase A) genotype had lower grey-matter density in the frontal parts of the brain than the other cocaine addicts. The genes are responsible for levels of MAOA, an enzyme which regulates neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine that regulate mood ...
Another name for Addicted to Cocaine is Cocaine Abuse. Facts about cocaine abuse: * At least 1.5 million Americans use cocaine. * Cocaine use is most ...
Cocaine is one of the most addictive drugs without a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication. Enzyme therapy using an efficient cocaine-metabolizing enzyme is recognized as the ...
Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nervous system stimulating drug, which increases the level of neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the brain, by blocking the dopamine transporters (DAT) which is critical for DA homeostasis and neurocognitive function. Tat protein of HIV acts as an allosteric modulator of DAT, where as cocaine acts as reuptake inhibitor. When macrophages in the CNS are exposed to DA, their number increases. These macrophages release inflammatory mediators and neurotoxins, causing chronic neuroinflammation. Cocaine abuse during HIV
Exposure of fetal mouse brain cocultures to cocaine results selectively in the loss of neurites followed by neuronal death. By using enriched neuronal cultures, we here demonstrate that disappearance of neurons, when cultured with cocaine, is caused by apoptosis, based on (1) characteristic morphology of apoptotic nuclei at the level of neurons but not of glial cells by optic microscopy, and on total cell pellets by electron microscopy; (2) fragmentation of total DNA with a typical "ladder" pattern on agarose gels; (3) extensive in situ DNA fragmentation labeling (TUNEL method); and (4) prevention of cell loss by cycloheximide. The major metabolites of cocaine have no detectable effects on neurons, indicating that apoptosis is due to cocaine itself. Inappropriate neuronal apoptosis in cocaine-exposed fetal brain could perturb the neurodevelopmental program and contribute to the quantitative neuronal defects that are too frequently reported in the offspring of cocaine-abusing pregnant women. ...
A search warrant was also issued for 33-year-old Daneska Cintron Pacecho, the resident of the address for Manufacture/Sell/Poss./Delivery Controlled Substance , 1 KG of Cocaine, Manufacture/Poss./Delivery of Schedule I/II, Manufacture/Sell/Poss./ Delivery 1 oz. - 1KG of Cocaine, Maintaining a Common Nuisance, and Distribution or Manufacturing in or near School, and Conspiracy.. As of this time, police are still searching for Cintron Pacheco.. On Thursday, March 12th, Police arrested 36-year-old Central Falls resident, Ana Carolina Castrillon Escobar in possession of 1 kilo of cocaine.. Police charged her with Manufacture/Poss./Delivery , 1 KG Cocaine, Manufacture/Poss./Delivery Schedule I/II, Driving While in Possession of a Controlled Substance and Driving without a License (2nd offense).. On Friday, March 13, police arrested 38-year-old Juan Carlos Almonte of Providence, in possession of 1 kilo of cocaine.. ...
Cocaine use is a common disorder of neuroplasticity that triggers cellular and molecular alterations in brain reward systems, mainly in the dorsal striatum. Compulsive cocaine use and cocaine relapse is due to drug-induced neuroadaptations in reward-related learning and memory processes, and these cause hypersensitivity to cocaine-associated cues, impulsive decision making and abnormal habit-like learned behaviors that are insensitive to adverse consequences [3]. Cocaine-induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system mediate psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-seeking behaviors. Hollander et al. [4] demonstrated that cocaine-seeking behavior in rats is modulated by miR-212, which decreases the activity of a group of genes (CREB, TORC1, Raf1 and SPRED1), thus limiting the transition to an uncontrolled intake of cocaine in animals exposed to the drug over a long period of time. Interestingly, artificially increasing miR-212 expression leads to decreased cocaine intake under ...
A single cocaine injection in drug-experienced animals during an extended drug-free period triggers a synaptic depression whereas the same treatment in drug-naive animals does not. Thus, repeated cocaine dramatically alters an animals response to subsequent cocaine during extended withdrawal. This type of shift has been referred to as metaplasticity, a condition in which the history of activity in a given neuron or synapse alters the magnitude or direction of plasticity in response to subsequent stimulation (Abraham and Bear, 1996; Bear, 2003). A compelling example of metaplasticity comes from visual deprivation experiments. Reduction in activity of visual cortical neurons can shift the response of these neurons to a given evoked stimulus from long-term depression to long-term potentiation (LTP) (Kirkwood et al., 1996; Bear, 2003). As in other forms of metaplasticity, repeated cocaine experience appears to shift the threshold necessary for generating a plastic response, in this case, synaptic ...
Behavioral sensitization to cocaine reflects neuroadaptive changes that intensify drug effects. However, repeated cocaine administration does not induce behavioral sensitization in all male Sprague-Dawley rats. Because cocaine inhibits the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), we investigated whether altered DAT function contributes to these individual differences. Freely moving rats had electrochemical microelectrode/microcannulae assemblies chronically implanted in the nucleus accumbens so that exogenous DA clearance signals were recorded simultaneous with behavior. The peak DA signal amplitude (Amax) and efficiency of clearance (k) were used as indices of in vivo DAT function. Low and high cocaine responders (LCRs and HCRs, respectively) were identified based on their locomotor responsiveness to an initial injection of cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.). Consistent with DAT inhibition, cocaine elevated Amax and reducedk in HCRs, but not in LCRs. The same dose of cocaine was administered for six additional ...
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic system that projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to other forebrain sites, is the major substrate of reward and reinforcement for both natural rewards and addictive drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine "high." Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation ...
Health,Cocaine had been associated to cardiovascular diseases and recent stud...Studies have always been carried on to find out the effect of substa...In cocaine users undergoing coronary angiography there was eviden...Aneurysm is a ballooning of a portion of the artery that happens d...The researchers had taken the clinical angiographic characteristic...,Cocaine,may,cause,aneurysms,for,the,coronart,artery,,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Within Detroit, the primary emphasis continues to be placed on targeting major cocaine distribution and transportation organizations. The larger metropolitan areas of Detroit continue to experience high availability in cocaine trafficking and abuse. The availability of the drug is increasing the need for cocaine addiction treatment in the city.. A large majority of the cocaine transported to Detroit by these Mexican and African American organizations is transported in personal vehicles equipped with traps and/or concealed within the legitimate cargo on large semi tractor-trailers. As the venues for transportation and distribution expand the need for cocaine drug rehab, education and addiction treatment becomes a serious issue in the area. City officials believe that the key to addiction recovery lies within the concept of drug rehab Michigan.. Narconon Arrowhead, one of the world\s largest and most effective drug rehabilitation and education programs can help. We offer free addiction counseling, ...
Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10) procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine) test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures.
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes 2013 drug report, the United States consumes 36.8 percent of the global cocaine demand each year. The US is the largest market for cocaine in the world, followed by Brazil, which consumes 17.7 percent of the world cocaine supply.. (Additional cocaine facts and statistics.). Source: Elias Groll, "The New Cocaine War: Peru Overtakes Colombia as Worlds Top Coca Grower," Foreign Policy, Passport, August 9, 2013.. ...
Cocaine is a highly addictive and illegal stimulant that is made from the leaves of the coca plant, which is native to South America.
The effect of adolescent cocaine administration on adult cocaine conditioning and the role of FAAH inhibition on the development of cocaine conditioning and on cocaine-conditioned locomotion and anxiety-like behaviors in rats ...
Client: National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice. Authors/Consultants: Homer J. A system dynamics model reproduces a variety of national indicator data reflecting cocaine use and supply over a 15-year period and provides detailed estimates of actual underlying prevalence. Sensitivity testing clarifies the source of observed trends. Alternative scenarios with possible policy implications were simulated and projected. In one analysis, the model was applied to determine the potential impact of policies involving a relaxation of law enforcement. The model suggests that a policy that eliminates both drug seizures and retail-level arrests would reduce the criminal justice load, but could lead to a large increase in cocaine use and addiction.. Publications:. - Homer J. A System Dynamics Model of National Cocaine Prevalence. System Dynamics Review, 9(1): 49-78, 1993.. - Homer J. System Dynamics Model for Cocaine Prevalence Estimation and Trend Projection. Journal of Drug Issues, 23(2): ...
Trauma is associated with use of cocaine. Cocaine can cause agitation, paranoia, distractibility, distorted perception, and depression. All of these may increase the likelihood of violence, suicide, o... more
Trauma is associated with use of cocaine. Cocaine can cause agitation, paranoia, distractibility, distorted perception, and depression. All of these may increase the likelihood of violence, suicide, o... more
Back. Brain and Cocaine. Techniques of positron emission tomography (PET) have shown in human cocaine abusers some of the ways by which cocaine produces its pleasurable effects as they are occurring. Researchers suggest that cocaine works in large part by occupying or blocking dopamine transporter (DAT) sites, thereby preventing reuptake of dopamine by the brain cells that release it, which then allows higher concentrations of dopamine to remain available in the brain longer than normal. It is this abnormally long presence of dopamine in the brain that is believed to cause the high and other effects associated with cocaine use.. Comparing the functioning of the dopamine system in the brains of chronic cocaine users with that in non-users, the researchers found that, compared to the non-users, the cocaine-dependent group showed reduced dopamine responses to the drug in the striatum, a region of the brain linked to motivation control and reward. At the same time, they found an abnormal increase in ...
The Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index showed that positivity for cocaine declined 20.7 percent among federally mandated, safety-sensitive workers, to 0.46 percent for the first six months of 2007, compared to 0.58 percent for all of 2006. Among the general workforce, positivity for cocaine declined 15.3 percent, falling to 0.61 percent for the period between January and June 2007 compared to 0.72 percent for 2006.. "Not only did the positivity rate fall to its lowest level since Quest Diagnostics began reporting on cocaine rates a decade ago, but also the decline was truly across the board, falling by double-digits in all but one of nine regions of the country," said Barry Sample, Ph.D., director of Science and Technology for the Employer Solutions division of Quest Diagnostics. "While it is too soon to point to a trend, the significant decline in positivity rates in different workforce categories and across regions may suggest that our nations workers are choosing not to use cocaine or that ...
Seattle police say a 73-year-old man was arrested after he tried to snort cocaine during a traffic stop. During the stop, Abts-Olsen checked the mans license and registration and says he startled the man when he returned to the vehicle, causing him to spill cocaine on his hands and the floor of the car. Police say the man initially tried to brush away the white powder, denied it was cocaine and said he had vitamins in his possession. Eventually, the man told police snorting cocaine in the middle of a traffic stop was perhaps a poor decision. Posted By Persist
Reversibility of Cocaines Cardiovascular Effects in Vivo. We have found that an efficient cocaine hydrolase will reduce hypertensive responses to cocaine in the rat and that such an enzyme can be beneficial even after responses to the drug have become established. It is particularly important that an injection of CocE restored baseline blood pressure in rats that received a near-LD50 dose of cocaine. This finding is directly relevant to the clinical utility of hydrolases for rescue from cocaine overdose.. The rapid restoration of normotension shows that cocaines binding to its sites of action is reversible in vivo on a time scale of seconds. Our data confirm previous indications that cocaines high affinity for its target, the catecholamine transporter, is compatible with ready reversibility. Such reversibility is expected. For example, even the potent muscarinic antagonist, N-methylscopolamine, with Kd of 0.2 nM, dissociates from its preferred receptor subtype with a rate constant of 0.027 ...
Indivior (formerly Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals) is developing RBP 8000 as an intravenous antidote for cocaine toxicity. RBP 8000 is a cocaine esterase
On October 30, President Clinton signed a bill that blocks the U.S. Sentencing Commission amendments to equalize the penalties for crack and powder cocaine from taking effect (see Congress Nixes Amendments to Sentencing Guidelines on Cocaine, Money Laundering, 58 CrL 1086, October 25, 1995).. In a statement Clinton said the U.S. is making strides in combatting crime and violence. We have to send a constant message to our children that drugs are illegal, drugs are dangerous, drugs may cost you your life -- and the penalties for dealing drugs are severe, he said. I am not going to let anyone who peddles drugs get the idea that the cost of doing business is going down.. Clinton also mentioned that he may support proposals that toughen powder cocaine sentences. When large-scale cocaine traffickers sell powder with the knowledge that it will be converted into crack, they should be punished as severely as those who distribute the crack itself. I have asked the Attorney General to immediately ...
Researchers at Yale University have been testing a vaccine against cocaine addiction. The vaccine works by binding onto cocaine in the bloodstream and preventing it from reaching the brain cells where it produces its pleasurable effect. A total of 115 cocaine- and opiate-dependent people took part in the study. The participants received five injections of either the vaccine or a placebo over a 12-week period. Those participants who finished the study with a high level of antibodies produced significantly more cocaine-free urine samples than those who had lower levels of the antibodies or who had received a placebo. The proportion of participants who reduced their cocaine use by half was 53% among those treated with the active vaccine compared to only 23% among those treated with a placebo ...
Cocaine is highly addictive, illegal, and deadly drug, which destroys virtually everyone misguided enough to try it. In many cases the only thing powerful enough to overcome the addiction is to turn ones life over to Jesus Christ. Cocaine was first used natives of South America who chewed the leaves of the coca plant, and then later isolated and purified for medical use as a local anesthetic. Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca), which is indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America. Natives in this region chew or brew coca leaves into a tea for refreshment and to relieve fatigue, similar to the customs of chewing tobacco and drinking tea or coffee. Pure cocaine was first isolated in the 1880s. It was used as a local anesthetic in eye surgery. It was particularly useful in surgery of the nose and throat because of its ability to provide anesthesia, as well as to constrict blood vessels and limit bleeding. Many of the therapeutic applications of raw, ...
What plant does cocaine come from? Cocaine is a product derived from coca plants found in South America. Learn more about how cocaine is made & distributed.
View Notes - 52_100_Lecture_10_9_07 from CHEM 101 at Bloomsburg. 10/8/2007 Biochemistry of Cocaine Cocaine stimulates those parts of the brain that induce pleasurable sensations Cocaine stimulates
Cocaine can be more harmful to teenagers than adults. Cocaine abuse in teens results in deficits of sustained attention, working memory, and declarative memory.
Cocaine Prison follows the lives of three indigenous Bolivians who work at the lowest levels of the cocaine trade. Two inmates of an overcrowded prison film their daily experiences, while one inmates sister must decide whether to traffic cocaine or become the first person in her family to pursue a college education. Cocaine Prison bridges the ever widening gap between the North and the South and brings a new perspective to the War on Drugs being waged in the Andes.. ...
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Andrew D. Erickson, 25, 1325 Front St. S., was ordered to post $1,000 cash bail and a $5,000 surety bond March 22 on two counts of felony delivery of cocaine and misdemeanor charges of possession of cocaine and drug paraphernalia.. The criminal complaint alleged on March 6 Erickson delivered cocaine to a confidential informant at a Freedom Station parking lot in Hudson and on March 12 he delivered an amount of cocaine in another undercover buy outside the Dairy Queen in Hudson.. On March 21 peace officers conducted a search warrant at Ericksons residence in Hudson, the complaint said. ...
Abstract: Cocaine is recognized as the most reinforcing of all drugs of abuse. There is no anticocaine medication available. The disastrous medical and social consequences of cocaine addiction...
Cocaine-related emergency-room admissions, overdoses and requests for rehab have declined since the economy started its 2008 decline, according to data obtained by The Post. "It is sort of on a slight but steady downward trend," said Dr. Stephen Ross, director of NYUs Langone Center of Excellence on Addiction. "I treat patients in private practice. Many cocaine addicts tell me stories they dont have enough money to buy it anymore." There were 478 "accidental" deaths in which cocaine was a factor, typically overdoses, in New York City in 2006, according to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner. That number plunged to just 274 in 2010. Powder-cocaine addicts typically shell out $60 to $80 a gram, so perhaps the high cost of blow is why also a smaller number of people - 7,693 - sought treatment for cocaine addiction in New York City last year, according to the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services. That number is a drop from 9,654 in 2008. ...
Cocaine reward and reinforcing effects are mediated mainly by dopaminergic neurotransmission. In this study, we aimed at evaluating gene expression changes induced by acute cocaine exposure on SH-SY5Y-differentiated cells, which have been widely used as a dopaminergic neuronal model. Expression chan …
A single-dose vaccine capable of providing immunity against the effects of cocaine offers a novel and groundbreaking strategy for treating cocaine addiction is described in an article published Instant Online in Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ( The article is available free online at the Human Gene Therapy website ( "This is a very novel approach for addressing the huge medical problem of cocaine addiction," says James M. Wilson, MD, PhD, Editor-in-Chief, and Director of the Gene Therapy Program, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia.. In the article "AAVrh.10-Mediated Expression of an Anti-Cocaine Antibody Mediates Persistent Passive Immunization That Suppresses Cocaine-Induced Behavior," ( a team of researchers from Weill Cornell Medical College (New York, ...
Anxiety, confusion and depression are only few cocaine withdrawal symptoms. What are the others and how long do they last? Explore our infographic to find out!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maturation of silent synapses in amygdala-accumbens projection contributes to incubation of cocaine craving. AU - Lee, Brian R.. AU - Ma, Yao Ying. AU - Huang, Yanhua H.. AU - Wang, Xiusong. AU - Otaka, Mami. AU - Ishikawa, Masago. AU - Neumann, Peter A.. AU - Graziane, Nicholas M.. AU - Brown, Travis E.. AU - Suska, Anna. AU - Guo, Changyong. AU - Lobo, Mary Kay. AU - Sesack, Susan R.. AU - Wolf, Marina E.. AU - Nestler, Eric J.. AU - Shaham, Yavin. AU - Schlüter, Oliver M.. AU - Dong, Yan. PY - 2013/11/1. Y1 - 2013/11/1. N2 - In rat models of drug relapse and craving, cue-induced cocaine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from the drug. This incubation of cocaine craving is partially mediated by time-dependent adaptations at glutamatergic synapses in nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the circuit-level adaptations mediating this plasticity remain elusive. We studied silent synapses, often regarded as immature synapses that express stable NMDA receptors with AMPA ...
Health, ...PHILADELPHIAThe drug topiramate typically used to treat epilepsy and ...Past separate studies have shown that topiramate can reduce alcohol d...Results of the 13-week clinical trial of 170 alcohol and cocaine depen... Cocaine dependence continues to be a significant public health concer...,Weight,loss,drug,helps,curb,cocaine,addictions,,Penn,study,finds,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Rationale: D1 dopamine receptor antagonists and agonists attenuate cocaine reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., responding in the absence of cocaine reinforcement). Objectives: The present
Here at Drugnet, our Cocaine Addiction research has been extensive, and we do that to make sure we bring you updated information regarding all topics.
Its hard to say what are the exact doses that cause cocaine fatalities. Read more about the effects of too much cocaine and how to avoid a cocaine overdose.
University at Buffalo researchers have identified a neural pathway that could hold a key to preventing relapse in individuals recovering from cocaine addiction. Their study focused on the activity of Activin receptors in the brain that are located in regions involved in pleasure and reward.. Published online June 1 in Nature Neuroscience, the study authored by Amy Gancarz, PhD, found that the Activin pathway controls the ability of cocaine to alter the connections between various neurons. By manipulating the activity of Activin receptors, researchers were able to change cocaine-taking behavior in animal models.. "Understanding this critical pathway will help us pursue new directions in potential pharmacological and gene therapies to prevent drug relapses," senior author David Dietz, PhD, assistant professor at the university medical schools Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, said in a June 18 news release.. ...
thank you for your answer. as for your questions, your guess is as good as mine (well better) because my lecturer hasnt answered my queries yet (and may never judging from past experience). i only have my lecture notes and his powerpoint slides to go on, and i wrote down everything they say below. but i believe you must be right, because i have absolute faith in the competence of this lecturer. the former experiment must refer to cocaine being available concurrently with the ICSS, and the textbook experiment refers to the behaviour of rats during ICSS after cocaine has aleady been administered. theres a reference in my lecturers powerpoint slides, but its not in our library: Maldonado-Irizarry, C.S., J.R. Stellar, and A.E. Kelley. (1994). Effects of cocaine and GBR-12909 on brain stimulation reward. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 48, 915-20.i have just e-mailed one of the authors with the query (again e-mail address found using an internet search), but am not holding my breath. ...
Cocaine analogues[edit]. Main article: List of cocaine analogues. Hundreds of cocaine analogues have been created, all of them ... Main article: Cocaine. Cocaine is an SNDRI. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca shrub, which grows in the mountain ... In Europe, North America, and some parts of Asia, the most common form of cocaine is a white crystalline powder. Cocaine is a ... Trozak D, Gould W (1984). "Cocaine abuse and connective tissue disease". J Am Acad Dermatol. 10 (3): 525. doi:10.1016/S0190- ...
... but cocaine addiction has had notably less success.[22] Hart argues that the varied results across cocaine users needs to serve ... "Developing Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis and Cocaine Use Disorders"[edit]. In this review, Hart and Lynch discuss a variety of ... He cites the criminalization of crack cocaine (which is typically associated with black communities) and lack of similar ... One such example is the difference in sentencing between crack and cocaine, which are essentially the same drug. Hart is ...
Cocaine[edit]. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine use results in a smaller brain, which results in learning ... Cocaine puts the fetus at a higher risk of being stillborn or premature. Cocaine use also results in low birthweight, damage to ...
Cocaine[edit]. Cocaine has a similar potential to induce temporary psychosis[17] with more than half of cocaine abusers ... Elliott A.; Mahmood T.; Smalligan R. D. (2012). "Cocaine Bugs: A Case Report of Cocaine-Induced Delusions of Parasitosis". The ... Brady KT, Lydiard RB, Malcolm R, Ballenger JC (1991). "Cocaine-induced psychosis". J Clin Psychiatry. 52: 509-512.. ... Cocaine-induced psychosis shows sensitization toward the psychotic effects of the drug. This means that psychosis becomes more ...
Modulation of cocaine reward[edit]. Researchers investigated the effects of CB2 agonists on cocaine self-administration in mice ... Systemic administration of JWH-133 reduced the number of self-infusions of cocaine in mice, as well as reducing locomotor ... Systemic administration of JWH-133 also reduced basal and cocaine-induced elevations of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus ... "Brain Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Modulate Cocaine's Actions in Mice". Nature Neuroscience. 14 (9): 1160-1166. doi:10.1038/nn. ...
Cocaine[edit]. They should also be avoided in patients with a history of cocaine use or in cocaine-induced tachycardia.[ ... Beta blockers should not be used as a first-line treatment in the acute setting for cocaine-induced acute coronary syndrome ( ... Page RL, Utz KJ, Wolfel EE (December 2007). "Should beta-blockers be used in the treatment of cocaine-associated acute coronary ... and because cocaine users may be prone to continue to abuse the substance, thus complicating the effect of drug therapy.[54] ...
Cocaine. *SID *Cocaine intoxication. *SUD *Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder ...
Cocaine group. Substitution in positions 2 and 3 Cocaine, ecgonine [56][58] ... Caffeine,[162] cocaine,[163] codeine[164] and nicotine[165] are slightly soluble in water (with a solubility of ≥1g/L), whereas ... Cocaine, caffeine, and cathinone are stimulants of the central nervous system.[211][212] Mescaline and many indole alkaloids ( ... Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine),[ ...
Cocaine. Clear (No change) d-Amphetamine HCl. Strong reddish orange - Dark reddish brown ...
Cocaine. *SID *Cocaine intoxication. *SUD *Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder ...
Cocaine dependence. Hallucinogen. *SID *Acute intoxication from hallucinogens (bad trip). *Hallucinogen persisting perception ...
... triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: ...
Two songs from the album, "Cocaine" and "Fastlane", had music videos to accompany their release. The Internet has a song ...
... the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with trace levels of cocaine.[67] Since then, Coca-Cola uses a cocaine-free ... "Cocaine Facts - How to Tell Use of Cocaine - Questions, Myths, Truth". ... When launched, Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the ... Coca - cocaine. Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup (approximately 37 g/L), a significant dose; ...
Cocaine Fu. Drive-In Academy Award nominations for Jonathan Cherry, Sarah Lind, Leo Fafard, Amy Matysio, and Lowell Dean. ★★★ ... Cocaine Fu. Taser Fu. Scissors Fu. Gratuitous Dave Matthews Band discussion. Gratuitous SWAT team psychologist negotiator. ... Forced cocaine sniffing. Fungus-covered grainy alligator food. Skull pounding. Intestine yanking. Cannibal barbecue. Torched ...
"Deaths related to cocaine". Archived from the original on 17 July 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2007.. ... "cocaine/crack". Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 25 May 2007.. ... cocaine from Erythroxylon coca and opium from opium poppy. Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may ...
"Mondo Generator: Cocaine Rodeo". Allmusic. Retrieved December 29, 2009.. *^ "Internal Void: Unearthed". Allmusic. Retrieved ...
"Cocaine Decisions". *"Baby Take Your Teeth Out". *"In France". *"The Girl in the Magnesium Dress" ...
"Cocaine Decisions". *"Baby Take Your Teeth Out". *"In France". *"The Girl in the Magnesium Dress" ...
Cocaine Nights (1996). *Super-Cannes (2000). *Millennium People (2003). *Kingdom Come (2006) ...
Peterson, RC (1997). "History of Cocaine". In Robert C. Petersen; Richard C. Stillman. Cocaine: 1977 (PDF). United States ... Cocaine: 1977 (PDF). United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Alcohol, Drug Abuse, ...
Cocaine users who inject intravenously can easily overdose accidentally, as the margin between a pleasurable drug sensation and ...
The high risk-factor obtained is a product not of the fact that so many marijuana users use cocaine but that so many cocaine ... In December 2002, a study by RAND investigating whether cannabis use results in the subsequent use of cocaine and heroin was ... "RAND Study Casts Doubt on Claims that Marijuana Acts as "Gateway" to the Use of Cocaine and Heroin". RAND. 2002-12-02. Archived ... The risk of progression from marijuana to cocaine to heroin is now well documented."[125] ...
Rockso, the rock and roll clown! I do cocaine!". He admits in "Cleanso" that not only does he use cocaine, but also huffs paint ... Rockso (inconsistently spelled with an "s" or "z") is a self-described "rock and roll clown" and he does cocaine. He is known ... He was formerly addicted to crack cocaine, but has since become sober. A young Candynose looks very much like Poison drummer ... The band quickly became successful; however, Rockso insisted on being paid in cocaine, and was fired for his violent and ...
Cocaine Decisions». Другие композиции. *«Absolutely Free». *«The Adventures of Greggery Peccary». *«America Drinks and Goes ...
Charleston Man Sentenced for Selling Crack Cocaine. *. Thursday, June 27, 2013 - 22:02 Updated 4 years ago From a Release by U. ... A Charleston man was sentenced on June 25 to 18 years in federal prison for distribution of crack cocaine, announced U.S. ... Police searched the vehicle and found 241 grams of crack cocaine hidden inside of the center console. Washington had obtained ... On July 31, 2012, Washington sold .69 grams of crack cocaine to a confidential informant working with the Metropolitan Drug ...
Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals. ... Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. ... Taking too much cocaine, or too concentrated a form of cocaine. *Using cocaine when the weather is hot, which leads to more ... Cocaine comes from the coca plant. When used, cocaine causes the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals ...
1. Conspiracy to distribute cocaine, 21 U.S.C. § 846. 2. W.D. Ark.. 2. 1985. 2. Distribution of cocaine, 21 U.S.C. § 841(a)(1) ... Conspiracy to distribute cocaine, distribution of cocaine, and using a communications facility to facilitate distribution of ... Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute and to distribute cocaine, possession with intent to distribute cocaine, use of ... Conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute cocaine and to distribute cocaine, 21 U.S.C. § 846. ...
Fish found in Washingtons Puget Sound are tripping on cocaine, Prozac, Advil, Benadryl, and Lipitor. Unfortunately, there is ... Fish found in Washingtons Puget Sound are tripping on cocaine, Prozac, Advil, Benadryl, and Lipitor. Unfortunately, there is ... Gills and pills: Fish testing positive for cocaine, anti-depressants 25 Feb, 2016 02:12 ...
Cocaine positivity increases overall, jumps sharply in some areas. The positivity rate for cocaine increased for the fifth ... Prescription opiate positivity rate drops by double digits, while cocaine rises by double digits in certain states. ... In urine testing, the most common drug test specimen type, the positivity rate for cocaine increased seven percent in the ... The analysis of 2017 data also suggests shifting patterns of drug use, with cocaine and amphetamines positivity surging in some ...
... death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants increased across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, county urbanization ... death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants increased across age groups, racial/ethnic groups, county urbanization ... Overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants continue to increase. During 2015-2016, age-adjusted cocaine-involved ... Rates of overdose deaths involving cocaine and any opioid increased from 2013 to 2017, and those involving cocaine and ...
... is a highly addictive stimulant drug made from the coca plant grown in the Andean Ridge of South America. Both U.S. ... Cocaine use and its consequences continue to have a significant harmful effect on the security and well-being of our citizens. ... Likewise, U.S. interdiction agencies seized a record amount of cocaine in fiscal year 2016 and are working directly with their ... ONDCP and our Federal, state, and local partners are working to build a comprehensive approach to reduce cocaine availability ...
Cocaine Anonymous (January 1993). Hope, Faith and Courage: Stories from the Fellowship of Cocaine Anonymous. Los Angeles, ... While many CA members have been addicted to cocaine, crack, speed or similar substances, identifying specifically as a cocaine ... Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a twelve-step program for people who seek recovery from drug addiction. CA is patterned very closely ... Co-Anon (formerly CocAnon) is a program for families of cocaine users, analogous to Al-Anon for the friends and family of ...
Crude cocaine preparation intermediates are marketed as cheaper alternatives to pure cocaine to local markets while the more ... Basuco ("bazooka") is the term used for cocaine paste in Colombia, the worlds second biggest cocaine producer after Peru. ... In South America, coca paste, also known as cocaine base and, therefore, often confused with cocaine freebase in North America ... In Argentina, cocaine paste used to go[when?] for about 30 cents (in USD) a dose, enough for a powerful two-minute high.[3] ...
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and ... Cocaine can be snorted, swallowed, injected, or smoked. Most deaths due to cocaine are accidental but may also be the result of ... Cocaine and its metabolites are completely eliminated from the body by 3 days. Cocaine pharmacodynamics involve multiple ... Heat loss is also inhibited by the cocaine-induced vasoconstriction. Cocaine and/or associated hyperthermia may cause muscle ...
Opiates such as heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine take a harsh physical toll and leave users addicted ...
... also called crack cocaine, is a highly addictive stimulant. It can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Learn about health effects ... Cocaine (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in Spanish * Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) ... Cocaine (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in Spanish * Mind Over Matter: The Brains Response to Cocaine (National ... Substance use -- cocaine (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Tips for Teens: The Truth about Cocaine (Substance Abuse and ...
Also, in the USA cocaine is one of the most... ... cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe. An ... Ventral Tegmental Area Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Cocaine Abuse Cocaine User Cocaine Dependence These ... Tiagebine increases cocaine-free urines in cocaine-dependent methadone treated patients: results of a randomized pilot study. ... Also, in the USA cocaine is one of the most prevalent illicit drugs, with an annual prevalence of seven million people. Cocaine ...
In the biosynthesis of cocaine, however, only the (S)-enantiomer can cyclize to form the tropane ring system of cocaine. The ... Willstätters synthesis derived cocaine from tropinone. Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant ... The additional carbon atoms required for the synthesis of cocaine are derived from acetyl-CoA, by addition of two acetyl-CoA ... E. Leete; J. A. Bjorklund; M. M. Couladis & S. H. Kim (1991). "Late intermediates in the biosynthesis of cocaine: 4-(1-methyl-2 ... .header { position: absolute; width: 230px; ...
Cocaine. Researchers Find Brain Activity that Leads to Cocaine Addiction. Could be useful in creating new anti-addiction ... Drug Warriors Peddle Fears About Cocaine. Again.. Cocaine offers better value than the market in prohibitionist fears. ... Cocaine. No, MILLIONS of Lives Were Not Saved by That Gigantic Philly Coke Bust. Seventeen tons of coke is nothing to sneeze ... Cocaine. Toronto Mayor Rob Ford Reportedly Caught on Camera Smoking Crack… Again. Is taking a break from re-election campaign ...
It would make much more sense to me to split the long page into e.g. Cocaine_(chemistry), Cocaine_(pharmacology), and Cocaine_( ... "Freebase cocaine is produced by first dissolving cocaine hydrochloride in water. Once dissolved in water, cocaine hydrochloride ... Colloquial terms for Cocaine. Not sure if it is preferable to have this text in the article: "cocaine, also known as "coke", " ... list of notable cocaine users?. uhm, cmon wouldnt it be easier to list who HASNT used cocaine? its like making a list f ...
Listen to Cocaine Piss now.. Listen to Cocaine Piss in full in the Spotify app ... FUCK THIS SHIT or EAT THIS SHIT? Cocaine Piss embody both: fast paced punk ballads roar from bass heavy boxes while massive ... After drowning, in heaven you can listen to Joey Ramone and Lemmy talking about masturbation - thats what Cocaine Piss sound ...
COCAINE SUBSTITUTES. Br Med J 1924; 2 doi: (Published 02 August 1924) Cite this as: Br ...
Is crack cocaine illegal?. Yes, crack cocaine is illegal. Crack cocaine is a Schedule II substance under the Controlled ... What is crack cocaine?. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive and powerful stimulant that is derived from powdered cocaine using ... Crack Cocaine. Fast Facts. Questions and Answers - What is crack cocaine?. - How is it produced?. - What does it look like?. - ... Street Terms for Crack Cocaine. 24-7. Badrock. Beat. Candy. Chemical. Cloud. Cookies. Crumbs. Crunch & munch. Devil drug. Dice ...
Cocaine dosage and cocaine addiction. Wellcome L0016413.jpg 1,122 × 1,674; 1.09 MB. ... Cocaine dosage and cocaine addiction. Wellcome L0016412.jpg 1,250 × 1,477; 662 KB. ... Cocaine dosage and cocaine addiction. Wellcome L0016414.jpg 1,250 × 1,460; 713 KB. ... US Navy 080913-N-0000F-071 In this photo released by the U.S. Coast Guard, some of the 37 bales of cocaine are seen in one of ...
How is cocaine abused? Cocaine is usually snorted, injected, or smoked. Abusers snort the powder form through the nose where it ... Excessive doses of cocaine can potentially be fatal. Similar to Lexie, an overdose of cocaine may present as cardiac arrest ... Patients with cocaine toxicity often come into the ER with other drugs present in their system; the combined use of cocaine and ... This combination increases cocaines euphoric effects and may be the major cause of drug-related deaths). - In 2005, cocaine ...
... ANSWER The drug sends high levels of dopamine, a natural chemical messenger in your body, into the ... What are the short-term effects of cocaine?. More Answers On Substance Abuse and Addiction. *What are some serious side effects ... "What are the long-term effects of cocaine use?" "What is Cocaine?" ... "What are the long-term effects of cocaine use?" "What is Cocaine?" ...
... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ... the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with ...
Charlie, C, Snow… The names are different, but the facts stay the same. Find them out from FRANK and ask any questions you have.
  • A total of 360 HIV-infected individuals who report cocaine (including crack) use will be randomized across both sites (Miami, FL, and Atlanta, GA). Primary hypothesis is that more participants randomized to the 'Retention Clinic' will have undetectable viral load than will participants randomized to the treatment as usual group. (
  • This study will evaluate the efficacy of an integrated 'Retention Clinic' in achieving virologic suppression among HIV-infected cocaine (including crack) users by using a two-group randomized, prospective trial. (
  • Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a twelve-step program for people who seek recovery from drug addiction. (
  • He worked in the film industry and saw a number of people who had difficulty finding help from anyone knowledgeable about the special difficulties presented by cocaine addiction. (
  • Addiction recovery groups List of twelve-step groups Cocaine Anonymous (2007-11-13). (
  • This chapter describes the mechanism of action of cocaine, how addiction and tolerance develop, and the physiological and psychological risks of cocaine use. (
  • Nestler E. The neurobiology of cocaine addiction. (
  • Shouldn't there be something about cocaine addiction here, or in the linked stub I just created? (
  • Cocaine, in any form, is a powerfully addictive drug, and addiction seems to develop more quickly when the drug is smoked--as crack is--than snorted--as powdered cocaine typically is. (
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse: "A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Treating Cocaine Addiction," "Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction," "What Are Stimulants? (
  • Cocaine addiction is difficult to treat, and relapse can occur. (
  • Using cocaine can lead to addiction. (
  • Cocaine Addiction Uses Same Brain Paths as Salt Cravings. (
  • Cocaine addiction continues to be a major health and social problem in the United States and other countries. (
  • Results presented demonstrate a strategy in the continuing efforts to find effective treatments for cocaine addiction and suggest the application of this protein-based treatment for other drug abuse syndromes. (
  • Despite intensive efforts, effective therapies for cocaine craving and addiction remain elusive. (
  • Unlike the historically successful methadone treatment for heroin addiction, there is no proven pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse ( 4 ). (
  • Unquestionably, an improved pharmacotherapy would increase the effectiveness of such programs, and alternative strategies for treating cocaine addiction are needed if progress is to be made. (
  • A different antibody-based approach to cocaine addiction treatment uses catalytic antibodies specific for cocaine and the cleavage of its benzoyl ester ( 18 - 23 ). (
  • A single-dose vaccine capable of providing immunity against the effects of cocaine offers a novel and groundbreaking strategy for treating cocaine addiction is described in an article published Instant Online in Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. ( The article is available free online at the Human Gene Therapy website ( (
  • This is a very novel approach for addressing the huge medical problem of cocaine addiction," says James M. Wilson, MD, PhD, Editor-in-Chief, and Director of the Gene Therapy Program, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia. (
  • Nicotine and Cocaine: Similar Addiction? (
  • According to the research, the effects of nicotine on the regions of the brain associated with addiction are similar to those of cocaine""both create lasting changes in a person's brain by affecting similar mechanisms of memory on first contact. (
  • While the results of the experiment also pose possible strategies for preventing or treating cocaine and nicotine addictions, the use of D5 blockers to treat addiction may be further in the future""currently all known blockers of the D5 receptor also block the D1 dopamine receptor, which is important for healthy motivation and movement. (
  • U.S. researchers have found cocaine regulated molecular pathways that may lead to addiction treatments. (
  • The researchers also found a previously unrecognized family of genes -- called the sirtuins -- involved in cocaine addiction. (
  • All three methods of cocaine abuse can lead to addiction and other severe health problems, including increasing the risk of contracting HIV and other infectious diseases. (
  • With repeated use, cocaine can cause long-term changes in the brain's reward system and in other brain systems as well, which may eventually lead to addiction. (
  • Dr Alun Morinan, from the National Addiction Centre & Hope UK, a Christian drug education charity, says that young people using cocaine will not realise what they are taking. (
  • Cocaine addiction: Have scientists found a cure. (
  • Scientists say they have found a protein which may be specifically responsible for the development of cocaine addiction. (
  • SCIENTISTS believe they could be on the way to curing cocaine addiction after successfully defeating dependency to the drug in mice. (
  • Mount Sinai researchers in New York say they have identified a protein produced by the immune system - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - which may be specifically responsible for the development of cocaine addiction. (
  • According to National Geographic , scientists around the world are looking at medications to treat cocaine addiction and some are even using electromagnetic treatments such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). (
  • A TMS patient, Patrick Perotti from Genoa, Italy told the magazine that the electromagnetic technique has finally suppressed his addiction to cocaine. (
  • TUESDAY, May 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study reveals how cocaine and amphetamines affect the brain, and researchers hope the findings will lead to new addiction treatments. (
  • Addiction to amphetamines and cocaine devastates lives, families and communities in Oregon and across the U.S. Our research pinpoints how these addictive drugs interfere with the dopamine transporter and normal signaling in the brain, bringing us closer to developing effective treatments for people who are addicted to cocaine and amphetamines," Eric Gouaux, a senior scientist at the university's Vollum Institute, said in a university news release. (
  • This enzyme and redesigned versions of it have been studied as a potential treatment for cocaine addiction in humans. (
  • Twelve-step programs such as Cocaine Anonymous (modeled on Alcoholics Anonymous) have been widely used to help those with cocaine addiction. (
  • Novel with Cocaine is a Dostoevskyan psychological novel of ideas,[citation needed] which explores the interaction between psychology, philosophy, and ideology in its frank portrayal of an adolescent's cocaine addiction. (
  • It is later revealed to Phryne that De Lisses' mother was the Princess' daughter, and she died of cocaine addiction in Paris. (
  • Cocaine addiction is the compulsive use of cocaine despite adverse consequences. (
  • Tests also revealed that HDAC inhibitor administration can not only prevent addiction, but also helps reduce the risk of a relapse in cocaine addicts in the rat model system. (
  • By inhibiting the rewarding effects of cocaine, CART has a potential use in treating cocaine addiction. (
  • Markel's An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and the Miracle Drug Cocaine explores the lives and careers of Freud and Halsted through their relationship to cocaine. (
  • Having treated patients suffering from various forms of substance abuse, Markel thought that sharing Freud and Halsted's struggles (both personal and scientific) with cocaine would raise awareness of the perniciousness of addiction while illuminating an important chapter in medical history. (
  • It could therefore be considered within the context as an agonist based therapy for treating cocaine addiction, although it is actually RTI-336 that entered into clinical trials with this in mind. (
  • Overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants continue to increase. (
  • In 2017, opioids were involved in 72.7% and 50.4% of cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved overdoses, respectively, and the data suggest that increases in cocaine-involved overdose deaths from 2012 to 2017 were driven primarily by synthetic opioids. (
  • Cocaine overdose may result in hyperthermia as stimulation and increased muscular activity cause greater heat production. (
  • Individuals with cocaine overdose should be transported immediately to the nearest emergency department, preferably by ambulance in case cardiac arrest occurs en route. (
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, approximately 5000 deaths occur annually in the US due to cocaine overdose. (
  • There is no specific pharmacological antidote for cocaine overdose. (
  • Similar to Lexie, an overdose of cocaine may present as cardiac arrest from a heart attack due to the insufficient blood flow to keep up with the heart. (
  • There is no definitive treatment for a cocaine overdose - management is mostly supportive and tailored to the patient's symptoms. (
  • The University of Arizona Methamphetamine and Other Illicit drug Education: "Cocaine Overdose. (
  • One protégé even died of a cocaine overdose in 2003. (
  • Using too much cocaine can cause an overdose. (
  • The efficacy of catalytic antibodies has been demonstrated in rodent models of cocaine overdose and reinforcement, but kinetic constants for all reported antibody catalysts are marginal and, thus, improved rates will be required before clinical development is warranted ( 24 ). (
  • CART is altered in the ventral tegmental area of cocaine overdose victims, and a mutation in the CART gene is associated with alcoholism. (
  • Secaucus, NJ, May 8, 2018 - Driven by increases in cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana, drug use by the American workforce remains at its highest rate in more than a decade, according to a new analysis released today by Quest Diagnostics, the world's leading provider of diagnostic information services. (
  • Additionally some psychostimulant drugs that have an amphetamine like mode of action, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine, have bronchodilating effects and were used often for asthma due to the lack of effective β2-adrenergic agonists for use as bronchodilator, but are now rarely, if ever, used medically for their bronchodilation effect. (
  • MTEP also has similar efficacy to MPEP in reducing the symptoms of morphine withdrawal, and has anti-addictive effects in a variety of animal models, both reducing ethanol self-administration, and also decreasing the addictive effects of nicotine, cocaine and methamphetamine. (
  • C olombian police said on Sunday they seized their largest domestic haul ever of illegal drugs: eight tons of cocaine from the Usuga Clan, the country's leading organised crime ring. (
  • P olice said in a statement that early Sunday in Turbo, in the northwestern Uraba region near the border with Panama, they found the cache 'of almost eight tons of cocaine belonging to the Usuga Clan,' that was hidden on a banana plantation . (
  • Defense minister Luis Carlos Villegas said that nearly 1.5 tons of cocaine was wrapped 'and ready to go out to the export market. (
  • A uthorities say the Usuga Clan, which emerged after the mass demobilisation of right-wing paramilitaries a decade ago, ships tons of cocaine from Colombia to Central America and on to the United States. (
  • Six men arrested after authorities shut down a warehouse where a record 21 tons of cocaine was seized pleaded innocent to drug charges before a federal magistrate today. (
  • Mickey Munday describes flying more than 10 tons of cocaine from Columbia to the United States, in Cocaine Cowboys . (
  • Roughly one third of the 305 metric tons of cocaine that the U.S. government estimates Peru produces each year travels by foot. (
  • Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez says authorities have confiscated some 2.5 metric tons of cocaine and arrested 11 suspected drug smugglers in a raid on a hidden airstrip in a remote eastern region. (
  • Brian Brendan Wright is an Irish criminal, involved in fixing horse races by doping more than 20 race horses in 1990, and trafficking an estimated 3 tons of cocaine into Great Britain over a period of two years. (
  • At the close of Operation Kingpin nearly 100 traffickers were arrested, and more than $20 million in cash and assets, and over 2.5 tons of cocaine seized. (
  • Franklin had led several major raids which resulted in the seizure of multiple tons of cocaine. (
  • The analysis of 2017 data also suggests shifting patterns of drug use, with cocaine and amphetamines positivity surging in some areas of the country and marijuana positivity rising sharply in states with newer recreational use statutes. (
  • CDC also examined trends in age-adjusted cocaine-involved and psychostimulant-involved death rates from 2003 to 2017 overall, as well as with and without co-involvement of opioids. (
  • In 2001, there were 193,034 hospital emergency-department cases involving cocaine nationwide, or 10 percent more than in 2000 (according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2002). (
  • In 2002, French and close friend Cams created a series of street DVDs called Cocaine City, drawing inspiration from the Smack DVD series popular at the time. (
  • Chronic cocaine administration was linked with an increase in sirtuin gene transcription while increased sirtuin activity was associated the rewarding effects of cocaine being augmented, while pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins reduced the rewarding effects of cocaine and the motivation to self-administer the drug. (
  • This doesn't really seem like a boon for coke addicts as I would think the last thing someone heavily addicted to cocaine would want is for it to stop working. (
  • Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. (
  • He is the founder of Coke Boys Records, and its predecessor Cocaine City Records. (
  • People who stopped using cocaine can still feel strong cravings for the drug, sometimes even years later. (
  • A single ketamine infusion combined with mindfulness-based relapse prevention therapy (MBRP) improves abstinence and cuts cravings in cocaine-dependent adults, new research suggests. (
  • During withdrawal, there can be powerful, intense cravings for cocaine. (
  • The symptoms of cocaine withdrawal (also known as comedown or crash) range from moderate to severe: dysphoria, depression, anxiety, psychological and physical weakness, pain, and compulsive cravings. (
  • Basuco (" bazooka ") is the term used for cocaine paste in Colombia , the world's second biggest cocaine producer after Peru. (
  • Two brothers from Colombia were convicted in federal court Wednesday on drug charges following the largest-ever cocaine seizure in Orange County. (
  • Big talkers among them are Mickey Munday , who made many millions running cocaine from Colombia into Florida, and Jorge "Rivi" Ayala , top hit man for Colombian crime godmother Griselda Blanco , the notorious "Black Widow. (
  • In this country that overtook Colombia in 2012 as the world's No. 1 cocaine-producing nation, Borda regularly hikes within a few hours of the Machu Picchu tourist mecca, bound for Cuzco with drugs. (
  • A task force of lawmen waited for a small plane from Colombia to land on a rural airstrip, then seized more than 1,000 pounds of cocaine and arrested the pilot and an accomplice on drug trafficking charges, officials said Wednesday. (
  • Black cocaine was detected in Bogota, Colombia in May 1998. (
  • Rather than taking cash payments for their services, the smugglers in the Guadalajara cartel took a 50% cut of the cocaine they transported from Colombia. (
  • The Herrera operation, according to the DEA, involved importing cocaine base from Peru and Bolivia, which would be trafficked via his own transportation to conversion laboratories in Colombia. (
  • He was the main intermediary of the Gulf Cartel in Colombia, responsible for shipping large sums of cocaine from the Cali Cartel in the 1990s. (
  • Under García Ábrego, Malherbe coordinated cocaine shipments from Colombia via aircraft into Tamaulipas before they were smuggled by land to the United States. (
  • Cocaine produces a sense of euphoria (extreme mood elevation) by causing the brain to release higher than normal amounts of some chemicals. (
  • If you find yourself thinking about the euphoria produced by cocaine, force yourself to think of the negative outcomes that follow its use. (
  • It produces a sudden, extreme euphoria, even more intense than that experienced with intravenous cocaine, that lasts only five to 10 minutes. (
  • Eighty to 90 percent of users, however, snort cocaine, which produces a euphoria that peaks more slowly, taking five to 15 minutes. (
  • Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality. (
  • The use of cocaine creates euphoria and high amounts of energy. (
  • Cocaine is an illegal stimulant drug that affects your central nervous system. (
  • Cocaine intoxication is a condition in which you're not only high from using the drug , but you also have body-wide symptoms that can make you ill and impaired. (
  • After cannabis, cocaine is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe. (
  • Cocaine is a well-known addictive stimulant drug and scientific literature concerning its various pharmacological properties dates back to the nineteenth century. (
  • Drug Warriors Peddle Fears About Cocaine. (
  • In 2005, cocaine was associated with 31% of ER visits related to drug misuse and abuse. (
  • The 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that 35.3 million Americans older than twelve years old have used cocaine at least once. (
  • When people smoke cocaine, they inhale the drug's vapor into the lungs, feeling the effects of the drug almost as quickly as when one injects it. (
  • Foundation for a Drug-Free World: "Effects of Cocaine. (
  • U.S. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment onboard the HNLMS Van Amstel, of the Royal Netherlands Navy, assisted in recovering 42 bales of cocaine during a counter drug patrol in the Caribbean Sea ((U.S Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Sabrina Elgammal. (
  • A Drug Enforcement Administration official said Radel allegedly bought cocaine from an undercover agent in Washington's Dupont Circle neighborhood on Oct. 29. (
  • Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind marijuana, and the U.S. is the world's largest consumer of cocaine. (
  • In some instances, cocaine use supplemented or replaced caffeine as the drug-of-choice to keep workers awake and working overtime. (
  • In 1901, the Atlanta Constitution reported that "Use of the drug [cocaine] among negroes is growing to an alarming extent. (
  • NSW is in the grip of a cocaine epidemic, according to the state's top crime expert, and there is no shortage of users willing to shell out up to $500 a gram for a hit of the drug. (
  • The market for cocaine is growing at an exponential rate, and if the price of the drug is staying the same, then this is the sign of a thriving market … It is safe to say we are in a cocaine epidemic. (
  • Cocaine played a role in the death of this talented comic, and the drug has had a hand in many other deaths. (
  • Currently, no medications are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cocaine use disorder, the authors note. (
  • Indiana State Excise Police Officers arrested two men for possession of cocaine and cited and Indianapolis bar early Saturday morning on drug related violations. (
  • Tennessee has more cocaine-related treatment admissions and federal sentences than any other drug. (
  • According to TEDS data, treatment admissions for cocaine as the primary drug of abuse increased from 2,773 in 1995 to 3,809 in 1999 and exceeded admissions for any other drug during those years. (
  • According to the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2.0 percent of Tennessee residents surveyed reported they had abused cocaine in the past year compared with 1.7 percent nationally. (
  • Powdered cocaine sold for $14,000 to $30,000 per kilogram and $90 per gram in 2000, according to survey responses to the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) National Drug Threat Survey 2000. (
  • Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a lot of cocaine cuts down or quits taking the drug. (
  • Symptoms of withdrawal can occur even if the user is not completely off cocaine and still has some of the drug in their blood. (
  • Cocaine vaccine is a helluva drug. (
  • Mark Wahlberg has since 2008 been attached to Cocaine Cowboys, based on the Billy Corben documentary of the same name about late 70s/early 80s Miami drug trafficker Jon Roberts. (
  • Cocaine Particle Sniffer a tool for the drug war, from the Tactical Technology Office of ARPA. (
  • Police reported a record cocaine seizure today--92 pounds found on a Colombian ship--increasing fears that Japan may soon be faced with the kind of Western-style drug epidemic it has so far managed to avoid. (
  • Key Figure in Record Cocaine Seizure Convicted : Courts: Raid at Sylmar warehouse netted 21.4 tons of the drug. (
  • Hector Tapia Anchondo, a Texas man whose rented Sylmar warehouse was the site of the largest cocaine seizure in history, was found guilty Tuesday of drug charges and of running a massive criminal conspiracy. (
  • An investigation into last year's record cocaine seizure at a Sylmar warehouse shows that Colombian drug cartels have shipped vast quantities of cocaine along America's interstate highway system despite law enforcement efforts to choke it off, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. (
  • But the idea that nicotine is working on the same circuitry as cocaine does point to why so many people have a hard time quitting tobacco, and why so many who experiment with the drug end up becoming addicted. (
  • Cocaine is a powdered drug processed from the leaves of the Erythroxylon coca plant. (
  • ORANGE - Frustrated by the risks and costs of evading drug interdiction efforts, Colombian traffickers have developed a way to build plastic and fiberglass products out of cocaine, according to FBI officials who displayed a cocaine-infused dog kennel at a news conference Tuesday. (
  • Agents said the arrests and seizures thwarted the operation--the first of its kind uncovered by federal drug agents--and investigators quickly dubbed it "The Cocaine-Canine Connection" and the "Dog-Do Case. (
  • The two suspects, Harold Satizabal and Luis Henry Bustos Delgado, were part of a drug-smuggling operation that mixed cocaine with fiberglass and other materials to build dog kennels and ship them to the United States, according to an affidavit filed in federal court. (
  • The method of fusing cocaine to the fiberglass made the drug all but undetectable by traditional methods, officials said. (
  • Drug traffickers allegedly mixed cocaine paste, fiberglass and other agents to create a malleable substance. (
  • Standard field tests would not reveal that cocaine was embedded in the fiberglass, and drug-sniffing dogs would not find it either, officials said. (
  • FBI agents estimate that drug traffickers usually spend as much as $3,000 per kilogram to ship cocaine to the United States. (
  • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. (
  • In order to sustain the high, a cocaine abuser has to administer the drug again. (
  • Using sobering statistics, Cocaine Cowboys assesses how illegal drug money infused Miami's legitimate businesses, building the city as we now know it. (
  • This may sound like an anti drug scare film, but according to Good Morning America a new type of cocaine is hitting the streets of Los Angeles and New York that will eat your flesh. (
  • Cocaine cut with the veterinary drug, levamisole has apparently been linked to a number of cases of rotting flesh, according to Good Morning America. (
  • In 1906, Congress passed the Federal Pure Food and Drug Act, which regulated the distribution of both cocaine and narcotics. (
  • From inside a Bolivian prison, a cocaine-worker, a drug-mule and his sister reveal the country's relationship with cocaine. (
  • Much of the seized cocaine is found to have been cut with phenacetin - a pharmaceutical drug banned some years ago in Britain and most other nations for causing kidney failure and cancer. (
  • Cocaine is bad for you anyway - it can cause heart problems among other things - but the phenacetin is a drug that was banned here many years ago because it was found to be linked to kidney failure and renal cancer. (
  • A police woman and her married PC lover have been jailed over a drug-fuelled affair in which she was pictured with a line of cocaine on her breasts. (
  • Drug trade's lowest rung: Peru's expendable cocaine couriers Hauling cocaine out of the valley is about the only way to earn decent cash in this economically depressed region where a farmhand earns less than $10 a day. (
  • Cocaine is a Schedule II drug in the United States . (
  • A Lansdale, Montgomery County, man has been arrested and charged with drug offenses after nine bags of cocaine were allegedly found in the SUV he was driving, police said. (
  • You also write about cocaine as a casual drug you dabbled in earlier. (
  • Cocaine use constitutes a major drug problem in the United States. (
  • A drug smuggler packed his stash of cocaine inside sticks of deodorant, ink markers and hundreds of buttons - only to be busted by alert customs officers at JFK Airport who noticed a strong odor coming from his suitcase, authorities said today. (
  • Jon Roberts is the man considered most responsible for bringing cocaine into the US during the 1970s and '80s through the Medellin drug cartel. (
  • A chemist for the Drug Enforcement Administration testified Thursday that no cocaine was found in a sample of white-and-brown powder taken from the red speedboat of William Bennett, charged with participating in a huge smuggling operation. (
  • After cannabis, cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally. (
  • It was reported that in the mid-1980s Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet ordered his army to build a clandestine cocaine laboratory in Chile where chemists mixed cocaine with other chemicals to produce what Pinochet's former top aide for intelligence Manuel Contreras described as a "black cocaine" capable of being smuggled past drug agents in the US and Europe. (
  • Clapton described "Cocaine" as an anti-drug song. (
  • He called the song "quite cleverly anti-cocaine", noting: It's no good to write a deliberate anti-drug song and hope that it will catch. (
  • over the years, he has added the lyrics 'that dirty cocaine' in live shows to underline the anti-drug message of the song. (
  • Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug. (
  • As the previous findings suggest, chronic cocaine use caused both alterations in the chromatin remodeling activity of HDACs and drug seeking behavior. (
  • Benjamín Arellano Félix, who worked closely with his brothers, was one of Mexico's most powerful drug lords and the supplier of one-third of U.S.A.'s cocaine. (
  • Local residents have made fortunes reselling cocaine bundles which wash ashore after going overboard from Colombian drug runner speedboats. (
  • Cocaine-induced psychosis shows sensitization toward the psychotic effects of the drug. (
  • New York: Routledge, 1999) Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug (University of North Carolina Press, 2009) Indelible Inequalities in Latin America: Insights from History, Politics, and Culture (ed. (
  • The drug links of the coup government were obvious to the international community, which led to the coup becoming termed "the Cocaine Coup" by historians. (
  • In 1994, the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals determined that in Los Angeles, out of every four banknotes, on average more than three are tainted by cocaine or another illicit drug. (
  • The discovery that cocaine is so prevalent in U.S. banknotes has a legal application that reactions by drug-sniffing dogs is not immediately cause for arrest of persons or confiscation of banknotes. (
  • They argue that a mild alternative to cocaine would cut into the illicit drug trade and the costs it imposes on societies. (
  • Cocaine comes from the coca plant. (
  • Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca plant. (
  • Understanding how cocaine is made in the coca plant might therefore lead to new anesthetic drugs without the addictive qualities, the study authors say. (
  • Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system (CNS) stimulant prepared from the leaves of the South American coca plant, Erythroxylon coca. (
  • Cocaine is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca), which is indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America. (
  • Cocaine is a white powder that comes from the dried leaves of the coca plant, which is found in South America. (
  • Cocaine is a naturally occurring substance found in the coca plant which is mostly grown in South America. (
  • p. 19) Foreign visitors to some Latin American countries have demonstrated an interest in commercial and cultural uses of the stimulant properties of the coca plant, which are less harmful than cocaine which is highly and unnaturally refined. (
  • Synthetic opioids appear to be the primary driver of cocaine-involved death rate increases, and recent data point to increasing synthetic opioid involvement in psychostimulant-involved deaths. (
  • Here's how cocaine can cause a heart attack: "Cocaine increases the amount of oxygen needed by the heart because it stimulates the heart to beat faster and stronger," explains NIDA's Dr. Gorelick. (
  • Also, in the USA cocaine is one of the most prevalent illicit drugs, with an annual prevalence of seven million people. (
  • The map below shows the world according to prevalence of cocaine use as a percentage of the population, according to the most recent statistics available on the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime website . (
  • Cocaine Synthesis from Recreational Drugs: A Complete Guide to Manufacturing . (
  • Cocaine Rolls Down America's Interstates : Drugs: After last year's record Sylmar bust, the DEA finds that it is stopping only a small portion of the massive coast-to-coast flow. (
  • Cocaine Cowboys is the real deal - a down-and-dirty look at the high living and illegal drugs that dominated south Florida in the 1980s. (
  • Cocaine Prison bridges the ever widening gap between the North and the South and brings a new perspective to the War on Drugs being waged in the Andes. (
  • Other drugs used for cutting or 'bashing' cocaine include lignocaine (a dental painkiller), tetramisole (used for de-worming pets) and boric acid (used to kill cockroaches). (
  • The cocaine is a white powder and the drugs it's being mixed with are also white powder. (
  • Sixty percent of Peru's cocaine comes from the remote Apurimac, Ene and Mantaro river valley, and the backpackers trek for three to five days to deliver cocaine to traffickers who move the drugs on for export. (
  • Many of the therapeutic applications of raw, "natural" cocaine are now obsolete due to the development of safer drugs, either synthesized products from the natural coca extract or man-made using some of the natural products chemical components. (
  • SCIENTISTS believe they have finally found a cure for cocaine dependency after treating mice with drugs which have already been proved safe for humans. (
  • Cocaine and traces of thallium were found in Vivek Moitra?s body at AIIMS, just hours after Apollo Hospital announced that Rahul Mahajan, whose party he was at, had ?conclusively tested negative for drugs. (
  • He dealt drugs, was addicted to cocaine by the time he was 13, and found himself constantly in trouble with the law. (
  • Since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime. (
  • Pregnant mothers who use cocaine often use other drugs in addition, or they may be malnourished and lacking in medical care. (
  • The term may also be loosely used to refer to drugs manufactured from cocaine or having their basis as a total synthesis of cocaine, but modified to alter their effect & QSAR. (
  • Other alkaloids possess psychotropic (e.g. psilocin) and stimulant activities (e.g. cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, theobromine), and have been used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. (
  • Paolo Mantegazza also believed that drugs and certain foods would change humankind in the future, and defended the experimental investigation and use of cocaine as one of these miracle drugs. (
  • Phenacetin is now being used as a cutting agent to adulterate cocaine in the UK and Canada, owing to the similar physical features of the two drugs. (
  • The study confirmed that although paper currency was most often contaminated with cocaine, other drugs of abuse may also be detected in bills. (
  • Leigh also exploited the passage of the Dangerous Drugs Amendment Act 1927 in NSW by providing lucrative illicit criminal distribution networks for the high-demand cocaine it criminalised. (
  • According to the WA State Coroner's report, Mainwaring had a seizure and died after overdosing on cocaine, rather than several different drugs as media reports originally claimed. (
  • Since the last months of 1995, the Gulf Cartel was having difficulty moving drugs into the United States, and only managed to introduced about a ton and a half of cocaine that year. (
  • This report documents the development of a two-state Markovian model of the demand for cocaine and includes the estimation of incidence, prevalence, cohort retention, and consumption. (
  • This is a list of countries (and some territories) by the annual prevalence of cocaine use as percentage of the population aged 15-64 (unless otherwise indicated). (
  • Total cost for air freighting two of the kennels infused with as much as 14 kilos of cocaine: $276. (
  • citation needed] Benjamín was first arrested on June 18, 1982 in Downey, California, for receiving 100 kilos of cocaine smuggled through the San Ysidro border. (
  • Crude cocaine preparation intermediates are marketed as cheaper alternatives to pure cocaine to local markets while the more expensive end product is exported to US and European markets. (
  • RIO DE JANEIRO - Brazilian police have arrested a Chilean woman about to fly to Paris carrying 17.6 pounds of pure cocaine for delivery to Italy, a police spokesman said Monday. (
  • Diluting the cocaine enables the seller to make more profit by "stretching" the amount of pure cocaine they have to sell. (
  • Pure cocaine was first isolated in the 1880s. (
  • Five years ago, most of the street cocaine we seized had a purity of around 50%,' explains Rob Wainwright, international director of SOCA. (
  • Despite the drug's infamy, cocaine is chemically similar to a host of anesthetics and stimulants used legally every day. (
  • Within the scope of analogous compounds created from the structure of cocaine, so named "cocaine analogues" retain 3β-benzoyloxy or similar functionality (the term specifically used usually distinguishes from phenyltropanes, but in the broad sense generally, as a category, includes them) on a tropane skeleton, as compared to other stimulants of the kind. (
  • I t emerged Jackson would routinely smoke cannabis whilst off duty and had bought the cocaine from a dealer who referred to him as "my piggy pal. (
  • Cocaine is often cut (mixed) with other substances. (
  • Fictional dramas aid leading medical historians in misrepresenting what happens when people get hooked on cocaine and other substances. (
  • In 1970, the Controlled Substances Act placed cocaine in Category II, underscoring cocaine's strong potential for abuse and dependency. (
  • When CART is injected into rat VTA, increased locomotor activity is seen, which is one of the signs of "central stimulation" caused by substances such as cocaine and amphetamine. (
  • In the late 1980s, researchers started to synthesize cocaine-like and CART-like-acting substances in order to find medications that could help treat eating disorders as well as cocaine abuse. (
  • These cocaine-like substances are called phenyltropanes. (
  • The few studies that exist suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine and its amphetamine-like properties. (
  • Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the CARTPT gene. (
  • CART was found by examining changes in the brain following cocaine or amphetamine administration. (
  • A hardy lot, cocaine backpackers are mostly native Quechua speakers like Borda and hail from the isolated peasant communities that suffered the worst atrocities of Peru's 1980-2000 dirty war with Shining Path rebels. (
  • Cocaine Rodeo is the debut studio album by American rock band Mondo Generator, released on Southern Lord Records in 2000. (
  • In 2000, the CMJ Music Marathon magazine jokingly stated that "Cocaine Decisions" would be a great song to characterize presidential candidate George W. Bush. (
  • From Silver to Cocaine: Latin American Commodity Chains and the Building of the World Economy, 1500-2000. (
  • Anti-narcotics agents found the cocaine in a container loaded with scrap iron and steel destined for the Spanish port of Algeciras. (
  • Police agents at Rio's international airport found bags of cocaine tied around her body, he said. (
  • Cocaine, Spices, Hormones Found in Drinking Water. (
  • Investigators found about 4 1/2 pounds of cocaine hidden in the base of a statue in Gregory's home, Carpenter said. (
  • Reeve was found in the dining room, also with cocaine. (
  • The office of Acting U.S. Attorney Bridget M. Rohde says Todd Macaluso was found guilty last Friday in Brooklyn of international cocaine distribution conspiracy. (
  • Savage was apprehended in Lansdale Aug. 14 after police acting on a search warrant found 7.5 grams of cocaine in the SUV's glove compartment. (
  • A shuttle worker employed by United Space Alliance found a plastic bag with a white powder residue -- later confirmed to be cocaine -- in a shuttle processing hangar at Kennedy Space Center last week. (
  • However, a doctor in the department of forensic medicine at AIIMS said, "We found cocaine and traces of thallium in Moitra's body. (
  • It is found in rat poison, which is sometimes used to adulterate cocaine. (
  • He was then brought to a private room where officers opened his particularly heavy black suitcase, noticed an ammonia smell and found the cocaine after examining a large marker. (
  • After arresting Thrasher, the pilot, and Marin, the agents found 1,028 pounds of cocaine inside the plane, according to a spokesman for the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office. (
  • However, a study of non-deviant users in Amsterdam found a "relative absence of destructive and compulsive use patterns over a ten year period" and concluded that cocaine users can and do exercise control. (
  • No specific disorders or conditions have been found to result for people whose mothers used cocaine while pregnant. (
  • In fact, they found that HDAC5 was a central regulator of the actions of chronic cocaine use and contributed to the behavioral adaptations with its deacetylase activity. (
  • Another study, conducted at Argonne National Laboratory, found that four out of five dollar bills in Chicago suburbs contain traces of cocaine. (
  • In April 2005, he was arrested by police in Sotogrande, Spain and on 2 April 2007 he was found guilty of running one of the most sophisticated and successful cocaine smuggling organisations in the world. (
  • On 2 April 2007, after an 11-year investigation, he was found guilty of running an international cocaine smuggling empire. (
  • For example, experts assume that snorting cocaine produces a high that ranges from 15 to 30 minutes while injecting/smoking only lasts for 5 to 10 minutes. (
  • Three routes of administration are commonly used for cocaine: snorting, injecting, and smoking. (
  • Snorting is the process of inhaling cocaine powder through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. (
  • Injecting or smoking cocaine produces a quicker, stronger high than snorting. (
  • Snorting cocaine can damage the septum between the nostrils, causing a hole in the middle of the nose. (
  • This is mostly done with the small amounts of cocaine remaining on a surface after insufflation (snorting). (
  • This photo taken with a cellphone shows Rep. Henry "Trey" Radel, R-Fla. leaving court in Washington, Wednesday, Nov. 20, 2013, leaving court after pleading guilty to a misdemeanor charge of cocaine possession and was sentenced to a year's probation. (
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - Florida Rep. Henry "Trey" Radel is apologizing to his constituents after being busted on a cocaine possession charge, acknowledging he also struggles with alcoholism and intends to seek treatment and counseling. (
  • The 37-year-old freshman Republican was charged with cocaine possession Tuesday after what a federal law enforcement official described as a "buy and bust" operation. (
  • The cocaine possession charge, a misdemeanor, carries a statutory maximum of six months in prison and a fine of $1,000. (
  • Both men were booked into the Marion County Jail on the preliminary felony charges of possession of cocaine. (
  • Rodolfo Trujillo, 46, and Henry Trujillo, 38, who had been living in New York City, were convicted in U.S. District Court on charges of possession with intent to distribute cocaine, said Assistant U.S. Atty. Jeffrey W. Johnson. (
  • Tyson Gillies, one of three prospects acquired from the Phillies in the Cliff Lee trade last offseason, was arrested in Clearwater early this morning and charged with felony cocaine possession, the Pinellas County Sheriff Department confirmed. (
  • A Thousand Oaks man was in the Ventura County Jail on Thursday, held on suspicion of possession of cocaine with a street value of more than $200,000, authorities said. (
  • Gregory is being held on suspicion of possession of cocaine with the intent to sell and illegal possession of firearms and dangerous weapons, a jail spokesman said. (
  • J ackson, who earned £48,910 a year, admitted possession of cocaine on 20 occasions and was jailed for 18 months. (
  • On 15 June 1922 a wealthy Australian passenger arriving into Grimsby on the Accrington was arrested by customs officials following the discovery of 100 bottles of cocaine, concealed in the false bottom of his trunk, and he also had £100 in notes in his possession. (
  • Coast Guard Petty Petty Officer 3rd Class Joshua Martin, a crewmember aboard the Coast Guard Cutter Bear carries a bale of cocaine off the deck during an offload of more than 1,851 pounds of cocaine, with a wholesale value of more than $22 million, at Coast Guard Base Miami Beach. (
  • HUANTA, Peru (AP) - He slides two T-shirts, shorts, canned tuna, toasted corn and boiled potatoes into the rucksack atop 11 pounds of semi-refined cocaine. (
  • Anchored offshore from the estate was a disabled blue speedboat packed with 2,350 pounds of cocaine worth about $37 million, investigators said. (
  • The number of cocaine-related treatment admissions to publicly funded facilities in Tennessee increased from 1995 to 1999. (
  • In 1999 the number of treatment admissions per 100,000 in Tennessee for smoked cocaine (73) nearly equaled the national number per 100,000 (76). (
  • In 1999 the number of treatment admissions per 100,000 for cocaine abuse by another route of administration (10) was less than the national number per 100,000 (28). (
  • Factors such as poverty that are frequently associated with PCE have a much stronger influence on children's intellectual and academic abilities than does exposure to cocaine in isolation. (
  • One of three senior NSW Police officers who tested positive for cocaine after a Sydney pub party will face court for lying to the police watchdog. (
  • The Hunter Valley inspector tested positive for cocaine after attending the retirement party of another officer in August 2011. (
  • Results demonstrated that "92% of the bills were positive for cocaine with a mean amount of 28.75 ± 139.07 micrograms per bill, a median of 1.37 μg per bill, and a range of 0.01-922.72 μg per bill. (
  • In the biosynthesis of cocaine, however, only the (S)-enantiomer can cyclize to form the tropane ring system of cocaine. (
  • Although cocaine is part of a different family, many Solanaceae plants also produce tropane alkaloids, some of which have been made into medicines that dilate pupils, wrangle motion sickness, and treat peptic ulcers. (
  • It is mainly known for a group of alkaloids derived from it (called tropane alkaloids), which include, among others, atropine and cocaine. (
  • 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4'-chlorophenyl)tropane (RTI-4229-31) is a synthetic analog of cocaine that acts as a stimulant. (
  • Much of the world's cocaine now originates in the mountains of Peru, where young, poor farmers risk their lives making the difficult and dangerous trek to deliver cocaine to traffickers. (
  • Is Ritalin 'chemically similar' to cocaine? (
  • A New York Times rundown of the report notes that Ritalin is "chemically similar to cocaine. (
  • According to the affidavit filed in the case, one of the kennels arrived in Los Angeles on Oct. 12, 1991, and Bustos picked it up at the airport, took it to a Riverside warehouse and chemically extracted the cocaine from it. (
  • The U.S. Coast Guard says it rescued a sea turtle in the Pacific Ocean that had become tangled in floating bales of cocaine worth more than $53 million. (
  • Jonathan Franklin, Pinochet 'sold cocaine to Europe and US', The Guardian, 11 July 2006 Davison, Phil (8 September 1998). (
  • For example, in 1995 the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) announced in a press release the publication of the results of the largest global study on cocaine use ever undertaken. (