Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins: Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Oxyphenbutazone: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.MuseumsChemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Burns, ChemicalAscorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.North CarolinaDiphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasTrimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.

NMR spatial structure of alpha-conotoxin ImI reveals a common scaffold in snail and snake toxins recognizing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (1/95)

A 600 MHz NMR study of alpha-conotoxin ImI from Conus imperialis, targeting the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is presented. ImI backbone spatial structure is well defined basing on the NOEs, spin-spin coupling constants, and amide protons hydrogen-deuterium exchange data: rmsd of the backbone atom coordinates at the 2-12 region is 0.28 A in the 20 best structures. The structure is described as a type I beta-turn (positions 2-5) followed by a distorted helix (positions 5-11). Similar structural patterns can be found in all neuronal-specific alpha-conotoxins. Highly mobile side chains of the Asp-5, Arg-7 and Trp-10 residues form a single site for ImI binding to the alpha7 receptor. When depicted with opposite directions of the polypeptide chains, the ImI helix and the tip of the central loop of long chain snake neurotoxins demonstrate a common scaffold and similar positioning of the functional side chains, both of these structural elements appearing essential for binding to the neuronal nAChRs.  (+info)

Subunit interface selectivity of the alpha-neurotoxins for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (2/95)

Peptide toxins selective for particular subunit interfaces of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have proven invaluable in assigning candidate residues located in the two binding sites and for determining probable orientations of the bound peptide. We report here on a short alpha-neurotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica (NmmI) that, similar to other alpha-neurotoxins, binds with high affinity to alphagamma and alphadelta subunit interfaces (KD approximately 100 pM) but binds with markedly reduced affinity to the alphaepsilon interface (KD approximately 100 nM). By constructing chimeras composed of portions of the gamma and epsilon subunits and coexpressing them with wild type alpha, beta, and delta subunits in HEK 293 cells, we identify a region of the subunit sequence responsible for the difference in affinity. Within this region, gammaPro-175 and gammaGlu-176 confer high affinity, whereas Thr and Ala, found at homologous positions in epsilon, confer low affinity. To identify an interaction between gammaGlu-176 and residues in NmmI, we have examined cationic residues in the central loop of the toxin and measured binding of mutant toxin-receptor combinations. The data show strong pairwise interactions or coupling between gammaGlu-176 and Lys-27 of NmmI and progressively weaker interactions with Arg-33 and Arg-36 in loop II of this three-loop toxin. Thus, loop II of NmmI, and in particular the face of this loop closest to loop III, appears to come into close apposition with Glu-176 of the gamma subunit surface of the binding site interface.  (+info)

Snake venom alpha-neurotoxins and other 'three-finger' proteins. (3/95)

The review is mainly devoted to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins which target different muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The primary and spatial structures of other snake venom proteins as well as mammalian proteins of the Ly-6 family, which structurally resemble the 'three-finger' snake proteins, are also briefly discussed. The main emphasis is placed on recent data characterizing the alpha-neurotoxin interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  (+info)

How do acetylcholine receptor ligands reach their binding sites? (4/95)

The access pathway to the binding sites for large competitive antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica electric tissue was analyzed by binding and photolabeling experiments with alpha-neurotoxins. Binding assays with [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin showed an increase in the number of accessible binding sites upon stepwise solubilization of the receptor-rich membranes. Similarily, ligand binding is facilitated upon fluidization of the membrane by increasing the temperature. The access to the binding sites seems to be sterically 'hindered' in the densely packed membrane state. Using a novel series of large biotinylated photoactivatable derivatives of neurotoxin II, we observed that the accessibility to the alpha/gamma- but not to the alpha/delta-binding site was considerably decreased for some derivatives under native conditions. This effect was less apparent at higher temperatures and could be abolished by complete solubilization. These observations support the nonequivalence of the receptor's binding sites. Together, our data suggest (a) that alpha-neurotoxins approach their binding sites from the membrane-facing periphery of the receptor's extramembrane domain rather than through the channel mouth and (b) that different entrance pathways to each binding site exist which vary in their sensitivity to the physical state of the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Variability among the sites by which curaremimetic toxins bind to torpedo acetylcholine receptor, as revealed by identification of the functional residues of alpha-cobratoxin. (5/95)

alpha-Cobratoxin, a long chain curaremimetic toxin from Naja kaouthia venom, was produced recombinantly (ralpha-Cbtx) from Escherichia coli. It was indistinguishable from the snake toxin. Mutations at 8 of the 29 explored toxin positions resulted in affinity decreases for Torpedo receptor with DeltaDeltaG higher than 1.1 kcal/mol. These are R33E > K49E > D27R > K23E > F29A >/= W25A > R36A >/= F65A. These positions cover a homogeneous surface of approximately 880 A(2) and mostly belong to the second toxin loop, except Lys-49 and Phe-65 which are, respectively, on the third loop and C-terminal tail. The mutations K23E and K49E, and perhaps R33E, induced discriminative interactions at the two toxin-binding sites. When compared with the short toxin erabutoxin a (Ea), a number of structurally equivalent residues are commonly implicated in binding to muscular-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These are Lys-23/Lys-27, Asp-27/Asp-31, Arg-33/Arg-33, Lys-49/Lys-47, and to a lesser and variable extent Trp-25/Trp-29 and Phe-29/Phe-32. In addition, however, the short and long toxins display three major differences. First, Asp-38 is important in Ea in contrast to the homologous Glu-38 in alpha-Cbtx. Second, all of the first loop is insensitive to mutation in alpha-Cbtx, whereas its tip is functionally critical in Ea. Third, the C-terminal tail may be specifically critical in alpha-Cbtx. Therefore, the functional sites of long and short curaremimetic toxins are not identical, but they share common features and marked differences that might reflect an evolutionary pressure associated with a great diversity of prey receptors.  (+info)

Molecular determinants by which a long chain toxin from snake venom interacts with the neuronal alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (6/95)

Long chain curarimimetic toxins from snake venom bind with high affinities to both muscular type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) (K(d) in the pm range) and neuronal alpha 7-AChRs (K(d) in the nm range). To understand the molecular basis of this dual function, we submitted alpha-cobratoxin (alpha-Cbtx), a typical long chain curarimimetic toxin, to an extensive mutational analysis. By exploring 36 toxin mutants, we found that Trp-25, Asp-27, Phe-29, Arg-33, Arg-36, and Phe-65 are involved in binding to both neuronal and Torpedo (Antil, S., Servent, D., and Menez, A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34851-34858) AChRs and that some of them (Trp-25, Asp-27, and Arg-33) have similar binding energy contributions for the two receptors. In contrast, Ala-28, Lys-35, and Cys-26-Cys-30 selectively bind to the alpha 7-AChR, whereas Lys-23 and Lys-49 bind solely to the Torpedo AChR. Therefore, alpha-Cbtx binds to two AChR subtypes using both common and specific residues. Double mutant cycle analyses suggested that Arg-33 in alpha-Cbtx is close to Tyr-187 and Pro-193 in the alpha 7 receptor. Since Arg-33 of another curarimimetic toxin is close to the homologous alpha Tyr-190 of the muscular receptor (Ackermann, E. J., Ang, E. T. H., Kanter, J. R., Tsigelny, I., and Taylor, P. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 10958-10964), toxin binding probably occurs in homologous regions of neuronal and muscular AChRs. However, no coupling was seen between alpha-Cbtx Arg-33 and alpha 7 receptor Trp-54, Leu-118, and Asp-163, in contrast to what was observed in a homologous situation involving another toxin and a muscular receptor (Osaka, H., Malany, S., Molles, B. E., Sine, S. M., and Taylor, P. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5478-5484). Therefore, although occurring in homologous regions, the detailed modes of toxin binding to alpha 7 and muscular receptors are likely to be different. These data offer a molecular basis for the design of toxins with predetermined specificities for various members of the AChR family.  (+info)

Binding properties of agonists and antagonists to distinct allosteric states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are incompatible with a concerted model. (7/95)

Recent work has shown that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) can be fixed in distinct conformations by chemical cross-linking with glutardialdehyde, which abolishes allosteric transitions in the protein. Here, two conformations that resemble the desensitized and the resting states were compared with respect to their affinities for different classes of ligands. The same ligands were tested for their ability to convert the nAChR from a conformation with low affinity to a conformation with high affinity for acetylcholine. As expected, agonists were found to bind with higher affinity to the desensitized state-like conformation and to induce a shift of the nAChR to this high affinity state. In contrast, although most antagonists tested bound preferentially to the desensitized receptor as well they failed to induce a change of the affinity for acetylcholine. These observations sharply contradict basic predictions of the concerted model, including the postulate of a preformed equilibrium between the different states of the nAChR in the absence of agonist. With a similar approach we could show that the non-competitive inhibitor ethidium is displaced in a non-allosteric manner by other well characterized channel blockers from the cross-linked nAChR. These results require revision of current models for the mechanisms underlying non-competitive antagonism at the nAChR.  (+info)

"Weak toxin" from Naja kaouthia is a nontoxic antagonist of alpha 7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (8/95)

A novel "weak toxin" (WTX) from Naja kaouthia snake venom competes with [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin for binding to the membrane-bound Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR), with an IC(50) of approximately 2.2 microm. In this respect, it is approximately 300 times less potent than neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana and alpha-cobratoxin from N. kaouthia, representing short-type and long-type alpha-neurotoxins, respectively. WTX and alpha-cobratoxin displaced [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin from the Escherichia coli-expressed fusion protein containing the rat alpha7 AChR N-terminal domain 1-208 preceded by glutathione S-transferase with IC(50) values of 4.3 and 9.1 microm, respectively, whereas for neurotoxin II the IC(50) value was >100 microm. Micromolar concentrations of WTX inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in Xenopus oocyte-expressed rat muscle AChR and human and rat alpha7 AChRs, inhibiting the latter most efficiently (IC(50) of approximately 8.3 microm). Thus, a virtually nontoxic "three-fingered" protein WTX, although differing from alpha-neurotoxins by an additional disulfide in the N-terminal loop, can be classified as a weak alpha-neurotoxin. It differs from the short chain alpha-neurotoxins, which potently block the muscle-type but not the alpha7 AChRs, and is closer to the long alpha-neurotoxins, which have comparable potency against the above-mentioned AChR types.  (+info)

*Caspian cobra

A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ... This species of cobra normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of Indian cobras (N. naja) ...

*Javan spitting cobra

... sputa-neurotoxin 1 (SN1) and sputa-neurotoxin 2 (SN2) isolated from the venom, are "short" neurotoxins, with 62 and 61 amino ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix) also called the southern Indonesian cobra, or Indonesian cobra, is a stocky and ... Like all cobra species, this species' venom also consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins. However, the main components of its ...

*Cobratoxin

The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. An important property of neurotoxins is that they are not ... When a complex was formed with an α7 receptor-like protein(AChBP-complex) and 5 α-Cobratoxins, it is not able to twist anymore ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... "Inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cobra venom α-neurotoxins: is there a perspective in lung cancer ...

*King cobra

Pung, Y.F.; Kumar, S.V.; Rajagopalan, N.; Fry, B.G.; Kumar, P.P.; Kini, R.M. (2006). "Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra ... The venom of the king cobra consists primarily of neurotoxins, known as the haditoxin, with several other compounds. Its murine ... They can be distinguished from other cobras by size and hood. King cobras are generally larger than other cobras, and the ... Cobra stones or gems or pearls are believed to develop from the cobra's hood. Stuart, B.; Wogan, G.; Grismer, L.; Auliya, M.; ...

*Naja christyi

Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... Naja christyi (formerly Boulengerina christyi ), commonly known as the Congo water cobra or Christy's water cobra, is a species ... The LD50 of long-chain neurotoxins 2 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi venoms were 0.086 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively. The ...

*Naja annulata

Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... commonly known as the banded water cobra or the ringed water cobra, is a species of water cobra native to western and central ... The species is one of the two species of water cobras in the world, the other one being the Congo water cobra (Naja christyi). ...

*Mamba

... s and cobras are in the same family: the Elapidae. Like cobras, a mamba may rear and form a hood as part of its threat ... Their venoms consist mostly of neurotoxins (known as dendrotoxins). Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry cardiotoxins and ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606. CS1 maint: Uses authors ... Typically also, a rearing mamba tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. Stories of black mambas ...

*List of dangerous snakes

The Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) is a venomous spitting cobra whose venom consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins, ... ISBN 0-7136-6817-2. A H Wang; Yang, CC (1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the Naja genus. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The major α-neurotoxin in Naja kaouthia venom is a long neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin; the minor α-neurotoxin is different from ...

*Snake venom

Snake examples: king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) (known as hannahtoxin containing α-neurotoxins), sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) ( ... Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic ... Snake example: mambas α-neurotoxins: Alpha-neurotoxins are a large group, with over 100 postsynaptic neurotoxins having been ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (September 2004). "Cloning and purification of α-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...

*Snake

These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the ... Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families: Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian ... King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Snakes of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right ... Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, delivered ...

*Crotalus scutulatus

... produces the potent neurotoxin called "Mojave toxin". Nearly identical neurotoxins have been discovered in five North American ... including the Mozambique spitting cobra. However, chances for survival are very good if medical attention is sought as soon as ... All rattlesnake venoms are complex cocktails of enzymes and other proteins that vary greatly in composition and effects, not ... Their potent venom is the result of a presynaptic neurotoxin composed of two distinct peptide subunits. The basic subunit (a ...

*Chinese cobra

Using I-labelled cobra venom (Naja atra), 1 μg/g mice, its isolated I-neurotoxin (0.2 μg/g) or cardiotoxin (4 μg/g), it has ... ISBN 0-691-12436-1. Wang, AH; Yang, CC (10 September 1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra ... A cobra moving along a wall. Back of a Chinese cobra. A Chinese cobra in a defensive posture. Ji, X. & Li, P. (2014). Naja atra ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in southern ...

*Three-finger toxin

... a new class of nAChR antagonist 3FTx proteins called omega-neurotoxins has been described. A smaller class of 3FTx proteins ... In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... The alpha-neurotoxin family is a group of 3FTx proteins that bind muscle nAChRs, preventing the binding of the neurotransmitter ... Other groups of 3FTx proteins also bind to different nAChR subtypes; for example, kappa-neurotoxins, which are long-chain ...

*Antivenom

... s are purified by several processes but will still contain other serum proteins that can act as antigens. Some ... against the Indian Cobra (Naja naja). In 1901, Vital Brazil, working at the Instituto Butantan in São Paulo, Brazil, developed ... in a hospital by elective endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until the effects of coral snake neurotoxins abate ... with success in Australia and Brazil and total immunity has been achieved even to multiple bites of extremely venomous cobras ...

*Snakebite

Ismail M, al-Bekairi AM, el-Bedaiwy AM, Abd-el Salam MA (1993). "The ocular effects of spitting cobras: I. The ringhals cobra ( ... Venom is composed of hundreds to thousands of different proteins and enzymes, all serving a variety of purposes, such as ... neurotoxins, and myotoxins, allowing for an enormous variety of symptoms. Earlier, the venom of a particular snake was ... Venom emitted from elapids, including sea snakes, kraits, cobras, king cobra, mambas, and many Australian species, contain ...

*Calciseptine

Because sites of protein-protein interaction have often been found to be flanked by prolines, the presence of the two prolines ... For example, cobra venom has been found to have a bioavailability of 41.7% when injected intramuscular, and for other venoms ... Calciseptine (CaS) is a natural neurotoxin isolated from the black mamba Dendroaspis p. polylepis venom. This toxin consists of ... Proteins from this family are small and consist of 58 to 74 amino acids. They all have the same three-fingered structure which ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cobra venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.190 --- cobra neurotoxins MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.260 --- direct lytic factors ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 --- hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 --- hiv envelope protein ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins ... ldl-receptor related protein 2 MeSH D23.050.422.500.750 --- ldl-receptor related protein-associated protein MeSH D23.050. ...

*Western green mamba

Mortality rates are also higher among green mamba bite victims than with cobra bite victims. Although bites by Dendroaspis ... The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. The toxicity of ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... Its venom is a highly potent mixture of rapid-acting presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins and ...

*Many-banded krait

... and can be labelled with fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein or the rhodamine dye tetramethylrhodamine ... This result calls into question the monophyly of cobras and underscores the uncertainty of the homology of the hood spreading ... The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α-bungarotoxins and β- ... December 2015). "Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus ...

*Natural product

Botulinum, the neurotoxin responsible for botulism, can be injected into specific muscles (such as those controlling the eyelid ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... α-bungarotoxin from cobras). As with plant feeding deterrents, this biological activity is attributed to natural selection, ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ...

*Yellow-lipped sea krait

There are fewer recorded bites from this species compared to other venomous species such as cobras and vipers as it is less ... The venom of this elapid, Laticauda colubrina, is a very powerful neurotoxic protein, with a subcutaneous LD50 in mice of 0.45 ... The venom is an α-neurotoxin that disrupts synapses by competing with acetylcholine for receptors on the postsynaptic membrane ... "Properties and biosynthesis of a neurotoxic protein of the venoms of sea snakes Laticauda laticaudata and Laticauda colubrina ...

*Toxicofera

... a typical cobra-style neurotoxin, one that is as potent as comparative toxins found in close relatives of the cobra. These ... inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 328 (10-11): 1000-8. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2005.10.001 ... "Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early Origin of Venom in Snakes". Journal ...

*Eastern green mamba

The venom consists of both neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. The toxicity of individual specimens can vary greatly based on several ... "cobra" or simply "snake", in particular "snake with hood (shield)". Via Latin aspis, it is the source of the English word "asp ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... The venom consists of both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins, calcicludine, and ...

*Black mamba

It also is likely to form a hood by spreading its neck-flap as cobras do. The mamba's hood however, is narrower than that of a ... Its venom is primarily composed of potent neurotoxins that may cause fast onset of symptoms. Despite its reputation for being ... ISBN 978-0-86622-522-9 Stocker, Kurt F. (1990). Medical Use of Snake Venom Proteins. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-5846-3 Mebs, ... The black mamba's venom is composed of neurotoxins (dendrotoxin) and cardiotoxins as well as other toxins such as fasciculins. ...
1LXG: NMR-based Binding Screen and Structural Analysis of the Complex Formed between alpha-Cobratoxin and an 18-mer Cognate Peptide Derived from the alpha1 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor from Torpedo californica
Secretory phospholipasesA2 (sPLA2s) form a large family of structurally related enzymes widespread in nature. Herein, we studied the inhibitory effects of sPLA2s from Vipera lebetina (VLPLA2), Vipera berus berus (VBBPLA2), and Naja naja oxiana (NNOPLA2) venoms on (i) human platelets, (ii) four different bacterial strains (gram-negative Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri; gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and (iii) five types of cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, MCF-7, K-562 and B16-F10) in vitro. sPLA2s inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation: VBBPLA2 IC50 = 0.054, VLPLA2 IC50 = 0.072, NNOPLA2 IC50 = 0.814 μM. p-Bromophenacylbromide-inhibited sPLA2 had no inhibitory action on platelets. 36.17 μM VBBPLA2 completely inhibited the growth of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis whereas no growth inhibition was observed towards gram-negative Escherichia coli. The inhibitory action of sPLA2s (~0.7 μM and ~7 μM) towards cancer cells depended on both venom and cell type. VBBPLA2
Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278
1COD: Solution conformation of cobrotoxin: a nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing study.
α-Cobratoxin (CTX) is a large peptide (71 amino acids) with strong analgesic effect and may be misused in sports such as horse racing. To prevent such misuse, a sensitive method is required for detection and confirmation of the toxin in equine samples. CTX was extracted from equine plasma using an optimized mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Extracted CTX was reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with iodoacetamide, and then was digested by trypsin at 56 C for 30min. The digest was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and tryptic peptides T2 ( CFITPDITSK ) and T4 ( TWCDAFCSIR ) were monitored for detection and confirmation of CTX. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05ng/mL for CTX in plasma, and the limit of confirmation (LOC) 0.2ng/mL. Unlike small peptides consisting of the 20 canonical amino acids, CTX was stable in equine plasma at ambient temperature for at least 24h. The developed analytical method was successfully applied ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. SDS-PAGE immuno blot, using a C3 alpha chain specific antibody was used to demonstrate the consumption of C3 alpha chain in the blood. Both Pure CVF from N. kaouthia and N. melanoleuca had the ability to activate the complement pathway, and to cause the depletion of complement in blood as is seen by the initial disappearance of the C3 alpha chain in the blood and the subsequent reappearance of newly synthesised C3 alpha chain ...
Malih, Ibitissam and Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi and Ting, Yee Tee and Saile, Rachid and Ghalim, Noreddine and Othman, Iekhsan (2014) Proteomic analysis of moroccan cobra naja haje legionis venom using tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Proteomics, 96. pp. 240-252. ISSN 1874-3919 Malih, Ibitissam and Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi and Ting, Yee Tee and Saile, Rachid and Ghalim, Noreddine and Othman, Iekhsan (2012) Proteomic analysis and pharmacological activities of the venom of the Moroccan cobra Naja haje legionis. Toxicon, 60 (2). p. 211. ISSN 0041-0101 ...
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COBRA1兔多克隆抗体(ab48336)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
2017 The Author(s). Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PSNT, thus preventing it from binding to nAChR. The PSNT of Naja kaouthia (NK3) was immobilized on microtiter wells and nAChR was added to bind with it. The in vitro IC 50 of N. kaouthia venom that inhibited 50% of nAChR binding to the immobilized NK3 was determined. Varying concentrations of antisera against N. kaouthia were separately pre-incubated with 5xIC 50 of N. kaouthia venom. The remaining free NK3 were incubated with nAChR before adding to the NK3 coated plates. The in vitro and ...
Coloplast Ltd., Nene Hall, Peterborough Business Park, Peterborough PE2 6FX, United Kingdom - T:0800 220 622 - E:[email protected] ...
We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
Tiryaka Bhujangasana or twisting Cobra Pose makes the spine flexible and strong. It aso corrects postural defects and improves lung capacity.
GolfWRX Giveaway: Win a Limited Edition Cobra Staff Bag from FairwayStyles.com. Plus 20% Discount Offer! - posted in Past Giveaways and Contests: For The fall days.... The hot summer days.... The cold irish days...
A lot of weird things happen in Florida every week and on Friday were here to bring you the oddest. This week we have a porno plot that actually...
melee weapon, never used any mod figured someone could use it for a project. Make you cut something nice with it. If you can send me a pm if you use it. I would love to see it in action. Thanks everyone!
Thiis is the 2-speed high outut fan known on the web in offroad and hot rod forums as the Taurus Fan. It has 16 swept blades and is mounted in a
TOXIN, SNAKE FROM LATICAUDA*SEMIFASCIATA (ERABUTOXI/ACM11094614 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
Dnes som sa rozhodol, že vás oboznámim s albumom To Hell, pomerne neznámej kapely Cobra z ďalekého Peru. Toto zoskupenie funguje na scéne už od roku 2005 a na konte má dva oficiálne albumy. To Hell, o ktorom je […]. ...
Great interview found here, with lots of new information from spokesman for the Resitance, Cobra. There is another interview on his website (from Golfish report, I think....)but I found it so hard to hear and understand. THIS ONE is clearly stated, both question and answer. Highlights: information about Russia and its origins Kruschv made the deal with…
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Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as "true" cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision that synonymised the genera Boulengerina and Paranaja with Naja. According to that revision, the genus Naja now includes 32 species. The origin of this genus name is from the Sanskrit nāga (with a hard "g") meaning "snake". Some hold that the Sanskrit word is cognate with English "snake", Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, but this is unlikely. Mayrhofer calls this etymology "unglaubhaft ", "not credible", and ...
In order to be immune to venom, the honey badger would of had to have mutated genes and thats what exactly happened. There are molecules in cobra venom call alpha-neurotoxins that paralyze the breathing muscles. These neurotoxins essentially park in a muscle cells nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, preventing the cell from receiving the nervous systems signals to keep working. (Drabeck). The honey badger had mutations in that receptor which disallowed neurotoxins from connecting to it ...
King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. The female lays twenty to fifty eggs which are laid in April through June. Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. Both parents will work together to guard the nest. This nest is special because it is made up of two chambers. The bottom chamber contains the eggs while the top one houses the parents who protect the eggs. Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. Sixty to ninety days after being laid, the eggs hatch, and the parents leave the nest soon before they hatch. Some scientists think this is because the female may have been fasting for months and does not want to be tempted to eat her own young. At birth, the young king cobras are only around fifteen inches (38 cm) long, but their ...
Acute pain and sense of oppression at the chest, as though a hot iron had been run in and a hundredweight put on the top of it. Cholera , in the collapse stage, with pulselessness and difficulty of breathing. In heart cases: Depression and lowness about the heart. Frequent sensation of swelling or choking ;grasping at throat with the choking sensations in the throat. Diphtheria with impending paralysis of heart indicates Naja, but the characteristic left to right direction of Lach. does not appear in the Naja provings. ...
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
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The duration of the generic Cobra Vega Extra reaches 36 hours, but it is recommended to take a 20mg tablet 30 minutes before the intended sexual intercourse. Drink Cobra Vega Extra should be water.
good morning all, this morning I finally got the Cobra Commander golden trait upon testing it the damage is barely there also the tooltip say 6 secs the snake poison/DPS barely even lasted a full 2 secs is anyone else seeing this issue?
Purchase from a market leader your outstanding AC Cobra 212 SC 3.5L with all engine serial nr. performance spark plug. All of our Car-Truck-SUV tuning parts are
Dangerous bacteria could be hiding in your showerhead. Learn what it is and alternatives to help you avoid germs and bacteria in your shower.
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Cobra Skulls Cobra Skullifornia lyrics & video : So you come from the city you got big city money to spend, I dont want your big city money in my town my friend, you dont app...
One thing Hasbro has grown quite good at in recent years is reusing old parts. Be it a mold from 1982 or one from last week, its a pretty safe bet that if its in good working order, youll have a few opportunities to get it. For this line of Joe toys, Hasbro is going back to the well quite frequently. Several figures use parts from Duke, and this red ninja uses parts from both Storm Shadows, which are basically the same figure anyway. The good news, though, is that its one of the better molds in the line. While the Cobra Red Ninja cant sit down perfectly normally due to some obstruction in the hips, he can sit well enough to pilot some vehicles. For example, we crammed him in the recently released direct-to-consumer Cobra H.I.S.S. vehicle and he had no problems fitting right in the drivers seat. Hes not too tall, and fitting him inside didnt require awkward repositioning. Since the figures file card indicates hes a specialist in vehicle operations, its good to know that he can actually ...
This is the terrifying moment when a huge cobra snake invades a house in Malaysia after slithering up through a door to make its way inside.
Hello, I have a gauge cluster from a 99 cobra for sale with ~100xxx miles. I bought it last summer intending to put in into my 2003 V6 mustang, and bought...
Universal McCann has resigned its Cobra beer assignment with immediate effect, but declined to explain its reasons. McCann-Erickson will continue to handle creative advertising, however.
The results in Table 4 clearly show the strong anti-lethal activity of LTNF identified in opossum serum. LTNF is effective in neutralizing the effect of venoms when given half an hour before or after venom injection. The anti-lethal activity of LTNF was exhibited when it was administered half an hour before venom injection, therefore, it can be used as a preventive measure, especially for snake handlers, etc.. After injecting the predetermined lethal dose of toxins derived from animals, plants, and bacteria, the mice were given 200µg of LTNF in 0.5 ml volume by IP route. The control mice were given 0.5 ml PBS. The results are shown in Table 5.. The results in Table 5 show that TNF neutralizes the lethal toxic effects of various snake venom toxins: crotoxin, cobratoxin, PLA2, and, the most potent taipoxin. Furthermore, LTNF neutralizes the lethal effects of ricin, one of the most toxic plant-derived toxins, and also the bacterial toxins botulinum and holothurin.. DISCUSSION. Snakebite continues ...
Looking for online definition of Cobra lachesis in the Medical Dictionary? Cobra lachesis explanation free. What is Cobra lachesis? Meaning of Cobra lachesis medical term. What does Cobra lachesis mean?
All species in the genus Naja are capable of delivering a fatal bite to a human. Most species have strongly neurotoxic venom, which attacks the nervous system, causing paralysis, but many also have cytotoxic features which cause swelling and necrosis, and have a significant anticoagulant effect. Some also have cardiotoxic components to their venoms. Several Naja species, referred to as spitting cobras, have a specialized venom delivery mechanism, in which their front fangs, instead of releasing venom through the tips (similar to a hypodermic needle), have a rifled opening in the front surface which allows the snake to propel the venom out of the mouth. While typically referred to as "spitting", the action is more like squirting. The range and accuracy with which they can shoot their venom varies from species to species, but it is used primarily as a defense mechanism. Once sprayed onto a victims skin, the venom acts as a severe irritant. If it is introduced to the eye, it can cause a severe ...
Cobra (Shelby AC) The Shelby AC Cobra was built from 1961 to 1967 and still remains one of the most recognized and sought after sports cars in the World. This one is not as simple, but the Cobra story begins with the British car builder AC Cars in the early 60s; they were using a Bristol straight 6 engine in their small two-seater cars. Carroll Shelby sent a request to AC asking if they would modify one of the cars to fit a V8 under the hood and AC accepted the challenge. After some dead ends with Chevy, Carroll finally got Ford to deliver him one of their new 260 cubic in. V8s (a new lightweight high performance small block V8 engine) to be installed in the car. As testing and development continued it was easy to see how this car was going to be something special. These cars would go on to set records and win a ton of races……making Carroll Shelby a house hold name! Now what did Carroll intend to call this new little hot-rod? The name Cobra is said to have come to Carroll in a dream, he ...
New Padded Cheek Riser / Rest For Skeleton Stocks - posted in Cobras Custom: FINALLY ITS DONE! Woot! Introducing- A brand new product Ive been trying to get around to putting together for a couple of years now, but simply havent had any spare time. Between Racegal and her Moms seamstress skills, and my idea for a cool new product I feel is badly needed, we have finally come up with a design I think is pretty cool. It is currently adaptable to fit and easily instal...
I have held a position in a cosmetic surgeons office for 18 months. He has recently asked me to start injecting neurotoxin. Im the sole RN in our practice, so I have no template for how this works.
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MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors); 0 (Elapid Venoms ... 0 (BMLCL protein, Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus); 0 (Bungarotoxins); 0 (Cholinergic Agents); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins ... 0 (Antivenins); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Single-Domain Antibodies); 69344-74-7 (alpha-cobratoxin). ... 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Conotoxins); 0 (Receptors, GABA-A); 69344-74-7 (alpha-cobratoxin). ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.831.244

RPI MN - AdisInsightRPI MN - AdisInsight

Class Antiretrovirals; Cobra neurotoxin proteins * Mechanism of Action Nicotinic receptor antagonists * Orphan Drug Status ...
more infohttps://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800025141?error=cookies_not_supported&code=49328d73-b859-4675-a1db-f0032ba4c576

Pelvic PainPelvic Pain

Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. 1. + 204. Benzydamine. 1. + 205. Receptors, Opioid, delta. 1. + ...
more infohttps://lookfordiagnosis.com/results.php?symptoms=Pelvic+Pain&lang=1&parent=%2F&mode=F&therapy_ap=1

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins, Electrophoresis,... ... and characterization of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding protein ... Animals, Binding Sites, drug effects, Brain Chemistry, Bungarotoxins, metabolism, Carrier Proteins, isolation & purification, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=Brain+Research+347%EA%B6%8C+2%ED%98%B8

Cobra venom molecule - Stock Image F006/9278 - Science Photo LibraryCobra venom molecule - Stock Image F006/9278 - Science Photo Library

Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This ... neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278 ... Caption: Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja ... neurotoxin, protein, proteomics, research, snake, strand, structure, tertiary structure, toxic, toxin, venom, white background ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/525552/view

Simple ModelingSimple Modeling

The Cobra Toxin from the cobra snake ranks among the worlds most lethal venoms. Unlike many protein-based neurotoxins, this ... one of the strongest protein binding interactions known). When the Cobra venom neurotoxin binds to the receptor, the receptor ... Once bound, the neurotoxin acts as a plug to the receptor and prevents the bound receptor from initiating a neural impulse. The ... So, the cobra toxin is lethal because its rigid shape precisely fits into a vital neurotransmitter receptor site. ...
more infohttp://www-personal.umich.edu/~lpt/Modeling/lab15.htm

Potential Anticancer Activity of Caspian Cobra Venom Through Induction of Oxidative Stress in Glioblastoma Cell Line |...Potential Anticancer Activity of Caspian Cobra Venom Through Induction of Oxidative Stress in Glioblastoma Cell Line |...

Tsetlin VI (2015) Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological ... Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell- ... Caspian cobra venom Naja naja oxiana U87MG glioma cell line Cytotoxicity Reactive oxygen species ... Gasanov SE, Shrivastava IH, Israilov FS, Kim AA, Rylova KA, Zhang B, Dagda RK (2015) Naja naja oxiana cobra venom cytotoxins ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40011-018-1030-9

Caspian cobra - WikipediaCaspian cobra - Wikipedia

A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ... This species of cobra normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of Indian cobras (N. naja) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspian_cobra

alpha-cobratoxin (1-24) amide - Semantic Scholaralpha-cobratoxin (1-24) amide - Semantic Scholar

Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Peptide Fragments. Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this ... PRODRG: a tool for high-throughput crystallography of protein-ligand complexes.. *Alexander W Schüttelkopf, Daan M F van Aalten ... Structural genomics seeks to expand rapidly the number of protein structures in order to extract the maximum amount of… (More) ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/alpha-cobratoxin-%281-24%29-amide/3756946

Javan spitting cobra - WikipediaJavan spitting cobra - Wikipedia

... sputa-neurotoxin 1 (SN1) and sputa-neurotoxin 2 (SN2) isolated from the venom, are "short" neurotoxins, with 62 and 61 amino ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix) also called the southern Indonesian cobra, or Indonesian cobra, is a stocky and ... Like all cobra species, this species venom also consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins. However, the main components of its ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Javan_spitting_cobra

StateMaster - Encyclopedia: ToxicoferaStateMaster - Encyclopedia: Toxicofera

... a typical cobra-style neurotoxin, one that is as potent as comparative toxins found in close relatives of the cobra. These ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells â neurons â usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ... A pseudogene is a nucleotide sequences that is similar to a normal gene, but is not expressed as a functional protein. ... ... Fry, B. et al (October 2003). "Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early ...
more infohttp://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Toxicofera

Sandwalk: August 2007Sandwalk: August 2007

The combination of all these proteins can cause death within minutes of receiving a cobra bite. However, many people survive ... The venom also includes a number of neurotoxins that gain access to the central nervous system when blood vessels break down. ... As it turns out, there are other things in the cobra venom that are even more lethal.. These other components of cobra venom ... If its true that Cleopatra used a snake to commit suicide then it was most likely the Egyptian cobra Naja haje that did the ...
more infohttps://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2007/08/

Frederick Klenner on Heart Disease Prevention and TreatmentFrederick Klenner on Heart Disease Prevention and Treatment

Neurotoxin from the Black Widow, the Fiddle Spider and snakes like the Cobra and Coral; ... The infectious nucleic acid, after entering a human cell, retains its protein coat and starts to produce its own type protein ... Formic acid plus a toxin with a protein cover, called proteotoxin by Arthus,[39] such as found in bees and wasps; ... The role of the protein coat is to protect the parasitic but unstable nucleic acid as it rides the blood highway or ...
more infohttp://www.angelfire.com/zine2/healthplan/page5.html

1y5t - Proteopedia, life in 3D1y5t - Proteopedia, life in 3D

PREDICTED STRUCTURE OF AN ALPHA NEUROTOXIN FROM TAIWAN COBRA BOUND WITH ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PEPTIDE. ... Theoretical Model: The protein structure described on this page was determined theoretically, and hence should be interpreted ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/1y5t

1y6c - Proteopedia, life in 3D1y6c - Proteopedia, life in 3D

PREDICTED STRUCTURE OF AN ALPHA NEUROTOXIN FROM TAIWAN COBRA WITH BOUND ACH RECEPTOR PEPTIDE. ... Theoretical Model: The protein structure described on this page was determined theoretically, and hence should be interpreted ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/1y6c

Cobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in RatsCobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in Rats

Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ ... Total urinary protein concentration (grams per liter) was determined using the Bradford protein assay kit (Beyotime Institute ... Measurement of 24 h Urine Protein Output. For urine collection and total urinary protein determination, rats were placed in ... a long-chain neurotoxin, from Thailand cobra venom has been demonstrated to have potent actions on inhibiting formalin-induced ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/450581/

DoctorYourself.com - Klenner Vitamin C PaperDoctorYourself.com - Klenner Vitamin C Paper

Neurotoxin from the Black Widow, the Fiddle Spider and snakes like the Cobra and Coral; ... The infectious nucleic acid, after entering a human cell, retains its protein coat and starts to produce its own type protein ... Formic acid plus a toxin with a protein cover, called proteotoxin by Arthus,[39] such as found in bees and wasps; ... The role of the protein coat is to protect the parasitic but unstable nucleic acid as it rides the "blood highway" or " ...
more infohttp://www.doctoryourself.com/klennerpaper.html

Print - Biology-OnlinePrint - Biology-Online

Neurotoxin. Naja venom contains 11 confirmed neurotoxins, all of which are cobra-specific. Some Naja neurotoxins share high ... of the proteins in Naja venom closely matched cobra proteins. These results demonstrate that the accuracy of protein ... 90% of proteins were cardio- and neuro-toxins, and over 91% had a MM less than 10 kDa. Protein degradation was apparent in the ... Lane M, protein ladder; lane A, Naja venomous proteins; lane B, Agki venomous proteins. MM values are given in kDa. ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/kb/print.php?aid=3407

The Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin: May, 1942 - UBC Library Open CollectionsThe Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin: May, 1942 - UBC Library Open Collections

... so that what is now marketed is almost pure cobra neurotoxin. The preparation of Cobra venom has a rather interesting history. ... Roughly these are as follows: Proteins haemorrhagins cytotoxins mucus agglutinins haemotoxins enzymes precipitins neurotoxins ... In presenting Cobra neurotoxin as one of the newer therapeutic agents for the relief of pain, I do not at all acclaim it at the ... It so happens that the venom of the cobra is particularly rich in neurotoxin, which fraction is the desirable element in the ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/historyofnursinginpacificcanada/vma/items/1.0214380

Natural Toxins 2 | SpringerLinkNatural Toxins 2 | SpringerLink

Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... For example, botulinum neurotoxins, which have been used in studies in the field of neurobiology, have also been used directly ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4613-0361-9

Buy Jararaca pit viper snake venom - Cobra Intercontinental Pharmacy PlcBuy Jararaca pit viper snake venom - Cobra Intercontinental Pharmacy Plc

The venom is comprised of a groups of complex molecules called a neurotoxin, these contain proteins consisting of 60-70 crossed ... Ophiophagus hannah( King Cobra) snake venom. $730.00. $900.00. Ophiophagus hannah( King Cobra) snake venom. How natures ... Now-a-days, king cobras are kept on farms for their venom (= poison) which is used in making pain relieving medicine, and in ... The predator, which uses neurotoxins to paralyse and kill small animals, is one of the fastest and most dangerous snakes in ...
more infohttps://www.cobraintpharmacy.com/product/jararaca-pit-viper-snake-venom/

Long neurotoxin LNTX1 precursor - Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra)Long neurotoxin LNTX1 precursor - Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra)

... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR003571 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q2VBP8

Natural Toxins 2 | Springer for Research & DevelopmentNatural Toxins 2 | Springer for Research & Development

Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... For example, botulinum neurotoxins, which have been used in studies in the field of neurobiology, have also been used directly ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4613-0361-9

Долгих Дмитрий Александрович - ИБХ РАНДолгих Дмитрий Александрович - ИБХ РАН

Neurotoxin II from the venom of cobra Naja oxiana is a short type alpha-neurotoxin, which competitively inhibits nicotinic ... The yield of neurotoxin II was 6 mg/l of the bacterial culture. The resulting recombinant protein was identified with native ... Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins ... Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this ...
more infohttp://www.ibch.ru/structure/groups/proteng/14
  • 80% of gel spots from 2DE displayed high-quality MALDI-TOF-MS spectra, only 50% of these spots were confirmed to be venom proteins, which is more than likely to be a result of incomplete protein databases. (biology-online.org)
  • These categories are: (i) haemotoxins, which promote haemorrhaging primary to extensive local swelling and necrosis, (ii) neurotoxins, which disable muscle contraction and paralyse the heart as well as hinder respiration, and (iii) cardiotoxins, which elicit specific toxicity to cardiac and muscle cells, causing irreversible depolarization of cell membranes [ 6 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • The predator, which uses neurotoxins to paralyse and kill small animals, is one of the fastest and most dangerous snakes in Africa In addition to synthetic marijuana, K2 and Spice, other brand names include Black Mamba , Bombay Blue, Genie, and Zohai. (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • Cobrotoxin (CTX), a short-chain neurotoxin, was suggested to inhibit NF- κ B signaling activation [ 21 ] and regulated T lymphocytes [ 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The Caspian cobra is never fully black, although some specimens may be quite dark. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Caspian cobra will prey mainly on rodents, toads and frogs, occasionally fish, birds and their eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A ribonuclease isolated and purified from Caspian cobra venom, ribonuclease V1, is commonly used as a laboratory reagent in molecular biology experiments due to its unusual ability to break down structured RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • The majority of these molecules are involved in gene and protein expression, revealing the high level of specialization of the tissue for toxin synthesis. (usp.br)
  • A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, which have been shown to cause cell death through damage to lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This points to the fact that secondary structure is important even in small polypeptides, not only full-size proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Although this application is primarily used in protein structure classes, web sites for sharing chemical information, and journal articles for emphasizing certain aspects of protein structure, it can also be used for simpler structures. (umich.edu)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)
  • Similarly, the anti-arthritic activity of Indian monocellate cobra venom was also verified [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nephrin protein was identified in SD and participated in maintaining the structure and function of podocytes [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The primary structure of this neurotoxin is indicated in Figure 1, along with some components of its secondary structure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Kinemage Home Page provides applications, utilities, databases, kinemage collections and tutorials for this protein structure rendering tool. (umich.edu)
  • Meanwhile, CTX upregulated the protein level of podocyte-specific nephrin and downregulated the level of fibrosis-related TGF- β . (hindawi.com)