Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Persistent, unwanted idea or impulse which is considered normal when it does not markedly interfere with mental processes or emotional adjustment.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.

NMR spatial structure of alpha-conotoxin ImI reveals a common scaffold in snail and snake toxins recognizing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (1/95)

A 600 MHz NMR study of alpha-conotoxin ImI from Conus imperialis, targeting the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is presented. ImI backbone spatial structure is well defined basing on the NOEs, spin-spin coupling constants, and amide protons hydrogen-deuterium exchange data: rmsd of the backbone atom coordinates at the 2-12 region is 0.28 A in the 20 best structures. The structure is described as a type I beta-turn (positions 2-5) followed by a distorted helix (positions 5-11). Similar structural patterns can be found in all neuronal-specific alpha-conotoxins. Highly mobile side chains of the Asp-5, Arg-7 and Trp-10 residues form a single site for ImI binding to the alpha7 receptor. When depicted with opposite directions of the polypeptide chains, the ImI helix and the tip of the central loop of long chain snake neurotoxins demonstrate a common scaffold and similar positioning of the functional side chains, both of these structural elements appearing essential for binding to the neuronal nAChRs.  (+info)

Subunit interface selectivity of the alpha-neurotoxins for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (2/95)

Peptide toxins selective for particular subunit interfaces of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have proven invaluable in assigning candidate residues located in the two binding sites and for determining probable orientations of the bound peptide. We report here on a short alpha-neurotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica (NmmI) that, similar to other alpha-neurotoxins, binds with high affinity to alphagamma and alphadelta subunit interfaces (KD approximately 100 pM) but binds with markedly reduced affinity to the alphaepsilon interface (KD approximately 100 nM). By constructing chimeras composed of portions of the gamma and epsilon subunits and coexpressing them with wild type alpha, beta, and delta subunits in HEK 293 cells, we identify a region of the subunit sequence responsible for the difference in affinity. Within this region, gammaPro-175 and gammaGlu-176 confer high affinity, whereas Thr and Ala, found at homologous positions in epsilon, confer low affinity. To identify an interaction between gammaGlu-176 and residues in NmmI, we have examined cationic residues in the central loop of the toxin and measured binding of mutant toxin-receptor combinations. The data show strong pairwise interactions or coupling between gammaGlu-176 and Lys-27 of NmmI and progressively weaker interactions with Arg-33 and Arg-36 in loop II of this three-loop toxin. Thus, loop II of NmmI, and in particular the face of this loop closest to loop III, appears to come into close apposition with Glu-176 of the gamma subunit surface of the binding site interface.  (+info)

Snake venom alpha-neurotoxins and other 'three-finger' proteins. (3/95)

The review is mainly devoted to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins which target different muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The primary and spatial structures of other snake venom proteins as well as mammalian proteins of the Ly-6 family, which structurally resemble the 'three-finger' snake proteins, are also briefly discussed. The main emphasis is placed on recent data characterizing the alpha-neurotoxin interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  (+info)

How do acetylcholine receptor ligands reach their binding sites? (4/95)

The access pathway to the binding sites for large competitive antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica electric tissue was analyzed by binding and photolabeling experiments with alpha-neurotoxins. Binding assays with [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin showed an increase in the number of accessible binding sites upon stepwise solubilization of the receptor-rich membranes. Similarily, ligand binding is facilitated upon fluidization of the membrane by increasing the temperature. The access to the binding sites seems to be sterically 'hindered' in the densely packed membrane state. Using a novel series of large biotinylated photoactivatable derivatives of neurotoxin II, we observed that the accessibility to the alpha/gamma- but not to the alpha/delta-binding site was considerably decreased for some derivatives under native conditions. This effect was less apparent at higher temperatures and could be abolished by complete solubilization. These observations support the nonequivalence of the receptor's binding sites. Together, our data suggest (a) that alpha-neurotoxins approach their binding sites from the membrane-facing periphery of the receptor's extramembrane domain rather than through the channel mouth and (b) that different entrance pathways to each binding site exist which vary in their sensitivity to the physical state of the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Variability among the sites by which curaremimetic toxins bind to torpedo acetylcholine receptor, as revealed by identification of the functional residues of alpha-cobratoxin. (5/95)

alpha-Cobratoxin, a long chain curaremimetic toxin from Naja kaouthia venom, was produced recombinantly (ralpha-Cbtx) from Escherichia coli. It was indistinguishable from the snake toxin. Mutations at 8 of the 29 explored toxin positions resulted in affinity decreases for Torpedo receptor with DeltaDeltaG higher than 1.1 kcal/mol. These are R33E > K49E > D27R > K23E > F29A >/= W25A > R36A >/= F65A. These positions cover a homogeneous surface of approximately 880 A(2) and mostly belong to the second toxin loop, except Lys-49 and Phe-65 which are, respectively, on the third loop and C-terminal tail. The mutations K23E and K49E, and perhaps R33E, induced discriminative interactions at the two toxin-binding sites. When compared with the short toxin erabutoxin a (Ea), a number of structurally equivalent residues are commonly implicated in binding to muscular-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These are Lys-23/Lys-27, Asp-27/Asp-31, Arg-33/Arg-33, Lys-49/Lys-47, and to a lesser and variable extent Trp-25/Trp-29 and Phe-29/Phe-32. In addition, however, the short and long toxins display three major differences. First, Asp-38 is important in Ea in contrast to the homologous Glu-38 in alpha-Cbtx. Second, all of the first loop is insensitive to mutation in alpha-Cbtx, whereas its tip is functionally critical in Ea. Third, the C-terminal tail may be specifically critical in alpha-Cbtx. Therefore, the functional sites of long and short curaremimetic toxins are not identical, but they share common features and marked differences that might reflect an evolutionary pressure associated with a great diversity of prey receptors.  (+info)

Molecular determinants by which a long chain toxin from snake venom interacts with the neuronal alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (6/95)

Long chain curarimimetic toxins from snake venom bind with high affinities to both muscular type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) (K(d) in the pm range) and neuronal alpha 7-AChRs (K(d) in the nm range). To understand the molecular basis of this dual function, we submitted alpha-cobratoxin (alpha-Cbtx), a typical long chain curarimimetic toxin, to an extensive mutational analysis. By exploring 36 toxin mutants, we found that Trp-25, Asp-27, Phe-29, Arg-33, Arg-36, and Phe-65 are involved in binding to both neuronal and Torpedo (Antil, S., Servent, D., and Menez, A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34851-34858) AChRs and that some of them (Trp-25, Asp-27, and Arg-33) have similar binding energy contributions for the two receptors. In contrast, Ala-28, Lys-35, and Cys-26-Cys-30 selectively bind to the alpha 7-AChR, whereas Lys-23 and Lys-49 bind solely to the Torpedo AChR. Therefore, alpha-Cbtx binds to two AChR subtypes using both common and specific residues. Double mutant cycle analyses suggested that Arg-33 in alpha-Cbtx is close to Tyr-187 and Pro-193 in the alpha 7 receptor. Since Arg-33 of another curarimimetic toxin is close to the homologous alpha Tyr-190 of the muscular receptor (Ackermann, E. J., Ang, E. T. H., Kanter, J. R., Tsigelny, I., and Taylor, P. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 10958-10964), toxin binding probably occurs in homologous regions of neuronal and muscular AChRs. However, no coupling was seen between alpha-Cbtx Arg-33 and alpha 7 receptor Trp-54, Leu-118, and Asp-163, in contrast to what was observed in a homologous situation involving another toxin and a muscular receptor (Osaka, H., Malany, S., Molles, B. E., Sine, S. M., and Taylor, P. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5478-5484). Therefore, although occurring in homologous regions, the detailed modes of toxin binding to alpha 7 and muscular receptors are likely to be different. These data offer a molecular basis for the design of toxins with predetermined specificities for various members of the AChR family.  (+info)

Binding properties of agonists and antagonists to distinct allosteric states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are incompatible with a concerted model. (7/95)

Recent work has shown that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) can be fixed in distinct conformations by chemical cross-linking with glutardialdehyde, which abolishes allosteric transitions in the protein. Here, two conformations that resemble the desensitized and the resting states were compared with respect to their affinities for different classes of ligands. The same ligands were tested for their ability to convert the nAChR from a conformation with low affinity to a conformation with high affinity for acetylcholine. As expected, agonists were found to bind with higher affinity to the desensitized state-like conformation and to induce a shift of the nAChR to this high affinity state. In contrast, although most antagonists tested bound preferentially to the desensitized receptor as well they failed to induce a change of the affinity for acetylcholine. These observations sharply contradict basic predictions of the concerted model, including the postulate of a preformed equilibrium between the different states of the nAChR in the absence of agonist. With a similar approach we could show that the non-competitive inhibitor ethidium is displaced in a non-allosteric manner by other well characterized channel blockers from the cross-linked nAChR. These results require revision of current models for the mechanisms underlying non-competitive antagonism at the nAChR.  (+info)

"Weak toxin" from Naja kaouthia is a nontoxic antagonist of alpha 7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (8/95)

A novel "weak toxin" (WTX) from Naja kaouthia snake venom competes with [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin for binding to the membrane-bound Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR), with an IC(50) of approximately 2.2 microm. In this respect, it is approximately 300 times less potent than neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana and alpha-cobratoxin from N. kaouthia, representing short-type and long-type alpha-neurotoxins, respectively. WTX and alpha-cobratoxin displaced [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin from the Escherichia coli-expressed fusion protein containing the rat alpha7 AChR N-terminal domain 1-208 preceded by glutathione S-transferase with IC(50) values of 4.3 and 9.1 microm, respectively, whereas for neurotoxin II the IC(50) value was >100 microm. Micromolar concentrations of WTX inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in Xenopus oocyte-expressed rat muscle AChR and human and rat alpha7 AChRs, inhibiting the latter most efficiently (IC(50) of approximately 8.3 microm). Thus, a virtually nontoxic "three-fingered" protein WTX, although differing from alpha-neurotoxins by an additional disulfide in the N-terminal loop, can be classified as a weak alpha-neurotoxin. It differs from the short chain alpha-neurotoxins, which potently block the muscle-type but not the alpha7 AChRs, and is closer to the long alpha-neurotoxins, which have comparable potency against the above-mentioned AChR types.  (+info)

Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, and minerals. They contain a variety of chemicals with pharmacological and toxicological properties. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against toxins and microbes. Antibacterial and anticancer proteins produced by snake venom have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to bacterial diseases and the potential of being converted into new therapeutic agents. However, the production of anti-snake venom from large mammals is proven to be low-yielding and arduous. The aim of the present study was to investigate and isolate immunodominant proteins of Naja oxiana snake venom. Identification was performed by 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. Subsequently, four sharp protein bonds of 14, 22, 32, 65 kDa were appeared in nitrocellulose paper. In the next step, the identified proteins were isolated directly by electro-elution
1LXG: NMR-based Binding Screen and Structural Analysis of the Complex Formed between alpha-Cobratoxin and an 18-mer Cognate Peptide Derived from the alpha1 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor from Torpedo californica
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1nor.1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL 1H-NMR STUDY OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF NEUROTOXIN II FROM NAJA OXIANA
Secretory phospholipasesA2 (sPLA2s) form a large family of structurally related enzymes widespread in nature. Herein, we studied the inhibitory effects of sPLA2s from Vipera lebetina (VLPLA2), Vipera berus berus (VBBPLA2), and Naja naja oxiana (NNOPLA2) venoms on (i) human platelets, (ii) four different bacterial strains (gram-negative Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri; gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and (iii) five types of cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, MCF-7, K-562 and B16-F10) in vitro. sPLA2s inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation: VBBPLA2 IC50 = 0.054, VLPLA2 IC50 = 0.072, NNOPLA2 IC50 = 0.814 μM. p-Bromophenacylbromide-inhibited sPLA2 had no inhibitory action on platelets. 36.17 μM VBBPLA2 completely inhibited the growth of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis whereas no growth inhibition was observed towards gram-negative Escherichia coli. The inhibitory action of sPLA2s (~0.7 μM and ~7 μM) towards cancer cells depended on both venom and cell type. VBBPLA2
Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278
Introduction: We tested the action of proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) and cobra venom Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) on Deiters nucleus neurons at 3rd, 15th and 35th days after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Early and late tetanic, post-tetanic potentiation and depression of Deiters neurons to bilateral high frequency stimulation of hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricualar nuclei was studied. The analysis of spike activity was carried out by mean of on-line selection and special program ...
1COD: Solution conformation of cobrotoxin: a nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing study.
α-Cobratoxin (CTX) is a large peptide (71 amino acids) with strong analgesic effect and may be misused in sports such as horse racing. To prevent such misuse, a sensitive method is required for detection and confirmation of the toxin in equine samples. CTX was extracted from equine plasma using an optimized mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Extracted CTX was reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with iodoacetamide, and then was digested by trypsin at 56 C for 30min. The digest was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and tryptic peptides T2 ( CFITPDITSK ) and T4 ( TWCDAFCSIR ) were monitored for detection and confirmation of CTX. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05ng/mL for CTX in plasma, and the limit of confirmation (LOC) 0.2ng/mL. Unlike small peptides consisting of the 20 canonical amino acids, CTX was stable in equine plasma at ambient temperature for at least 24h. The developed analytical method was successfully applied ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. SDS-PAGE immuno blot, using a C3 alpha chain specific antibody was used to demonstrate the consumption of C3 alpha chain in the blood. Both Pure CVF from N. kaouthia and N. melanoleuca had the ability to activate the complement pathway, and to cause the depletion of complement in blood as is seen by the initial disappearance of the C3 alpha chain in the blood and the subsequent reappearance of newly synthesised C3 alpha chain ...
Malih, Ibitissam and Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi and Ting, Yee Tee and Saile, Rachid and Ghalim, Noreddine and Othman, Iekhsan (2014) Proteomic analysis of moroccan cobra naja haje legionis venom using tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Proteomics, 96. pp. 240-252. ISSN 1874-3919 Malih, Ibitissam and Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi and Ting, Yee Tee and Saile, Rachid and Ghalim, Noreddine and Othman, Iekhsan (2012) Proteomic analysis and pharmacological activities of the venom of the Moroccan cobra Naja haje legionis. Toxicon, 60 (2). p. 211. ISSN 0041-0101 ...
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2017 The Author(s). Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PSNT, thus preventing it from binding to nAChR. The PSNT of Naja kaouthia (NK3) was immobilized on microtiter wells and nAChR was added to bind with it. The in vitro IC 50 of N. kaouthia venom that inhibited 50% of nAChR binding to the immobilized NK3 was determined. Varying concentrations of antisera against N. kaouthia were separately pre-incubated with 5xIC 50 of N. kaouthia venom. The remaining free NK3 were incubated with nAChR before adding to the NK3 coated plates. The in vitro and ...
A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but much less toxic. To determine if it acts like the cardiotoxins its depolarizing ability was measured. It was about 10 times less potent than the cardiotoxins. Five amino acids are conserved in the sequences studied, on the exposed second and third loops of the toxin backbone. They may be part of the toxins interactive site.. ...
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We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
While the new Colt Cobra is about as good as it gets for a basic .38 Special defensive snub, the Night Cobra version is a cut above.
Whether it is possible to buy generic Vega Extra Cobra 130 Mg, whether it will harm health - similar thoughts arise in many who want to buy Vega Extra Cobra 130 Mg.
Tiryaka Bhujangasana or twisting Cobra Pose makes the spine flexible and strong. It aso corrects postural defects and improves lung capacity.
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melee weapon, never used any mod figured someone could use it for a project. Make you cut something nice with it. If you can send me a pm if you use it. I would love to see it in action. Thanks everyone!
Thiis is the 2-speed high outut fan known on the web in offroad and hot rod forums as the Taurus Fan. It has 16 swept blades and is mounted in a
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
TOXIN, SNAKE FROM LATICAUDA*SEMIFASCIATA (ERABUTOXI/ACM11094614 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
Atıf İçin Kopyala EDINK E., RUCKTOOA P., RETRA K., Akdemir A. , NAHAR T., ZUIDERVELD O., et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, cilt.133, ss.5363-71, 2011 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) ...
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Dnes som sa rozhodol, že vás oboznámim s albumom To Hell, pomerne neznámej kapely Cobra z ďalekého Peru. Toto zoskupenie funguje na scéne už od roku 2005 a na konte má dva oficiálne albumy. To Hell, o ktorom je […]. ...
Great interview found here, with lots of new information from spokesman for the Resitance, Cobra. There is another interview on his website (from Golfish report, I think....)but I found it so hard to hear and understand. THIS ONE is clearly stated, both question and answer. Highlights: information about Russia and its origins Kruschv made the deal with…
You need to learn how to read and write. Once you have done that, you will know why this ad doesnt work. Where am I supposed to start reading?. ...
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Further testing using the undiluted powder by three persons having various forms of terminal cancer was conducted. 4. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Just make a tea of snake grass fresh or dried leaves, or you can mix it with green tea to enhance its health benefits.. 3. £1.45. Free P&P . offres à partir de . Some general concepts are introduced to allow the comparative evaluation of the resistance of different animals studied by different investigators. Release the snake in an approved area. Re: Anti Snake Plant Available by xreal: 6:55am On Jul 02; Pictures and name of plant. Small size, compact structure, environmentally friendly, easy to use and carry. Natural anti-snake venom proteins. 4.2 out of 5 stars 19. The snake powder is prepared by continuously baking the body of the rattlesnake until it completely dehydrates. Each ml has power of specifically neutralizing the venoms of following species of snakes: 0.60 mg of dried Indian Cobra (Naja naja) venom It produces antibodies against the ...
Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as true cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision that synonymised the genera Boulengerina and Paranaja with Naja. According to that revision, the genus Naja now includes 32 species. The origin of this genus name is from the Sanskrit nāga (with a hard g) meaning snake. Some hold that the Sanskrit word is cognate with English snake, Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, but this is unlikely. Mayrhofer calls this etymology unglaubhaft , not credible, and ...
In order to be immune to venom, the honey badger would of had to have mutated genes and thats what exactly happened. There are molecules in cobra venom call alpha-neurotoxins that paralyze the breathing muscles. These neurotoxins essentially park in a muscle cells nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, preventing the cell from receiving the nervous systems signals to keep working. (Drabeck). The honey badger had mutations in that receptor which disallowed neurotoxins from connecting to it ...
King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. The female lays twenty to fifty eggs which are laid in April through June. Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. Both parents will work together to guard the nest. This nest is special because it is made up of two chambers. The bottom chamber contains the eggs while the top one houses the parents who protect the eggs. Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. Sixty to ninety days after being laid, the eggs hatch, and the parents leave the nest soon before they hatch. Some scientists think this is because the female may have been fasting for months and does not want to be tempted to eat her own young. At birth, the young king cobras are only around fifteen inches (38 cm) long, but their ...
Acute pain and sense of oppression at the chest, as though a hot iron had been run in and a hundredweight put on the top of it. Cholera , in the collapse stage, with pulselessness and difficulty of breathing. In heart cases: Depression and lowness about the heart. Frequent sensation of swelling or choking ;grasping at throat with the choking sensations in the throat. Diphtheria with impending paralysis of heart indicates Naja, but the characteristic left to right direction of Lach. does not appear in the Naja provings. ...
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
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good morning all, this morning I finally got the Cobra Commander golden trait upon testing it the damage is barely there also the tooltip say 6 secs the snake poison/DPS barely even lasted a full 2 secs is anyone else seeing this issue?
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请问尊敬的COBRA先生46月份他们关于将会接走一些地表战士的计划是取消了?还是依然存在?能不能强烈建议他们立刻开始这个计划?请他们好好保护好最好的战士3多听听牢笼中清醒人士的建议》我们应该开始越狱计划了》我们现在跟监狱里的越狱行动没有任何区别3越狱的人从来不会想到保证让每个越狱者活着3而是希望能活几个是几个》逃出去的人再想办法带着更好的计划去救更多的人》不要再幻想能一次性解放地球了3可能这也是黑暗势力的想法》这样就能最大限度的制造混乱和业力去拖垮光的战士》从而让我们反而什么都得不到》谢谢 希望他们能听到》 张靖楣. ReplyDelete ...
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One thing Hasbro has grown quite good at in recent years is reusing old parts. Be it a mold from 1982 or one from last week, its a pretty safe bet that if its in good working order, youll have a few opportunities to get it. For this line of Joe toys, Hasbro is going back to the well quite frequently. Several figures use parts from Duke, and this red ninja uses parts from both Storm Shadows, which are basically the same figure anyway. The good news, though, is that its one of the better molds in the line. While the Cobra Red Ninja cant sit down perfectly normally due to some obstruction in the hips, he can sit well enough to pilot some vehicles. For example, we crammed him in the recently released direct-to-consumer Cobra H.I.S.S. vehicle and he had no problems fitting right in the drivers seat. Hes not too tall, and fitting him inside didnt require awkward repositioning. Since the figures file card indicates hes a specialist in vehicle operations, its good to know that he can actually ...
Cobra interview 7th june 2015 Posted by James Rathey on June 16, 2015 at 1:38am Send Message View Blog FRIDAY, JUNE 12, 2015 Cobra interview 7th june 20…
This is the terrifying moment when a huge cobra snake invades a house in Malaysia after slithering up through a door to make its way inside.
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Universal McCann has resigned its Cobra beer assignment with immediate effect, but declined to explain its reasons. McCann-Erickson will continue to handle creative advertising, however.
Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in their venom is as complex as the mixture of proteins found in ... Neurotoxins, which primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. These include ion channel toxins that disrupt ion channel ... king cobras or black mambas. Even through geographical boundaries, Kingsnake venom resistance has varied between species. They ... Snake venoms contain proteins which can be used to treat conditions including thrombosis, arthritis, and some cancers. Gila ...
... and can be labelled with fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein or the rhodamine dye tetramethylrhodamine ... The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α-bungarotoxins and β- ... Indan cobra) or two Micrurus species (New World or American coral snakes). Minton (1981), Schwaner et al. and Cadle & Gorman ( ... December 2015). "Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus ...
Botulinum, the neurotoxin responsible for botulism, can be injected into specific muscles (such as those controlling the eyelid ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... α-bungarotoxin from cobras). As with plant feeding deterrents, this biological activity is attributed to natural selection, ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ...
This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the ... Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian copperheads, sea snakes, and coral snakes.[61] ... King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Snakes of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right ... Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize, injure or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, ...
Neurotoxins primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. The group neurotoxins generally consists of ion channel toxins ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra. Environmental toxins[edit]. See also: Environmental toxicology ... the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins, each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), or ...
... s are purified by several processes but will still contain other serum proteins that can act as antigens. Some ... against the Indian Cobra (Naja naja). In 1901, Vital Brazil, working at the Instituto Butantan in São Paulo, Brazil, developed ... in a hospital by elective endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until the effects of coral snake neurotoxins abate ... with success in Australia and Brazil and total immunity has been achieved even to multiple bites of extremely venomous cobras ...
... s and cobras are in the same family: the Elapidae. Like cobras, a mamba may rear and form a hood as part of its threat ... Their venoms consist mostly of neurotoxins (known as dendrotoxins). Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry cardiotoxins and ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606. CS1 maint: Uses authors ... Typically also, a rearing mamba tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. Stories of black mambas ...
Because sites of protein-protein interaction have often been found to be flanked by prolines, the presence of the two prolines ... For example, cobra venom has been found to have a bioavailability of 41.7% when injected intramuscular, and for other venoms ... Calciseptine (CaS) is a natural neurotoxin isolated from the black mamba Dendroaspis p. polylepis venom. This toxin consists of ... Proteins from this family are small and consist of 58 to 74 amino acids. They all have the same three-fingered structure which ...
The venom consists of both neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. The toxicity of individual specimens can vary greatly based on several ... "cobra" or simply "snake", in particular "snake with hood (shield)". Via Latin aspis, it is the source of the English word "asp ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... The venom consists of both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins, calcicludine, and ...
... produces the potent neurotoxin called "Mojave toxin". Nearly identical neurotoxins have been discovered in five North American ... including the Mozambique spitting cobra. However, chances for survival are very good if medical attention is sought as soon as ... All rattlesnake venoms are complex cocktails of enzymes and other proteins that vary greatly in composition and effects, not ... Their potent venom is the result of a presynaptic neurotoxin composed of two distinct peptide subunits. The basic subunit (a ...
The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. An important property of neurotoxins is that they are not ... When a complex was formed with an α7 receptor-like protein(AChBP-complex) and 5 α-Cobratoxins, it is not able to twist anymore ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... "Inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cobra venom α-neurotoxins: is there a perspective in lung cancer ...
... sputa-neurotoxin 1 (SN1) and sputa-neurotoxin 2 (SN2) isolated from the venom, are "short" neurotoxins, with 62 and 61 amino ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix) also called the southern Indonesian cobra, or Indonesian cobra, is a stocky and ... Like all cobra species, this species' venom also consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins. However, the main components of its ...
A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ... This species of cobra normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of Indian cobras (N. naja) ...
Pung, Y.F.; Kumar, S.V.; Rajagopalan, N.; Fry, B.G.; Kumar, P.P.; Kini, R.M. (2006). "Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra ... The venom of the king cobra consists primarily of neurotoxins, known as the haditoxin, with several other compounds. Its murine ... They can be distinguished from other cobras by size and hood. King cobras are generally larger than other cobras, and the ... Cobra stones or gems or pearls are believed to develop from the cobra's hood. Stuart, B.; Wogan, G.; Grismer, L.; Auliya, M.; ...
Mortality rates are also higher among green mamba bite victims than with cobra bite victims. Although bites by Dendroaspis ... The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. The toxicity of ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... Its venom is a highly potent mixture of rapid-acting presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins and ...
Snake examples: king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) (known as hannahtoxin containing α-neurotoxins), sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) ( ... Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic ... Snake example: mambas α-neurotoxins: Alpha-neurotoxins are a large group, with over 100 postsynaptic neurotoxins having been ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (September 2004). "Cloning and purification of α-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
Ismail M, al-Bekairi AM, el-Bedaiwy AM, Abd-el Salam MA (1993). "The ocular effects of spitting cobras: I. The ringhals cobra ( ... Venom is composed of hundreds to thousands of different proteins and enzymes, all serving a variety of purposes, such as ... neurotoxins, and myotoxins, allowing for an enormous variety of symptoms. Earlier, the venom of a particular snake was ... Venom emitted from elapids, including sea snakes, kraits, cobras, king cobra, mambas, and many Australian species, contain ...
Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... Naja christyi (formerly Boulengerina christyi ), commonly known as the Congo water cobra or Christy's water cobra, is a species ... The LD50 of long-chain neurotoxins 2 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi venoms were 0.086 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively. The ...
There are fewer recorded bites from this species compared to other venomous species such as cobras and vipers as it is less ... The venom of this elapid, Laticauda colubrina, is a very powerful neurotoxic protein, with a subcutaneous LD50 in mice of 0.45 ... The venom is an α-neurotoxin that disrupts synapses by competing with acetylcholine for receptors on the postsynaptic membrane ... "Properties and biosynthesis of a neurotoxic protein of the venoms of sea snakes Laticauda laticaudata and Laticauda colubrina ...
Using I-labelled cobra venom (Naja atra), 1 μg/g mice, its isolated I-neurotoxin (0.2 μg/g) or cardiotoxin (4 μg/g), it has ... ISBN 0-691-12436-1. Wang, AH; Yang, CC (10 September 1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra ... A cobra moving along a wall. Back of a Chinese cobra. A Chinese cobra in a defensive posture. Ji, X. & Li, P. (2014). Naja atra ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in southern ...
It also is likely to form a hood by spreading its neck-flap as cobras do. The mamba's hood however, is narrower than that of a ... Its venom is primarily composed of potent neurotoxins that may cause fast onset of symptoms. Despite its reputation for being ... ISBN 978-0-86622-522-9 Stocker, Kurt F. (1990). Medical Use of Snake Venom Proteins. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-5846-3 Mebs, ... The black mamba's venom is composed of neurotoxins (dendrotoxin) and cardiotoxins as well as other toxins such as fasciculins. ...
These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the ... Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families: Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian ... King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Snakes of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right ... Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, delivered ...
... a new class of nAChR antagonist 3FTx proteins called omega-neurotoxins has been described. A smaller class of 3FTx proteins ... In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... The alpha-neurotoxin family is a group of 3FTx proteins that bind muscle nAChRs, preventing the binding of the neurotransmitter ... Other groups of 3FTx proteins also bind to different nAChR subtypes; for example, kappa-neurotoxins, which are long-chain ...
... cobra venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.190 --- cobra neurotoxins MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.260 --- direct lytic factors ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 --- hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 --- hiv envelope protein ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 --- adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 --- adenovirus e3 proteins ... ldl-receptor related protein 2 MeSH D23.050.422.500.750 --- ldl-receptor related protein-associated protein MeSH D23.050. ...
... a typical cobra-style neurotoxin, one that is as potent as comparative toxins found in close relatives of the cobra. These ... inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 328 (10-11): 1000-8. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2005.10.001 ... "Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early Origin of Venom in Snakes". Journal ...
The Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) is a venomous spitting cobra whose venom consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins, ... ISBN 0-7136-6817-2. A H Wang; Yang, CC (1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the Naja genus. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The major α-neurotoxin in Naja kaouthia venom is a long neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin; the minor α-neurotoxin is different from ...
Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... commonly known as the banded water cobra or the ringed water cobra, is a species of water cobra native to western and central ... The species is one of the two species of water cobras in the world, the other one being the Congo water cobra (Naja christyi). ...
Subsequently, four sharp protein bonds of 14, 22, 32, 65 kDa were appeared in nitrocellulose paper. In the next step, the ... Antibacterial and anticancer proteins produced by snake venom have recently attracted significant attention due to their ... To the best our knowledge, these proteins can be candidates for preparing a specific anti-venom against Naja oxiana and ... The aim of the present study was to investigate and isolate immunodominant proteins of Naja oxiana snake venom. Identification ...
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors); 0 (Elapid Venoms ... 0 (BMLCL protein, Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus); 0 (Bungarotoxins); 0 (Cholinergic Agents); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins ... 0 (Antivenins); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Single-Domain Antibodies); 69344-74-7 (alpha-cobratoxin). ... 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Conotoxins); 0 (Receptors, GABA-A); 69344-74-7 (alpha-cobratoxin). ...
... the neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Thai cobra Naja kaouthia , causes paralysis by preventing acetylcholine (ACh) ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / chemistry* * Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / genetics * Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / metabolism* ... alpha-Cobratoxin (Cbtx), the neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Thai cobra Naja kaouthia , causes paralysis by ... The crystal structure (1YI5) of Cbtx in complex with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a soluble homolog of the ...
These venoms have also been discovered to contain several unique venom protein families. New venom protein superfamilies in RFS ... Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to ... Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to ... New venom protein superfamilies in RFS venoms include matrix metalloproteinases, distinct from but closely related to snake ...
Neurotoxin from the Black Widow, the Fiddle Spider and snakes like the Cobra and Coral; ... The infectious nucleic acid, after entering a human cell, retains its protein coat and starts to produce its own type protein ... Formic acid plus a toxin with a protein cover, called proteotoxin by Arthus,[39] such as found in bees and wasps; ... The role of the protein coat is to protect the parasitic but unstable nucleic acid as it rides the blood highway or ...
Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This ... neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278 ... Caption: Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja ... neurotoxin, protein, proteomics, research, snake, strand, structure, tertiary structure, toxic, toxin, venom, white background ...
The Cobra Toxin from the cobra snake ranks among the worlds most lethal venoms. Unlike many protein-based neurotoxins, this ... one of the strongest protein binding interactions known). When the Cobra venom neurotoxin binds to the receptor, the receptor ... Once bound, the neurotoxin acts as a plug to the receptor and prevents the bound receptor from initiating a neural impulse. The ... So, the cobra toxin is lethal because its rigid shape precisely fits into a vital neurotransmitter receptor site. ...
The neurotoxin secreted is about seventy-five percent as powerful as cobra venom. In the manof- war, it is found in the ... The gastrozooids then attach to the immobilized victim and digest it with enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and ...
PREDICTED STRUCTURE OF AN ALPHA NEUROTOXIN FROM TAIWAN COBRA BOUND WITH ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PEPTIDE. ... Theoretical Model: The protein structure described on this page was determined theoretically, and hence should be interpreted ...
Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... For example, botulinum neurotoxins, which have been used in studies in the field of neurobiology, have also been used directly ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ...
Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ ... Total urinary protein concentration (grams per liter) was determined using the Bradford protein assay kit (Beyotime Institute ... Measurement of 24 h Urine Protein Output. For urine collection and total urinary protein determination, rats were placed in ... a long-chain neurotoxin, from Thailand cobra venom has been demonstrated to have potent actions on inhibiting formalin-induced ...
Tsetlin VI (2015) Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological ... Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell- ... Caspian cobra venom Naja naja oxiana U87MG glioma cell line Cytotoxicity Reactive oxygen species ... Gasanov SE, Shrivastava IH, Israilov FS, Kim AA, Rylova KA, Zhang B, Dagda RK (2015) Naja naja oxiana cobra venom cytotoxins ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR003571 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. An important property of neurotoxins is that they are not ... When a complex was formed with an α7 receptor-like protein(AChBP-complex) and 5 α-Cobratoxins, it is not able to twist anymore ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... "Inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cobra venom α-neurotoxins: is there a perspective in lung cancer ...
A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ... This species of cobra normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of Indian cobras (N. naja) ...
... a typical cobra-style neurotoxin, one that is as potent as comparative toxins found in close relatives of the cobra. These ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells â neurons â usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ... A pseudogene is a nucleotide sequences that is similar to a normal gene, but is not expressed as a functional protein. ... ... Fry, B. et al (October 2003). "Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early ...
The combination of all these proteins can cause death within minutes of receiving a cobra bite. However, many people survive ... The venom also includes a number of neurotoxins that gain access to the central nervous system when blood vessels break down. ... As it turns out, there are other things in the cobra venom that are even more lethal.. These other components of cobra venom ... If its true that Cleopatra used a snake to commit suicide then it was most likely the Egyptian cobra Naja haje that did the ...
... α-neurotoxin: "cobratoxin" and short-chain α-neurotoxin: "cobrotoxin"), cardiotoxin, cobra venom factor (CVF), and so forth. ... According to the literature, the protein band of MW 7 KD contained cardiotoxin and neurotoxin [21, 22]. In contrast, heat ... T. C. Qin, L. X. Yu, and Z. S. Wang, "Study on rectal mucosa absorption effects of cobra neurotoxins by I tracer labelling ... It has been reported in Chinese literature that neurotoxin in cobra venom can be rapidly absorbed through rectal mucosa [14]. ...
Cobras, mambas, sea snakes, kraits and coral snakes are known to possess this venom. The king cobras (ophiophagus hannah) are ... 3) α-neurotoxins:. α-neurotoxins also attack cholinergic neurons. They mimic the shape of the acetylcholine molecule and ... Some are Neurotoxins: Fasciculins Dendrotoxins α-neurotoxins. And other is Cytotoxins: Phospholipases Cardiotoxins Haemotoxins ... Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay. Print Reference this *APA ...
... cobra-coral), uma serpente da Família Elapidae bastante representada no Brasil e muito comum em áreas florestais tropicais,... ... To analyze the immunological response, recombinant proteins were produced in E. coli and used for ELISA coating to react with ... Other neurotoxins 1), Atg5 (A2-type phospholipase). These five antigenic groups were used for DNA immunization. Then they were ... A partir de uma biblioteca de cDNA de glândulas de veneno de Micrurus corallinus (cobra-coral), uma serpente da Família ...
Neurotoxin. Naja venom contains 11 confirmed neurotoxins, all of which are cobra-specific. Some Naja neurotoxins share high ... of the proteins in Naja venom closely matched cobra proteins. These results demonstrate that the accuracy of protein ... 90% of proteins were cardio- and neuro-toxins, and over 91% had a MM less than 10 kDa. Protein degradation was apparent in the ... Lane M, protein ladder; lane A, Naja venomous proteins; lane B, Agki venomous proteins. MM values are given in kDa. ...
see also Globular Protein; Neurotoxin; Proteins; Toxicity.. Thomas A. Holme Bibliography. Agosta, William (2001). Thieves, ... One example would be the polypeptide toxin cobrotoxin that was isolated from the Formosan cobra and analyzed in 1965 by Chen- ... The nerve on the other side of the synapse (the postsynaptic neuron ) has proteins that are specifically geared to sense the ... Cobras, coral snakes, scorpions, and spiders produce neurotoxic venoms. The venom of the gaboon viper is both hemotoxic and ...
Class Antiretrovirals; Cobra neurotoxin proteins * Mechanism of Action Nicotinic receptor antagonists * Orphan Drug Status ...
2. There were great papers related wih Cobra, and next is Tigris, Viper, etc. 3. There were great papers related wih protein in ... and Non-enzymatic proteins ; Crotamine(Cytolysin), Proteolytic factor(Hematoxin), Crotoxin(Neurotoxin) etc. 3. Main toxins in ... We further found that the expression of various apoptotic proteins such as that Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 as well as the ... The results of the in vitro studies showed that the extract probably interacts with but does not stabilize membrane protein. In ...
While neurotoxins (NTs) - also TF proteins from snake venom - exert their effect through specific interactions with protein ... Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. They are classified into S- and P-types, the latter ... Dubovskii P.V., Konshina A.G., Efremov R.G. (2014). Cobra Cardiotoxins: Membrane Interactions and Pharmacological Potential. ...
Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins Chemical Compounds View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA * Standard ... Schlyer, B. D., Lau, E. Y., & Maki, A. H. (1992). A comparative investigation of snake venom neurotoxins and their triplet- ... Schlyer, Bruce D. ; Lau, Edmond Y ; Maki, August H. / A comparative investigation of snake venom neurotoxins and their triplet- ... Schlyer, BD, Lau, EY & Maki, AH 1992, A comparative investigation of snake venom neurotoxins and their triplet-state ...
These two non-toxin proteins (which along with the botulinum toxin molecule comprise the relevant neurotoxin complex) may act ... about 30 million times more lethal than cobra toxin and about 12 million times more lethal than cholera. Singh, Critical ... A suitable Clostridial neurotoxin may be a neurotoxin made by a bacterium, for example, the neurotoxin may be made from a ... In addition or alternatively, the botulinum neurotoxin can be a modified neurotoxin, that is a botulinum neurotoxin which has ...
Fluorescence of neurotoxins from middle-Asian cobra venom. Apr 11, 1974·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·T G Bukolova-Orlova ... Jan 1, 1995·Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society·M L Wu, W T Morgan ... Solute perturbation of protein fluorescence. The quenching of the tryptophyl fluorescence of model compounds and of lysozyme by ... Feb 1, 1991·Journal of Protein Chemistry·P MusterW T Morgan ... and abnormal tyrosine side-chains in various heme proteins. Mar ...
Neurotoxin II from the venom of cobra Naja oxiana is a short type alpha-neurotoxin, which competitively inhibits nicotinic ... The yield of neurotoxin II was 6 mg/l of the bacterial culture. The resulting recombinant protein was identified with native ... Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins ... Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this ...
... the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other ... similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia ( ... desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje speci... ... and the Sumatran spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana). Although the venoms of these cobras contain neurotoxins, necrosis often is ...
Ive worked with from most alpha-neurotoxins (both long and short proteins) are of high molecular mass. ... The Indian cobra, monocled cobra, and even the king cobra (though not a true cobra) are in fact less venomous than the species ... The Indian cobra, monocled cobra, and even the king cobra (though not a true cobra) are in fact less venomous than the species ... nivea has the lowest molecular weight venom proteins of any cobra, making its venom the most rapid-acting of any cobras. Kraits ...
  • alpha-Cobratoxin (Cbtx), the neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Thai cobra Naja kaouthia , causes paralysis by preventing acetylcholine (ACh) binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). (nih.gov)
  • Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell-specific cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Ebrahim K, Vatanpour H, Zare A, Shirazi FH, Nakhjavani M (2016) Anticancer activity a of caspian cobra (Naja naja oxiana) snake venom in human cancer cell lines via induction of apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family Elapidae found in Central Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indian cobra (Naja naja) specimens without a hood mark are usually confused with this species, where these two coexist in Pakistan and northern India. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species of cobra normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of Indian cobras (N. naja) from Pakistan, almost the entire throat is black. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Cobratoxin is a neurotoxin from the venom of certain Naja genus, including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). (wikipedia.org)
  • Indications for the bite of a cobra, in this case the Naja atra (Chinese cobra) are the darkening of the bite wound and pain and swelling of the area around it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia (desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje species (tree cobras). (medscape.com)
  • Necrosis is typical of bites by the African spitting cobras ( Naja nigricollis , Naja mossambica , Naja pallida , and Naja katiensis ), the Chinese cobra ( Naja atra ), the Monocellate cobra ( Naja kaouthia ), and the Sumatran spitting cobra ( Naja sumatrana ). (medscape.com)
  • Occasionally, a combination of neurologic dysfunction and tissue necrosis may occur as with the Indian cobra ( Naja naja ). (medscape.com)
  • Naja atra (Chinese cobra). (medscape.com)
  • Naja kaouthia (Monocellate cobra). (medscape.com)
  • Naja naja (Indian Cobra). (medscape.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate and isolate immunodominant proteins of Naja oxiana snake venom. (ac.ir)
  • To the best our knowledge, these proteins can be candidates for preparing a specific anti-venom against Naja oxiana and antimicrobial immunodominant proteins, as well as designing antimicrobial peptides. (ac.ir)
  • The venom proteome of the monocled cobra, Naja kaouthia, from Thailand, was characterized by RPHPLC, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses, yielding 38 different proteins that were either identified or assigned to families. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The most common poisonous snakes in the country are cobra ( Naja naja ), krait ( Bungarus caeruleus ), Russell's viper ( Daboia russelli ) and saw-scaled viper ( Echis carinatus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cobratoxin or most commonly known as α-cobratoxin is a constituent of the venom of cobras of the Naja genus . (ukessays.com)
  • Bites by vipers and some cobras ( Naja and other genera) are painful and tender. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. (afpm.org.my)
  • BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. (afpm.org.my)
  • Slide 7: Treatment Of MS with a-Cobratoxin: a-Cobratoxin- obtained from all cobra (naja-genus) ideally from Cobra-Naja naja siamensis a-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • Venoms of cobras ( Naja spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. (frontiersin.org)
  • In India, greater part of chomps and mortality are because of King cobra, naja, Daboia Russelli Russells snake, Bangarus caeruleus (basic krait) and Echis carinatus (saw-scaled snake). (blogspot.com)
  • The amino acid sequences of two postsynaptic neurotoxins isolated from Malayan cobra (Naja naja sputatrix) venom. (statescale.tk)
  • Many are harmless or are a rarity though the puff adder ( Bitis arietans ), Gabon viper ( Bitis gabonica ), green or Jameson's mamba ( Dendroaspis jamesoni ), black mamba ( Dendroaspis polylepis ), forest cobra ( Naja melanoleuca ), and black-necked spitting cobra ( Naja naja nigricollis ) are listed as venomous [ 10 , 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These venoms have also been discovered to contain several unique venom protein families. (frontiersin.org)
  • New venom protein superfamilies in RFS venoms include matrix metalloproteinases, distinct from but closely related to snake venom metalloproteinases, veficolins, and acid lipases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to show prey-specific toxicity (with the exception of perhaps Micrurus ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Rear-fanged snake venoms are therefore of considerable research interest due to the evolutionary novelties they contain, providing insights into the evolution of snake venom proteins and potential predator-prey coevolution in a broader phylogenetic context. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of the limited complexity of these venoms, they represent a more tractable source to inform about the biological roles of specific venom proteins that are found in the venoms of this rich diversity of snakes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, snake venoms typically contain neurotoxins, but they also often include enzymes that promote various hydrolysis reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For many who study the chemistry of venoms, the neurotoxins hold particular interest. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although the venoms of these cobras contain neurotoxins, necrosis often is the chief or only manifestation of envenoming in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Cobra venoms have been studied extensively. (medscape.com)
  • As with all snake venoms, they are multicomponent products whose toxins are mostly proteins and polypeptides. (medscape.com)
  • The venoms of cobra and krait are neurotoxic, that is, they affect the victim's central nervous system and cause heart failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In protein sequence and structure, anntoxin is very similar to dendrotoxins (the venoms found in cobras and other mamba snakes) and cone snail toxins. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Some cobra venoms can also kill the tissue around the site of the bite. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. (afpm.org.my)
  • Role in treating venoms (neurotoxins) Neurotoxins Neurotoxins are a class of venoms components that affect the neuromuscular junction and c. (exampleessays.com)
  • Snake venoms, for example, are complex mixtures of enzymatic proteins and different toxins. (cobras.org)
  • Slide 4: Onset of Venom Therapy: In the early part of the last century, cobra venoms were established products mainly for the treatment of severe pain, and also for rheumatism, trigeminal neuralgia, asthma, ocular therapy, and neuroses. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • Snake venoms are mainly made of proteins and enzymes which function primarily to lower blood pressure, destroy red blood cells, immobilize muscles, and eventually death. (sleekfood.com)
  • Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Each venom contains hundreds of different proteins: enzymes (constituting 80-90% of viperid and 25-70% of elapid venoms), non-enzymatic polypeptide toxins. (poisonsense.com)
  • Other venoms contain paralyzing neurotoxins, or destroy so much skin and muscle they can leave limbs blackened. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Venoms are made up of mixtures of low-molecular-weight proteins, mucus, salts and organic compounds that include oligopeptides, nucleotides and amino acids (Colis 1990). (wordpress.com)
  • The large number of 3FTx protein sequences available, together with a growing database of RFS venom 3FTxs, make possible predictions concerning structure-function relationships among these toxins and the basis of selective toxicity of specific RFS venom 3FTxs. (frontiersin.org)
  • With most species, excluding some of the African spitting cobras, the most clinically significant toxins are postsynaptic neurotoxins that competitively bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to produce depolarizing neuromuscular blockade. (medscape.com)
  • Stronger responses against larger toxins, but lower against the most critical a-neurotoxins were obtained. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While gene-encoded protein toxins have been identified in many vertebrate animals, including fish, reptiles, and mammals, none has previously been found in amphibians or birds. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. (afpm.org.my)
  • The toxins they would be using would be things like Cobra venom, toxins from certain beetles and milky latex from toxic Euphorbia trees like the Common tree Euphorbia. (timbrowntours.com)
  • Neurotoxins has a wide variety of toxins categorized on how they stop the transmission of signals in the body. (sleekfood.com)
  • Venom polypeptide toxins ("neurotoxins") such as (α) neurotoxins (a-bungarotoxin) bind to acetylcholine receptors at the motor endplate. (poisonsense.com)
  • Toxinological studies have further corroborated close evolutionary relationships between snakes and anguimorph lizards, showing that Anguimorpha lizard venom glands express proteins homologous to toxins found in the venom of front-fanged snakes , including those of the iconic komodo dragon as well as other anguimorph lizards such heladermatid lizards (beaded lizards and gila monsters ) and anguid lizards . (venomdoc.com)
  • These categories are: (i) haemotoxins, which promote haemorrhaging primary to extensive local swelling and necrosis, (ii) neurotoxins, which disable muscle contraction and paralyse the heart as well as hinder respiration, and (iii) cardiotoxins, which elicit specific toxicity to cardiac and muscle cells, causing irreversible depolarization of cell membranes [ 6 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • Cytotoxins are phospholipases (produced by Habu), cardiotoxins (King cobra) and hemotoxins (Viper and Naga). (biotecharticles.com)
  • The most relevant lethal components, categorized by means of a 'toxicity score', were a-neurotoxins, followed by cytotoxins/cardiotoxins. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Their venom possesses several proteins, including cardiotoxins, neurotoxins and phospholipase A 2 , that are responsible for their toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Snake venom essentially comprises of neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, poisons that cause blood coagulating, draining poisons (that stops the blood thickening and blood stays to stream consistently considerably after injury), destructive catalysts and other significant segments. (blogspot.com)
  • Of course the Chinese cobra is only one of the snakes that produce cobratoxin, but the other snakes cause similar indications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes from cobra venom show promise in the treatment and/or prevention of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases [ 3 , 4 ], and the venom from snakes in the viper family has been shown to promote tumour reduction [ 5 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • Most cobras are large snakes, 1.2-2.5 m in length. (medscape.com)
  • Because cobras are popular as show snakes, bites on the hands and fingers are common. (medscape.com)
  • Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are fast, have a thick coat and have receptors chemical compound acetylcholine shaped like a snakes making it impossible for the snake's Neurotoxins to attach. (bellaonline.com)
  • They are not totally immune to a snake's toxin, usually a cobra is portrayed in accounts about snakes and mongooses, but they do have an high tolerance, mongoose vs cobra or cobra vs mongoose the mongoose will win. (bellaonline.com)
  • The predator, which uses neurotoxins to paralyse and kill small animals, is one of the fastest and most dangerous snakes in Africa In addition to synthetic marijuana, K2 and Spice, other brand names include Black Mamba , Bombay Blue, Genie, and Zohai. (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • Now-a-days, king cobras are kept on farms for their venom (= poison) which is used in making pain relieving medicine, and in antidote for snake bite (= some medicine given to the people bitten by venomous snakes), and for the entertainment of the tourists! (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • Whether in movies, literature, or folklore, poisonous serpents have received bad press, which is unfortunate, because snakes like copperheads and cobras are at this moment at the forefront of some of the most exciting medical breakthroughs. (exampleessays.com)
  • Few snakes, with the occasional exception of king cobras ( Ophiophagus hannah ) or black mambas ( Dendroaspis polylepis ), act aggressively toward a human without provocation. (livenews24.pk)
  • the neurotoxins from the venom of poisonous snakes, like cobras, vipers, and rattlesnakes, paralyze the muscles by blocking nerve impulses. (most-effective-solution.com)
  • The Mozambique Spitting Cobra are one of those snakes with a deadly cytotoxic venom. (sleekfood.com)
  • Estimates suggest some 5 million people are bitten, more than 100,000 are killed, and 400,000 are left maimed or crippled each year from snakes like cobras, kraits, taipans, and black mambas. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These are used by vipers (including rattlesnakes) and elapids (including cobras, sea-snakes and kraits). (wordpress.com)
  • Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides, and a number of studies have described the biological properties of several venomous proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • Snake venom is composed mainly of proteins and peptides, which possess a variety of biological activities. (biology-online.org)
  • Functional proteins and enzymes of venom include phophodiesterase (lower blood pressure), phospholipase (hemolytic), hyaluronidase (increase tissue permeability), ATPase (ATP hydrolysis), oxidase and protease (digestion) and peptides that inhibit mammalian cholinesterase leading to loss of muscular activity. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Other than toxicants and proteins the snake venom contains a few peptides, amino acids, starches, lipids, nucleosides, natural amines and metal particles, which make it considerably more intricate than other ordinary proteins. (blogspot.com)
  • Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. (ibch.ru)
  • contain high abundances of cytotoxins, which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, indicates anticancer potentials. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings revealed the limitations and challenges that could be faced during the development of new cancer therapy from cobra cytotoxins, notwithstanding their potent anticancer effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to nonenzymatic proteins, the venom also contains nucleases, which cause tissue damage at the site of the bite and may also potentiate systemic toxicity by releasing free purines in situ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative toxicity of snake venom is determined from comparison with Cobra venom which is assigned by point 1 toxicity. (biotecharticles.com)
  • This process inactivates many of the venom enzymes, although the neurotoxins can retain their toxicity. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • The gastrozooids then attach to the immobilized victim and digest it with enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. (ambergriscaye.com)
  • Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes and proteins which many of it not harmless to humans, but some are very toxic. (ukessays.com)
  • As mentioned, snake venom is modified saliva which contains a variety of proteins and enzymes. (ukessays.com)
  • Snake venom is a combination of different proteins and enzymes which have cytotoxic, neurotoxic or coagulant properties. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Now, protein is one of the body's basic building blocks 'antibodies, hormones, enzymes, hair and muscles are all forms of proteins. (exampleessays.com)
  • The analysis of snake venom has shown that it is a mixture of many toxic proteins and enzymes with diverse and complex pharmacological effects. (scielo.br)
  • Snake venom are highly modified saliva made of protein, enzymes, and some other toxic substances. (sleekfood.com)
  • Most species of vipers and cobras and also the infamous tropical rattlesnake has this kind of venom. (sleekfood.com)
  • Five antigenic candidates were selected after analysing the transcriptome: Atg1 ( Homolog group 8), Atg2 ( Homolog group 7/3/1), Atg3 (Other neurotoxins 1), Atg5 (A2-type phospholipase). (usp.br)
  • Isolation of Polypeptide Inhibitor of Phospholipase A from Cobra Venom (1970) Beatriz M. Braganca et al. (naver.com)
  • Cobras, mambas, and kraits are also members of the family Elapidae but are not indigenous to the Americas. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve on the other side of the synapse (the postsynaptic neuron ) has proteins that are specifically geared to sense the presence of these neurotransmitters. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 toxinological study reported in the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, these data suggest that post-translational modification may be a significant characteristic of venomous proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • To many people, the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. (medscape.com)
  • The king cobra, which may reach 5.2 m, is the largest venomous snake in the world. (medscape.com)
  • Cobras are all venomous, yet most are not poisonous, so long as the cobra venom glands are not eaten. (cobras.org)
  • In suspected neurotoxic cobra or mamba bite, especially if the patient is far from medical help apply a broad pressure crepe bandage or clothe over the bite, starting from below the bite. (poisonsense.com)
  • Cape cobras and Mambas will alway remain a gigantic issue. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • The tests done on african cobra s and mambas produced negetive results and pollyvalent antivenom was eventualy resorted to to ensure the victims survival! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • Tsetlin VI (2015) Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological tools and endogenous modulators. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are prototypic G protein-coupled receptors. (intechopen.com)
  • Alpha- neurotoxins attack cholinergic neurons and block acetylcholine receptors resulting in numbness and paralysis. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Most venom components appear to bind to multiple physiologic receptors, and attempts to classify venom as toxic to a specific system (eg, neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Molecular actions of smoking cessation drugs at α4β2 nicotinic receptors defined in crystal structures of a homologous binding protein. (hiqscreen.com)
  • Acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) as template for hierarchical in silico screening procedures to identify structurally novel ligands for the nicotinic receptors. (hiqscreen.com)
  • Today, recombinant proteins are quite widely used in biomedical and biotechnological applications. (ibch.ru)
  • Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Comparison of Tensilon and antivenom for the treatment of cobra-bite paralysis. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • Neurotoxins produce paralysis, often of the nerve centers that control breathing, thus causing a quicker death from suffocation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Snake venom, however, is a deadly mix of particularly powerful proteins, grouped into neurotoxins and hemotoxins, which set off destructive chain reactions when injected into the human body. (exampleessays.com)
  • The crystal structure (1YI5) of Cbtx in complex with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a soluble homolog of the extracellular binding domain of nAChRs, was selected to prepare an alpha-cobratoxin active binding site for docking. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha-Cobratoxin Slide 9: Comparison of the Activities of MS Drugs to MCTX Slide 10: Inhibition of Herpes Virus By a Novel nontoxic protein from cobra venom It is clear that snake venom proteins have been tested for their antiviral properties. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • We have investigated the luminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of the highly homologous snake venom neurotoxins α-bungarotoxin (BgTX), α-cobratoxin (CbTX), and cobrotoxin (CoTX) in frozen aqueous glasses. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein sequence homology analysis and phylogenetic classification of all putative Ca ++ -ATPase gene products from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosacchraomyces pombe reveal three clusters of homologous proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • Sequence variability of Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D is particularly complex.Some serotype C and D strains have unique gene structures that encode mosaic isoforms ofbotulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) containing components of both BoNT type C1 (BoNT/C1) andBoNT type D (BoNT/D). Such sequence variability and the potential for cross neutralisationmust be taken into consideration when developing serotype C and D detection andidentification assays. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Methods for treating psychiatric disorders include intracranial administration of a therapeutically effective amount of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, to a human patient. (justia.com)
  • A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, which have been shown to cause cell death through damage to lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impact of membrane partitioning on the spatial structure of an S-type cobra cytotoxin. (ibch.ru)
  • Snake venom is functionally characterized as neurotoxin and cytotoxin. (biotecharticles.com)
  • In the next step, the identified proteins were isolated directly by electro-elution from preparative gel electrophoresis. (ac.ir)
  • Proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis was obtained where the isoelectric point and molecular weight of all the spots in the gels. (bvsalud.org)
  • The first and second [two] dimensional gel electrophoresis has a broad protein resolution power. (bvsalud.org)
  • Análise transcriptômica das glândulas de veneno de Micrurus corallinus (cobra-coral). (usp.br)
  • A partir de uma biblioteca de cDNA de glândulas de veneno de Micrurus corallinus (cobra-coral), uma serpente da Família Elapidae bastante representada no Brasil e muito comum em áreas florestais tropicais, foram gerados 1.438 Expressed Sequences Tags (ESTs), agrupados em 611 clusters. (usp.br)
  • Neurotoxins comprise the majority of coral snake venom. (medscape.com)
  • Some types include the Indian Cobra, coral Snake, and rattlesnake. (exampleessays.com)
  • Neurotoxins are fasciculins (Black mamba), dendrotoxins (Green mamba) and alpha-neurotoxins (Cobra and Krait). (biotecharticles.com)
  • Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) venom is known to contain highly potent neurotoxins. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is also the westernmost species of Asiatic cobra. (wikipedia.org)
  • The crude venom of this species has a lowest published lethal dose (LCLo) of 0.005 mg/kg, the lowest among all cobra species, derived from an individual case of poisoning by intracerebroventricular injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A woman bitten by this species in northwestern Pakistan suffered severe neurotoxicity and died while en route to the closest hospital nearly 50 minutes after envenomation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, this study aims to determine the two-dimensional profile of proteins that may be involved in the immune response against S. mansonicomparing two species with different susceptibility profiles B. glabrata, B. straminea and a refractory to S. mansoni, B. straminea R3. (bvsalud.org)
  • The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. (afpm.org.my)
  • Cobras are completely immune to the venom produced by their species. (cobras.org)
  • Slide 5: Applicative approach in venom therapy: Multiple sclerosis & its treatment with alpha-cobra toxin Methods of isolation of alpha cobra toxin Inhibition of Herpes virus by a novel nontoxic protein from cobra venom Modified venom & Its component as an Antiretroviral agent Russell viper venom as potent coagulant Slide 6: What is Actually Multiple sclerosis (MS)? (slidesearchengine.com)
  • Functional analysis based upon toxin categories reveals that, as expected, cobra venom has a high abundance of cardio- and neurotoxins, whereas viper venom contains a significant amount of haemotoxins and metalloproteinases. (biology-online.org)
  • 2007), but it is unclear how effectively the long neurotoxin can reach the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurotoxins attack and disable the central nervous system, causing their prey's muscles to stop working. (pbs.org)
  • Neurotoxins affect the nervous system . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The cobra venom, a neurotoxin, acts powerfully on the nervous system. (cobras.org)
  • the most important being the black widow venom which contains neurotoxins (latroxine) and may cause diffuse central and peripheral nervous excitement, autonomic activity, muscle spasm, hypertension, vasoconstriction, and even death due to cardiac or respiratory failure, mostly in children and the aged (166) . (scielo.br)
  • As the name implies, Neurotoxins work against the nervous system by disrupting neurotransmitters. (sleekfood.com)
  • Purification and characterization of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding protein from rat brain. (naver.com)
  • The 2eof this vintage advisor to Protein Purification presents a whole replace to current equipment within the box, reflecting the large advances made within the final 20 years. (mengnadu.com)
  • specifically, proteomics, mass spectrometry, and DNA know-how have revolutionized the sector because the first edition's ebook yet via the entire developments, the purification of proteins remains to be an crucial first step in realizing their functionality. (mengnadu.com)
  • Cobrotoxin (CTX), a short-chain neurotoxin, was suggested to inhibit NF- κ B signaling activation [ 21 ] and regulated T lymphocytes [ 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One example would be the polypeptide toxin cobrotoxin that was isolated from the Formosan cobra and analyzed in 1965 by Chen-Chung Yang, a distinguished chair professor at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cobratoxin, a long-chain neurotoxin, from Thailand cobra venom has been demonstrated to have potent actions on inhibiting formalin-induced inflammatory pain [ 19 ] and adjuvant arthritis [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have previously reported that cobratoxin (CTX), the long-chain α -neurotoxin from Thailand cobra venom, had anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects on adjuvant arthritis [ 6 ] and can relieve the formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • I count myself lucky if I get the oppertunity to treat a Cape Cobra bite in a dog. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • If I ever got into a Cape cobra bite situation, I would insist on antivenom the minute neorological signs creep in. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • A cobra bite would swell and become painful and also lead to the blackening of the bite. (ukessays.com)
  • While not proven scientifically, it would seem that an adult cobra can control the the amount of venom delivered, if any, with each bite, depending on the threat it feels. (cobras.org)
  • In North America and Europe, captive cobras may cause bites to zookeepers or amateur collectors. (medscape.com)
  • In the case of cobras, the percentage of dry bites may be quite high, 45% in one series of 47 cases from Malaysia. (medscape.com)
  • Report from prof Gouse Oberholzer is that those drugs have been used to treat cobra bites in indias for the past 15 years with mixed result! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • From a veterinary perspective, I see mostly Cape Cobra bites and these average around R15000-20000 per simple case. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • almost all Cape cobra bites in dogs (if the patient survives! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • With effective serum more available, however, the high death rate from cobra bites in some areas of Asia has decreased. (cobras.org)
  • In this case series, we describe three patients who sustained Mozambique spitting cobra bites on their hands, with their subsequent management. (scielo.org.za)
  • When a complex was formed with an α7 receptor-like protein(AChBP-complex) and 5 α-Cobratoxins, it is not able to twist anymore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reymond, J. L., van Deursen, R. & Bertrand, D. What we have learned from crystal structures of proteins to receptor function. (hiqscreen.com)
  • Two of them comprises seven proteins which might belong to a new class of P-type ATPases of unknown subcellular location and of unknown physiological function. (portlandpress.com)
  • The S1 subunit causes hydrolysis of cellular NAD and the resulting ADP-ribose is then transported to a specific cysteine residue in the C-terminal of the G proteins' α-subunit. (ukessays.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • It was used to separate and identify cobra venom proteome. (bvsalud.org)
  • In another series, 1 of 3 snake charmers bitten by large king cobras showed no signs of envenomation. (medscape.com)
  • With other cobras, local tissue damage is of primary concern. (medscape.com)