Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.

Endothelial targeting and enhanced antiinflammatory effects of complement inhibitors possessing sialyl Lewisx moieties. (1/439)

The complement inhibitor soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) and a truncated form of sCR1, sCR1[desLHR-A], have been generated with expression of the selectin-reactive oligosaccharide moiety, sialyl Lewisx (sLex), as N-linked oligosaccharide adducts. These modified proteins, sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex, were assessed in the L-selectin- and P-selectin-dependent rat model of lung injury following systemic activation of complement by cobra venom factor and in the L-selectin-, P-selectin-, and E-selectin-dependent model of lung injury following intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. In the cobra venom factor model, sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex caused substantially greater reductions in neutrophil accumulation and in albumin extravasation in lung when compared with the non-sLex-decorated forms. In this model, increased lung vascular binding of sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex occurred in a P-selectin-dependent manner, in contrast to the absence of any increased binding of sCR1 or sCR1[desLHR-A]. In the IgG immune complex model, sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex possessed greater protective effects relative to sCR1[desLHR-A], based on albumin extravasation and neutrophil accumulation. Enhanced protective effects correlated with greater lung vascular binding of sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex as compared with the non-sLex-decorated form. In TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC, substantial in vitro binding occurred with sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex (but not with sCR1[desLHR-A]). This endothelial cell binding was blocked by anti-E-selectin but not by anti-P-selectin. These data suggest that sLex-decorated complement inhibitors have enhanced antiinflammatory effects and appear to have enhanced ability to localize to the activated vascular endothelium.  (+info)

Inhibition of a membrane complement regulatory protein by a monoclonal antibody induces acute lethal shock in rats primed with lipopolysaccharide. (2/439)

Rats pretreated with traces of LPS developed acute fatal shock syndrome after i.v. administration of a mAb that inhibits the function of a membrane complement regulatory molecule. Such a shock was not observed after the administration of large amounts of LPS instead of the mAb following LPS pretreatment. The lethal response did not occur in rats depleted of either leukocytes or complement, and a C5a receptor antagonist was found to inhibit the reaction. Furthermore, LPS-treated rats did not suffer fatal shock following the injection of cobra venom factor, which activates complement in the fluid phase so extensively as to exhaust complement capacity. Therefore, complement activation on cell membranes is a requirement for this type of acute reaction.  (+info)

Mechanisms of enhanced lung injury during sepsis. (3/439)

A major complication in sepsis is progressively impaired lung function and susceptibility to intrapulmonary infection. Why sepsis predisposes the lung to injury is not clear. In the current studies, rats were rendered septic by cecal ligation/puncture and evaluated for increased susceptibility to injury after a direct pulmonary insult (deposition of IgG immune complexes or airway instillation of lipopolysaccharide). By itself, cecal ligation/puncture did not produce evidence of lung injury. However, after a direct pulmonary insult, lung injury in septic animals was significantly enhanced. Enhanced lung injury was associated with increased accumulation of neutrophils in lung, enhanced production of CXC chemokines (but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and increased expression of lung vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Complement depletion or treatment with anti-C5a abolished all evidence of enhanced lung injury in septic animals. When stimulated in vitro, bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages from septic animals had greatly enhanced CXC chemokine responses as compared with macrophages from sham-operated animals or from septic animals that had been complement depleted. These data indicate that the septic state causes priming of lung macrophages and suggest that enhanced lung injury in the septic state is complement dependent and related to increased production of CXC chemokines.  (+info)

Role of group II secretory phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis: 2. Potential involvement of biologically active oxidized phospholipids. (4/439)

Secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase A2 (group II sPLA2) is induced in inflammation and present in atherosclerotic lesions. In an accompanying publication we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing group II sPLA2 developed severe atherosclerosis. The current study was undertaken to determine whether 1 mechanism by which group II sPLA2 might contribute to the progression of inflammation and atherosclerosis is by increasing the formation of biologically active oxidized phospholipids. In vivo measurements of bioactive lipids were performed, and in vitro studies tested the hypothesis that sPLA2 can increase the accumulation of bioactive phospholipids. We have shown previously that 3 oxidized phospholipids derived from the oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (PAPC) stimulated endothelial cells to bind monocytes, a process that is known to be an important step in atherogenesis. We now show that these 3 biologically active phospholipids are significantly increased in livers of sPLA2 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet as compared with nontransgenic littermates. We present in vitro evidence for several mechanisms by which these phospholipids may be increased in sPLA2 transgenics. These studies demonstrated that polyunsaturated free fatty acids, which are liberated by sPLA2, increased the formation of bioactive phospholipids in LDL, resulting in increased ability to stimulate monocyte-endothelial interactions. Moreover, sPLA2-treated LDL was oxidized by cocultures of human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells more efficiently than untreated LDL. Analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed that the bioactive phospholipids, compared with unoxidized PAPC, were less susceptible to hydrolysis by human recombinant group II sPLA2. In addition, HDL from the transgenic mice and human HDL treated with recombinant sPLA2 in vitro failed, in the coculture system, to protect against the formation of biologically active phospholipids in LDL. This lack of protection may in part relate to the decreased levels of paraoxonase seen in the HDL isolated from the transgenic animals. Taken together, these studies show that levels of biologically active oxidized phospholipids are increased in sPLA2 transgenic mice; they also suggest that this increase may be mediated by effects of sPLA2 on both LDL and HDL.  (+info)

A nonhuman primate model for the selective elimination of CD8+ lymphocytes using a mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody. (5/439)

Nonhuman primates provide valuable animal models for human diseases. However, studies assessing the role of cell-mediated immune responses have been difficult to perform in nonhuman primates. We have shown that CD8+ lymphocyte-mediated immunity in rhesus monkeys can be selectively eliminated using the mouse-human chimeric anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody cM-T807. In vitro, this antibody completely blocked antigen-specific expansion of cytotoxic T cells and decreased major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted, antigen-specific lysis of target cells but did not mediate complement-dependent cell lysis. In vivo administration of cM-T807 in rhesus monkeys resulted in near total depletion of CD8+ T cells from the blood and lymph nodes for up to 6 weeks. This depletion was not solely complement-dependent and persisted longer in adults than in juveniles. Preservation of B cell and CD4+ T cell function in monkeys depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes was demonstrated by their ability to develop humoral immune responses to the administered chimeric monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, during CD8+ lymphocyte depletion, monkeys developed delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions comprised only of CD4+ T cells but not CD8+ T cells. This CD8+ lymphocyte depletion model should prove useful in defining the role of cell-mediated immune responses in controlling infectious diseases in nonhuman primates.  (+info)

Binding of nucleotide triphosphates to cardiotoxin analogue II from the Taiwan cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Elucidation of the structural interactions in the dATP-cardiotoxin analogue ii complex. (6/439)

Snake venom cardiotoxins have been recently shown to block the enzymatic activity of phospholipid protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase. To understand the molecular basis for the inhibitory effects of cardiotoxin on the action of these enzymes, the nucleotide triphosphate binding ability of cardiotoxin analogue II (CTX II) from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom is investigated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional NMR. CTX II is found to bind to all the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) with similar affinity. Detailed studies of the binding of dATP to CTX II indicated that the toxin molecule is significantly stabilized in the presence of the nucleotide. Molecular modeling, based on the NOEs observed for the dATP.CTX II complex, reveals that dATP binds to the CTX II molecule at the groove enclosed between the N- and C-terminal ends of the toxin molecule. Based on the results obtained in the present study, a molecular mechanism to account for the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase is also proposed.  (+info)

Effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate on the phospholipase A2 activity of Naja naja venom and Helicobacter pylori: a biochemical analysis. (7/439)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has become recognized as a fundamental pathogen in the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Bismuth compounds in combination with antibiotics are widely used to treat H. pylori associated peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: In this study we measured and analysed the inhibitory effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, Pylorid, Tritec) on the activity and kinetics of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (E.C.3.1.1.4) of commercial cobra (Naja naja) venom and H. pylori (French press lysates) using L-alpha-dipalmitoyl-(2[1-14C]palmitoyl)-phosphatidylcholine as substrate. RESULTS: Our data suggest that RBC might exert a dose-dependent uncompetitive inhibition on PLA2 activity of both H. pylori and Naja naja venom. the inhibitory effect of RBC on the PLA2 activity cannot be abolished by the optimal concentration of calcium (10 mM), indicating its mechanism to be unrelated to the displacement of calcium from the activation site of the enzyme. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which bismuth compounds are therapeutically effective in the treatment of H. pylori associated gastritis is by inhibiting the activity of the degradative PLA2 enzyme secreted by H. pylori. As a consequence of the inhibitory action of RBC on PLA2 of the bacteria, the extracellular and/or intracellular phospholipid components of the gastric mucosal barrier are preserved.  (+info)

Heparin binding to cobra basic phospholipase A2 depends on heparin chain length and amino acid specificity. (8/439)

Heparin is shown to bind specifically to the carboxy-terminal region of toxic type I phospholipase A2 from Naja nigricollis (N-PLA2) by competition assay using synthetic polypeptides and heparin affinity chromatography. The binding strength is seen to depend on heparin chain length and the presence of N-sulfate groups of heparin. It is observed that both electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions are involved in the specific binding of heparin to the carboxy-terminus. When heparin's size is at least a decasaccharide, about two molecules of N-PLA2 bind to one molecule of heparin, as evidenced by the chemical estimate of protein to carbohydrate ratio in such N-PLA2/heparin complexes. Based on such a stoichiometric measurement and computer modeling of the N-PLA2/heparin complex, it is suggested that the binding sites of the two N-PLA2 molecules on one heparin molecule lie on the opposite sides of the heparin chain.  (+info)

King Cobra venom is primarily neurotoxic, but somewhat necrotoxic as well. You can see proof of the latter by asking various snake handlers at the King Cobra shows in Thailand where each scar on their hands came from. I have seen three instances where king cobra bites have caused necrosis at the bite site. Some, fairly severe. Still, its the potent neurotoxic venom that will kill you, and when treating a King Cobra bite, thats the main focus. Forget about the fact that you might lose some skin or muscle. Think about the fact that you need to slow the absorption of the venom into your body so it doesnt stop your diaphragm or heart from working.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor abolishes anti-α-Gal antibody immunoreactivity without affecting functional activity. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 1998/4/7. Y1 - 1998/4/7. N2 - The N-linked oligosaccharides of cobra venom factor (CVF) contain unique terminal α-galactosylated Lewis X structures. We have previously shown that CVF immobilized on nylon membranes binds naturally occurring human anti-α-Gal antibody. The present study shows that soluble CVF can effectively inhibit the binding of anti-α-Gal antibody to CVF-coated microtiter plates, indicating that the terminal α-galactosyl residues of the functionally active CVF are accessible to anti-α-Gal antibody binding. Modification of the terminal galactosyl residues of CVF by treatment with galactose oxidase and in situ derivatization of the generated aldehyde groups with hydrazides abolished the human anti-α-Gal antibody immunoreactivity without affecting the ...
King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. The female lays twenty to fifty eggs which are laid in April through June. Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. Both parents will work together to guard the nest. This nest is special because it is made up of two chambers. The bottom chamber contains the eggs while the top one houses the parents who protect the eggs. Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. Sixty to ninety days after being laid, the eggs hatch, and the parents leave the nest soon before they hatch. Some scientists think this is because the female may have been fasting for months and does not want to be tempted to eat her own young. At birth, the young king cobras are only around fifteen inches (38 cm) long, but their ...
Definition of Cobra venom factor with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. SDS-PAGE immuno blot, using a C3 alpha chain specific antibody was used to demonstrate the consumption of C3 alpha chain in the blood. Both Pure CVF from N. kaouthia and N. melanoleuca had the ability to activate the complement pathway, and to cause the depletion of complement in blood as is seen by the initial disappearance of the C3 alpha chain in the blood and the subsequent reappearance of newly synthesised C3 alpha chain ...
Sometimes locals brought snakes with nooses around them. Sometimes they called the snake guys to run out with their motorbikes and catch a King on their property. Its hard to believe there are so many King Cobras in such a small area. Taking so many each year from the wild and killing them for skins, gall bladders, or having them die early from dirty-cage induced disease, must be decimating the populations and seriously altering the balance that once existed in nature.. Its a fitting moniker - King - there is nothing like it in the snake world. It can grow to over 5.85 meters (19+ feet) long and the girth can be as thick as a mans thigh. It can eat three decent sized (2 meter+) rat snakes in a day if it chooses (in captivity). Ive seen King Cobras eat banded kraits, Malayan pit vipers, keeled rat snakes, red-tailed racers, radiated rat snakes, tree snakes, and monitor lizards over a meter long. They have voracious appetites, and dont seem to mind too much at all fighting a big 2 meter ...
Pugh, R.N.; Theakston, R.D.; Reid, H.A., 1980: Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, XIII. Epidemiology of human encounters with the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis, in the Malumfashi area of northern Nigeria
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The Ford SVT Mustang Cobra (also known as SVT Mustang Cobra, SVT Cobra, or simply as Cobra) is a muscle car/pony car model that was built in model years 1993 through 2004 by Ford Motor Companys Special Vehicle Team division (or SVT, for short). The SVT Cobra was a high-performance version of the Ford Mustang, considered as top-of-the-line as it was positioned above the Mustang GT and Mach 1 models during its era of production. On three occasions, the race-ready, street-legal SVT Cobra R variant was produced in limited numbers. The SVT Cobra was succeeded by the 2007 Shelby GT500. Although the GT500 was built by SVT and wears a Cobra emblem, it is not considered an SVT Cobra, as the car is licensed by Shelby and does not have Cobra in its model name or description. The 1993 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra was launched during the 1992 Chicago Auto Show. It was the premier vehicle of Fords newly established SVT division, designed to showcase SVTs four hallmarks of Performance, Substance, Exclusivity ...
Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278
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One of the most feared and revered snakes on the planet, the king cobra is renowned for its imposing size and deadly bite. But it also has plenty of other unique qualities: a distinctive voice, remarkable nesting habits, and a name that obscures its true identity.
The king cobra is the longest venomous snake in the world, and their famous hood is created by extending elongated cervical ribs of the neck that spread loose skin.
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
Email. A hearing officer for the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission has concluded that the commission acted within its rights when it suspended the veterinarian Dr. Rod Stewart for five years for a variety of medication violations surrounding the discovery of cobra venom, a neurotoxin, in a barn at Keeneland Racecourse in 2007. In a report released by the commission on Wednesday, the hearing officer, Robert Layton, said that testimony from 11 witnesses supported the commissions contention that Stewart had violated rules regarding the labeling of medications and possession of prohibited substances. In addition, the report stated that the commission handed down a penalty that is consistent with its regulations, including the right to add extenuating circumstances during the consideration of the penalty. Stewart appealed the length of the suspensions last year seeking a reduction, and testimony in the appeal was heard on Dec. 2 and 3. According to the report, during a search of Stewarts vehicle at ...
In terms of sequence homology, CVF is 49% identical to human C3 compared with, for example, 77% sequence identity between human and bovine C3. In combination with the functional and structural similarities between CVF and C3b, we expect that C3b in the AP convertases binds the substrates (C3 and C5) in a manner analogously to how CVF recognizes C5. By further extrapolation-which is justified by the pronounced functional similarities between the AP and the CP convertases-we also expect this to apply to C4b in the CP convertases. We therefore propose a general model for substrate-convertase recognition applicable to both C3 and C5 convertases. In this model, the MG4-MG5 domains of C3b/C4b interact with the MG4-MG5 domains of the substrates C3 and C5 at one interface (the MG4-MG5 interface), while the MG6-MG7 domains of C3b/C4b interact with the substrate MG7 domain at a second interface (the MG7 interface). This proposal is compatible with a variety of experimental results.. With respect to the AP ...
Further testing using the undiluted powder by three persons having various forms of terminal cancer was conducted. 4. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Just make a tea of snake grass fresh or dried leaves, or you can mix it with green tea to enhance its health benefits.. 3. £1.45. Free P&P . offres à partir de . Some general concepts are introduced to allow the comparative evaluation of the resistance of different animals studied by different investigators. Release the snake in an approved area. Re: Anti Snake Plant Available by xreal: 6:55am On Jul 02; Pictures and name of plant. Small size, compact structure, environmentally friendly, easy to use and carry. Natural anti-snake venom proteins. 4.2 out of 5 stars 19. The snake powder is prepared by continuously baking the body of the rattlesnake until it completely dehydrates. Each ml has power of specifically neutralizing the venoms of following species of snakes: 0.60 mg of dried Indian Cobra (Naja naja) venom It produces antibodies against the ...
Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as true cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision that synonymised the genera Boulengerina and Paranaja with Naja. According to that revision, the genus Naja now includes 32 species. The origin of this genus name is from the Sanskrit nāga (with a hard g) meaning snake. Some hold that the Sanskrit word is cognate with English snake, Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, but this is unlikely. Mayrhofer calls this etymology unglaubhaft , not credible, and ...
The importance of intact host defense mechanisms for successful antimicrobial therapy was investigated in an animal model. Recovery from lobar pneumococcal pneumonia as a result of penicillin therapy was studied in normal rats and in rats treated with cobra venom factor. This factor was used to selectively suppress the phagocytosis of pneumococci as a result of complement depletion. Although complete recovery from the infection occurred in normal rats after appropriate penicillin therapy, this was not the case in cobra venom factor-treated rats. Within the limitations of this study, evidence is presented for loss of antibiotic activity as a consequence of impaired phagocytosis. ...
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Introduction: We tested the action of proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) and cobra venom Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) on Deiters nucleus neurons at 3rd, 15th and 35th days after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Early and late tetanic, post-tetanic potentiation and depression of Deiters neurons to bilateral high frequency stimulation of hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricualar nuclei was studied. The analysis of spike activity was carried out by mean of on-line selection and special program ...
To obtain proteins with the complement-depleting activity of Cobra Venom Factor (CVF), but with less immunogenicity, we have prepared human C3/CVF hybrid proteins, in which the C-terminus of the α-...
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Apr 17, 2015 Did you know the King Cobra 1200 Pro from U.S. Products is the only dual surface extractor on the market with two separate pumps? It features a 1,200 psi pump for hard surface cleaning and an adjustable 150-500 psi pump with an inline heater for carpet and upholstery cleaning. The technology is so innovative - its patented! The low moisture King Cobra also has a 25-foot vacuum hose and... Read More. ...
Após as boas prestações apresentadas pelo Capri RS Turbo com que temos alinhado neste Troféu, o entusiasmo por este tipo de modelos de motor dianteiro e veio de transmissão central tem crescido de tal forma que nos levou a preparar um segundo modelo desta categoria DRM GR:5., um BMW 3.5 CSL também da Fly. ...
So what was up with your stomach? Up here in Massachusetts I also had very strong stomach pain all weekend. I woke Saturday morning with a severe pain in the center of my torso (stomach). I could barely sleep it was so painful. I was gonna go to the emergency walk in clinic on Monday if it didnt go away. Luckily that pain went away during my sleep on Sunday night. I woke up Monday to that pain lower in my abdomen. I knew it was a stomach GI bug because a couple other of my friends were feeling the same thing. Whatever it was it was very painful. Not a grassy pain but something else. Hope you are ok ...
Prey-selective venoms and toxins have been documented across only a few species of snakes. The lack of research in this area has been due to the absence of suitably flexible testing platforms. In order to test more species for prey specificity of their venom, we used an innovative taxonomically flexible, high-throughput biolayer interferometry approach to ascertain the relative binding of 29 α-neurotoxic venoms from African and Asian elapid representatives (26 Naja spp., Aspidelaps scutatus, Elapsoidea boulengeri, and four locales of Ophiophagus hannah) to the alpha-1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor orthosteric (active) site for amphibian, lizard, snake, bird, and rodent targets. Our results detected prey-selective, intraspecific, and geographical differences of α-neurotoxic binding. The results also suggest that crude venom that shows prey selectivity is likely driven by the proportions of prey-specific α-neurotoxins with differential selectivity within the crude venom. Our results
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Treasure none. Cobra flowers draw nutrients from sunlight, the soil, and water, but enjoy a diet of insects, rodents, animals, and even humanoids when available. The creatures can be found nesting in forests and often take up residence near small population areas where they can feed on humanoids who wander into their area. Many a childs or adults disappearance can be attributed to a cobra flower.. When a cobra flower detects a living creature, it remains motionless until its prey is within 5 feet. It then spreads its leafy hood, opens its flowery bulb, and bites its prey, secreting acidic enzymes to break down and digest the victim. ...
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Immune protection by the complement system critically depends on assembly of C3 convertases on the surface of pathogens and altered host cells. These short-lived protease complexes are formed through pro-convertases, which for the alternative pathway consist of the complement component C3b and the pro-enzyme factor B (FB). Here, we present the crystal structure at 2.2-A resolution, small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) data of the pro-convertase formed by human FB and cobra venom factor (CVF), a potent homologue of C3b that generates more stable convertases. FB is loaded onto CVF through its pro-peptide Ba segment by specific contacts, which explain the specificity for the homologous C3b over the native C3 and inactive products iC3b and C3c. The protease segment Bb binds the carboxy terminus of CVF through the metal-ion dependent adhesion site of the Von Willebrand factor A-type domain. A possible dynamic equilibrium between a loading and activation state of the ...
Maybe its because its Good Friday, or maybe its because of this weeks cover story, or a rerun of Married...With Children we caught the other...
Studies of the inheritance of C3 types and partial deficiency of C3 in over 100 relatives of a previously reported Afrikaner child with virtually no serum C3 revealed that she was homozygous for a C3 gene producing little or no C3, C3-. Metabolic studies with purified radiolabeled C3 in this patient showed a mildly elevated fractional catabolic rate and a markedly reduced synthesis rate for C3. There was also a mild increase in the rate of conversion in vitro of labeled C3 added to her serum and incubated at 37°C for 1 hr. The intradermal injection of C1̄s, which produces a marked increase in vasopermeability in the skin of normal subjects, produced no definite change in the patient, possibly implicating C3 or a protein in the alternative pathway as the normal mediator of this response. On incubating the patients serum with purified cobra venom factor in the presence of unsensitized guinea pig erythrocytes, C5 inactivation and normal lysis of the red cells occurred, consistent with the venom ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
This study suggests that COBRA-light therapy may be a feasible alternative to COBRA in the first 6 months of treatment. As the CI of the observed difference in ΔDAS44 includes the predefined clinically relevant threshold of 0.5, we are unable to claim non-inferiority fully. However, when analyses were performed with a two-sided 90% CI, or when DAS44 was calculated with CRP, the CI of the ITT and per-protocol analyses are within the predefined threshold of 0.5. The results were consistent across the secondary outcomes, with some trends even favouring COBRA-light (eg, ACR/EULAR remission and ACR50 and ACR70 responses), and only the ESR proved significantly lower in the COBRA arm. In fact, this difference in ESR is the main driver for the observed difference in ΔDAS44 between the groups. In addition, no differences were seen in the safety profile. In other words, COBRA-light therapy seems to be equally effective and safe but has the advantage that it incorporates a lower initial dose of ...
One thing Hasbro has grown quite good at in recent years is reusing old parts. Be it a mold from 1982 or one from last week, its a pretty safe bet that if its in good working order, youll have a few opportunities to get it. For this line of Joe toys, Hasbro is going back to the well quite frequently. Several figures use parts from Duke, and this red ninja uses parts from both Storm Shadows, which are basically the same figure anyway. The good news, though, is that its one of the better molds in the line. While the Cobra Red Ninja cant sit down perfectly normally due to some obstruction in the hips, he can sit well enough to pilot some vehicles. For example, we crammed him in the recently released direct-to-consumer Cobra H.I.S.S. vehicle and he had no problems fitting right in the drivers seat. Hes not too tall, and fitting him inside didnt require awkward repositioning. Since the figures file card indicates hes a specialist in vehicle operations, its good to know that he can actually ...
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Tempers flared as the temperature increased at Civic Field Saturday. The heated rivalry between the Bellingham Blitz and the Tacoma Cobras reached the boiling point as both teams struggled to keep their cool. Penalties stifled the Blitz offensive machine early as the Cobras took an early 21-0 lead in the first quarter. The Blitz fired back with two touchdowns and a safety to bring the score to 21-16 at the half. However Tacoma rallied and scorched the Blitz in the second half winning the game and securing home-field throughout the playoffs. Final score: 44-25. Click here ...
While the new Colt Cobra is about as good as it gets for a basic .38 Special defensive snub, the Night Cobra version is a cut above.
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It’s been a few years since Devin Peralta, Luke Swarm and Tony Teixeira hung up their cobra skulls and moved on from the band. After three studio albums, a slew of EPs and and hundreds of thousands of miles in shows, the trio (and a quartet in a previous incarnation) put Cobra Skulls to bed i...
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The Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis) is likely one of the most venomous cobra species on the earth based mostly on murine LD50 research. The common subcutaneous LD50 for this species is 0.20 mg/kg. The lowest LD50 reported value for this snake is zero.14 mg/kg SC, whereas the very best is zero.forty eight mg/kg SC. Research has shown its venom is purely a neurotoxin, with no obvious necrotizing components and no cardiotoxins.. It doesnt usually unfold a hood nor maintain up its physique up off the bottom like true cobras do. Envenomation by this species must be thought-about a severe medical emergency. Human fatalities due to envenomation by this species have been reported.. These snakes are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a goal up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) away. Bites from this species produce distinguished neurotoxicity and are thought-about especially dangerous. A research of 39 patients envenomed by … Read More. Read More » ...
Amanda Buivids (6 April 1989). "Sullivan to put venom in Cobras". The Sun News-Pictorial. Melbourne, VIC. p. 73. Caulfield ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom". Discogs. March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018. CS1 ... Cobra Speed Venom (2018) Royal Destroyer (2021) Forever Heaven Gone (1993) Forget the Light (1994) The Crown Invades Karlsruhe ... from their then-upcoming tenth studio album Cobra Speed Venom, on January 12, 2018. On that album, The Crown used a string ...
Vogel CW, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1982). "The Cobra Venom Factor-dependentC 3 Convertase of Human Complement". J Biol Chem. 257 (14 ... Two fluid phase C5 convertases have been described: the classical pathway enzyme, C4b2boxy3b and the cobra venom factor- ...
The cobra tries to kill Mowgli but its venom has dried up. Mowgli takes a jeweled item away as a souvenir, not realizing the ... Kaa persuades Mowgli to visit a treasure chamber guarded by an old cobra beneath the same Cold Lairs. ...
Spitting cobras accurately squirt venom from their fangs at the eyes of potential predators, striking their target eight times ... Mayell, Hillary (February 10, 2005). "Cobras Spit Venom at Eyes With Nearly Perfect Aim". National Geographic. O. Wilson, ... The functional morphology of venom spitting in cobras". Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (20): 3483-3494. doi:10.1242/jeb. ...
... is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... The LD50 of LNTX-1 is determined at 0,51 mg/kg by intravenous injection of the venom in mice. The IC50 value for LNTX-1 is ... LNTX-1 belongs to the three-finger toxin family (3FTx) of snake venom toxins. The "three-finger" name refers to the fact that ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
... the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah). Ophanin is produced in the venom glands of the King Cobra (O. Hannah). Although the venom ... Ophanin is a toxin found in the venom of the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), which lives throughout South East Asia. This ... Pung YF (2005). A novel protein from King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom (Ph.D. Thesis). Singapore: National University of ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Osipov AV, Levashov MY; Tsetlin VI (2005). "Cobra venom contains a pool of cysteine- ...
α-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... It appears to be that cobra venoms such as cobratoxin have an 'antiviral, immunomodultory and a neuromodulatory activity'. ... The venom, produced by these snakes, is a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, and other substances. The venom is only used when ...
This irritant is called pederin and is highly toxic, more potent than cobra venom. In different parts of the world, different ...
Feldberg, W.; Kellaway, C. H. (1938). "Liberation of histamine and formation of lysocithin-like substances by cobra venom". The ... The researchers isolated SRS from lung tissue after a prolonged period following exposure to snake venom and histamine. ... "The formation of lysocithin and of a muscle-stimulating substance by snake venoms". The Journal of Physiology. 94 (2): 232-48. ...
"Humanized Cobra Venom Factor: Structure, Activity, And Therapeutic Efficacy In Preclinical Disease Models." Molecular ... Diluted snake venom is often used as an antiserum to give passive immunity to snake venom itself. Horses that were infected by ... "Use Of Immunoturbidimetry To Detect Venom-Antivenom Binding Using Snake Venoms." Journal of Pharmacological & Toxicological ... Therefore, the serum had to immunize the subject against the venom of every snake species. In order to find the moment when ...
It is a spitting cobra, and can spray its venom up to 2.5 m. Its spitting mechanism is primitive and it has to rear up and ... When confronting a human, it generally aims its venom at the face. If the venom enters the eyes, it causes great pain. A ... The venom of the rinkhals is neurotoxic and partially cytotoxic, and is less viscous than that of other African elapids. ... It is not a true cobra in that it does not belong to the genus Naja, but instead belongs to the monotypic genus Hemachatus. ...
Its venom is ten times stronger than that of a cobra, making it extremely dangerous. The snake does not attack humans unless it ...
Gillett has an allergy to the venom of the Mozambique spitting cobra that can elevate the potency of a bite. Record ... entertainment and educational perspective on catching and releasing life-threatening snakes such as cobras, pythons and black ...
Cobras, vipers, and certain other members of the venom clade hunt with venomous saliva injected by fangs. Some caterpillars ...
He dropped his guard long enough for Cobra Commander to squirt him with cobra venom from a ring on his finger. He was rescued ... As the Shadows were wiped out, Ironblood constructed a new identity for himself, becoming Cobra Commander, and creating Cobra ... He was taken aback when Cobra Commander addressed him by his real name of "Shepherd" and was even more surprised to recognise ... Determined on revenge, the Black Major now led his own group of surviving Red Shadows and fought his own war against Cobra, ...
... venom, in a manner similar to spitting cobras, but this has been disproven. The species is known from the type locality: " ... The venom causes blood clotting and corrodes muscle tissue and can kill people. Unusually for vipers, P. mangshanensis is ...
Venomous snakes that contain neurotoxic venom such as kraits, mambas, and cobras can also cause complete flaccid paralysis. ... stems of these and certain other plants and then mix the resulting decoction with various other plant poisons and animal venoms ...
AH-1Z Viper A new variant nicknamed "Zulu Cobra", and developed in conjunction with the UH-1Y Venom for the H-1 upgrade program ... AH-1 Cobra page and AH-1W Air Combat Maneuver Training on GlobalSecurity.org AH-1W Super Cobra page on fas.org AH-1 Cobra page ... The AH-1 Cobra was developed in the mid-1960s as an interim gunship for the U.S. Army for use during the Vietnam War. The Cobra ... USMC Cobras provided escort in the Persian Gulf in the late 1980s while the Iran-Iraq War was ongoing. The Cobras sank three ...
... a spitting cobra sprayed its venom into his eyes. He spent 2-3 days in hospital, though luckily the venom did not enter his ... Though he wore a mask, the cobra venom landed in Marven's hair, then mixed with sweat and ran into his eyes, so he stopped the ... The snake bit him on the thumb but did not inject too much venom, so Marven spent 6 hours in the hospital, until he had ... In his 2008 series Jaguar Adventure he was bitten by a mildly toxic venomous false water cobra. His hand swelled up within ten ...
Spitting cobra venom to the eye. *High concentrations of phenacyl chloride in chemical mace spray ...
"The influence of cytotoxin and phospholipase of Central Asian cobra venom on artificial and natural membranes." And a D.Sci in ...
... posited that sera from patients suffering from dementia praecox protected red blood cells from cobra venom hemolysis. The ...
G.I. Joe vs Cobra/Valor vs Venom The original Tunnel Rat sculpt was revived as part of a new "Night Force" set released in 2004 ... When Joe, Cobra, and the Coil battled it out on Cobra Island, Tunnel Rat was part of Assault Team Beta. After the conflict, ... He does so during the Cobra Island civil war in Issues #74-76; his expertise helps his fellow recon teammates escape from Cobra ... but Tunnel Rat's new payment method gets them attacked by Cobra forces. The Crimson Guardsman Fred VII, Raptor, and Cobra ...
Oda T, Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1991). "Amino acid sequences of nerve growth factors derived from cobra venoms". ... Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1992). "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the venom of ... It has also been found in several snake venoms.[12][13] ...
"Amino acid sequences of nerve growth factors derived from cobra venoms". FEBS Letters. 279 (1): 38-40. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91 ... "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the venom of Vipera russelli russelli". Biochimica et ... It has also been found in several snake venoms.[12][13] ...
"The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: Evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the ... The nominate subspecies N. n. nigricincta, commonly known as the zebra spitting cobra or western barred spitting cobra, is ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Kraits Cobras Sea Snakes and Relatives: Elapidae - Black-necked Spitting Cobra (Naja ... The venom of Naja nigricincta can cause massive hemorrhaging, necrosis and paralysis in bite victims. These snakes can also ...
Angioedema Acute glaucoma Panophthalmitis Orbital cellulitis Gonorrheal conjunctivitis Dacryocystitis Spitting cobra venom to ...
"Victims of Venom" (cobras) "Jungle Breakout" (chimpanzees) "Bear Man's Land" (brown bears) "Ghosts of the Snow" (Siberian ...
... which use venom to attack. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs from a venom gland.[124][125] Some non- ... The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva, while Vishnu is depicted often as sleeping on a seven-headed snake or within the coils ... Further information: Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Camouflage does not always fool a predator. When caught out, snake ... Snakebite can be treated with antivenom made from the venom of the snake. To produce antivenom, a mixture of the venoms of ...
... particularly cobras. During these studies Calmette discovered that the power of the venom, as well as that of tetanus, could be ... but also capable of spreading at the same time a powerful venom, and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is ... effective if injected right after the cobra's bite. Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create ... that while secreting this particular venom is able to multiply itself: they were therefore inclined to think that the bacillus ...
King Cobra, Mentallo, Scorcher, Scorpion, Shocker, Spider-Slayer XIX, Trapster and Wizard).[12] Lady Octopus fought Spider-Man ... Agent Venom/Anti-Venom (Flash Thompson). *Uncle Ben. *Ben Urich. *Mary Jane Watson ...
Venom. *Vigilant. *Viper. *Zulu Cobra. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bell_Aircraft&oldid=971194385 ...
Gaucher recommended treatment with cobra venom. Boinet, in 1913, tried increasing doses of bee stings (up to 4000). Scorpions ...
Venom and toxins[edit]. The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α- ... This result calls into question the monophyly of cobras and underscores the uncertainty of the homology of the hood spreading ... The average venom yield from specimens kept on snake farms is about 4.6 mg-19.4 mg per bite.[15] The venom is highly toxic with ... White; Meier, J;J (1995). Handbook of clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons. CRC Press. pp. 493-588. ISBN 978-0-8493 ...
Venom[change , change source]. All elapids are venomous and many are potentially deadly. The venoms are mostly neurotoxic and ... There are snakes of different sizes, from only 18 cm (Drysdalia) up to 6 m in length (King Cobra). Currently, 61 genera with ... Venom for hunting and self-defense[change , change source]. All elapids have a pair of proteroglyphous fangs that are used to ... A few species are capable of spraying their venom from forward facing holes at the tips of their fangs as a means of defense. ...
Master RW, Rao SS (July 1961). "Identification of enzymes and toxins in venoms of Indian cobra and Russell's viper after starch ... Venom[edit]. The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D. russelii is considerable. Reported venom yields for ... This test is often referred to as dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT). The coagulant in the venom directly activates ... Dimitrov GD, Kankonkar RC (February 1968). "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration. I. Venom composition and ...
Venom , Veranti , Vi-Car , Viking (1966) , Viking (1980-1983) , Virago , Viscount , Voodoo , Voyager , VPR , Vulture , Warwick ... Cobra Sports , Coldwell , Conan , Concordette , Connaught (1949-1957) , Connaught (2005-2016) , Convair , Cool Car 500 , Cooper ...
Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize, injure or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, ... Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, and are stored in venom glands at the back of the head.[60] In all venomous ... Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian copperheads, sea snakes, and coral snakes.[61] ... Almost all snake venom contains hyaluronidase, an enzyme that ensures rapid diffusion of the venom.[17]:243 ...
Johnson, M., Kaye, M.A.G., Hems, R. and Krebs, H.A. (1953). „Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom". ...
We released the punk album of the millennium with 'Ass Cobra,' and didn't want to make an 'Ass Cobra' part two, plus we spent ... Among the band's main influences are Black Flag, the Rolling Stones, KISS,[2] Venom, Radio Birdman, AC/DC, Iggy Pop & James ... Following Ass Cobra, was Turbonegro's most critically acclaimed release Apocalypse Dudes (1998). Apocalypse Dudes introduced a ... In that same year, Anthony Martin started his new label, Boomba Records, in order to release Turbonegro's third album Ass Cobra ...
The recipient's complement cascade can be inhibited through the use of cobra venom factor (which depletes C3), soluble ... Disadvantages of this approach include the toxicity of cobra venom factor, and most importantly these treatments would deprive ...
Ismail, Mohammad (1993). "The ocular effects of spitting cobras: I. The ringhals cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus) Venom-Induced ... With the species and size of target held constant, the duration of venom flow, maximum venom flow rate and total venom volume ... "Snake Venom Detection Kit: Detection and Identification of Snake Venom" (PDF). CSL Limited. 2007. Archived from the original ( ... "Snake Venom Ophthalmia and Blindness Caused by the Spitting Cobra (Naja Nigricollis) in Nigeria". The American Society of ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three- ...
Limp Bizkit - Three Dollar Bill, Yall$ (1997); Significant Other (1999); Gold Cobra (2011) ... Arid - Little Things of Venom (2000). *Arlen Roth - Arlen Roth (1987). *Arrested Development - 3 Years, 5 Months & 2 Days in ...
"The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system". Proceedings of the National ... "Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk". Nature Communications. 5: 3765. doi:10.1038/ ...
Also, echistatin, a disintegrin from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus was a lead in the development of the ... α-bungarotoxin from cobras). As with plant feeding deterrents, this biological activity is attributed to natural selection, ... This is because venom constituents (peptides, enzymes, nucleotides, lipids, biogenic amines etc.) often have very specific ... For example, teprotide, a peptide isolated from the venom of the Brazilian pit viper Bothrops jararaca, was a lead in the ...
Members of the Pakkoku clan of Burma tattoo themselves with ink mixed with cobra venom on their upper body in a weekly ... Their venom is like that of a snake, like a deaf serpent that does not hear, that does not respond to the magicians, or to a ... In 2007 a viral video made headlines about an infant who was playing with a defanged cobra.[17] Members of the Sapera or ... In addition, the charmers provided a valuable source of snake venom for creating antivenins.[citation needed] ...
The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 17. ... King cobra settles into new home, 1. mai 2006. Seltsilisloomana. *Nick Britten, Snake lover killed by one of his 24 king cobras ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud ingliskeelset artiklit en:King cobra seisuga 12.03.2015. ... "National geographic- KING COBRA", average life span in the wild: 20 years (fast facts), veebiversioon (vaadatud 4.03.2015)( ...
2007). «The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography ... of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex)». Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45 (2): 437-453. ISSN ...
The Venom was Cox's last attempt at making a really fast 049 mouse racing engine. Again taken from ideas learned from years of ... Keilkraft Cobra 049 and the British 1/2A Revolution by Adrian Duncan ... All Bees with the exception of the Killer Bee and Venom had the same crankshaft that was only good for about 20,000 rpm before ... 1 The Killer Bee and Venom had a special competition lightweight piston and a heavy duty crank shaft for speeds above 22K rpm. ...
Venom[edit]. The mulga snake venom consists of myotoxins. The LD50 is 2.38 mg/kg subcutaneous.[14] Its venom is not ... The species was first described by John Edward Gray in 1842, who placed it in the genus Naja (cobras).[2] The species was long ... a b Mulga or "King Brown" Snake (Pseudechis australis) , Australian Venom Research Unit. Avru.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-21. ... The Australian venom research unit (August 25, 2007). "Which snakes are the most venomous?". University of Melbourne. Retrieved ...
Feathers were buried with Viking warriors[74] and the flesh of the bird was said to cure snake venom and many other maladies. ... "Peacocks and cobra". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 73 (1): 214. ...
For the comics character, see Anti-Venom (comics).. Antivenom, also known as antivenin, venom antiserum and antivenom ... Mambas, cobras, Rinkhalses, puff adders (Unsuitable small adders: B. worthingtoni, B. atropos, B. caudalis, B. cornuta, B. ... However, cytotoxic venom causes injury even at low doses meant to build resistance and the long-term effects of venom dosing in ... Thus, they should be given as soon as possible after the venom has been injected, but are of some benefit as long as venom is ...
There will also be an extensive examination of CCTV footage."[33] The United Kingdom Government COBRA committee met to discuss ... "Cobra meets over fears about assassination squad". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007 ...
Does cobra venom make you independently wealthy?. Ha ha. No, really.. Jim was one of five people who did it. He was in India ... Drinking the Cobra Venom Posted By Unreal on Fri, Apr 10, 2009 at 4:23 PM click to enlarge ... Jim doesnt recommend cobra venom, by the way. He says meditation is the safest, cleanest way to reveal the truth.. Darn.. Its ... Unreal (eagerly): What about the cobra venom?. Everybody asks about that. It really catches peoples attention.. Well, it was ...
Rod Stewart for five years for a variety of medication violations surrounding the discovery of cobra venom, a neurotoxin, in a ... investigators found three vials of cobra venom, tablets of medications used to treat Parkinsons disease in humans, and an ...
Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. It is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3b, the ...
Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This ... Caption: Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja ... indochinese spitting cobra, long neurotoxin, medical, medical illustration, medicine, model, molecular, molecular model, ...
... Factor. Cobra Venom Anticomplementary Protein. Used for immuno-suppression, decomplementing blood in vivo & in ... Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja ... 2008 Venom Supplies Pty Ltd - All Rights Reserved. PO Box 547, Tanunda, South Australia 5352 , P: 8563 0001 , F: 8563 0020 , ... kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. ...
Definition of Cobra venom factor with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more ... cobra. cobra neurotoxins. cobra toxin. cobra venom cofactor. cobra venom factor (current term). cobra venoms. cobralike. ... Medical Definition of Cobra venom factor. 1. A component of cobra venom that renders C3 proactivator (properdin factor B) ... Cobra Venom Factor Images Lexicographical Neighbors of Cobra Venom Factor. coboose. cobooses. cobordant. cobordism. cobordisms ...
Krishnan V, Ponnuraj K, Xu Y, Macon K, Volanakis JE, Narayana SV (2009) The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor ... Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a C3b homologue found in the venom of snakes from the genus Naja. Together with Bb, CVF assembles ... Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex. Nick S Laursen, Kasper R ... Vogel CW, Fritzinger DC (2010) Cobra venom factor: structure, function, and humanization for therapeutic complement depletion. ...
Gowda, D. C. (1998). Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor abolishes anti-α-Gal antibody ... Gowda, DC 1998, Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor abolishes anti-α-Gal antibody ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor ... The N-linked oligosaccharides of cobra venom factor (CVF) contain unique terminal α-galactosylated Lewis X structures. We have ...
Cobra venom factor References *↑ Goicoechea de Jorge E, Harris CL, Esparza-Gordillo J, Carreras L, Arranz EA, Garrido CA, Lopez ... CO3_NAJKA] Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. It is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3b, ... Insights into complement convertase formation based on the structure of the factor B-cobra venom factor complex.,Janssen BJ, ... data of the pro-convertase formed by human FB and cobra venom factor (CVF), a potent homologue of C3b that generates more ...
... the king cobra is renowned for its imposing size and deadly bite. But it also has plenty of other unique qualities: a ... 4. THEIR VENOM ATTACKS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.. Drop for drop, king cobra venom is less potent than that of some smaller snakes, ... 8. KING COBRAS ARE MAINLY ACTIVE DURING THE DAY.. While many true cobras are crepuscular, king cobras snakes are diurnal, ... Despite that common name, king cobras are not classified as true cobras, which belong to the genus Naja. The king cobra is the ...
The king cobra is the longest venomous snake in the world, and their famous hood is created by extending elongated cervical ... While it is not the most poisonous of cobras, because of its large size and high venom yield, the king cobra can inject enough ... venom to kill an elephant. Despite this, this cobra kills fewer than five humans each year.. King cobras are good swimmers and ... King cobras have short fangs but can strike in a highly accurate downward thrust. To achieve this, the king cobra can raise one ...
This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance ... it can force venom through its fangs by exerting muscular pressure on its venom glands). The Indian cobra resorts to these ... Indian cobras were once killed for their venom and during staged fights with mongooses (their natural predator). However, they ... A native of India, and most of Asia, the Indian cobra (also known as the spectacled, black and Pakastani cobra) is considered ...
Introduction: We tested the action of proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) and cobra venom Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) on Deiters nucleus ...
King Cobra Venom. The only good thing about a king bite is that a king cobras venom isnt as potent as a krait or monocled ... Monocled and Spitting Cobras First Aid *Spitting Cobra Venom in Eyes First Aid ... for injecting venom during a bite.. King Cobra venom is primarily neurotoxic, but somewhat necrotoxic as well. You can see ... A king cobra has the strongest bite of any venomous snake in the world, in addition to having massive amounts of venom, and ...
King Cobra venom typically takes a couple hours to work, but its all relative to how much venom is injected with the bite. A ... Monocled and Spitting Cobras First Aid *Spitting Cobra Venom in Eyes First Aid ... A King Cobra can inject whole milliliters of potent venom at a time - the human body, even with medical care, just cannot cope ... A King Cobras venom is primarily neurotoxic. It affects the ability of the nerves to function properly. As a result, many ...
Cobra Speed Venom". Anti Hero Magazine. Ray Van Horn Jr. "The Crown "Cobra Speed Venom"". Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved 24 March ... Cobra Speed Venom - Album Review". Rock N Load. "Review: The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom". Toilet ov Hell. 16 March 2018. ... Cobra Speed Venom" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 24 March 2021. "Offiziellecharts.de - The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom" (in ... Cobra Speed Venom is the tenth studio album by Swedish melodic death metal band The Crown. The album was released on 16 March ...
Definition of cobra venom cofactor. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... cobra venom cofactor. Definition: equivalent in action to C3B, which means that it can activate the alternative complement ...
Cobra venom is among the more noxious toxins in the animal kingdom-potent enough to fell an elephant. But researchers have ... Cobra venom factor (CVF), a key protein in the snakes toxin, has long been known to interfere with complement activity in ... Pick Your Poison: Cobra Venom Shows Therapeutic Promise. Researchers may have found a way to suppress inflammatory responses by ... found that tacking a snippet of protein from cobra venom onto human immune molecules is a novel and effective way of ...
Its relevance in the snake venom is not clear. However, it has been shown to inhibit metalloproteinase-dependent proteolysis of ... "Amino acid sequence of nerve growth factor purified from the venom of the Formosan cobra Naja naja atra.". Oda T., Ohta M., ... "Amino acid sequence of nerve growth factor purified from the venom of the Formosan cobra Naja naja atra.". Oda T., Ohta M., ... Expressed by the venom gland.1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information which has been inferred by a curator based on his/ ...
King cobra genome and snake venom evolution. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. Casewell, Christiaan V. Henkel, Alysha M. Heimberg, ... King cobra genome and snake venom evolution. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. Casewell, Christiaan V. Henkel, Alysha M. Heimberg, ... the king cobra, and assessed the composition of venom gland expressed genes, small RNAs, and secreted venom proteins. We show ... The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. ...
... by injections of the venom of cobras or other serpents. This test for insanity has recently been employed in Germany and some ...
The cobra may not elect to inject its venom when it bites. About half the people bitten develop no poison symptoms.The word ... The cobra may not elect to inject its venom when it bites. About half the people bitten develop no poison symptoms. ... The cobra may not elect to inject its venom when it bites.... ...
The amino-acid compositions of two neurotoxins from the venom of the Central Asian cobra have been established. The N-terminal ... 1. The amino-acid compositions of two neurotoxins from the venom of the Central Asian cobra have been established. The N- ... Amino-acid composition and terminal amino acids of the toxins of the venom of the central Asian cobra. ... V. M. Sorokin, in: Poisonous Animals of Central Asia and Their Venoms, Proceedings of the Central Asian Conference, October 1-3 ...
Venom Cannibal Cobra Core Longboard Wheels in stock now at Tactics Boardshop! Fast, free shipping. Authenticity and lowest ... The Cannibal Cobra Core longboard wheels from Venom feature a winning combination of durability, grip and control. Venom ... Venom Cannibal Cobra Core Longboard Wheels Be the first to write a review ... Cobra Core - The Cobra Core is fiberglass reinforced, 12x stiffer and features no flex zone to help stabilize the wheel and ...
The Cobra Venom. Harness the power of precision mixtures of pressurized flammable vapor. Safety first! These are advanced ... Another cannon that I called the "Cobra Striker" won second place for innovation. That cannon ultimately failed completely. It ...
Caspian cobra venom Naja naja oxiana U87MG glioma cell line Cytotoxicity Reactive oxygen species ... Gasanov SE, Shrivastava IH, Israilov FS, Kim AA, Rylova KA, Zhang B, Dagda RK (2015) Naja naja oxiana cobra venom cytotoxins ... Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell- ... Potential Anticancer Activity of Caspian Cobra Venom Through Induction of Oxidative Stress in Glioblastoma Cell Line. ...
This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra ... This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (Equitorial spitting cobra ... The cobra venoms and their respective cytotoxins exhibited concentration-dependent growth inhibitory effects in all cell lines ... The cobra venoms and their respective cytotoxins exhibited concentraion-dependent growth inhibitory effects in all cell lines ...
Find out information about cobra venom solution. in chemistry, homogeneous mixture mixture, in chemistry, a physical ... combination of two or more pure substances . A mixture is distinguished from a compound,... Explanation of cobra venom solution ... Related to cobra venom solution: Cobra Venom Factor. solution,. in chemistry, homogeneous mixturemixture,. in chemistry, a ... Cobra venom solution , Article about cobra venom solution by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
... modelYear Cobra Performance Boats VENOM CANOPY CAT/BR prices & specs , NADAguides ... Research 2012 Cobra Performance Boats VENOM CANOPY CAT/BR options, { ...
Listen to Cobra Speed Venom all the way through and if, by the end, you havent heard... ... Listen to Cobra Speed Venom all the way through and if, by the end, you havent heard anything that you like, youll never get ... Cobra Speed Venom lives up to its name, a ragingly brutal thrashterpiece that should be on every self-respecting metalheads " ... Over the decades, the Crown have honed their thrash attack to needle precision, and on Cobra Speed Venom, the results are ...
At 85, he has been bitten 162 times - the latest, by a cobra, three months ago - by snakes with venom poisonous enough to kill ... Is snake venom the secret to health and long life?. "Come back in 15 years when Im 100, and if I still look like I do today, ... He believes venom can be useful against arthritis and other diseases. He produced a drug in the late 1970s that a Miami doctor ... "Poisonous Venom May Be Just What Doctor Ordered", Says Octogenarian. By Tom Wells, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS ...
Is Cobra Venom the most powerful? Compare the lethality of various venomous snakes, and GET your FREE Snake Bite First-Aid ... The Venom Sac and Venom Duct of the Cobra. Cobra Venom coming in contact with human eyes causes an immediate and severe ... Cobras are completely immune to the venom produced by their species.. COBRA VENOM, AND OTHERS…. Poison of animal origin, ... Cobras are all venomous, yet most are not poisonous, so long as the cobra venom glands are not eaten.. ...
... is a native cobra venom factor. Glycoprotein composed of three non-identical disulfide-bonded subunits of 68, 48, and 30 kDa ... Cobra Venom Anticomplementary Protein. Description. Native cobra venom factor from Naja naja kaouthia. Glycoprotein composed of ... More,, Cobra Venom Factor, Naja naja kaouthia, is a native cobra venom factor. Glycoprotein composed of three non-identical ... Cobra Venom Factor, Naja naja kaouthia, is a native cobra venom factor. Glycoprotein composed of three non-identical disulfide- ...
Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, ... The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor for C3- and C5-convertase CVFBb Structure. 2009 Apr 15;17(4):611-9. doi ... Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, ... We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 A resolution. The CVF crystal structure, ...
Depolarization of skeletal muscle cells in culture by a cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of the Taiwan cobra ( ... A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but ... Depolarization of skeletal muscle cells in culture by a cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of the Taiwan cobra ( ...
In Florida, there are several cobra "farms" as well, primarily producing venom for research use.. Cobra venom is deadly, of ... Inside was a small amount of crystallized cobra venom. His veterinarians truck was also searched.. Cobra venom injections are ... But did you know that cobras themselves are immune to the venom? Their bloodsteams contain molecules that neutralize the venom ... Last week, two men pleaded guilty in New York state for the crime of injecting Standardbreds with cobra venom.. Lyndi Gilliam, ...
Princessas Diary] King Cobra Venom Peptides and Neuropeptides - The Future of Anti-Aging Cosmetics. As the first and only ... Princessas Diary] King Cobra Venom Peptides and Neuropeptides - The Future of Anti-Aging Cosmetics [link] ... King Cobra Venom Peptides and Neuropeptides - The Future of Anti-Aging Cosmetics - ♔ Princessas Royal Magazine ♔ , Womens ... www.sabrina.sg/magazine/2014/07/king-cobra-venom-p... ... occurring peptides and neuropeptides from King Cobra Venom, ...
Swedish death metal legends The Crown will release their new album, Cobra Speed Venom, on March 16th via Metal Blade Records. ... Comments The Crown on their new album Cobra Speed Venom: "We are really looking forward to finally be able to show our fans how ... Swedish death metal legends The Crown will release their new album, Cobra Speed Venom, on March 16th via Metal Blade Records. ... The Crown has now released the 2nd single taken off Cobra Speed Venom. To watch the full production video clip for the title ...
  • Despite that common name , king cobras are not classified as true cobras, which belong to the genus Naja . (mentalfloss.com)
  • and at the base of the neck, king cobras have a pair of matching, elongated occipital scales, which are absent in Naja cobras. (mentalfloss.com)
  • We tested the action of proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) and cobra venom Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) on Deiters' nucleus neurons at 3rd, 15th and 35th days after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). (enets.org)
  • The Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis) is likely one of the most venomous cobra species on the earth based mostly on murine LD50 research. (laalmeja.com)
  • genetic evidence suggests that these big snakes are more closely related to the mambas of sub-Saharan Africa than to true cobras. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Most true cobras have a varied diet that may include lizards, birds, rodents, and fish. (mentalfloss.com)
  • They're equal opportunity eaters, devouring harmless rat snakes as well as venomous kraits, various true cobras, and other kings . (mentalfloss.com)
  • While many true cobras are crepuscular, king cobras snakes are diurnal, meaning they're most active during daytime. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Although the king cobra does not have as strong venom as most true cobras, it makes up for this by delivering up to one teaspoon of venom in one bite. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • It doesn't usually unfold a hood nor maintain up its physique up off the bottom like true cobras do. (laalmeja.com)
  • One of the most feared and revered snakes on the planet, the king cobra is renowned for its imposing size and deadly bite. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Drop for drop, king cobra venom is less potent than that of some smaller snakes, such as Australia's inland taipan. (mentalfloss.com)
  • There's no biting involved-these snakes are largely immune to their own venom . (mentalfloss.com)
  • The team also concluded that the snake's deadly venom was developed during an eons-long "arms race" with prey items: Over many generations, these would-be victims grew increasingly immune to the snake's chemical cocktail, so cobra venom evolved to be more and more dangerous as time went by (which is why, despite the fact that the snakes don't eat elephants, their venom is strong enough to kill one). (mentalfloss.com)
  • When I first got back into snakes about nine years ago, I saw my first King Cobra ( Ophiophagus hannah ) at a snake show on the island of Koh Samui in Thailand's Surat Thani province. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • I've seen King Cobras eat banded kraits, Malayan pit vipers, keeled rat snakes, red-tailed racers, radiated rat snakes, tree snakes, and monitor lizards over a meter long. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • King cobras are probably one of the most widely known venomous snakes in the world. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • King cobras are the only snakes to build nests, and some experts say that this is another proof of their intelligence. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • These snakes are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a goal up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) away. (laalmeja.com)
  • I know that snakes feed on a wide variety of prey items, and I always wanted to know if cobras could be fed live bunnies/rabbits. (sepost.info)
  • But when it comes to toxic chemicals, quantity can trump quality: With a single bite, a king cobra can inject as much as 7 milliliters of venom-almost enough to fill 1.5 teaspoons-into its victim. (mentalfloss.com)
  • A King Cobra can inject whole milliliters of potent venom at a time - the human body, even with medical care, just cannot cope with that. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Many vipers, for example, have venom that targets the victim's circulatory system, destroying red blood cells as it spreads. (mentalfloss.com)
  • King cobra skull showing large teeth and thick, rather short fangs (compared to vipers) for injecting venom during a bite. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Fairly recently we all learned of the fate of Luke Yeomans, bitten by one of his favorite King Cobras he kept in captivity - Elvis - which caused catastrophic heart failure within mere minutes. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Some king cobras are captured in order to milk for antivenon, but these individuals are returned to the wild or kept in captivity, not usually killed. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Friends have had cobras in their kitchen, and others had kraits in the garage. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • But the venom of a king cobra inhibits communication between nerve cells, which can cause extreme dizziness , blurred vision, and-often-paralysis. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Research has shown its venom is purely a neurotoxin, with no obvious necrotizing components and no cardiotoxins. (laalmeja.com)
  • The N-linked oligosaccharides of cobra venom factor (CVF) contain unique terminal α-galactosylated Lewis X structures. (elsevier.com)
  • Gowda, DC 1998, ' Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor abolishes anti-α-Gal antibody immunoreactivity without affecting functional activity ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 245, no. 1, pp. 28-32. (elsevier.com)
  • The only 'good' thing about a king bite is that a king cobra's venom isn't as potent as a krait or monocled cobra. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Still, it's the potent neurotoxic venom that will kill you, and when treating a King Cobra bite, that's the main focus. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • A king cobra has the strongest bite of any venomous snake in the world, in addition to having massive amounts of venom, and very efficient fangs for delivering large doses of venom at a time. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Like many other species of animal, male king cobras fight over females during breeding season. (mentalfloss.com)
  • King cobras are a common species of snake used in snake charming. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • In 2013, an international scientific team sequenced the Ophiophagus genome [ PDF ], which revealed that the animal's venom glands can trace their evolutionary origins to the pancreatic system . (mentalfloss.com)
  • Despite being highly venomous, even adult king cobras are preyed on by some animals. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Their venom is powerful enough that a single bite can kill a 12,000-pound elephant in just three hours . (mentalfloss.com)
  • What Happens with a King Cobra Bite? (thailandsnakes.com)
  • I've been lucky enough to not experience a bite from a king cobra, or any venomous snake - but, I've been fascinated by stories of bites by the world's longest venomous snake, and I thought I'd write a page about it tonight. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • I have seen three instances where king cobra bites have caused necrosis at the bite site. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • How Long to Reach a Hospital after a King Cobra Bite? (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Luke had a website, "KingCobraSanctuary.com" but it was taken down after his king cobra bite and death. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Getting a bite from a King Cobra is probably not going to be fatal if you do the right thing after the bite. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • WHY IS A KING COBRA BITE SO DEADLY ? (thailandsnakes.com)
  • King Cobra venom typically takes a couple hours to work, but it's all relative to how much venom is injected with the bite. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • King cobras will also eat eggs and the occasional monitor lizard. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Not even pythons are safe (although king cobras apparently can't swallow constrictors that exceed 10 feet in length). (mentalfloss.com)
  • This venom is fast-acting and can shut down the nervous system, lungs, and heart in just a few minutes. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • If lucky, a captive king cobra can live for around twenty years. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Humans kill king cobras for various reasons including fear, but these animals can actually help humans. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • King cobras can slightly change color in order to hide from their prey. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • When threatened, king cobras spread their hoods to make themselves look bigger and raise their heads as high as 6 feet off the ground. (mentalfloss.com)
  • They have a perfect hole down through the center, which squirts venom as the king strikes and bites down, squeezing the muscles around the venom sacs in behind the eyes. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • So, that would be great, except the king has somewhere around 7 ml. maximum volume of venom in its huge head and venom sacs - which means, it can kill you easily anyway. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • You can see proof of the latter by asking various snake handlers at the King Cobra shows in Thailand where each scar on their hands came from. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • 2+ meter King Cobra found in Krabi, Thailand. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • I'd never seen a King Cobra in a zoo in the USA, not that I ever went to zoos much. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • And that was my first experience seeing King Cobras. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • The show would get between 60 to 100 King Cobras per year. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Over the nine years I've lived in this province, that's 500-900 King Cobras taken from the wild. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Imagine all the other snake shows in Thailand doing the same - and it's really a tremendous number of wild-caught King Cobras going to waste. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • Tom Charlton with his first-ever King Cobra in Krabi, Thailand. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • It's hard to believe there are so many King Cobras in such a small area. (thailandsnakes.com)
  • To watch a video of a king cobra click here . (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • The average size of an adult king cobra is thirteen feet (4 m) from head to tail. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Some king cobras are larger than this at up to eighteen feet (5.5 m) long. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Because king cobras can lift one third of their body off of the ground, an individual this long would be able to lift six feet (1.8 m) off the ground and look an average adult human in the eye! (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Once the young king cobras reach four years of age, they start mating. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • The power of the mongoose to kill king cobras was made famous by Rudyard Kipling's short story Rikki Tikki Tavi . (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Various parts of the king cobra are used in traditional Chinese medicines. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • Habitat loss is another killer of king cobras. (nextdoorzoo.com)
  • If you'd like to Help KING COBRAS out in the Wild Donate to the King Cobra Conservancy! (sepost.info)
  • Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. (nextdoorzoo.com)