Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.
A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.
A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.

Endothelial targeting and enhanced antiinflammatory effects of complement inhibitors possessing sialyl Lewisx moieties. (1/439)

The complement inhibitor soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) and a truncated form of sCR1, sCR1[desLHR-A], have been generated with expression of the selectin-reactive oligosaccharide moiety, sialyl Lewisx (sLex), as N-linked oligosaccharide adducts. These modified proteins, sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex, were assessed in the L-selectin- and P-selectin-dependent rat model of lung injury following systemic activation of complement by cobra venom factor and in the L-selectin-, P-selectin-, and E-selectin-dependent model of lung injury following intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. In the cobra venom factor model, sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex caused substantially greater reductions in neutrophil accumulation and in albumin extravasation in lung when compared with the non-sLex-decorated forms. In this model, increased lung vascular binding of sCR1sLex and sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex occurred in a P-selectin-dependent manner, in contrast to the absence of any increased binding of sCR1 or sCR1[desLHR-A]. In the IgG immune complex model, sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex possessed greater protective effects relative to sCR1[desLHR-A], based on albumin extravasation and neutrophil accumulation. Enhanced protective effects correlated with greater lung vascular binding of sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex as compared with the non-sLex-decorated form. In TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC, substantial in vitro binding occurred with sCR1[desLHR-A]sLex (but not with sCR1[desLHR-A]). This endothelial cell binding was blocked by anti-E-selectin but not by anti-P-selectin. These data suggest that sLex-decorated complement inhibitors have enhanced antiinflammatory effects and appear to have enhanced ability to localize to the activated vascular endothelium.  (+info)

Inhibition of a membrane complement regulatory protein by a monoclonal antibody induces acute lethal shock in rats primed with lipopolysaccharide. (2/439)

Rats pretreated with traces of LPS developed acute fatal shock syndrome after i.v. administration of a mAb that inhibits the function of a membrane complement regulatory molecule. Such a shock was not observed after the administration of large amounts of LPS instead of the mAb following LPS pretreatment. The lethal response did not occur in rats depleted of either leukocytes or complement, and a C5a receptor antagonist was found to inhibit the reaction. Furthermore, LPS-treated rats did not suffer fatal shock following the injection of cobra venom factor, which activates complement in the fluid phase so extensively as to exhaust complement capacity. Therefore, complement activation on cell membranes is a requirement for this type of acute reaction.  (+info)

Mechanisms of enhanced lung injury during sepsis. (3/439)

A major complication in sepsis is progressively impaired lung function and susceptibility to intrapulmonary infection. Why sepsis predisposes the lung to injury is not clear. In the current studies, rats were rendered septic by cecal ligation/puncture and evaluated for increased susceptibility to injury after a direct pulmonary insult (deposition of IgG immune complexes or airway instillation of lipopolysaccharide). By itself, cecal ligation/puncture did not produce evidence of lung injury. However, after a direct pulmonary insult, lung injury in septic animals was significantly enhanced. Enhanced lung injury was associated with increased accumulation of neutrophils in lung, enhanced production of CXC chemokines (but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and increased expression of lung vascular intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Complement depletion or treatment with anti-C5a abolished all evidence of enhanced lung injury in septic animals. When stimulated in vitro, bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages from septic animals had greatly enhanced CXC chemokine responses as compared with macrophages from sham-operated animals or from septic animals that had been complement depleted. These data indicate that the septic state causes priming of lung macrophages and suggest that enhanced lung injury in the septic state is complement dependent and related to increased production of CXC chemokines.  (+info)

Role of group II secretory phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis: 2. Potential involvement of biologically active oxidized phospholipids. (4/439)

Secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase A2 (group II sPLA2) is induced in inflammation and present in atherosclerotic lesions. In an accompanying publication we demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing group II sPLA2 developed severe atherosclerosis. The current study was undertaken to determine whether 1 mechanism by which group II sPLA2 might contribute to the progression of inflammation and atherosclerosis is by increasing the formation of biologically active oxidized phospholipids. In vivo measurements of bioactive lipids were performed, and in vitro studies tested the hypothesis that sPLA2 can increase the accumulation of bioactive phospholipids. We have shown previously that 3 oxidized phospholipids derived from the oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (PAPC) stimulated endothelial cells to bind monocytes, a process that is known to be an important step in atherogenesis. We now show that these 3 biologically active phospholipids are significantly increased in livers of sPLA2 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet as compared with nontransgenic littermates. We present in vitro evidence for several mechanisms by which these phospholipids may be increased in sPLA2 transgenics. These studies demonstrated that polyunsaturated free fatty acids, which are liberated by sPLA2, increased the formation of bioactive phospholipids in LDL, resulting in increased ability to stimulate monocyte-endothelial interactions. Moreover, sPLA2-treated LDL was oxidized by cocultures of human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells more efficiently than untreated LDL. Analysis by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed that the bioactive phospholipids, compared with unoxidized PAPC, were less susceptible to hydrolysis by human recombinant group II sPLA2. In addition, HDL from the transgenic mice and human HDL treated with recombinant sPLA2 in vitro failed, in the coculture system, to protect against the formation of biologically active phospholipids in LDL. This lack of protection may in part relate to the decreased levels of paraoxonase seen in the HDL isolated from the transgenic animals. Taken together, these studies show that levels of biologically active oxidized phospholipids are increased in sPLA2 transgenic mice; they also suggest that this increase may be mediated by effects of sPLA2 on both LDL and HDL.  (+info)

A nonhuman primate model for the selective elimination of CD8+ lymphocytes using a mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibody. (5/439)

Nonhuman primates provide valuable animal models for human diseases. However, studies assessing the role of cell-mediated immune responses have been difficult to perform in nonhuman primates. We have shown that CD8+ lymphocyte-mediated immunity in rhesus monkeys can be selectively eliminated using the mouse-human chimeric anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody cM-T807. In vitro, this antibody completely blocked antigen-specific expansion of cytotoxic T cells and decreased major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted, antigen-specific lysis of target cells but did not mediate complement-dependent cell lysis. In vivo administration of cM-T807 in rhesus monkeys resulted in near total depletion of CD8+ T cells from the blood and lymph nodes for up to 6 weeks. This depletion was not solely complement-dependent and persisted longer in adults than in juveniles. Preservation of B cell and CD4+ T cell function in monkeys depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes was demonstrated by their ability to develop humoral immune responses to the administered chimeric monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, during CD8+ lymphocyte depletion, monkeys developed delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions comprised only of CD4+ T cells but not CD8+ T cells. This CD8+ lymphocyte depletion model should prove useful in defining the role of cell-mediated immune responses in controlling infectious diseases in nonhuman primates.  (+info)

Binding of nucleotide triphosphates to cardiotoxin analogue II from the Taiwan cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Elucidation of the structural interactions in the dATP-cardiotoxin analogue ii complex. (6/439)

Snake venom cardiotoxins have been recently shown to block the enzymatic activity of phospholipid protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase. To understand the molecular basis for the inhibitory effects of cardiotoxin on the action of these enzymes, the nucleotide triphosphate binding ability of cardiotoxin analogue II (CTX II) from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom is investigated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional NMR. CTX II is found to bind to all the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) with similar affinity. Detailed studies of the binding of dATP to CTX II indicated that the toxin molecule is significantly stabilized in the presence of the nucleotide. Molecular modeling, based on the NOEs observed for the dATP.CTX II complex, reveals that dATP binds to the CTX II molecule at the groove enclosed between the N- and C-terminal ends of the toxin molecule. Based on the results obtained in the present study, a molecular mechanism to account for the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase is also proposed.  (+info)

Effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate on the phospholipase A2 activity of Naja naja venom and Helicobacter pylori: a biochemical analysis. (7/439)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has become recognized as a fundamental pathogen in the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Bismuth compounds in combination with antibiotics are widely used to treat H. pylori associated peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: In this study we measured and analysed the inhibitory effect of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC, Pylorid, Tritec) on the activity and kinetics of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (E.C.3.1.1.4) of commercial cobra (Naja naja) venom and H. pylori (French press lysates) using L-alpha-dipalmitoyl-(2[1-14C]palmitoyl)-phosphatidylcholine as substrate. RESULTS: Our data suggest that RBC might exert a dose-dependent uncompetitive inhibition on PLA2 activity of both H. pylori and Naja naja venom. the inhibitory effect of RBC on the PLA2 activity cannot be abolished by the optimal concentration of calcium (10 mM), indicating its mechanism to be unrelated to the displacement of calcium from the activation site of the enzyme. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which bismuth compounds are therapeutically effective in the treatment of H. pylori associated gastritis is by inhibiting the activity of the degradative PLA2 enzyme secreted by H. pylori. As a consequence of the inhibitory action of RBC on PLA2 of the bacteria, the extracellular and/or intracellular phospholipid components of the gastric mucosal barrier are preserved.  (+info)

Heparin binding to cobra basic phospholipase A2 depends on heparin chain length and amino acid specificity. (8/439)

Heparin is shown to bind specifically to the carboxy-terminal region of toxic type I phospholipase A2 from Naja nigricollis (N-PLA2) by competition assay using synthetic polypeptides and heparin affinity chromatography. The binding strength is seen to depend on heparin chain length and the presence of N-sulfate groups of heparin. It is observed that both electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions are involved in the specific binding of heparin to the carboxy-terminus. When heparin's size is at least a decasaccharide, about two molecules of N-PLA2 bind to one molecule of heparin, as evidenced by the chemical estimate of protein to carbohydrate ratio in such N-PLA2/heparin complexes. Based on such a stoichiometric measurement and computer modeling of the N-PLA2/heparin complex, it is suggested that the binding sites of the two N-PLA2 molecules on one heparin molecule lie on the opposite sides of the heparin chain.  (+info)

King Cobra venom is primarily neurotoxic, but somewhat necrotoxic as well. You can see proof of the latter by asking various snake handlers at the King Cobra shows in Thailand where each scar on their hands came from. I have seen three instances where king cobra bites have caused necrosis at the bite site. Some, fairly severe. Still, its the potent neurotoxic venom that will kill you, and when treating a King Cobra bite, thats the main focus. Forget about the fact that you might lose some skin or muscle. Think about the fact that you need to slow the absorption of the venom into your body so it doesnt stop your diaphragm or heart from working.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor abolishes anti-α-Gal antibody immunoreactivity without affecting functional activity. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 1998/4/7. Y1 - 1998/4/7. N2 - The N-linked oligosaccharides of cobra venom factor (CVF) contain unique terminal α-galactosylated Lewis X structures. We have previously shown that CVF immobilized on nylon membranes binds naturally occurring human anti-α-Gal antibody. The present study shows that soluble CVF can effectively inhibit the binding of anti-α-Gal antibody to CVF-coated microtiter plates, indicating that the terminal α-galactosyl residues of the functionally active CVF are accessible to anti-α-Gal antibody binding. Modification of the terminal galactosyl residues of CVF by treatment with galactose oxidase and in situ derivatization of the generated aldehyde groups with hydrazides abolished the human anti-α-Gal antibody immunoreactivity without affecting the ...
King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. The female lays twenty to fifty eggs which are laid in April through June. Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. Both parents will work together to guard the nest. This nest is special because it is made up of two chambers. The bottom chamber contains the eggs while the top one houses the parents who protect the eggs. Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. Sixty to ninety days after being laid, the eggs hatch, and the parents leave the nest soon before they hatch. Some scientists think this is because the female may have been fasting for months and does not want to be tempted to eat her own young. At birth, the young king cobras are only around fifteen inches (38 cm) long, but their ...
Definition of Cobra venom factor with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. SDS-PAGE immuno blot, using a C3 alpha chain specific antibody was used to demonstrate the consumption of C3 alpha chain in the blood. Both Pure CVF from N. kaouthia and N. melanoleuca had the ability to activate the complement pathway, and to cause the depletion of complement in blood as is seen by the initial disappearance of the C3 alpha chain in the blood and the subsequent reappearance of newly synthesised C3 alpha chain ...
Sometimes locals brought snakes with nooses around them. Sometimes they called the snake guys to run out with their motorbikes and catch a King on their property. Its hard to believe there are so many King Cobras in such a small area. Taking so many each year from the wild and killing them for skins, gall bladders, or having them die early from dirty-cage induced disease, must be decimating the populations and seriously altering the balance that once existed in nature.. Its a fitting moniker - King - there is nothing like it in the snake world. It can grow to over 5.85 meters (19+ feet) long and the girth can be as thick as a mans thigh. It can eat three decent sized (2 meter+) rat snakes in a day if it chooses (in captivity). Ive seen King Cobras eat banded kraits, Malayan pit vipers, keeled rat snakes, red-tailed racers, radiated rat snakes, tree snakes, and monitor lizards over a meter long. They have voracious appetites, and dont seem to mind too much at all fighting a big 2 meter ...
Pugh, R.N.; Theakston, R.D.; Reid, H.A., 1980: Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, XIII. Epidemiology of human encounters with the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis, in the Malumfashi area of northern Nigeria
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A courting male King Cobra will often stay with one female for a considerable length of time and, although he has nothing to do with the brood after breeding, it is known that a male will often breed with the same female years in succession. King Cobras are the only snakes known to make a nest. The female drags leaf-litter and small sticks into a pile, often 2 feet high and 6 feet across. She will lay 20 - 40 eggs (depending on her size) on the pile and then cover them.. She does not incubate the eggs, in the manner of pythons, but she will coil on the pile and guard them. Incubation is about 110 days, aided by the heat of decomposition in the leaf litter. She will leave just before the eggs are to hatch - not so much a prediction of hatching, but an indication that the smell of eggs - and thus predator attraction - is no longer evident. Hatchlings are about 35 cm (14inches) long and are fully capable of caring for themselves. Maturity is in 5 - 6 years and, once well-grown, longevity is ...
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The Ford SVT Mustang Cobra (also known as SVT Mustang Cobra, SVT Cobra, or simply as Cobra) is a muscle car/pony car model that was built in model years 1993 through 2004 by Ford Motor Companys Special Vehicle Team division (or SVT, for short). The SVT Cobra was a high-performance version of the Ford Mustang, considered as top-of-the-line as it was positioned above the Mustang GT and Mach 1 models during its era of production. On three occasions, the race-ready, street-legal SVT Cobra R variant was produced in limited numbers. The SVT Cobra was succeeded by the 2007 Shelby GT500. Although the GT500 was built by SVT and wears a Cobra emblem, it is not considered an SVT Cobra, as the car is licensed by Shelby and does not have Cobra in its model name or description. The 1993 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra was launched during the 1992 Chicago Auto Show. It was the premier vehicle of Fords newly established SVT division, designed to showcase SVTs four hallmarks of Performance, Substance, Exclusivity ...
Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278
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One of the most feared and revered snakes on the planet, the king cobra is renowned for its imposing size and deadly bite. But it also has plenty of other unique qualities: a distinctive voice, remarkable nesting habits, and a name that obscures its true identity.
The king cobra is the longest venomous snake in the world, and their famous hood is created by extending elongated cervical ribs of the neck that spread loose skin.
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
Email. A hearing officer for the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission has concluded that the commission acted within its rights when it suspended the veterinarian Dr. Rod Stewart for five years for a variety of medication violations surrounding the discovery of cobra venom, a neurotoxin, in a barn at Keeneland Racecourse in 2007. In a report released by the commission on Wednesday, the hearing officer, Robert Layton, said that testimony from 11 witnesses supported the commissions contention that Stewart had violated rules regarding the labeling of medications and possession of prohibited substances. In addition, the report stated that the commission handed down a penalty that is consistent with its regulations, including the right to add extenuating circumstances during the consideration of the penalty. Stewart appealed the length of the suspensions last year seeking a reduction, and testimony in the appeal was heard on Dec. 2 and 3. According to the report, during a search of Stewarts vehicle at ...
In terms of sequence homology, CVF is 49% identical to human C3 compared with, for example, 77% sequence identity between human and bovine C3. In combination with the functional and structural similarities between CVF and C3b, we expect that C3b in the AP convertases binds the substrates (C3 and C5) in a manner analogously to how CVF recognizes C5. By further extrapolation-which is justified by the pronounced functional similarities between the AP and the CP convertases-we also expect this to apply to C4b in the CP convertases. We therefore propose a general model for substrate-convertase recognition applicable to both C3 and C5 convertases. In this model, the MG4-MG5 domains of C3b/C4b interact with the MG4-MG5 domains of the substrates C3 and C5 at one interface (the MG4-MG5 interface), while the MG6-MG7 domains of C3b/C4b interact with the substrate MG7 domain at a second interface (the MG7 interface). This proposal is compatible with a variety of experimental results.. With respect to the AP ...
Further testing using the undiluted powder by three persons having various forms of terminal cancer was conducted. 4. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Just make a tea of snake grass fresh or dried leaves, or you can mix it with green tea to enhance its health benefits.. 3. £1.45. Free P&P . offres à partir de . Some general concepts are introduced to allow the comparative evaluation of the resistance of different animals studied by different investigators. Release the snake in an approved area. Re: Anti Snake Plant Available by xreal: 6:55am On Jul 02; Pictures and name of plant. Small size, compact structure, environmentally friendly, easy to use and carry. Natural anti-snake venom proteins. 4.2 out of 5 stars 19. The snake powder is prepared by continuously baking the body of the rattlesnake until it completely dehydrates. Each ml has power of specifically neutralizing the venoms of following species of snakes: 0.60 mg of dried Indian Cobra (Naja naja) venom It produces antibodies against the ...
Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as true cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision that synonymised the genera Boulengerina and Paranaja with Naja. According to that revision, the genus Naja now includes 32 species. The origin of this genus name is from the Sanskrit nāga (with a hard g) meaning snake. Some hold that the Sanskrit word is cognate with English snake, Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, but this is unlikely. Mayrhofer calls this etymology unglaubhaft , not credible, and ...
The importance of intact host defense mechanisms for successful antimicrobial therapy was investigated in an animal model. Recovery from lobar pneumococcal pneumonia as a result of penicillin therapy was studied in normal rats and in rats treated with cobra venom factor. This factor was used to selectively suppress the phagocytosis of pneumococci as a result of complement depletion. Although complete recovery from the infection occurred in normal rats after appropriate penicillin therapy, this was not the case in cobra venom factor-treated rats. Within the limitations of this study, evidence is presented for loss of antibiotic activity as a consequence of impaired phagocytosis. ...
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Introduction: We tested the action of proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) and cobra venom Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) on Deiters nucleus neurons at 3rd, 15th and 35th days after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Early and late tetanic, post-tetanic potentiation and depression of Deiters neurons to bilateral high frequency stimulation of hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricualar nuclei was studied. The analysis of spike activity was carried out by mean of on-line selection and special program ...
To obtain proteins with the complement-depleting activity of Cobra Venom Factor (CVF), but with less immunogenicity, we have prepared human C3/CVF hybrid proteins, in which the C-terminus of the α-...
Dr Sekar Seshagiri, President, Science & Education SciGenom Research Foundation (SGRF), Bengaluru, led the Indian scientists who assembled the genome and transcriptome sequence of the Indian Cobra. Edited excerpts from an interview:. The Indian cobra genome project represents a significant scientific advance in creating a high-quality reptilian reference genome. What are its implications?. Four bases, G A T and C form the chemical alphabet that make up the DNA sequence and serves as the blueprint of a given organism. DNA is present inside nearly all cells in a living organism and is partitioned and kept in chromosomes. Together, the chromosomes represent the genome. The Indian cobra has 19 pairs of chromosomes, 18 autosomes and 2 pairs of sex chromosomes. Ultimately, the goal of any genome sequencing project is to figure out the sequence of chromosomes from end to end. With the aid of cutting-edge genomics technologies and several computational tools, we are able to generate a near-chromosome ...
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The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) has announced updates to model notices that employers, who offer single employer health plans under federal guidelines and have twenty or more employees, must provide to their employees who receive health care benefits. These include a notice provided at the start of employment and a notice at the end of employment, informing employees of their eligibility to continue and later purchase, health insurance coverage through the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA).. Both COBRA notices were updated to include language informing employees that if they are eligible for COBRA benefits, they may choose instead to purchase coverage through the federal Health Insurance Marketplace offered under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Separated employees may be offered more affordable health care coverage options, and be eligible for financial assistance, by choosing coverage through the Marketplace to provide similar special enrollment periods for COBRA ...
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Apr 17, 2015 Did you know the King Cobra 1200 Pro from U.S. Products is the only dual surface extractor on the market with two separate pumps? It features a 1,200 psi pump for hard surface cleaning and an adjustable 150-500 psi pump with an inline heater for carpet and upholstery cleaning. The technology is so innovative - its patented! The low moisture King Cobra also has a 25-foot vacuum hose and... Read More. ...
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So what was up with your stomach? Up here in Massachusetts I also had very strong stomach pain all weekend. I woke Saturday morning with a severe pain in the center of my torso (stomach). I could barely sleep it was so painful. I was gonna go to the emergency walk in clinic on Monday if it didnt go away. Luckily that pain went away during my sleep on Sunday night. I woke up Monday to that pain lower in my abdomen. I knew it was a stomach GI bug because a couple other of my friends were feeling the same thing. Whatever it was it was very painful. Not a grassy pain but something else. Hope you are ok ...
Identification of novel haemoglobin-modifying activity in snake venom libraries using the PHERAstar FS. This is work we have done with our friends at BMG Labtech and their excellent PHERAstar FS. This enabled us to understand a novel activity of venoms, particularly viper venoms but also a cobra (Naja nigricollis), which oxidises Fe2+ haemoglobin to Fe3+…. Read More ...
Prey-selective venoms and toxins have been documented across only a few species of snakes. The lack of research in this area has been due to the absence of suitably flexible testing platforms. In order to test more species for prey specificity of their venom, we used an innovative taxonomically flexible, high-throughput biolayer interferometry approach to ascertain the relative binding of 29 α-neurotoxic venoms from African and Asian elapid representatives (26 Naja spp., Aspidelaps scutatus, Elapsoidea boulengeri, and four locales of Ophiophagus hannah) to the alpha-1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor orthosteric (active) site for amphibian, lizard, snake, bird, and rodent targets. Our results detected prey-selective, intraspecific, and geographical differences of α-neurotoxic binding. The results also suggest that crude venom that shows prey selectivity is likely driven by the proportions of prey-specific α-neurotoxins with differential selectivity within the crude venom. Our results
Cobra Gore-Tex (Street Boots). The final boot in the Cobra series is the Cobra Gore-Tex™, which features a highly breathable, waterproof Gore-Tex™ membrane that keeps your feet at a cool, comfortable temperature, eve
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Treasure none. Cobra flowers draw nutrients from sunlight, the soil, and water, but enjoy a diet of insects, rodents, animals, and even humanoids when available. The creatures can be found nesting in forests and often take up residence near small population areas where they can feed on humanoids who wander into their area. Many a childs or adults disappearance can be attributed to a cobra flower.. When a cobra flower detects a living creature, it remains motionless until its prey is within 5 feet. It then spreads its leafy hood, opens its flowery bulb, and bites its prey, secreting acidic enzymes to break down and digest the victim. ...
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Immune protection by the complement system critically depends on assembly of C3 convertases on the surface of pathogens and altered host cells. These short-lived protease complexes are formed through pro-convertases, which for the alternative pathway consist of the complement component C3b and the pro-enzyme factor B (FB). Here, we present the crystal structure at 2.2-A resolution, small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) data of the pro-convertase formed by human FB and cobra venom factor (CVF), a potent homologue of C3b that generates more stable convertases. FB is loaded onto CVF through its pro-peptide Ba segment by specific contacts, which explain the specificity for the homologous C3b over the native C3 and inactive products iC3b and C3c. The protease segment Bb binds the carboxy terminus of CVF through the metal-ion dependent adhesion site of the Von Willebrand factor A-type domain. A possible dynamic equilibrium between a loading and activation state of the ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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As the name suggests this little number is lethal. A small cut face 8 lure that has an aggressive action that will drive Pelagic fish wild. Set it up on the short or long rigger on a flat day and wait for it to get hammered due to its seductive action.
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Studies of the inheritance of C3 types and partial deficiency of C3 in over 100 relatives of a previously reported Afrikaner child with virtually no serum C3 revealed that she was homozygous for a C3 gene producing little or no C3, C3-. Metabolic studies with purified radiolabeled C3 in this patient showed a mildly elevated fractional catabolic rate and a markedly reduced synthesis rate for C3. There was also a mild increase in the rate of conversion in vitro of labeled C3 added to her serum and incubated at 37°C for 1 hr. The intradermal injection of C1̄s, which produces a marked increase in vasopermeability in the skin of normal subjects, produced no definite change in the patient, possibly implicating C3 or a protein in the alternative pathway as the normal mediator of this response. On incubating the patients serum with purified cobra venom factor in the presence of unsensitized guinea pig erythrocytes, C5 inactivation and normal lysis of the red cells occurred, consistent with the venom ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Feb 13, 2014(Nyamilepedia) -- According to the latest reports from the armed opposition, SPLM/SPLA, the Murle-dominated rebel faction, COBRA, has denounced the agreement with Salva Kiir government and joined the opposition, SPLA/SPLM. On behalf of the COBRA forces, we declare our opposition to the regime of Salva Kiir Mayardit. reads a declaration signed by the…
Feb 13, 2014(Nyamilepedia) -- According to the latest reports from the armed opposition, SPLM/SPLA, the Murle-dominated rebel faction, COBRA, has denounced the agreement with Salva Kiir government and joined the opposition, SPLA/SPLM. On behalf of the COBRA forces, we declare our opposition to the regime of Salva Kiir Mayardit. reads a declaration signed by the…
By ED TRAVIS. For those wanting wedges with extra bite Cobra Golf has brought out the new King Cobra model with a progressive groove pattern tagged Snakebite in variable or one length. There is a touch of nostalgia too with the old King Cobra logo on the sole cutout.. It was nice to see the old King Cobra logo used again on their latest offering, the King Cobra wedge but more importantly the new Snakebite grooves are designed to maximize spin on the short scoring shots to give more control to hit it closer to the hole.. These precisely cut grooves are CNC milled with 11% more depth, 40% sharper edges plus progressive length and shaping varying with the wedge loft. The 48° through 54° lofts have the usual groove lengths but they are narrower and deeper while the 56° to 60° lofts grooves are the full width of the face and are wider and shallower. ...
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Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, and minerals. They contain a variety of chemicals with pharmacological and toxicological properties. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against toxins and microbes. Antibacterial and anticancer proteins produced by snake venom have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to bacterial diseases and the potential of being converted into new therapeutic agents. However, the production of anti-snake venom from large mammals is proven to be low-yielding and arduous. The aim of the present study was to investigate and isolate immunodominant proteins of Naja oxiana snake venom. Identification was performed by 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. Subsequently, four sharp protein bonds of 14, 22, 32, 65 kDa were appeared in nitrocellulose paper. In the next step, the identified proteins were isolated directly by electro-elution
To many people, the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia (desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje speci...
A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but much less toxic. To determine if it acts like the cardiotoxins its depolarizing ability was measured. It was about 10 times less potent than the cardiotoxins. Five amino acids are conserved in the sequences studied, on the exposed second and third loops of the toxin backbone. They may be part of the toxins interactive site.. ...
A heat-labile factor (HLF), which is essential for C3 inactivation by purified cobra venom factor, has been isolated from guinea pig serum. In addition to HLF, other protein(s) are required for inactivation of C3 by the cobra venom factor. HLF has a molecular weight of about 100,000 and is antigenically related to the human glycine-rich beta-glycoprotein (GBG). HLF is believed to be the guinea pig counterpart of factor B of the human properdin system.. ...
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One of them is Hannah Rae Finchamp. Hannah Rae is a complete athlete and has been XTERRA World Champion a few times, shes great in cyclocross, her swim has made great gains in the past two years. Shes a joy to work with and a joy to watch race. Looking back on the 2013 season Hannah Rae had a major breakthrough that resulted in her winning the overall Junior Elite Cup Series. She was 2nd at Flatlands in a brilliant race. She was 4th in Monroe after exiting the water first and holding off the charging pack of 12 athletes for 3 laps. She was 8th in Richmond and she finished 9th at Nationals after another heroic solo bike ride. At Monroe, after Hannah Raes warm up, I noticed a Blist-o-Ban on her foot. Im nuts about Blist-o-Ban and asked Hannah Rae about it. She said it kept her from getting blisters on the run and it stayed on well during the swim and we spoke of how amazing they are. Its hard to see in the pic of her feet - on her left foot, just above big toe, under that little blade of ...
Synonyms for Hamadryads (Greek mythology) in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Hamadryads (Greek mythology). 3 synonyms for hamadryad: king cobra, Naja hannah, Ophiophagus hannah. What are synonyms for Hamadryads (Greek mythology)?
The Possession of Hannah Grace is heavy-handed in its entirety. The over-use of Hannah. The character Megan. The body count. Everything that worked so beautifully in The Autopsy of Jane Doe is not present here. They are similar in concept and title alone. And it made for a lackluster movie. We would have liked Possession more if it emulated Autopsy.. There are too many horror elements with potential at The Possession of Hannah Graces disposal that get smothered by Hollywood Horror Juice (TM). The morgue itself is cold and barren. High cement walls. Dim lighting that frequently casts entire hallways and rooms in darkness. Megan, our protagonist, is alone and untrustworthy. What she sees isnt always truth. Hannah, with a cold, unblinking stare. Her body rigid, contorted. I dont want to see her move. I want to see her moved. I want to see her popping up in impossible places. I want to waveringly trust rigamortis even though shes found 20-feet away from her slab.. And again unlike Autopsy, The ...
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On a raised wooden stage in the shade of a giant tree and flanked by terraced seating, a shiny faced lad who should be playing with Lego or cuddly toys is instead going three rounds with a frighteningly-aggressive young King Cobra. As King Cobras get older, they get longer, fatter -- and more terrifying to us normal folks. But in fact it is the younger snakes who are faster. And, its worth remembering that, as with all the villages performing serpents, this one has neither been milked of its venom nor been de-fanged.. His wee legs protected only by track suit trousers so threadbare you could spit peas through them, the boy shuffles back and forth taunting the creature, keeping up the pressure until inevitably the snake lunges, jaws spread horribly wide, fangs dripping. The boy is quick, but twice the snake gets a mouthful of purple polyester; I kid you not, the kids trousers are liberally splashed with neurotoxins. If those were my trousers, Im thinking -- but some thoughts are best left ...
Youre probably thinking: What, golfing cant damage my hearing! Well, newer thin faced titanium driving clubs all produced greater sound levels than conventional stainless steel clubs. In a study published in the December 2008 Sport issue of the British Medical Journal, BMJ 2008;337:a2835, Dr. Malcolm Buchanan found that his patient experienced hearing loss after using the King Cobra LD driver. The King Cobra also wasnt the loudest driver. Their results showed that thin faced titanium drivers produce sufficiently loud sound to induce temporary, or even permanent hearing damage in susceptible individuals. Caution should be used by golfers who play regularly with thin faced titanium drivers to avoid damage to their hearing. ...
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By building on an established infrastructure for conducting longitudinal HIV cohort studies in Amsterdam and London, the COBRA (Comorbidity in relation to AIDS) programme has provided a detailed, prospective evaluation of AANCC among people with HIV who are effectively treated with cART and appropriately chosen and comparable non-infected controls.. In-depth research has also been undertaken into possible mechanisms for any increased risk of comorbidities, including those associated with HIV infection and those associated with the use of antiretroviral treatment (refer to http://fp7-cobra.eu for further information). The results obtained from this research have been used to inform and adapt national and international guidelines for prevention and management of comorbidities in ageing people with HIV.. COBRAs EU funding formally ended March 1, 2017, but scientific productivity based on collected data and biomaterial continues. ...
- VenomousReptiles.org - The SHHS is a group of venomous reptile keepers educating the public about venomous snakes and lizards. Here you will find everything you ever wanted to know about rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, copperheads, king cobras and even the notorious black mamba. Everyone is welcome!
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
When encapsulated type 25 pneumococci (Pn25) were opsonized with normal guinea pig serum, they consumed much more C3 than other complement (C) components. Fixation of C3 to the organisms was demonstrated by radio-labeling techniques, and its capsular localization was established by the use of monospecific anti-C3 antibody. Treatment of the serum with an appropriate dose of a purified cobra venom factor (VF) destroyed C3 and all of the opsonic activity, without appreciably affecting the other C components. Addition of purified C3 completely restored the opsonic activity of the VF-treated serum, indicating a requirement for C3. Since purified C3 alone had no opsonic activity, it was concluded that the C3 molecules had to be cleaved (to C3b) to function as opsonins. Experiments with C5-deficient mice revealed that C5 also plays a definite, but quantitatively less impressive, role in antipneumococcal defense ...
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COBRA was formed by Karel Appel, Constant, Corneille, Christian Dotremont, Asger Jorn, and Joseph Noiret on the 8th November 1948 in the Café Notre-Dame, Paris, with the signing of a manifesto, La Cause Était Entendue (The Case Was Settled),[1] drawn up by Dotremont. Formed with a unifying doctrine of complete freedom of colour and form, as well as antipathy towards surrealism, the artists also shared an interest in Marxism as well as modernism. Their working method was based on spontaneity and experiment, and they drew their inspiration in particular from childrens drawings, from primitive art forms and from the work of Paul Klee and Joan Miró. Coming together as an amalgamation of the Dutch group Reflex, the Danish group Høst and the Belgian Revolutionary Surrealist Group, the group only lasted a few years but managed to achieve a number of objectives in that time; the periodical Cobra, a series of collaborations between various members called Peintures-Mot and two large-scale ...
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Hannah the Pet Society provides affordable veterinary care for dogs and cats of any age. Our worry free vet care ensures that your Hannah Pet will have the best possible healthcare throughout the course of their life.
HANNAH WHITALL SMITH THE GOD OF ALL COMFORT PDF - In this message of strength and encouragement, Hannah Whitall Smith reminds us that there is peace in the midst of a lost and dying world. With the God of
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A life-saving moment for Hannah, and a landmark for Peoria First - and foremost - doctors in Peoria have given 2-year-old Hannah Warren a chance at a life.
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Putting her down was a kindness, but nevertheless, Waddon and the rest of the staff were inconsolable about having to do so. Once Hannah was gone, all Waddon was left with was heartache and rage. Not knowing who Hannah had once belonged to, she wrote an angry open letter to them and posted it on Facebook:. AN OPEN LETTER TO THE OWNER OF HANNAH. We dont know what her real name is - but you do. We called her Hannah so she had a name rather than the ID number she was given when she was admitted to the pound as a stray. She was too weak to stand so the pound staff made a bed from an old duvet for her to rest on - did you have a comfy bed for her? Her nails were the longest and most overgrown we have ever seen - and we have seen 1,000s of strays over the last 10 years. Her waist was so thin a human hand could fit around it. Hannah gently licked our Rescue Managers hand as she quietly stroked her, trying so hard not to let her tears fall on to her. The gentlest of souls obviously in so much pain - ...
Putting her down was a kindness, but nevertheless, Waddon and the rest of the staff were inconsolable about having to do so. Once Hannah was gone, all Waddon was left with was heartache and rage. Not knowing who Hannah had once belonged to, she wrote an angry open letter to them and posted it on Facebook:. AN OPEN LETTER TO THE OWNER OF HANNAH. We dont know what her real name is - but you do. We called her Hannah so she had a name rather than the ID number she was given when she was admitted to the pound as a stray. She was too weak to stand so the pound staff made a bed from an old duvet for her to rest on - did you have a comfy bed for her? Her nails were the longest and most overgrown we have ever seen - and we have seen 1,000s of strays over the last 10 years. Her waist was so thin a human hand could fit around it. Hannah gently licked our Rescue Managers hand as she quietly stroked her, trying so hard not to let her tears fall on to her. The gentlest of souls obviously in so much pain - ...
The heaviest anaconda can weigh over 500 lbs while Polar bears can weigh 1,700 lbs which is nearly a ton! This topic was … lynx vs ocelot. and pls tell if locness monsters exist lion vs tiger. Jumping Sun. These two animals would never meet in nature and that is precisely why the question is so interesting. Log in to Reply. As much as the anaconda is a massive animal it is not immune to the venom coming out of a king cobra. Who would win this one offs in animal conflict : Anaconda vs Gorilla? I am always amazed… The adrenaline-fueled fight from the first two rounds has drained from the gorilla. In such fights of gorillas, a heavy and adult gorilla wins the battle. The female Green Anaconda is also the only female reptilian animal to win. How strong is a Gorilla Punch? But versus a Rhinocerus, the sheer difference in weight would prevent a win by an Anaconda. Short sorties reap some reward for the gorilla but the bears flailing arms are leaving the gorilla severely scratched and sliced. ...
Nothing tastes as good as sending feels. If Kate Moss was a climber, Im sure that would be her mantra. Many sport climbers follow this mantra living off a diet of brocoli crowns and Diet Coke while many hard core aid climbers live off of a six pack of King Cobra and potato chips. So whats the best diet for a climber? Fortunately, its neither starving yourself nor non-stop gorging. Proper climbing nutrition starts with eating a balanced and appropriate diet with a focus on healthy nutrition. A basic climbing diet should consistent of plenty of fresh vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, healthy fats, and unprocessed foods, plus a limited amount of refined sugar and unhealthy fats. The most important part of a solid climbing diet is to be knowledgeable about what youre putting into your body.. ...
The boys are back in Indonesia where Chris does the kiss of death to a king cobra and Steve-O gets a dart shot in his ass. Together they enter the Cave of Death, they get seriously wasted together with a Dyak tribe, they get a surprise visit from an Orangutan who simply wants to trash their hotel room ...
Anticoagulant therapy can be used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. (CY Koh, RM Kini, unpublished observations). We also established the system of action of the novel anticoagulant proteins complicated, hemextin through the venom of Ringhals cobra (venom was size-fractionated by Superdex 30 column (Fig. 1A). Three main peaks were acquired and the protein eluted in maximum 3 contained mainly 3FTxs. Using the curiosity of isolating the anticoagulant protein from 3FTx family members, top 3 was further fractionated on the C18 RP-HPLC column. Person fractions had been lyophilized and their inhibitory actions on FX activation from the extrinsic tenase complicated were analyzed. The approximated percent inhibition of every small fraction and elution account (Fig. 1B) shows the current presence of many extrinsic tenase complicated inhibitors. 873697-71-3 IC50 873697-71-3 IC50 Many peaks included an assortment of different protein and additional purification by different ...
Untwine : Welcome everybody to a new Cobra interview. So today we are doing a joint interview between me and Patrick Shih from Prepare for Change team of Taiwan. We are working to re-unite all the groups worldwide, and have them working together so we can have a network that can work together for the Event. So joint interviews like this are part of this effort. I was very impressed by the Prepare for Change teams in Asia, they are very organized and motivated, they do a lot of great work, so I think it will be very interesting to hear questions from their point of view. So welcome Patrick ...
A huge snake believed to be a cobra left patients and nurses scurrying for cover after it sneaked into one of the hospital wards and sought comfort under a pati...
Plan Year 2012 January 1 through December 31, 2012 Health Dental Life Vision www.sib.ok.gov or www.healthchoiceok.com State Bird, Scissortailed Flycatcher State Animal, Buffalo State Wild Flower, Indian Blanket State Reptile, Mountain Boomer Former Employees Surviving Dependents and COBRA Participants OPTION PERIOD Guide #2557 Oklahoma State and Education Employees Group Insurance Board A Division of the Office of State Finance Update to Printed Version of This Guide Update to the HMO ZIP Code List on pages 12 and 14: CommunityCare HMO is available in ZIP Code areas 73141 and 74464. These rates do not reflect any retirement system contribution HEALTH PLANS MEMBER SPOUSE CHILD CHILDREN HealthChoice High $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice High Alternative $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice Basic $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice Basic Alternative $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice S-Account $$382.56 $$ 542.52 $$190.18 $$291.90 ...
Plan Year 2012 January 1 through December 31, 2012 Health Dental Life Vision www.sib.ok.gov or www.healthchoiceok.com State Bird, Scissortailed Flycatcher State Animal, Buffalo State Wild Flower, Indian Blanket State Reptile, Mountain Boomer Former Employees Surviving Dependents and COBRA Participants OPTION PERIOD Guide #2557 Oklahoma State and Education Employees Group Insurance Board A Division of the Office of State Finance Update to Printed Version of This Guide Update to the HMO ZIP Code List on pages 12 and 14: CommunityCare HMO is available in ZIP Code areas 73141 and 74464. These rates do not reflect any retirement system contribution HEALTH PLANS MEMBER SPOUSE CHILD CHILDREN HealthChoice High $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice High Alternative $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice Basic $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice Basic Alternative $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice S-Account $$382.56 $$ 542.52 $$190.18 $$291.90 ...
Plan Year 2012 January 1 through December 31, 2012 Health Dental Life Vision www.sib.ok.gov or www.healthchoiceok.com State Bird, Scissortailed Flycatcher State Animal, Buffalo State Wild Flower, Indian Blanket State Reptile, Mountain Boomer Former Employees Surviving Dependents and COBRA Participants OPTION PERIOD Guide #2557 Oklahoma State and Education Employees Group Insurance Board A Division of the Office of State Finance Update to Printed Version of This Guide Update to the HMO ZIP Code List on pages 12 and 14: CommunityCare HMO is available in ZIP Code areas 73141 and 74464. These rates do not reflect any retirement system contribution HEALTH PLANS MEMBER SPOUSE CHILD CHILDREN HealthChoice High $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice High Alternative $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice Basic $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice Basic Alternative $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice S-Account $$382.56 $$ 542.52 $$190.18 $$291.90 ...
Plan Year 2012 January 1 through December 31, 2012 Health Dental Life Vision www.sib.ok.gov or www.healthchoiceok.com State Bird, Scissortailed Flycatcher State Animal, Buffalo State Wild Flower, Indian Blanket State Reptile, Mountain Boomer Former Employees Surviving Dependents and COBRA Participants OPTION PERIOD Guide #2557 Oklahoma State and Education Employees Group Insurance Board A Division of the Office of State Finance Update to Printed Version of This Guide Update to the HMO ZIP Code List on pages 12 and 14: CommunityCare HMO is available in ZIP Code areas 73141 and 74464. These rates do not reflect any retirement system contribution HEALTH PLANS MEMBER SPOUSE CHILD CHILDREN HealthChoice High $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice High Alternative $$449.48 $$ 668.10 $$228.20 $$352.08 HealthChoice Basic $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice Basic Alternative $$391.64 $$ 571.84 $$201.82 $$310.80 HealthChoice S-Account $$382.56 $$ 542.52 $$190.18 $$291.90 ...
"Wounded cobra's venom". The Times. 21 October 2002. Mamrud, Roberto (12 March 2020). "Darko Pančev - International Appearances ... The Italian press got down on the striker too, derisively modifying his Red Star moniker Il Cobra to Il Ramarro (green lizard ... "Bidoni calcio: Darko Pancev, da cobra a ramarro dell'Inter" (in German). Ecco dello Sport. 11 May 2010. Archived from the ... "Cobra" in patria, "Ramarro" in Italia: Bagnoli insegna (in Italian). ...
from the University of Edinburgh in 1904 with a thesis on the pharmacology of cobra venom. He was Hunterian Professor at the ... Elliot, Robert Henry (1904). "Contribution to the pharmacology of cobra venom". hdl:1842/26484. Cite journal requires ,journal ... On snakes, Professor Elliot declared that the cobra is timid and inoffensive, will not strike unless alarmed by a sudden ... Researches into the Nature and Action of Snake Venom, British Medical Journal, 1900, 1, 309 and 1146; 2, 217 Sclero-Corneal ...
Macht, D.I, Experimental and Clinical Study of Cobra Venom as an Analgesic Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1936 January; 22(1): 61-71 ... Research into the pharmacological applications of cobra venom.[2] The term "psychopharmacology" (the branch of science ... In 1930, he reported it could be used to demonstrate the presence of snake venom and menotoxin (a toxin thought to be present ...
The Cobra's Venom). Gebal Al Mout (جبال الموت) (The Mountains of Death). Zeaab Wa Demaa (ذئاب و دماء) (Wolves and Blood). ... The Empire of Venom). Al Khedaa Al Akheera (الخدعة الأخيرة) (The Last Ruse). Entiqam Al Akraab (انتقام العقرب) (The Revenge of ...
JOHNSON M, KAYE MA, HEMS R, KREBS HA (1953). "Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom". Biochem. J. 54 (4): ...
Gaucher recommended treatment with cobra venom. Boinet, in 1913, tried increasing doses of bee stings (up to 4000). Scorpions ...
"Sullivan to put venom in Cobras". The Sun News-Pictorial. Melbourne, VIC. p. 73. The Age, "Losing with style", 6 May 2009, Paul ...
Amanda Buivids (6 April 1989). "Sullivan to put venom in Cobras". The Sun News-Pictorial. Melbourne, VIC. p. 73. Caulfield ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom". Discogs. March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2018. CS1 ... Cobra Speed Venom (2018) Royal Destroyer (2021) Forever Heaven Gone (1993) Forget the Light (1994) The Crown Invades Karlsruhe ... from their then-upcoming tenth studio album Cobra Speed Venom, on January 12, 2018. On that album, The Crown used a string ...
Vogel CW, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1982). "The Cobra Venom Factor-dependentC 3 Convertase of Human Complement". J Biol Chem. 257 (14 ... Two fluid phase C5 convertases have been described: the classical pathway enzyme, C4b2boxy3b and the cobra venom factor- ...
"THE CROWN To Release 'Cobra Speed Venom' Album In March; 'Iron Crown' Video Available". Blabbermouth.net. January 8, 2018. ... "VENOM Reveal Cover Artwork And Track Listing For New Studio Album 'Storm The Gates'". Metal Forces. November 1, 2018. Retrieved ...
Spitting cobra venom to the eye. *High concentrations of phenacyl chloride in chemical mace spray ...
Teshima, K; Ikeda, K; Hamaguchi, K; Hayashi, K (1983). "Bindings of cobra venom phospholipases A2 to micelles of n- ... particularly in terms of their binding affinity with cobra venom. In 1987 the phospholipids were found to be potent toxins on ...
"Amino acid sequences of nerve growth factors derived from cobra venoms". FEBS Letters. 279 (1): 38-40. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(91 ... It has also been found in several snake venoms. In the peripheral and central neurons, neurotrophins are important regulators ... "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the venom of Vipera russelli russelli". Biochimica et ...
This irritant, pederin, is highly toxic, more potent than cobra venom. Thirty-six genera and 436 species are found in North ...
Stanley Ho (24 March 2001). "Jaguars hope Bennett will cut out Cobras' venom". Today. p. 38. Stanley Ho (9 February 2002). " ...
"Kerala snakebite murder: Traces of cobra venom found in victim Uthra's body". asianetnews.com. 18 July 2020. Archived from the ... He also confessed that he had starved the cobra for eleven days, with the intention of ensuring that the cobra would bite his ... On 26 May 2020, Kerala Police sent the carcass of the cobra for forensic examination. The cobra was 80 cm long, and capable of ... A large Indian cobra was found in the bedroom that she shared with her husband. According to Uthra's mother, Manimegalai, her ...
The cobra tries to kill Mowgli but its venom has dried up. Mowgli takes a jeweled item away as a souvenir, not realizing the ... Kaa persuades Mowgli to visit a treasure chamber guarded by an old cobra beneath the same Cold Lairs. ...
Spitting cobras accurately squirt venom from their fangs at the eyes of potential predators, striking their target eight times ... Mayell, Hillary (February 10, 2005). "Cobras Spit Venom at Eyes With Nearly Perfect Aim". National Geographic. O. Wilson, ... The functional morphology of venom spitting in cobras". Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (20): 3483-3494. doi:10.1242/jeb. ...
... is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... The LD50 of LNTX-1 is determined at 0,51 mg/kg by intravenous injection of the venom in mice. The IC50 value for LNTX-1 is ... LNTX-1 belongs to the three-finger toxin family (3FTx) of snake venom toxins. The "three-finger" name refers to the fact that ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
... the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah). Ophanin is produced in the venom glands of the King Cobra (O. Hannah). Although the venom ... Ophanin is a toxin found in the venom of the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), which lives throughout South East Asia. This ... Pung YF (2005). A novel protein from King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom (Ph.D. Thesis). Singapore: National University of ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Osipov AV, Levashov MY; Tsetlin VI (2005). "Cobra venom contains a pool of cysteine- ...
Osipov AV, Levashov MY, Tsetlin VI, Utkin YN (March 2005). "Cobra venom contains a pool of cysteine-rich secretory proteins". ... Among the four CRISPs isolated from the Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia) and the three from the Egyptian Cobra (Naja haje), ion ... These venoms are toxic due to their blocking of calcium channels and also because they reduce potassium-induced smooth muscle ... One of the N. haje CRISPs was the first example of an acidic CRISP in reptilian venom. The selective ion channel activity of ...
α-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... It appears to be that cobra venoms such as cobratoxin have an 'antiviral, immunomodultory and a neuromodulatory activity'. ... The venom, produced by these snakes, is a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates, and other substances. The venom is only used when ...
Venom of spitting cobras is more cytotoxic rather than neurotoxic. It damages local cells, especially those in eyes, which are ... Cobras, mambas, and taipans are mid- to large sized snakes which can reach 2 m (6 ft 7 in) or above. The king cobra is the ... Large species, mambas and cobras included, are dangerous for their capability of injecting high quantities of venom upon single ... Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not. The type ...
This irritant is called pederin and is highly toxic, more potent than cobra venom. In different parts of the world, different ...
... warns Cobra Commander about putting too much Venom into a single subject but the Commander ignores him. The ... Doctor Mindbender is also working on Venom Troopers, but ultimately loses all of his research when the Cobra base is destroyed ... They reverse the polarity of the Venom missiles, which in turn destroy Cobra's base. In the confusion following the battle, ... Venom, Doctor Mindbender has rebuilt all of his research, and the Venom project is now fully up and running. Thanks to Doctor ...
... (RNase V1) is a ribonuclease enzyme found in the venom of the Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana). It cleaves double- ... Lowman HB, Draper DE (April 1986). "On the recognition of helical RNA by cobra venom V1 nuclease". The Journal of Biological ... "Mapping tRNA structure in solution using double-strand-specific ribonuclease V1 from cobra venom". Nucleic Acids Research. 9 ( ... aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes with cobra venom ribonuclease". Biochemistry. 20 (4): 1006-11. doi:10.1021/bi00507a055. ...
Venom spitting is another venom delivery method that is unique to some Asiatic and African cobras. In venom spitting, a stream ... they secrete venom through their venom delivery system. The venom delivery system generally consists of two venom glands, a ... The venom of elapids, including sea snakes, kraits, cobras, king cobra, mambas, and many Australian species, contains toxins ... While venom spitting is a less common venom delivery system, the venom can still cause the effects if ingested. Snakes were ...
Hill, Patrick (14 September 1997). "MY BULLY BOY DAD MADE ME A GLADI-HATER!; Beatings Gave Cobra the Venom to Be a Star.But He ... Cobra was also part of the special UK international team and headed off to compete against South Africa in the Springbok ... Cobra embarked upon a promotional tour of schools in the late nineties in partnership with NatWest, encouraging schoolchildren ... Michael Anthony Willson (born 29 October 1963) is a British former professional sportsperson best known for his role as Cobra ...
Feldberg, W.; Kellaway, C. H. (1938). "Liberation of histamine and formation of lysocithin-like substances by cobra venom". The ... The researchers isolated SRS from lung tissue after a prolonged period following exposure to snake venom and histamine. ... "The formation of lysocithin and of a muscle-stimulating substance by snake venoms". The Journal of Physiology. 94 (2): 232-48. ...
... which use venom to attack. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs from a venom gland.[124][125] Some non- ... The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva, while Vishnu is depicted often as sleeping on a seven-headed snake or within the coils ... Further information: Venom and Evolution of snake venom. Camouflage does not always fool a predator. When caught out, snake ... Snakebite can be treated with antivenom made from the venom of the snake. To produce antivenom, a mixture of the venoms of ...
... particularly cobras. During these studies Calmette discovered that the power of the venom, as well as that of tetanus, could be ... but also capable of spreading at the same time a powerful venom, and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is ... effective if injected right after the cobra's bite. Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create ... that while secreting this particular venom is able to multiply itself: they were therefore inclined to think that the bacillus ...
King Cobra, Mentallo, Scorcher, Scorpion, Shocker, Spider-Slayer XIX, Trapster and Wizard).[12] Lady Octopus fought Spider-Man ... Agent Venom/Anti-Venom (Flash Thompson). *Uncle Ben. *Ben Urich. *Mary Jane Watson ...
Venom. *Vigilant. *Viper. *Zulu Cobra. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bell_Aircraft&oldid=971194385 ...
A venom is a poison released by a snake or insect.) Frequently the venom of some creature such as a cobra will be harvested and ... The horse's body will develop an immunity to the venom, so more and more venom from the snake can be injected every day. After ... An antivenom is a medicine used to protect against a specific venom. ( ... That part can then be injected into humans who have been bitten by cobras. ...
Venom and toxins[edit]. The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α- ... This result calls into question the monophyly of cobras and underscores the uncertainty of the homology of the hood spreading ... The average venom yield from specimens kept on snake farms is about 4.6 mg-19.4 mg per bite.[15] The venom is highly toxic with ... White; Meier, J;J (1995). Handbook of clinical toxicology of animal venoms and poisons. CRC Press. pp. 493-588. ISBN 978-0-8493 ...
Aerodramus nests form the basis of bird's nest soup.[4] Cobras, vipers, and certain other members of the venom clade hunt with ...
Venom[change , change source]. All elapids are venomous and many are potentially deadly. The venoms are mostly neurotoxic and ... There are snakes of different sizes, from only 18 cm (Drysdalia) up to 6 m in length (King Cobra). Currently, 61 genera with ... Venom for hunting and self-defense[change , change source]. All elapids have a pair of proteroglyphous fangs that are used to ... A few species are capable of spraying their venom from forward facing holes at the tips of their fangs as a means of defense. ...
TA Orange on the Venom Black cars, black on the TA Orange and Venom White cars), black interior with TA Orange accent stitching ... president Bob Lutz suggested to Tom Gale at Chrysler Design Center that the company should consider producing a modern Cobra, ... Changes included a 180-amp alternator, twin electric cooling fans, electronic throttles, and completely new VENOM engine ...
Master RW, Rao SS (July 1961). "Identification of enzymes and toxins in venoms of Indian cobra and Russell's viper after starch ... Venom[edit]. The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D. russelii is considerable. Reported venom yields for ... This test is often referred to as dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT). The coagulant in the venom directly activates ... Dimitrov GD, Kankonkar RC (February 1968). "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration. I. Venom composition and ...
Venom , Veranti , Vi-Car , Viking (1966) , Viking (1980-1983) , Virago , Viscount , Voodoo , Voyager , VPR , Vulture , Warwick ... Cobra Sports , Coldwell , Conan , Concordette , Connaught (1949-1957) , Connaught (2005-2016) , Convair , Cool Car 500 , Cooper ...
Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize, injure or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, ... Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, and are stored in venom glands at the back of the head.[60] In all venomous ... Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian copperheads, sea snakes, and coral snakes.[61] ... Almost all snake venom contains hyaluronidase, an enzyme that ensures rapid diffusion of the venom.[17]:243 ...
Johnson, M., Kaye, M.A.G., Hems, R. and Krebs, H.A. (1953). „Enzymic hydrolysis of adenosine phosphates by cobra venom". ...
We released the punk album of the millennium with 'Ass Cobra,' and didn't want to make an 'Ass Cobra' part two, plus we spent ... Among the band's main influences are Black Flag, the Rolling Stones, KISS,[2] Venom, Radio Birdman, AC/DC, Iggy Pop & James ... Following Ass Cobra, was Turbonegro's most critically acclaimed release Apocalypse Dudes (1998). Apocalypse Dudes introduced a ... In that same year, Anthony Martin started his new label, Boomba Records, in order to release Turbonegro's third album Ass Cobra ...
The recipient's complement cascade can be inhibited through the use of cobra venom factor (which depletes C3), soluble ... Disadvantages of this approach include the toxicity of cobra venom factor, and most importantly these treatments would deprive ...
Oda T, Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1991). "Amino acid sequences of nerve growth factors derived from cobra venoms". ... Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K, Koyama J (1992). "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the venom of ... It has also been found in several snake venoms.[12][13] ...
Ismail, Mohammad (1993). "The ocular effects of spitting cobras: I. The ringhals cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus) Venom-Induced ... With the species and size of target held constant, the duration of venom flow, maximum venom flow rate and total venom volume ... "Snake Venom Detection Kit: Detection and Identification of Snake Venom" (PDF). CSL Limited. 2007. Archived from the original ( ... "Snake Venom Ophthalmia and Blindness Caused by the Spitting Cobra (Naja Nigricollis) in Nigeria". The American Society of ...
"Humanized Cobra Venom Factor: Structure, Activity, And Therapeutic Efficacy In Preclinical Disease Models." Molecular ... Diluted snake venom is often used as an antiserum to give passive immunity to snake venom itself.[10][11] ... "Use Of Immunoturbidimetry To Detect Venom-Antivenom Binding Using Snake Venoms." Journal of Pharmacological & Toxicological ... "Parasitoid Wasp Venom SERCA Regulates Drosophila Calcium Levels And Inhibits Cellular Immunity." Proceedings Of The National ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three- ...
Limp Bizkit - Three Dollar Bill, Yall$ (1997); Significant Other (1999); Gold Cobra (2011) ... Arid - Little Things of Venom (2000). *Arlen Roth - Arlen Roth (1987). *Arrested Development - 3 Years, 5 Months & 2 Days in ...
Venom , Veranti , Vi-Car , Viking (1966) , Viking (1980-1983) , Vindicator , Vintage , Virago , Viscount , Voodoo , Voyager , ... Cobra Sports , Coldwell , Conan , Concordette , Connaught (1949-1957) , Connaught (2005-2016) , Convair , Cool Car 500 , Cooper ...
"The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system". Proceedings of the National ... "Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk". Nature Communications. 5: 3765. doi:10.1038/ ...
Also, echistatin, a disintegrin from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus was a lead in the development of the ... α-bungarotoxin from cobras). As with plant feeding deterrents, this biological activity is attributed to natural selection, ... This is because venom constituents (peptides, enzymes, nucleotides, lipids, biogenic amines etc.) often have very specific ... For example, teprotide, a peptide isolated from the venom of the Brazilian pit viper Bothrops jararaca, was a lead in the ...
Members of the Pakkoku clan of Burma tattoo themselves with ink mixed with cobra venom on their upper body in a weekly ... Their venom is like that of a snake, like a deaf serpent that does not hear, that does not respond to the magicians, or to a ... In 2007 a viral video made headlines about an infant who was playing with a defanged cobra.[17] Members of the Sapera or ... In addition, the charmers provided a valuable source of snake venom for creating antivenins.[citation needed] ...
The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 17. ... King cobra settles into new home, 1. mai 2006. Seltsilisloomana. *Nick Britten, Snake lover killed by one of his 24 king cobras ... Selles artiklis on kasutatud ingliskeelset artiklit en:King cobra seisuga 12.03.2015. ... "National geographic- KING COBRA", average life span in the wild: 20 years (fast facts), veebiversioon (vaadatud 4.03.2015)( ...
525] Chief Warden of Impel Down is Magellan (マゼラン, Mazeran), a man with the ability of the Paramecia-type Venom-Venom Fruit ( ... to turn into a king cobra or king cobra-human hybrid.[ch. 519] ... Later during the Reverie, under the direction of Cobra and Riku ... Nefeltari Cobra (ネフェルタリ・コブラ, Neferutari Kobura).[ch. 155] The nation's army, the Alabasta Royal Guard, is commanded by Igaram ( ...
2007). «The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography ... of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex)». Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45 (2): 437-453. ISSN ...
The Venom was Cox's last attempt at making a really fast 049 mouse racing engine. Again taken from ideas learned from years of ... Keilkraft Cobra 049 and the British 1/2A Revolution by Adrian Duncan ... All Bees with the exception of the Killer Bee and Venom had the same crankshaft that was only good for about 20,000 rpm before ... 1 The Killer Bee and Venom had a special competition lightweight piston and a heavy duty crank shaft for speeds above 22K rpm. ...
Venom[edit]. The mulga snake venom consists of myotoxins. The LD50 is 2.38 mg/kg subcutaneous.[14] Its venom is not ... The species was first described by John Edward Gray in 1842, who placed it in the genus Naja (cobras).[2] The species was long ... a b Mulga or "King Brown" Snake (Pseudechis australis) , Australian Venom Research Unit. Avru.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-21. ... The Australian venom research unit (August 25, 2007). "Which snakes are the most venomous?". University of Melbourne. Retrieved ...
Cobra Speed Venom". Anti Hero Magazine. Ray Van Horn Jr. "The Crown "Cobra Speed Venom"". Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved 24 March ... Cobra Speed Venom - Album Review". Rock N Load. "Review: The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom". Toilet ov Hell. 16 March 2018. ... Cobra Speed Venom" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 24 March 2021. "Offiziellecharts.de - The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom" (in ... Cobra Speed Venom is the tenth studio album by Swedish melodic death metal band The Crown. The album was released on 16 March ...
Definition of cobra venom cofactor. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... cobra venom cofactor. Definition: equivalent in action to C3B, which means that it can activate the alternative complement ...
Cobra venom is among the more noxious toxins in the animal kingdom-potent enough to fell an elephant. But researchers have ... Cobra venom factor (CVF), a key protein in the snakes toxin, has long been known to interfere with complement activity in ... Pick Your Poison: Cobra Venom Shows Therapeutic Promise. Researchers may have found a way to suppress inflammatory responses by ... found that tacking a snippet of protein from cobra venom onto human immune molecules is a novel and effective way of ...
Does cobra venom make you independently wealthy?. Ha ha. No, really.. Jim was one of five people who did it. He was in India ... Drinking the Cobra Venom Posted By Unreal on Fri, Apr 10, 2009 at 4:23 PM click to enlarge ... Jim doesnt recommend cobra venom, by the way. He says meditation is the safest, cleanest way to reveal the truth.. Darn.. Its ... Unreal (eagerly): What about the cobra venom?. Everybody asks about that. It really catches peoples attention.. Well, it was ...
Tag: cobra venom. Convergent evolution Intelligent Design Convergent evolution of cobra venom. Researchers: "This is the first ... clear example of snake venom evolving for defence, and provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution, or how natural ...
Rod Stewart for five years for a variety of medication violations surrounding the discovery of cobra venom, a neurotoxin, in a ... investigators found three vials of cobra venom, tablets of medications used to treat Parkinsons disease in humans, and an ...
Its relevance in the snake venom is not clear. However, it has been shown to inhibit metalloproteinase-dependent proteolysis of ... "Amino acid sequence of nerve growth factor purified from the venom of the Formosan cobra Naja naja atra.". Oda T., Ohta M., ... "Amino acid sequence of nerve growth factor purified from the venom of the Formosan cobra Naja naja atra.". Oda T., Ohta M., ... Expressed by the venom gland.1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information which has been inferred by a curator based on his/ ...
Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. It is a structural and functional analog of complement component C3b, the ...
Three-dimensional structure of the "long" neurotoxin from cobra venom.. Walkinshaw, M.D., Saenger, W., Maelicke, A.. (1980) ... The three-dimensional structure of alpha-cobra-toxin, the "long" neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja siamensis, has been ... The three-dimensional structure of alpha-cobra-toxin, the "long" neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja siamensis, has been ... THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE-LONG-NEUROTOXIN FROM COBRA VENOM. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1CTX/pdb ...
King cobra genome and snake venom evolution. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. Casewell, Christiaan V. Henkel, Alysha M. Heimberg, ... King cobra genome and snake venom evolution. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. Casewell, Christiaan V. Henkel, Alysha M. Heimberg, ... the king cobra, and assessed the composition of venom gland expressed genes, small RNAs, and secreted venom proteins. We show ... The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. ...
Cobra Venom V8 Concept: The future of the Cobra June 26, 2008. June 5, 2012. Omar Rana ... This new Cobra Venom V8 Roadster concept is said to be the spiritual successor to the iconic AC/Shelby Cobra and will carry ... The Cobra Venom V8 Roadster is said to be built on a lightweight aluminum chassis with carbon-fiber body panels. It rides on 17 ... The original Cobra, an instant classic, was based on the Ace roadster by British sports car company AC. Looking for a ...
Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This ... Caption: Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja ... indochinese spitting cobra, long neurotoxin, medical, medical illustration, medicine, model, molecular, molecular model, ...
... by injections of the venom of cobras or other serpents. This test for insanity has recently been employed in Germany and some ...
The cobra may not elect to inject its venom when it bites. About half the people bitten develop no poison symptoms.The word ... The cobra may not elect to inject its venom when it bites. About half the people bitten develop no poison symptoms. ... The cobra may not elect to inject its venom when it bites.... ...
The amino-acid compositions of two neurotoxins from the venom of the Central Asian cobra have been established. The N-terminal ... 1. The amino-acid compositions of two neurotoxins from the venom of the Central Asian cobra have been established. The N- ... Amino-acid composition and terminal amino acids of the toxins of the venom of the central Asian cobra. ... V. M. Sorokin, in: Poisonous Animals of Central Asia and Their Venoms, Proceedings of the Central Asian Conference, October 1-3 ...
Venom Cannibal Cobra Core Longboard Wheels in stock now at Tactics Boardshop! Fast, free shipping. Authenticity and lowest ... The Cannibal Cobra Core longboard wheels from Venom feature a winning combination of durability, grip and control. Venom ... Venom Cannibal Cobra Core Longboard Wheels Be the first to write a review ... Cobra Core - The Cobra Core is fiberglass reinforced, 12x stiffer and features no flex zone to help stabilize the wheel and ...
The Cobra Venom. Harness the power of precision mixtures of pressurized flammable vapor. Safety first! These are advanced ... Another cannon that I called the "Cobra Striker" won second place for innovation. That cannon ultimately failed completely. It ...
Caspian cobra venom Naja naja oxiana U87MG glioma cell line Cytotoxicity Reactive oxygen species ... Gasanov SE, Shrivastava IH, Israilov FS, Kim AA, Rylova KA, Zhang B, Dagda RK (2015) Naja naja oxiana cobra venom cytotoxins ... Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell- ... Potential Anticancer Activity of Caspian Cobra Venom Through Induction of Oxidative Stress in Glioblastoma Cell Line. ...
How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic ... How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic ... "How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution With Hooding, Aposematic ... How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic ...
... Factor. Cobra Venom Anticomplementary Protein. Used for immuno-suppression, decomplementing blood in vivo & in ... Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja ... 2008 Venom Supplies Pty Ltd - All Rights Reserved. PO Box 547, Tanunda, South Australia 5352 , P: 8563 0001 , F: 8563 0020 , ... kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. ...
This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra ... This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (Equitorial spitting cobra ... The cobra venoms and their respective cytotoxins exhibited concentration-dependent growth inhibitory effects in all cell lines ... The cobra venoms and their respective cytotoxins exhibited concentraion-dependent growth inhibitory effects in all cell lines ...
... modelYear Cobra Performance Boats VENOM CANOPY CAT/BR prices & specs , NADAguides ... Research 2012 Cobra Performance Boats VENOM CANOPY CAT/BR options, { ...
... and IgE loss in mice organs injected with cobra venom if treated with anti-cobra venom, or natural and synthetic lethal toxin ... KEY WORDS: cobra venom, Balb/C mice organs, adenosine deaminase, histamine, IgE, Naja kaouthia. ... Sub-lethal IM injection of cobra venom in male Balb/C mice decreased the levels of these substances in all organs. The level of ... The investigation further reports the effect of cobra venom injection on the organs of mice, which was expressed as a loss of ...
Listen to Cobra Speed Venom all the way through and if, by the end, you havent heard... ... Listen to Cobra Speed Venom all the way through and if, by the end, you havent heard anything that you like, youll never get ... Cobra Speed Venom lives up to its name, a ragingly brutal thrashterpiece that should be on every self-respecting metalheads " ... Over the decades, the Crown have honed their thrash attack to needle precision, and on Cobra Speed Venom, the results are ...
Is Cobra Venom the most powerful? Compare the lethality of various venomous snakes, and GET your FREE Snake Bite First-Aid ... The Venom Sac and Venom Duct of the Cobra. Cobra Venom coming in contact with human eyes causes an immediate and severe ... Cobras are completely immune to the venom produced by their species.. COBRA VENOM, AND OTHERS…. Poison of animal origin, ... Cobras are all venomous, yet most are not poisonous, so long as the cobra venom glands are not eaten.. ...
At 85, he has been bitten 162 times - the latest, by a cobra, three months ago - by snakes with venom poisonous enough to kill ... Is snake venom the secret to health and long life?. "Come back in 15 years when Im 100, and if I still look like I do today, ... He believes venom can be useful against arthritis and other diseases. He produced a drug in the late 1970s that a Miami doctor ... "Poisonous Venom May Be Just What Doctor Ordered", Says Octogenarian. By Tom Wells, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS ...
... is a native cobra venom factor. Glycoprotein composed of three non-identical disulfide-bonded subunits of 68, 48, and 30 kDa ... Cobra Venom Anticomplementary Protein. Description. Native cobra venom factor from Naja naja kaouthia. Glycoprotein composed of ... More,, Cobra Venom Factor, Naja naja kaouthia, is a native cobra venom factor. Glycoprotein composed of three non-identical ... Cobra Venom Factor, Naja naja kaouthia, is a native cobra venom factor. Glycoprotein composed of three non-identical disulfide- ...
Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, ... The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor for C3- and C5-convertase CVFBb Structure. 2009 Apr 15;17(4):611-9. doi ... Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, ... We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 A resolution. The CVF crystal structure, ...
Depolarization of skeletal muscle cells in culture by a cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of the Taiwan cobra ( ... A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but ... Depolarization of skeletal muscle cells in culture by a cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of the Taiwan cobra ( ...
In Florida, there are several cobra "farms" as well, primarily producing venom for research use.. Cobra venom is deadly, of ... Inside was a small amount of crystallized cobra venom. His veterinarians truck was also searched.. Cobra venom injections are ... But did you know that cobras themselves are immune to the venom? Their bloodsteams contain molecules that neutralize the venom ... Last week, two men pleaded guilty in New York state for the crime of injecting Standardbreds with cobra venom.. Lyndi Gilliam, ...
  • Researchers: "This is the first clear example of snake venom evolving for defence, and provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution, or how natural selection can cause the same solution to a problem to evolve multiple times. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Its relevance in the snake venom is not clear. (uniprot.org)
  • Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Akef HM (2017) Snake venom: kill and cure. (springer.com)
  • Song JK, Jo MR, Park MH, Song HS, An BJ, Song MJ, Han SB, Hong JT (2012) Cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis by snake venom toxin in ovarian cancer cell via inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. (springer.com)
  • Ebrahim K, Vatanpour H, Zare A, Shirazi FH, Nakhjavani M (2016) Anticancer activity a of caspian cobra (Naja naja oxiana) snake venom in human cancer cell lines via induction of apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The results of this study make an important contribution to our growing understanding of the selection pressures shaping the evolution of snake venom and its constituent toxins. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The mammalian system-targeting property of snake venom proteins is typically specific and selective, thus making them a repertoire of bioactive molecules for the discovery of new therapeutic agents ( Lewis and Garcia, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Snake envenomation is complex involving the direct action of venom components on the tissue and release of various endogenous mediators. (scielo.br)
  • Snake venoms are known to cause different metabolic disorders by altering the cellular and enzymatic activities in animals. (scielo.br)
  • Liberation of pharmacological substances by snake venoms is known (20). (scielo.br)
  • A baby snake has no control over the amount of venom delivered by its bite, thus always giving a full dose. (cobras.org)
  • Snake venoms, for example, are complex mixtures of enzymatic proteins and different toxins. (cobras.org)
  • But Haast has been injecting himself with snake venom since 1948. (cobras.org)
  • He also believes the snake venom has kept him healthy and holds the potential to help people with multiple sclerosis and other diseases. (cobras.org)
  • Is snake venom the secret to health and long life? (cobras.org)
  • Already disappointed by the FDA's rejection of what he saw as groundbreaking work in finding a medical use for snake venom, he became disturbed and distraught by the death of a child who fell into a crocodile pit and was attacked. (cobras.org)
  • Cobra venom is deadly, of course, if a human or horse is attacked by the snake. (blogspot.com)
  • The release of C3a and C5a increases vascular permeability and blood flow, thereby promoting further transport of other snake venom components ( Vogel and Fritzinger, 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • IgGs isolated from a person who had repeatedly self-immunized with a variety of snake venoms were immunoprofiled by ELISA against all venom fractions. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Although cobras can be dangerous, and thus instill fear in people, deaths from cobras are largely preventable deaths from careless or provoking encounters, where the snake may feel threatened. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hood is the name in anatomy for the flap of skin behind the head of cobras, which can be used to make the snake appear bigger. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some people believe that cobratoxin found in snake venom can slow down the immune system and improve MS symptoms. (onlineacademy28.com)
  • In traditional systems of medicine, over 350 plant species have been identified as antidotes to snake venom but there are very few scientific studies validating their efficacy and mode of action at molecular level. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • Snake venom consists of innumerable biologically active molecules. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • In modern medicine, use of anti-venom serum is the only method to treat snake bites but it comes with risk of various complications, including anaphylactic shock, pyrogen reaction and serum sickness. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • A big issue with this method is variation in amount of venom in a snake from region to region. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • An anti-venom prepared from a snake at one location loses its effectiveness when used at another site. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • We need to decentralise anti-venom production to overcome geographical variation in snake venom," said Dr Bavaskar. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • Some efforts are on to collect snake venoms from different regions to develop an antidote that can work pan India. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • Snake venom is a very powerful anti-inflammatory substance. (sixmd.com)
  • Now-a-days, king cobras are kept on farms for their venom (= poison) which is used in making pain relieving medicine, and in antidote for snake bite (= some medicine given to the people bitten by venomous snakes), and for the entertainment of the tourists! (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • Snake Venom For Sale, Buy Snake Venom Online at BlackVenomPharmacy.com . (blackvenompharma.com)
  • We are the most reliable and largest producers and suppliers of snake venoms in the USA with the biggest venom bank with 98% purity. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • The king cobra is the longest species of venomous snake in the world," said Viernum. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Snake venoms always have intrigued scientists, because they "have a rich diversity of biological activities. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Besides understanding how venoms function, researchers want to develop better antidotes to snake venom and identify molecules from venom that can be exploited as drugs, such as painkillers, anticlotting medications and blood pressure treatments. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • The present study focuses on the in vitro interaction between snake venom and electrolytes and Na+, K+-stimulated ATPase system in number of tissues from humans and animals. (mysciencework.com)
  • The effect of snake venom (25 microg/ml) on sodium pump activity, a transport enzyme, was assessed in normal tissues. (mysciencework.com)
  • The item "Invicta 47mm Tonneau Venom King Cobra Silver Swiss Snake Bracelet Texture Watch" is in sale since Tuesday, November 5, 2019. (talentdecostyle.com)
  • The street snake battle went on for about 30 minutes before the highly-venomous king cobra escaped to the bushes. (brightpawikan.com)
  • LOS ANGELES (AP) - A monocled cobra that roamed a California neighborhood for days could have given a potentially deadly bite, a snake expert said Friday. (thedalleschronicle.com)
  • To many people, the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. (medscape.com)
  • Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia (desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje species (tree cobras). (medscape.com)
  • The king cobra, which may reach 5.2 m, is the largest venomous snake in the world. (medscape.com)
  • In another series, 1 of 3 snake charmers bitten by large king cobras showed no signs of envenomation. (medscape.com)
  • As with all snake venoms, they are multicomponent products whose toxins are mostly proteins and polypeptides. (medscape.com)
  • The primary structure of kaouthiagin, a metalloproteinase from the venom of the cobra snake Naja kaouthia which specifically cleaves human von Willebrand factor (VWF), was determined by amino acid sequencing. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The sequence is highly similar to those of high-molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases from viperid and crotalid venoms comprised of metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like, and Cys-rich domains. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, our results imply that the corresponding part of the Cys-rich domain in other snake venom metalloproteinases also has a synergistic disturbing effect on platelet aggregation, serving as a second disintegrin-like domain. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • [9] It has also been found in several snake venoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae, classified within the subgenera Uraeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It took the legendary snake wrangler Bill Haast three years and 69,000 milkings to produce one pint of coral snake venom, for example. (nytimes.com)
  • It's illegal to trade in venom from any snake species protected under the country's Wildlife Act, including the Indian cobra. (nytimes.com)
  • Wolfgang Wüster , a lecturer in zoology at Bangor University in Britain who was not involved in the study, said it was not necessarily surprising that DNA would be recovered from the venom of a snake that has been milked, a process that apparently sheds epithelial cells. (nytimes.com)
  • It's not entirely clear how big of a problem the illegal trade in snake venom is or where the bootleg venom ends up, the study's authors write, although the practice is clearly growing. (nytimes.com)
  • Snake venom is a complex substance, containing various enzymes and toxins . (infoplease.com)
  • Immune serum against snake venom, or antivenin, can be prepared by repeatedly injecting sublethal doses of venom into an animal such as the horse. (infoplease.com)
  • By contrast, one can be quite careful on a walk through the southwestern United States or Australian outback and still have an unfortunate accident involving the venom of a snake. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, snake venoms typically contain neurotoxins, but they also often include enzymes that promote various hydrolysis reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Enzymes from Snake Venom. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Among the toxins that are known for interacting synergistically are cytotoxins from snake venoms, phospholipases A 2 from snake and bee venoms, and melittin from bee venom. (frontiersin.org)
  • The application of NGS to the analysis of snake venom transcriptomes, may represent the tool for opening the door to systems venomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gingerly pulling out an adult King Cobra, the salesman teases the snake until it's hood, flaps of loose skin over movable ribs, stretches outwards in a clear sign of aggression. (google.com)
  • Cobra venom is among the more noxious toxins in the animal kingdom-potent enough to fell an elephant. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The biodiversity of venoms and their bioactive toxins makes them a special source for the development of novel therapeutic agents. (springer.com)
  • Combined, our results display a high level of venom complexity, unveil the most relevant toxins to be neutralized, and provide prospects of discovering human IgGs with toxin neutralizing abilities through use of phage display screening. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Venoms contain hundreds of different ingredients, some of which are not the harmful toxins we assume them to be. (popularmechanics.com)
  • With most species, excluding some of the African spitting cobras, the most clinically significant toxins are postsynaptic neurotoxins that competitively bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to produce depolarizing neuromuscular blockade. (medscape.com)
  • The fourth category is composed of enzyme toxins, such as phospholipase A 2 (variable toxicity), hyaluronidase (facilitates tissue dispersion of other toxins), L -amino acid oxidase (gives many venoms a characteristic yellow coloration), and acetylcholine acetylhydrolase (unknown toxicity). (medscape.com)
  • Toxin synergism is a complex biochemical phenomenon, where different animal venom proteins interact either directly or indirectly to potentiate toxicity to a level that is above the sum of the toxicities of the individual toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, venoms derive their toxicity from proteins known as toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • These toxins are in themselves a diverse and complex group, including smaller neurotoxic peptides, larger phospholipases, and venom proteases, along with many other protein families ( Ducancel, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • have evolved to produce venoms with potencies that are larger than the sum of the individual toxins (toxin synergism). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cobra venom factor (CVF), a key protein in the snakes' toxin , has long been known to interfere with complement activity in mammals by using up components of the system to the point that it stops working. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Another consideration, they note, is that cobras are endangered animals, so even if CVF could be made safe for humans, a synthetic source of the protein would be needed to protect the snakes as well as to provide enough of the substance for necessary treatments. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine sea snakes). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • At 85, he has been bitten 162 times - the latest, by a cobra, three months ago - by snakes with venom poisonous enough to kill an elephant. (cobras.org)
  • Tell me this: if cobras are valuable snakes, who has the job of milking them? (blogspot.com)
  • Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a C3b homologue found in the venom of snakes from the genus Naja . (embopress.org)
  • Cobra is the common name for a number of Asian and African snakes in several genera of the family Elapidae, characterized by smooth scales, large shields covering the head, eyes with round pupils, a pair of short, rigid fangs to inject venom , and the ability to expand their neck area to form a flattened hood. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cobras are elapid snakes-members of the Elapidae family. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Though there are other snakes with more potent venom, the amount of neurotoxin that a king cobra can emit in one bite is enough to kill 20 people - or one elephant Viper venom is known to prevent blood from clotting, which is useful for anticoagulant drugs. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Most cobras are large snakes, 1.2-2.5 m in length. (medscape.com)
  • Because cobras are popular as show snakes, bites on the hands and fingers are common. (medscape.com)
  • He added: "Some snakes have what we call haemotoxic venom in that they affect the blood system and can cause clotting or breakdown clotting or drop your blood pressure or raise your blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In poisonous snakes, venom is secreted in two poison glands, one on each side of the upper jaw, and enters the fang by a duct. (infoplease.com)
  • The venoms of various snakes have been used medicinally, according to their specific properties, as painkillers (in arthritis, cancer, and leprosy), antispasmodics (in epilepsy and asthma), and blood coagulants (in hemophilia). (infoplease.com)
  • Snakes are not the only animals that use venom. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Given the central role that diet has played in the adaptive radiation of snakes [ 7 ], venom thus represents a key adaptation that has played an important role in the diversification of snakes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A hearing officer for the Kentucky Horse Racing Commission has concluded that the commission acted within its rights when it suspended the veterinarian Dr. Rod Stewart for five years for a variety of medication violations surrounding the discovery of cobra venom, a neurotoxin, in a barn at Keeneland Racecourse in 2007. (drf.com)
  • The three-dimensional structure of alpha-cobra-toxin, the "long" neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja siamensis, has been determined at 2.8-A resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • The cobra venom, a neurotoxin, acts powerfully on the nervous system. (cobras.org)
  • The DRF describes: "Cobra venom is a powerful neurotoxin that blocks the neural pathways that transmit pain to the brain. (blogspot.com)
  • The deathstalker scorpion, native to North Africa and the Middle East, is highly dangerous because of its venom-a neurotoxin powerful enough to kill a child or elderly person, often by causing pulmonary edema. (popularmechanics.com)
  • As the first and only skincare serum to use made with naturally occurring peptides and neuropeptides from King Cobra Venom, Concentrated Neuropeptide Renewal Serum from Venin Royale offers an exclusive and patent-pending approach to combat visibly aging skin. (sgblogs.com)
  • Their venoms are complex cocktails of toxic proteins, peptides, and small organic and inorganic molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the only member of its genus. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • The venom proteome of the monocled cobra, Naja kaouthia, from Thailand, was characterized by RPHPLC, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses, yielding 38 different proteins that were either identified or assigned to families. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The extracts also reduced abnormal breakdown of proteins by the venom. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • Scientists evaluated extracts of leaves, bark and roots of the tree in laboratory and then used computer-based studies to identify molecules in these extracts that attach to venom proteins and can aid detoxification. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • The results of interaction between 81 phytochemicals from Bael and each of the 14 venom proteins revealed the plant contains potential molecules for detoxification of all cobra venom proteins. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • Our team of researchers reveals a detailed account of the proteins in the venom of king cobras . (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Cobra venom element (CVF) is a supplement activating proteins in cobra venom which functionally resembles C3b and continues to be used for many years for decomplementation of serum to research the function of complement in lots of model systems of disease. (movd2016.org)
  • BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes , of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Naja naja oxiana (NNO) crude venom on U87MG glioma cell line. (springer.com)
  • Significance statement The authors identified that the Naja naja oxiana venom inhibits the viability of glioma cells through induction of the reactive oxygen species without any hemolytic effects on isolated red blood cells. (springer.com)
  • Fakhri A, Omranipour R, Fakhri S, Mirshamsi M, Zangeneh F, Vatanpour H, Pourahmad J (2017) Naja naja oxiana venom fraction selectively induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal tumor cells by directly targeting mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 A resolution. (nih.gov)
  • A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but much less toxic. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Naja naja , the Indian cobra, has a hood that has eye-like figures on the back. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Effect of cobra (Naja Naja) venom on succinic dehydrogenase and cholinesterase of rat tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Occasionally, a combination of neurologic dysfunction and tissue necrosis may occur as with the Indian cobra ( Naja naja ). (medscape.com)
  • Naja naja (Indian Cobra). (medscape.com)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Four novel cardiotoxins were isolated from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom by successive separation on a SP-Sephadex C-25 column and a reverse phase column. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • For the first time, scientists were able to analyze DNA within the venom to prove that it came from the Indian cobra , or Naja naja. (nytimes.com)
  • A dose-dependent decline in viability of cells along with increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred after the 24-h exposure to NNO venom. (springer.com)
  • We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cobras are completely immune to the venom produced by their species. (cobras.org)
  • He injects himself once a week with venom from 32 species. (cobras.org)
  • Ecologically , cobras are important to food chains , helping to maintain the balance of prey species and controlling agricultural pests such as rats and mice . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We have already screened 60 plant species used in traditional medicine of which only four were found to effectively neutralize all toxic venom components. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • It is injected by unique fangs after a bite, and some species are also able to spit their venom. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Comparative analyses on the amino acid sequences of cardiotoxins from the venoms of N. naja atra and other Naja species indicated that amino acid substitutions of cardiotoxin isoforms frequently occurred at positions 7-11, 27-32 and 45-47. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The snouted cobra (Naja annulifera) and Anchieta's cobra (Naja anchietae) were formerly regarded as subspecies of Naja haje, but have since been shown to be distinct species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study found that the Arabian cobra constitutes a separate species, Naja arabica, whereas the subspecies legionis was synonymised with N. haje. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cladogram below illustrates the taxonomy and relationships among species of Naja following Van Wallach et al (2009), with subgenus Uraeus resolved following Trape et al (2009): The Egyptian cobra is a large species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neck of this species has long cervical ribs capable of expanding to form a hood, like all other cobras. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Egyptian cobra is a terrestrial and crepuscular or nocturnal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other cobra species, it generally attempts to escape when approached, at least for a few metres, but if threatened it assumes the typical upright posture with the hood expanded, and strikes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific venom used by these animals varies not only with its type (spider venom is different from bee venom, for example), but also within a species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Venoms are produced for defensive and/or predatory purposes to provide a survival benefit to the species possessing them. (frontiersin.org)
  • The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This at a time when the very survival of the King Cobra, one of fifteen protected species in Thailand , was already threatened. (google.com)
  • King Cobra: A specific toxin in King Cobra venom shows promise for treating chronic pain. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • One example would be the polypeptide toxin cobrotoxin that was isolated from the Formosan cobra and analyzed in 1965 by Chen-Chung Yang, a distinguished chair professor at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Knowledge of the venom proteome provides hints on the translation efficiency of toxin-coding transcripts, contributing thereby to a more accurate interpretation of the transcriptome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • http://www.sabrina.sg/magazine/2014/07/king-cobra-venom-p. (sgblogs.com)
  • Students from Singapore's Nanyang Technological University campus witness a battle for survival when they saw a python and a king cobra began fighting each other on the street. (brightpawikan.com)
  • The python and king cobra were locked in a deadly embrace. (brightpawikan.com)
  • The head of the python tries to lash out the king cobra's long body while the king cobra tries to use its deadly teeth to slit its enemy and injects its deadly poison. (brightpawikan.com)
  • The python was caught at the site of the fight while the king cobra rushed into the bushes. (brightpawikan.com)
  • According to one of the witness, the king cobra believed to have bitten the python during their fight. (brightpawikan.com)
  • The king cobra was relocated to a zoo, and the python was released into the wild. (brightpawikan.com)
  • Known for its growling hiss and ability to detect prey from 100m away, a bite from the King Cobra can kill within half an hour. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chad visits the Kentucky Reptile Zoo in Slade and helps extract venom from a 14 foot long King Cobra ! (wn.com)
  • Flat on my stomach, nothing but a camera and a fine layer of dust between me and the flickering forked tongue of a 3-metre King Cobra. (google.com)
  • And I've done my homework, so I know the adult King Cobra can strike from 1.8 metres. (google.com)
  • One thing about King Cobra venom," he said, "Is the quantity of the stuff. (google.com)
  • Thailand has a wiry sun-browned man carrying bundled twigs and dessicated herbs -- and a King Cobra in a wooden box. (google.com)
  • But researchers have found that tacking a snippet of protein from cobra venom onto human immune molecules is a novel and effective way of suppressing inflammatory chemicals involved in several difficult-to-treat ailments, such as rheumatoid arthritis, heart attacks and strokes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Fritzinger and protein biochemist Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, who first hit on the idea for a hybrid cobra-human drug in 1994, have licensed their technology to InCode BioPharmaceutics, Inc., in Thousand Oaks, Calif.. The company is funding several studies to test the safety and effectiveness of the approach, Fritzinger says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. (rcsb.org)
  • Cobra Venom Anticomplementary Protein. (venomsupplies.com)
  • Cobra venom contains various compounds like polypeptides, protein, and phospholipase. (retrogenics.com)
  • Sea anemone venom also produces peptide and protein venom which also plays a major role in the cure of Multi sclerosis patients. (retrogenics.com)
  • In a similar study, Samuel A. Wickline, a biomedical engineer at Washington University School of Medicine, altered a protein found in bee venom-which often causes inflammation after stings-called melittin. (popularmechanics.com)
  • CO3_NAJKA ] Complement-activating protein in cobra venom. (proteopedia.org)
  • Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja kaouthia , 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. (venomsupplies.com)
  • Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a structural and functional analog of cobra, as well as mammalian C3. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. (nih.gov)
  • 1. A component of cobra venom that renders C3 proactivator (properdin factor B) susceptible to factor D of the properdin system, leading to activation of C3 and other components of complement and lysis of unsensitised erythrocytes. (lexic.us)
  • We determined the crystal structures of the C3b homologue cobra venom factor (CVF) in complex with C5, and in complex with C5 and the inhibitor SSL7 at 4.3 Å resolution. (embopress.org)
  • Our previous studies have demonstrated that activation of the C system with cobra venom factor (CVF) in a passively sensitized guinea pig results in an enhanced bronchoconstrictor response to Ag but not to other constrictor agents. (umn.edu)
  • The N-linked oligosaccharides of cobra venom factor (CVF) contain unique terminal α-galactosylated Lewis X structures. (elsevier.com)
  • Gowda, DC 1998, ' Modification at C6 of the terminal galactosyl residues of cobra venom factor abolishes anti-α-Gal antibody immunoreactivity without affecting functional activity ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 245, no. 1, pp. 28-32. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we present the crystal structure at 2.2-A resolution, small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) data of the pro-convertase formed by human FB and cobra venom factor (CVF), a potent homologue of C3b that generates more stable convertases. (proteopedia.org)
  • Insights into complement convertase formation based on the structure of the factor B-cobra venom factor complex. (proteopedia.org)
  • C1-INH did not bind to factors B or D but did bind to immobilized C3b and cobra venom factor (CVF), a C3b analogue. (rupress.org)
  • The antibodies they produce to fight off the venom are extracted from their blood and developed into the serum. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • The hyperimmunization process was successfully accomplished with the production of specific antibodies against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. (scielo.br)
  • Necrosis is typical of bites by the African spitting cobras ( Naja nigricollis , Naja mossambica , Naja pallida , and Naja katiensis ), the Chinese cobra ( Naja atra ), the Monocellate cobra ( Naja kaouthia ), and the Sumatran spitting cobra ( Naja sumatrana ). (medscape.com)
  • Although the venoms of these cobras contain neurotoxins, necrosis often is the chief or only manifestation of envenoming in humans. (medscape.com)
  • It was derived from a molecule found in the venom of a poisonous Brazilian viper. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • Recently, Miqin Zhang, a materials scientist at the University of Washington, and her research team showed that a certain compound found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion could help in the treatment of brain cancer. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Thus, few of them are poisonous to humans, but their venoms are quite effective on insect prey. (cobras.org)
  • Note the distinction between venomous and poisonous: venomous refers to a creature that has the ability to secrete or utilize it's venom externally, while poisonous includes creatures that contain a poison substance. (cobras.org)
  • Cobras are all venomous, yet most are not poisonous, so long as the cobra venom glands are not eaten. (cobras.org)
  • venom or zootoxin, any of a variety of poisonous substances produced by animals. (infoplease.com)
  • Elapids use their venom both to immobilize their prey and in self-defense. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Whether you're talking about Spider-man's archenemy or the deadly poisons that animals and insects use to kill their prey, venom most often conjures up negative thoughts. (popularmechanics.com)
  • But Welsh scientists have sequenced the entire genome of the creature in the hope the deadly venom it uses to paralyse its prey may produce treatments for some of our biggest killers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This provides the animals possessing venoms with synergistically enhanced toxicity with a metabolic advantage, since less venom is needed to inflict potent toxic effects in prey and predators. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most are rather complicated mixtures of chemicals, each of which plays some role in the action that the venom takes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A method of serum-diagnosis of insanity from hæmolysis (breaking up o the red corpuscles of the blood) by injections of the venom of cobras or other serpents. (openjurist.org)
  • Increments in serum cytokine and nitric oxide were shown in mice injected with B. asper and B. jararaca venoms (15). (scielo.br)
  • With effective serum more available, however, the high death rate from cobra bites in some areas of Asia has decreased. (cobras.org)
  • Serums against various venoms can be produced by injecting animals such as horses with sublethal doses and extracting the immune serum, or antivenin, that the animal body produces. (cobras.org)
  • The serum is manufactured by injecting horses with safe levels of venoms. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • Many researchers have been seeking alternatives to prepare toxoid through venom biological detoxification, which would keep its immunogenicity and minimize the damages to serum producer animals (5, 13, 26, 39). (scielo.br)
  • Molecular dynamics simulation of a small, basic, all β-sheet cardiotoxin, CTX II, from Taiwan cobra venom, with proper treatment of long-range electrostatic interactions, was carried out to examine the backbone mobility of CTX II in solution and aid in interpretation of order parameters of C α -H bonds obtained from NMR experiments based on the Lipari-Szabo theory. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • After a recent raid on a hotel room in Kerala, the local magistrate sent venom samples to the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad. (nytimes.com)
  • Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their bloodsteams contain molecules that neutralize the venom. (blogspot.com)
  • examples include the poison in the rounded warts of the skin of toads, the venoms of spiders, scorpions, bees, and other arthropods, and the poison of jellyfish and other coelenterates. (infoplease.com)
  • 1. The amino-acid compositions of two neurotoxins from the venom of the Central Asian cobra have been established. (springer.com)
  • Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell-specific cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • For many who study the chemistry of venoms, the neurotoxins hold particular interest. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • contain high abundances of cytotoxins, which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, indicates anticancer potentials. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings revealed the limitations and challenges that could be faced during the development of new cancer therapy from cobra cytotoxins, notwithstanding their potent anticancer effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Venoms are extremely biologically active and these chemical concoctions provide a great natural resource for researchers to study different chemicals, some of which can be developed into drugs. (popularmechanics.com)
  • This research further reports that intramuscular injection of sub-lethal dose of Naja kaouthia venom disrupted homeostasis and lowered the levels of ADA, histamine, and IgE in the organs of mice. (scielo.br)
  • As expected, no neutralization potential against N. kaouthia venom was therefore detected. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Naja kaouthia (Monocellate cobra). (medscape.com)
  • It may be tempting to equate the concept of venom with poison, but to do so would be inaccurate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To be more accurate with the definition of venom, therefore, it must be noted that venom is not just a poison, but one that is injected under the skin of the victim. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gamma radiation has been efficient in attenuating ophidic venoms and in decreasing toxicity without altering immunogenicity, and the addition of substances to the venom was not necessary (1, 2, 8, 10, 16, 20, 21, 32). (scielo.br)
  • But did you know that cobras themselves are immune to the venom? (blogspot.com)
  • Among other things, venoms contain various proteases, lipases, nerve-growth factors and enzyme inhibitors. (blackvenompharma.com)
  • All elapids have a pair of proteroglyphous fangs that are used to inject venom from glands located towards the rear of the upper jaws. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sink your fangs into your busy schedule with this Invicta Venom Cobra! (talentdecostyle.com)
  • Which puts that blunt weathered face, that slippery forked tongue, those needle-sharp venom-filled fangs, about 30 cm from the tip of my sweat drenched nose. (google.com)
  • Cobra Speed Venom is the tenth studio album by Swedish melodic death metal band The Crown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Crown announced their upcoming release of their album Cobra Speed Venom in January 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Offiziellecharts.de - The Crown - Cobra Speed Venom" (in German). (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the decades, the Crown have honed their thrash attack to needle precision, and on Cobra Speed Venom , the results are nothing short of stunning. (exclaim.ca)
  • Swedish death metal legends The Crown will release their new album, Cobra Speed Venom , on March 16th via Metal Blade Records. (metalriot.com)
  • The Crown has now released the 2nd single taken off Cobra Speed Venom . (metalriot.com)
  • Taken together, the present findings opened up interesting questions to find out the main mechanisms to the anticancer activity of this venom. (springer.com)
  • While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The spitting cobra can spray its venom from a distance of about 2.4 (about 8 ft) into the eyes of its victims, causing temporary blindness and great pain. (cobras.org)
  • Cobra Speed Venom lives up to its name, a ragingly brutal thrashterpiece that should be on every self-respecting metalhead's "must-hear" list of 2018. (exclaim.ca)
  • A painkiller as powerful as morphine, but without most of the side-effects, has been found in the deadly venom of the black mamba , say French scientists. (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • Smoking Bufo bufo toad venom / 5-MEO-DMT, has more than a hundred bioactive compounds including bufotoxines , with cardiotoxic properties are extracted from the venom of B ufo buf o. (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The data also aid in elucidating the relationship between these selection pressures and the medical impact of human snakebite in the developing world, as cytotoxic cobras cause considerable morbidity including loss-of-function injuries that result in economic and social burdens in the tropics of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • While not proven scientifically, it would seem that an adult cobra can control the the amount of venom delivered, if any, with each bite, depending on the threat it feels. (cobras.org)
  • The severity of a venom's effects depends on several factors, such as its chemical nature, the stinging or biting mechanism involved, the amount of venom delivered, and the size and condition of the victim. (cobras.org)
  • Researchers from at Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute, Thirivananthapuram successfully use extracts from Bael tree (Agele Marmelos) to neutralize adverse effects of cobra venom, thus confirming what was known to traditional healers. (indiansciencejournal.in)
  • There are reports showing increments in cytokine levels in mice and patients bitten by Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca (1,13) and in sera of mice injected with Bothrops atrox venom (2). (scielo.br)
  • A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, damage caused to animals after inoculation of crude venom contributes to low antivenom production (31). (scielo.br)
  • Administration of a cobra venom to rats resulted in decrease of heart and liver mitochondrial cardiolipins (1.88 and 1.29 times), phosphatidylethanolamines (1.56 and 1.42 times) and phosphatidic acid (1.14 and 1.29 times), whereas the content of phosphadtidylcholins increased by 1.42 and 1.51-fold, respectively. (msk.ru)
  • This is the first report of an elapid venom metalloproteinase with two disintegrin-like sequences. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The second venom category comprises so-called cardiotoxins, which are actually generalized cell-membrane poisons that produce irreversible cell depolarization. (medscape.com)
  • Najatox is a local dermatological analgesic, an anti-inflammatory drug that contains dried spectacled cobra venom, methyl salicylate, eucalyptus oil and camphor oil. (sixmd.com)
  • Crotalus durissus terrificus venom causes hematological alterations in erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, coagulation factors (6) and fibrinogen (3, 40) when inoculated into humans and animals (6). (scielo.br)