Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.

NMR spatial structure of alpha-conotoxin ImI reveals a common scaffold in snail and snake toxins recognizing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (1/95)

A 600 MHz NMR study of alpha-conotoxin ImI from Conus imperialis, targeting the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is presented. ImI backbone spatial structure is well defined basing on the NOEs, spin-spin coupling constants, and amide protons hydrogen-deuterium exchange data: rmsd of the backbone atom coordinates at the 2-12 region is 0.28 A in the 20 best structures. The structure is described as a type I beta-turn (positions 2-5) followed by a distorted helix (positions 5-11). Similar structural patterns can be found in all neuronal-specific alpha-conotoxins. Highly mobile side chains of the Asp-5, Arg-7 and Trp-10 residues form a single site for ImI binding to the alpha7 receptor. When depicted with opposite directions of the polypeptide chains, the ImI helix and the tip of the central loop of long chain snake neurotoxins demonstrate a common scaffold and similar positioning of the functional side chains, both of these structural elements appearing essential for binding to the neuronal nAChRs.  (+info)

Subunit interface selectivity of the alpha-neurotoxins for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (2/95)

Peptide toxins selective for particular subunit interfaces of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have proven invaluable in assigning candidate residues located in the two binding sites and for determining probable orientations of the bound peptide. We report here on a short alpha-neurotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica (NmmI) that, similar to other alpha-neurotoxins, binds with high affinity to alphagamma and alphadelta subunit interfaces (KD approximately 100 pM) but binds with markedly reduced affinity to the alphaepsilon interface (KD approximately 100 nM). By constructing chimeras composed of portions of the gamma and epsilon subunits and coexpressing them with wild type alpha, beta, and delta subunits in HEK 293 cells, we identify a region of the subunit sequence responsible for the difference in affinity. Within this region, gammaPro-175 and gammaGlu-176 confer high affinity, whereas Thr and Ala, found at homologous positions in epsilon, confer low affinity. To identify an interaction between gammaGlu-176 and residues in NmmI, we have examined cationic residues in the central loop of the toxin and measured binding of mutant toxin-receptor combinations. The data show strong pairwise interactions or coupling between gammaGlu-176 and Lys-27 of NmmI and progressively weaker interactions with Arg-33 and Arg-36 in loop II of this three-loop toxin. Thus, loop II of NmmI, and in particular the face of this loop closest to loop III, appears to come into close apposition with Glu-176 of the gamma subunit surface of the binding site interface.  (+info)

Snake venom alpha-neurotoxins and other 'three-finger' proteins. (3/95)

The review is mainly devoted to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins which target different muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The primary and spatial structures of other snake venom proteins as well as mammalian proteins of the Ly-6 family, which structurally resemble the 'three-finger' snake proteins, are also briefly discussed. The main emphasis is placed on recent data characterizing the alpha-neurotoxin interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  (+info)

How do acetylcholine receptor ligands reach their binding sites? (4/95)

The access pathway to the binding sites for large competitive antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica electric tissue was analyzed by binding and photolabeling experiments with alpha-neurotoxins. Binding assays with [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin showed an increase in the number of accessible binding sites upon stepwise solubilization of the receptor-rich membranes. Similarily, ligand binding is facilitated upon fluidization of the membrane by increasing the temperature. The access to the binding sites seems to be sterically 'hindered' in the densely packed membrane state. Using a novel series of large biotinylated photoactivatable derivatives of neurotoxin II, we observed that the accessibility to the alpha/gamma- but not to the alpha/delta-binding site was considerably decreased for some derivatives under native conditions. This effect was less apparent at higher temperatures and could be abolished by complete solubilization. These observations support the nonequivalence of the receptor's binding sites. Together, our data suggest (a) that alpha-neurotoxins approach their binding sites from the membrane-facing periphery of the receptor's extramembrane domain rather than through the channel mouth and (b) that different entrance pathways to each binding site exist which vary in their sensitivity to the physical state of the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Variability among the sites by which curaremimetic toxins bind to torpedo acetylcholine receptor, as revealed by identification of the functional residues of alpha-cobratoxin. (5/95)

alpha-Cobratoxin, a long chain curaremimetic toxin from Naja kaouthia venom, was produced recombinantly (ralpha-Cbtx) from Escherichia coli. It was indistinguishable from the snake toxin. Mutations at 8 of the 29 explored toxin positions resulted in affinity decreases for Torpedo receptor with DeltaDeltaG higher than 1.1 kcal/mol. These are R33E > K49E > D27R > K23E > F29A >/= W25A > R36A >/= F65A. These positions cover a homogeneous surface of approximately 880 A(2) and mostly belong to the second toxin loop, except Lys-49 and Phe-65 which are, respectively, on the third loop and C-terminal tail. The mutations K23E and K49E, and perhaps R33E, induced discriminative interactions at the two toxin-binding sites. When compared with the short toxin erabutoxin a (Ea), a number of structurally equivalent residues are commonly implicated in binding to muscular-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These are Lys-23/Lys-27, Asp-27/Asp-31, Arg-33/Arg-33, Lys-49/Lys-47, and to a lesser and variable extent Trp-25/Trp-29 and Phe-29/Phe-32. In addition, however, the short and long toxins display three major differences. First, Asp-38 is important in Ea in contrast to the homologous Glu-38 in alpha-Cbtx. Second, all of the first loop is insensitive to mutation in alpha-Cbtx, whereas its tip is functionally critical in Ea. Third, the C-terminal tail may be specifically critical in alpha-Cbtx. Therefore, the functional sites of long and short curaremimetic toxins are not identical, but they share common features and marked differences that might reflect an evolutionary pressure associated with a great diversity of prey receptors.  (+info)

Molecular determinants by which a long chain toxin from snake venom interacts with the neuronal alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (6/95)

Long chain curarimimetic toxins from snake venom bind with high affinities to both muscular type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) (K(d) in the pm range) and neuronal alpha 7-AChRs (K(d) in the nm range). To understand the molecular basis of this dual function, we submitted alpha-cobratoxin (alpha-Cbtx), a typical long chain curarimimetic toxin, to an extensive mutational analysis. By exploring 36 toxin mutants, we found that Trp-25, Asp-27, Phe-29, Arg-33, Arg-36, and Phe-65 are involved in binding to both neuronal and Torpedo (Antil, S., Servent, D., and Menez, A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34851-34858) AChRs and that some of them (Trp-25, Asp-27, and Arg-33) have similar binding energy contributions for the two receptors. In contrast, Ala-28, Lys-35, and Cys-26-Cys-30 selectively bind to the alpha 7-AChR, whereas Lys-23 and Lys-49 bind solely to the Torpedo AChR. Therefore, alpha-Cbtx binds to two AChR subtypes using both common and specific residues. Double mutant cycle analyses suggested that Arg-33 in alpha-Cbtx is close to Tyr-187 and Pro-193 in the alpha 7 receptor. Since Arg-33 of another curarimimetic toxin is close to the homologous alpha Tyr-190 of the muscular receptor (Ackermann, E. J., Ang, E. T. H., Kanter, J. R., Tsigelny, I., and Taylor, P. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 10958-10964), toxin binding probably occurs in homologous regions of neuronal and muscular AChRs. However, no coupling was seen between alpha-Cbtx Arg-33 and alpha 7 receptor Trp-54, Leu-118, and Asp-163, in contrast to what was observed in a homologous situation involving another toxin and a muscular receptor (Osaka, H., Malany, S., Molles, B. E., Sine, S. M., and Taylor, P. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5478-5484). Therefore, although occurring in homologous regions, the detailed modes of toxin binding to alpha 7 and muscular receptors are likely to be different. These data offer a molecular basis for the design of toxins with predetermined specificities for various members of the AChR family.  (+info)

Binding properties of agonists and antagonists to distinct allosteric states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are incompatible with a concerted model. (7/95)

Recent work has shown that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) can be fixed in distinct conformations by chemical cross-linking with glutardialdehyde, which abolishes allosteric transitions in the protein. Here, two conformations that resemble the desensitized and the resting states were compared with respect to their affinities for different classes of ligands. The same ligands were tested for their ability to convert the nAChR from a conformation with low affinity to a conformation with high affinity for acetylcholine. As expected, agonists were found to bind with higher affinity to the desensitized state-like conformation and to induce a shift of the nAChR to this high affinity state. In contrast, although most antagonists tested bound preferentially to the desensitized receptor as well they failed to induce a change of the affinity for acetylcholine. These observations sharply contradict basic predictions of the concerted model, including the postulate of a preformed equilibrium between the different states of the nAChR in the absence of agonist. With a similar approach we could show that the non-competitive inhibitor ethidium is displaced in a non-allosteric manner by other well characterized channel blockers from the cross-linked nAChR. These results require revision of current models for the mechanisms underlying non-competitive antagonism at the nAChR.  (+info)

"Weak toxin" from Naja kaouthia is a nontoxic antagonist of alpha 7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (8/95)

A novel "weak toxin" (WTX) from Naja kaouthia snake venom competes with [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin for binding to the membrane-bound Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR), with an IC(50) of approximately 2.2 microm. In this respect, it is approximately 300 times less potent than neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana and alpha-cobratoxin from N. kaouthia, representing short-type and long-type alpha-neurotoxins, respectively. WTX and alpha-cobratoxin displaced [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin from the Escherichia coli-expressed fusion protein containing the rat alpha7 AChR N-terminal domain 1-208 preceded by glutathione S-transferase with IC(50) values of 4.3 and 9.1 microm, respectively, whereas for neurotoxin II the IC(50) value was >100 microm. Micromolar concentrations of WTX inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in Xenopus oocyte-expressed rat muscle AChR and human and rat alpha7 AChRs, inhibiting the latter most efficiently (IC(50) of approximately 8.3 microm). Thus, a virtually nontoxic "three-fingered" protein WTX, although differing from alpha-neurotoxins by an additional disulfide in the N-terminal loop, can be classified as a weak alpha-neurotoxin. It differs from the short chain alpha-neurotoxins, which potently block the muscle-type but not the alpha7 AChRs, and is closer to the long alpha-neurotoxins, which have comparable potency against the above-mentioned AChR types.  (+info)

Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, enzymes, carbohydrates, and minerals. They contain a variety of chemicals with pharmacological and toxicological properties. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against toxins and microbes. Antibacterial and anticancer proteins produced by snake venom have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to bacterial diseases and the potential of being converted into new therapeutic agents. However, the production of anti-snake venom from large mammals is proven to be low-yielding and arduous. The aim of the present study was to investigate and isolate immunodominant proteins of Naja oxiana snake venom. Identification was performed by 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. Subsequently, four sharp protein bonds of 14, 22, 32, 65 kDa were appeared in nitrocellulose paper. In the next step, the identified proteins were isolated directly by electro-elution
1LXG: NMR-based Binding Screen and Structural Analysis of the Complex Formed between alpha-Cobratoxin and an 18-mer Cognate Peptide Derived from the alpha1 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor from Torpedo californica
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1nor.1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL 1H-NMR STUDY OF THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF NEUROTOXIN II FROM NAJA OXIANA
Secretory phospholipasesA2 (sPLA2s) form a large family of structurally related enzymes widespread in nature. Herein, we studied the inhibitory effects of sPLA2s from Vipera lebetina (VLPLA2), Vipera berus berus (VBBPLA2), and Naja naja oxiana (NNOPLA2) venoms on (i) human platelets, (ii) four different bacterial strains (gram-negative Escherichia coli and Vibrio fischeri; gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and (iii) five types of cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, MCF-7, K-562 and B16-F10) in vitro. sPLA2s inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation: VBBPLA2 IC50 = 0.054, VLPLA2 IC50 = 0.072, NNOPLA2 IC50 = 0.814 μM. p-Bromophenacylbromide-inhibited sPLA2 had no inhibitory action on platelets. 36.17 μM VBBPLA2 completely inhibited the growth of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis whereas no growth inhibition was observed towards gram-negative Escherichia coli. The inhibitory action of sPLA2s (~0.7 μM and ~7 μM) towards cancer cells depended on both venom and cell type. VBBPLA2
Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278
Introduction: We tested the action of proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) and cobra venom Naja Naja Oxiana (NOX) on Deiters nucleus neurons at 3rd, 15th and 35th days after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Early and late tetanic, post-tetanic potentiation and depression of Deiters neurons to bilateral high frequency stimulation of hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricualar nuclei was studied. The analysis of spike activity was carried out by mean of on-line selection and special program ...
1COD: Solution conformation of cobrotoxin: a nuclear magnetic resonance and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing study.
α-Cobratoxin (CTX) is a large peptide (71 amino acids) with strong analgesic effect and may be misused in sports such as horse racing. To prevent such misuse, a sensitive method is required for detection and confirmation of the toxin in equine samples. CTX was extracted from equine plasma using an optimized mixed-mode solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Extracted CTX was reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with iodoacetamide, and then was digested by trypsin at 56 C for 30min. The digest was analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and tryptic peptides T2 ( CFITPDITSK ) and T4 ( TWCDAFCSIR ) were monitored for detection and confirmation of CTX. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05ng/mL for CTX in plasma, and the limit of confirmation (LOC) 0.2ng/mL. Unlike small peptides consisting of the 20 canonical amino acids, CTX was stable in equine plasma at ambient temperature for at least 24h. The developed analytical method was successfully applied ...
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antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
Mice where given a single injection ( IP) of pure Cobra Venom Factor (purified from the venom of Naja melanoleuca or Naja kaouthia, 25 µg/mice was injected) (CVF from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd). Blood sample was taken at the designated time intervals. SDS-PAGE immuno blot, using a C3 alpha chain specific antibody was used to demonstrate the consumption of C3 alpha chain in the blood. Both Pure CVF from N. kaouthia and N. melanoleuca had the ability to activate the complement pathway, and to cause the depletion of complement in blood as is seen by the initial disappearance of the C3 alpha chain in the blood and the subsequent reappearance of newly synthesised C3 alpha chain ...
Malih, Ibitissam and Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi and Ting, Yee Tee and Saile, Rachid and Ghalim, Noreddine and Othman, Iekhsan (2014) Proteomic analysis of moroccan cobra naja haje legionis venom using tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Proteomics, 96. pp. 240-252. ISSN 1874-3919 Malih, Ibitissam and Ahmad Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi and Ting, Yee Tee and Saile, Rachid and Ghalim, Noreddine and Othman, Iekhsan (2012) Proteomic analysis and pharmacological activities of the venom of the Moroccan cobra Naja haje legionis. Toxicon, 60 (2). p. 211. ISSN 0041-0101 ...
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2017 The Author(s). Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PSNT, thus preventing it from binding to nAChR. The PSNT of Naja kaouthia (NK3) was immobilized on microtiter wells and nAChR was added to bind with it. The in vitro IC 50 of N. kaouthia venom that inhibited 50% of nAChR binding to the immobilized NK3 was determined. Varying concentrations of antisera against N. kaouthia were separately pre-incubated with 5xIC 50 of N. kaouthia venom. The remaining free NK3 were incubated with nAChR before adding to the NK3 coated plates. The in vitro and ...
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A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but much less toxic. To determine if it acts like the cardiotoxins its depolarizing ability was measured. It was about 10 times less potent than the cardiotoxins. Five amino acids are conserved in the sequences studied, on the exposed second and third loops of the toxin backbone. They may be part of the toxins interactive site.. ...
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We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
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Lophotoxin, a diterpene lactone paralytic toxin from gorgonian corals of the genus Lophogorgia, inhibits [125I]-alpha-toxin binding to surface nicotinic receptors of BC3H-1 cells by irreversible occupation of the primary agonist sites. In contrast, receptor-bearing membrane fragments or detergent-solubilized receptors prepared from BC3H-1 cells are not susceptible to lophotoxin block. Thus, lophotoxin inhibition requires intact cells. However, when intact cells were incubated with lophotoxin, subsequent membrane-fragment preparation or detergent solubilization of the receptors did not diminish lophotoxin occupation of [125I]-alpha-toxin-binding sites, indicating that lophotoxin binds very tightly to nicotinic receptors. These studies further demonstrate that both surface and nonsurface nicotinic receptors of BC3H-1 cells are susceptible to irreversible occupation by lophotoxin, indicating that the lipophilic toxin freely permeates intact cells. We also examined several structural analogs of ...
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
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Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
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Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as true cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision that synonymised the genera Boulengerina and Paranaja with Naja. According to that revision, the genus Naja now includes 32 species. The origin of this genus name is from the Sanskrit nāga (with a hard g) meaning snake. Some hold that the Sanskrit word is cognate with English snake, Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, but this is unlikely. Mayrhofer calls this etymology unglaubhaft , not credible, and ...
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In order to be immune to venom, the honey badger would of had to have mutated genes and thats what exactly happened. There are molecules in cobra venom call alpha-neurotoxins that paralyze the breathing muscles. These neurotoxins essentially park in a muscle cells nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, preventing the cell from receiving the nervous systems signals to keep working. (Drabeck). The honey badger had mutations in that receptor which disallowed neurotoxins from connecting to it ...
King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. The female lays twenty to fifty eggs which are laid in April through June. Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. Both parents will work together to guard the nest. This nest is special because it is made up of two chambers. The bottom chamber contains the eggs while the top one houses the parents who protect the eggs. Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. Sixty to ninety days after being laid, the eggs hatch, and the parents leave the nest soon before they hatch. Some scientists think this is because the female may have been fasting for months and does not want to be tempted to eat her own young. At birth, the young king cobras are only around fifteen inches (38 cm) long, but their ...
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Acute pain and sense of oppression at the chest, as though a hot iron had been run in and a hundredweight put on the top of it. Cholera , in the collapse stage, with pulselessness and difficulty of breathing. In heart cases: Depression and lowness about the heart. Frequent sensation of swelling or choking ;grasping at throat with the choking sensations in the throat. Diphtheria with impending paralysis of heart indicates Naja, but the characteristic left to right direction of Lach. does not appear in the Naja provings. ...
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... is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... refers to the long-chain classification based on mature protein length of the neurotoxin, which is 66-79 amino acid residues ... LNTX belongs to the neurotoxin family; other members include SNTXs (short chain neurotoxins), WNTXs (weak neurotoxins) and MTXs ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. An important property of neurotoxins is that they are not ... When a complex was formed with an α7 receptor-like protein(AChBP-complex) and 5 α-Cobratoxins, it is not able to twist anymore ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... "Inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cobra venom α-neurotoxins: is there a perspective in lung cancer ...
Using protein homology information and expression data from different tissues of the cobra, 23,248 protein-coding genes, 31,447 ... The Indian cobra's venom mainly contains a powerful post-synaptic neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. The venom acts on the synaptic ... The Indian cobra (Naja naja), also known as the spectacled cobra, Asian cobra, or binocellate cobra, is a species of the genus ... Indian cobra displaying an impressive hood Albino spectacled cobra Binocellate cobra Indian cobra outside a home in Yelandur, ...
A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra is a species of ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ... The Caspian cobra (N. oxiana) normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of the Indian cobra ...
... sputa-neurotoxin 1 (SN1) and sputa-neurotoxin 2 (SN2) isolated from the venom, are "short" neurotoxins, with 62 and 61 amino ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix), also called Indonesian cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found in ... Like all cobra species, this species' venom also consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins. However, the main components of its ...
The king cobra's venom consists of cytotoxins and neurotoxins, including alpha-neurotoxins and three-finger toxins. Other ... a novel protein from king cobra venom: Its cDNA and genomic organization". Gene. 371 (2): 246-256. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12. ... Killing a king cobra is punished with imprisonment of up to six years. A ritual in Myanmar involves a king cobra and a female ... He, Y. Y.; Lee, W. H.; Zhang, Y. (2004). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)". ...
Venoms of the water cobras were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 values of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... commonly known as the banded water cobra or the ringed water cobra, is a species of water cobra native to western and central ... The species is one of the two species of water cobra in the world, the other one being the Congo water cobra (Naja christyi). ...
Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... Naja christyi (formerly Boulengerina christyi ), commonly known as the Congo water cobra or Christy's water cobra, is a species ... The LD50 of long-chain neurotoxins 2 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi venoms were 0.086 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively. The ...
... dimensional structure of protein from human cataractus lens. He organized six international symposia and workshops on Protein ... 112(A): 225 - 232 (1995) Primary Structure of Haemoglobin from Cobra (Naja, Naja, Naja), S. Naqvi, A. Abbasi & Zafar H. Zaidi. ... By Aftab Ahmed Amino Acid Sequence of major Neurotoxins from Buthos Sindicus (Scorpion) venom (1998) by Aine Fazal Structural ... dimensional structure of protein from human cataractus lens. He organized six international symposia and workshops on Protein ...
Snake examples: king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) (known as hannahtoxin containing α-neurotoxins), sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) ( ... Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic ... Snake example: mambas α-neurotoxins Alpha-neurotoxins are a large group, with over 100 postsynaptic neurotoxins having been ... He YY, Lee WH, Zhang Y (September 2004). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)". ...
The proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the ... Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families: Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian ... Studies on captive cobras showed that 13 to 22% of the body length is raised during hooding. The lack of limbs does not impede ... King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Species of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right ...
... s and cobras are in the same family: the Elapidae. Like cobras, a mamba may rear and form a hood as part of its threat ... Mamba venoms consist mostly of neurotoxins (known as dendrotoxins). Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry cardiotoxins and ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ... Typically also, a rearing mamba tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. Stories of black mambas ...
ISBN 0-691-12436-1. Wang, AH; Yang, CC (10 September 1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra ... Its venom consists mainly of postsynaptic neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. Four cardiotoxin-analogues I, II, III, and IV, account ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in ... The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). But it can be easily distinguished by virtue ...
... produces a pore forming toxin Neurotoxins primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. The group neurotoxins generally ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... from Chinese cobra The term "environmental toxin" can sometimes explicitly include synthetic contaminants such as industrial ... Organisms that possess neurotoxins include: The black widow spider. Most scorpions The box jellyfish Elapid snakes The cone ...
... a new class of nAChR antagonist 3FTx proteins called omega-neurotoxins has been described. A smaller class of 3FTx proteins ... In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... The alpha-neurotoxin family is a group of 3FTx proteins that bind muscle nAChRs, preventing the binding of the neurotransmitter ... Other groups of 3FTx proteins also bind to different nAChR subtypes; for example, kappa-neurotoxins, which are long-chain ...
... king cobra. Most species have neurotoxins in their venom which is channeled by their hollow fangs, while some may contain other ... In 1997, Slowinski, Knight and Rooney found in their phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences from venom proteins, that ... Cobras, mambas, and taipans are mid- to large sized snakes which can reach 2 m (6 ft 7 in) or above. The king cobra is the ... Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not. The type ...
Ismail M, al-Bekairi AM, el-Bedaiwy AM, Abd-el Salam MA (1993). "The ocular effects of spitting cobras: I. The ringhals cobra ( ... Venom is composed of hundreds to thousands of different proteins and enzymes, all serving a variety of purposes, such as ... neurotoxins, and myotoxins, allowing for an enormous variety of symptoms. Earlier, the venom of a particular snake was ... Unlike the elongated oval shaped exit orifices of non-spitting cobras, spitting cobras have circular exit orifice at their fang ...
Botulinum, the neurotoxin responsible for botulism, can be injected into specific muscles (such as those controlling the eyelid ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ... α-bungarotoxin from cobras). As with plant feeding deterrents, this biological activity is attributed to natural selection, ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ...
The inland taipan's venom consists of: Neurotoxins: Presynaptic neurotoxins; Paradoxin (PDX), and postsynaptic neurotoxins; ... As of 2005, the amino acid sequences of only seven proteins from inland taipan have been submitted to SWISS-PROT databases. The ... Indian cobra 0.565 mg/kg, North American eastern diamondback rattlesnake 11.4 mg/kg, etc., the inland taipan has a smaller ... Paradoxin (PDX) appears to be one of the most potent, if not the most potent, beta-neurotoxin yet discovered. Beta-neurotoxins ...
The Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) is a venomous spitting cobra whose venom consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins, ... ISBN 0-7136-6817-2. Wang, A H; Yang, CC (1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the genus Naja. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The major α-neurotoxin in Naja kaouthia venom is a long neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin; the minor α-neurotoxin is different from ...
Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in their venom is as complex as the mixture of proteins found in ... Neurotoxins, which primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. These include ion channel toxins that disrupt ion channel ... king cobras or black mambas. Even through geographical boundaries, Kingsnake venom resistance has varied between species. They ... Snake venoms contain proteins which can be used to treat conditions including thrombosis, arthritis, and some cancers. Gila ...
Because sites of protein-protein interaction have often been found to be flanked by prolines, the presence of the two prolines ... For example, cobra venom has been found to have a bioavailability of 41.7% when injected intramuscular, and for other venoms ... Calciseptine (CaS) is a natural neurotoxin isolated from the black mamba Dendroaspis p. polylepis venom. This toxin consists of ... Proteins from this family are small and consist of 58 to 74 amino acids. They all have the same three-fingered structure which ...
The proteins then evolved into various venom proteins through natural selection. This process, known as the birth-and-death ... The spitting of venom displayed by some species of spitting cobra is solely a defensive adaptation. A 2021 study showed that ... For instance, the rattlesnake ancestor is believed to have had the PLA2 genes for a heterodimeric neurotoxin now found in ... These venom proteins have also occasionally been recruited back into tissue genes. Protein recruitment events have occurred at ...
... cobra venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.190 - cobra neurotoxins MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.260 - direct lytic factors MeSH ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 - hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 - hiv envelope protein gp120 ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH ... ldl-receptor related protein 2 MeSH D23.050.422.500.750 - ldl-receptor related protein-associated protein MeSH D23.050.550.325 ...
This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
... and can be labelled with fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein or the rhodamine dye tetramethylrhodamine ... The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α-bungarotoxins and β- ... Indan cobra) or two Micrurus species (New World or American coral snakes). Minton (1981), Schwaner et al. and Cadle & Gorman ( ... December 2015). "Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus ...
There are fewer recorded bites from this species compared to other venomous species such as cobras and vipers as it is less ... The venom of this elapid, Laticauda colubrina, is a very powerful neurotoxic protein, with a subcutaneous LD50 in mice of 0.45 ... The venom is an α-neurotoxin that disrupts synapses by competing with acetylcholine for receptors on the postsynaptic membrane ... Sato, S.; Yoshida, H.; Abe, H.; Tamiya, N. (1969-10-01). "Properties and biosynthesis of a neurotoxic protein of the venoms of ...
... is a neurotoxin that acts as a selective, reversible, voltage-gated sodium channel blocker. One of the most potent ... It binds directly in the pore of the channel protein, occluding the opening, and preventing the flow of sodium ions through the ... However, in 1975 the CIA reported to Congress that it had kept a small amount of saxitoxin and cobra venom against Nixon's ... Saxitoxin is a neurotoxin naturally produced by certain species of marine dinoflagellates (Alexandrium sp., Gymnodinium sp., ...
Tsetlin, V. I. (2001). "Snake venom α‐neurotoxins and other 'three‐finger' proteins". European Journal of Biochemistry. 264 (2 ... It also is likely to hiss and spread its neck into a hood similar to that of the cobras in the genus Naja. During the threat ... First formally described by Albert Günther in 1864, it is the second-longest venomous snake after the king cobra; mature ... Its venom is primarily composed of neurotoxins that often induce symptoms within ten minutes, and is frequently fatal unless ...
Neurotoxins primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. The group neurotoxins generally consists of ion channel toxins ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra. Environmental toxins[edit]. See also: Environmental toxicology ... the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins, each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), or ...
These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the ... Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian copperheads, sea snakes, and coral snakes.[61] ... King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Snakes of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right ... Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize, injure or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, ...
December 2013). "The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system". Proceedings of ... November 2017). "Scallop genome reveals molecular adaptations to semi-sessile life and neurotoxins". Nature Communications. 8 ( ... and a source of anti-cancer proteins". F1000Research. 5: 2631. doi:10.12688/f1000research.9765.1. PMC 5247789. PMID 28163896. ... king cobra (2013) Pantherophis guttatus, corn snake (2014) Pogona vitticeps, Central bearded dragon (2015) Python bivittatus, ...
This anti-clotting agent would attach to another protein of the body's cells and cause them to leak as blood is unable to clot ... ZTX is an extremely potent neurotoxin isolated of the Panamanian golden frog. The LD50 of ZTX in mice is 11 μg/kg. Snakebites ... "Por demora em diagnóstico ou falta de antídoto, escorpiões passam a matar mais que cobras no Brasil" (in Portuguese). Jornal da ... It is unknown how certain Brachycephalus species attain the strong neurotoxins, but they are possibly absorbed from the small ...
Find proteins for P01391 (Naja kaouthia). Explore P01391 Go to UniProtKB: P01391 ... Three-dimensional structure of the "long" neurotoxin from cobra venom.. Walkinshaw, M.D., Saenger, W., Maelicke, A.. (1980) ... The three-dimensional structure of alpha-cobra-toxin, the "long" neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja siamensis, has been ... The three-dimensional structure of alpha-cobra-toxin, the "long" neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja siamensis, has been ...
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors); 0 (Elapid Venoms ... 0 (BMLCL protein, Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus); 0 (Bungarotoxins); 0 (Cholinergic Agents); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins ... 0 (Antivenins); 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Single-Domain Antibodies); 69344-74-7 (alpha-cobratoxin). ... 0 (Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins); 0 (Conotoxins); 0 (Receptors, GABA-A); 69344-74-7 (alpha-cobratoxin). ...
... the neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Thai cobra Naja kaouthia , causes paralysis by preventing acetylcholine (ACh) ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / chemistry* * Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / genetics * Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / metabolism* ... alpha-Cobratoxin (Cbtx), the neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Thai cobra Naja kaouthia , causes paralysis by ... The crystal structure (1YI5) of Cbtx in complex with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a soluble homolog of the ...
These venoms have also been discovered to contain several unique venom protein families. New venom protein superfamilies in RFS ... Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to ... Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to ... New venom protein superfamilies in RFS venoms include matrix metalloproteinases, distinct from but closely related to snake ...
Neurotoxin from the Black Widow, the Fiddle Spider and snakes like the Cobra and Coral; ... The infectious nucleic acid, after entering a human cell, retains its protein coat and starts to produce its own type protein ... Formic acid plus a toxin with a protein cover, called proteotoxin by Arthus,[39] such as found in bees and wasps; ... The role of the protein coat is to protect the parasitic but unstable nucleic acid as it rides the blood highway or ...
Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). This ... neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. - Stock Image F006/9278 ... Caption: Cobra venom. Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja ... neurotoxin, protein, proteomics, research, snake, strand, structure, tertiary structure, toxic, toxin, venom, white background ...
The neurotoxin secreted is about seventy-five percent as powerful as cobra venom. In the manof- war, it is found in the ... The gastrozooids then attach to the immobilized victim and digest it with enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and ...
PREDICTED STRUCTURE OF AN ALPHA NEUROTOXIN FROM TAIWAN COBRA BOUND WITH ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PEPTIDE. ... Theoretical Model: The protein structure described on this page was determined theoretically, and hence should be interpreted ...
The Cobra Toxin from the cobra snake ranks among the worlds most lethal venoms. Unlike many protein-based neurotoxins, this ... one of the strongest protein binding interactions known). When the Cobra venom neurotoxin binds to the receptor, the receptor ... Once bound, the neurotoxin acts as a plug to the receptor and prevents the bound receptor from initiating a neural impulse. The ... So, the cobra toxin is lethal because its rigid shape precisely fits into a vital neurotransmitter receptor site. ...
Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... For example, botulinum neurotoxins, which have been used in studies in the field of neurobiology, have also been used directly ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ...
Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ ... Total urinary protein concentration (grams per liter) was determined using the Bradford protein assay kit (Beyotime Institute ... Measurement of 24 h Urine Protein Output. For urine collection and total urinary protein determination, rats were placed in ... a long-chain neurotoxin, from Thailand cobra venom has been demonstrated to have potent actions on inhibiting formalin-induced ...
Tsetlin VI (2015) Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological ... Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell- ... Caspian cobra venom Naja naja oxiana U87MG glioma cell line Cytotoxicity Reactive oxygen species ... Gasanov SE, Shrivastava IH, Israilov FS, Kim AA, Rylova KA, Zhang B, Dagda RK (2015) Naja naja oxiana cobra venom cytotoxins ...
... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR003571 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
LNTX-1 is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... refers to the long-chain classification based on mature protein length of the neurotoxin, which is 66-79 amino acid residues ... LNTX belongs to the neurotoxin family; other members include SNTXs (short chain neurotoxins), WNTXs (weak neurotoxins) and MTXs ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
... α-neurotoxin: "cobratoxin" and short-chain α-neurotoxin: "cobrotoxin"), cardiotoxin, cobra venom factor (CVF), and so forth. ... According to the literature, the protein band of MW 7 KD contained cardiotoxin and neurotoxin [21, 22]. In contrast, heat ... T. C. Qin, L. X. Yu, and Z. S. Wang, "Study on rectal mucosa absorption effects of cobra neurotoxins by I tracer labelling ... It has been reported in Chinese literature that neurotoxin in cobra venom can be rapidly absorbed through rectal mucosa [14]. ...
A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra is a species of ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ... The Caspian cobra (N. oxiana) normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of the Indian cobra ...
... a typical cobra-style neurotoxin, one that is as potent as comparative toxins found in close relatives of the cobra. These ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells â neurons â usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ... A pseudogene is a nucleotide sequences that is similar to a normal gene, but is not expressed as a functional protein. ... ... Fry, B. et al (October 2003). "Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early ...
The combination of all these proteins can cause death within minutes of receiving a cobra bite. However, many people survive ... The venom also includes a number of neurotoxins that gain access to the central nervous system when blood vessels break down. ... As it turns out, there are other things in the cobra venom that are even more lethal.. These other components of cobra venom ... If its true that Cleopatra used a snake to commit suicide then it was most likely the Egyptian cobra Naja haje that did the ...
Cobras, mambas, sea snakes, kraits and coral snakes are known to possess this venom. The king cobras (ophiophagus hannah) are ... 3) α-neurotoxins:. α-neurotoxins also attack cholinergic neurons. They mimic the shape of the acetylcholine molecule and ... Some are Neurotoxins: Fasciculins Dendrotoxins α-neurotoxins. And other is Cytotoxins: Phospholipases Cardiotoxins Haemotoxins ... Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay. Print Reference this *APA ...
... cobra-coral), uma serpente da Família Elapidae bastante representada no Brasil e muito comum em áreas florestais tropicais,... ... To analyze the immunological response, recombinant proteins were produced in E. coli and used for ELISA coating to react with ... Other neurotoxins 1), Atg5 (A2-type phospholipase). These five antigenic groups were used for DNA immunization. Then they were ... A partir de uma biblioteca de cDNA de glândulas de veneno de Micrurus corallinus (cobra-coral), uma serpente da Família ...
see also Globular Protein; Neurotoxin; Proteins; Toxicity.. Thomas A. Holme Bibliography. Agosta, William (2001). Thieves, ... One example would be the polypeptide toxin cobrotoxin that was isolated from the Formosan cobra and analyzed in 1965 by Chen- ... The nerve on the other side of the synapse (the postsynaptic neuron ) has proteins that are specifically geared to sense the ... Cobras, coral snakes, scorpions, and spiders produce neurotoxic venoms. The venom of the gaboon viper is both hemotoxic and ...
Neurotoxin. Naja venom contains 11 confirmed neurotoxins, all of which are cobra-specific. Some Naja neurotoxins share high ... of the proteins in Naja venom closely matched cobra proteins. These results demonstrate that the accuracy of protein ... 90% of proteins were cardio- and neuro-toxins, and over 91% had a MM less than 10 kDa. Protein degradation was apparent in the ... Lane M, protein ladder; lane A, Naja venomous proteins; lane B, Agki venomous proteins. MM values are given in kDa. ...
2. There were great papers related wih Cobra, and next is Tigris, Viper, etc. 3. There were great papers related wih protein in ... and Non-enzymatic proteins ; Crotamine(Cytolysin), Proteolytic factor(Hematoxin), Crotoxin(Neurotoxin) etc. 3. Main toxins in ... We further found that the expression of various apoptotic proteins such as that Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 as well as the ... The results of the in vitro studies showed that the extract probably interacts with but does not stabilize membrane protein. In ...
Class Antiretrovirals; Cobra neurotoxin proteins * Mechanism of Action Nicotinic receptor antagonists * Orphan Drug Status ...
... of total venom proteins. However, it varies distinctly from the venoms of many other elapid snakes such as cobras, king cobra, ... kraits, sea snakes and even the American coral snakes, by the peculiar absence of post-synaptic alpha-neurotoxins in its venom ... For those uncertain about snake taxonomy, "famous" members in the Elapidae Family include cobras, kraits and sea snakes. A ... Instead, the unique cytotoxin isoform, maticotoxin, comprises the second largest bulk of proteins in the venom, following ...
Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins Chemical Compounds View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA * Standard ... Schlyer, B. D., Lau, E. Y., & Maki, A. H. (1992). A comparative investigation of snake venom neurotoxins and their triplet- ... Schlyer, Bruce D. ; Lau, Edmond Y ; Maki, August H. / A comparative investigation of snake venom neurotoxins and their triplet- ... Schlyer, BD, Lau, EY & Maki, AH 1992, A comparative investigation of snake venom neurotoxins and their triplet-state ...
These two non-toxin proteins (which along with the botulinum toxin molecule comprise the relevant neurotoxin complex) may act ... about 30 million times more lethal than cobra toxin and about 12 million times more lethal than cholera. Singh, Critical ... A suitable Clostridial neurotoxin may be a neurotoxin made by a bacterium, for example, the neurotoxin may be made from a ... In addition or alternatively, the botulinum neurotoxin can be a modified neurotoxin, that is a botulinum neurotoxin which has ...
Fluorescence of neurotoxins from middle-Asian cobra venom. Apr 11, 1974·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·T G Bukolova-Orlova ... Jan 1, 1995·Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society·M L Wu, W T Morgan ... Solute perturbation of protein fluorescence. The quenching of the tryptophyl fluorescence of model compounds and of lysozyme by ... Feb 1, 1991·Journal of Protein Chemistry·P MusterW T Morgan ... and abnormal tyrosine side-chains in various heme proteins. Mar ...
While neurotoxins (NTs) - also TF proteins from snake venom - exert their effect through specific interactions with protein ... Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... One is disulfide-rich neurotoxins with a predominance of β-structure that specifically target protein receptors in neurons or ... Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the three-finger protein ...
While neurotoxins (NTs) - also TF proteins from snake venom - exert their effect through specific interactions with protein ... Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. They are classified into S- and P-types, the latter ... Dubovskii P.V., Konshina A.G., Efremov R.G. (2014). Cobra Cardiotoxins: Membrane Interactions and Pharmacological Potential. ...
  • The three-dimensional structure of alpha-cobra-toxin, the "long" neurotoxin from the venom of Naja naja siamensis, has been determined at 2.8-A resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • alpha-Cobratoxin (Cbtx), the neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Thai cobra Naja kaouthia , causes paralysis by preventing acetylcholine (ACh) binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). (nih.gov)
  • Molecular model of an alpha-cobratoxin (snake venom protein) from an Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mukherjee AK (2008) Phospholipase A2-interacting weak neurotoxins from venom of monocled cobra Naja kaouthia display cell-specific cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • Ebrahim K, Vatanpour H, Zare A, Shirazi FH, Nakhjavani M (2016) Anticancer activity a of caspian cobra (Naja naja oxiana) snake venom in human cancer cell lines via induction of apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • To gain additional insight into this problem, intimate atomistic details of a relatively simple protein, small and structurally rigid recombinant cardiotoxin I (CTI) from cobra Naja oxiana venom, were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in water. (ibch.ru)
  • Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia (desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje species (tree cobras). (medscape.com)
  • Necrosis is typical of bites by the African spitting cobras ( Naja nigricollis , Naja mossambica , Naja pallida , and Naja katiensis ), the Chinese cobra ( Naja atra ), the Monocellate cobra ( Naja kaouthia ), and the Sumatran spitting cobra ( Naja sumatrana ). (medscape.com)
  • Occasionally, a combination of neurologic dysfunction and tissue necrosis may occur as with the Indian cobra ( Naja naja ). (medscape.com)
  • Naja atra (Chinese cobra). (medscape.com)
  • Naja kaouthia (Monocellate cobra). (medscape.com)
  • Naja naja (Indian Cobra). (medscape.com)
  • Development of alpha-neurotoxin antibodies in patients envenomed by the monocellate Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Serum samples from 50 patients envenomed by the Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia) were tested by enzyme immune assay for the presence of antibodies against the principal neurotoxin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Zingiberaceae) was shown to antagonize the toxic action of Naja naja siamensis neurotoxin possibly via direct inactivation of the toxin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate and isolate immunodominant proteins of Naja oxiana snake venom. (ac.ir)
  • To the best our knowledge, these proteins can be candidates for preparing a specific anti-venom against Naja oxiana and antimicrobial immunodominant proteins, as well as designing antimicrobial peptides. (ac.ir)
  • α-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-Cobratoxin is a neurotoxin from the venom of certain Naja genus, including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). (wikipedia.org)
  • Indications for the bite of a cobra, in this case the Naja atra (Chinese cobra) are the darkening of the bite wound and pain and swelling of the area around it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The venom proteome of the monocled cobra, Naja kaouthia, from Thailand, was characterized by RPHPLC, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses, yielding 38 different proteins that were either identified or assigned to families. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Moreover, given the historical focus on the 'big four' Indian snakes, our understanding of venom variation in medically important yet neglected snakes, such as the monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia), remains unclear. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most common poisonous snakes in the country are cobra ( Naja naja ), krait ( Bungarus caeruleus ), Russell's viper ( Daboia russelli ) and saw-scaled viper ( Echis carinatus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Chinese Cobra (Naja atra) is an elapid snake of major medical importance in southern China. (bioinfor.com)
  • 98% amino acid sequence similarity with short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins from other Naja species. (bioinfor.com)
  • Bites by vipers and some cobras ( Naja and other genera) are painful and tender. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. (afpm.org.my)
  • BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. (afpm.org.my)
  • Cobratoxin or most commonly known as α-cobratoxin is a constituent of the venom of cobras of the Naja genus . (ukessays.com)
  • Slide 7: Treatment Of MS with a-Cobratoxin: a-Cobratoxin- obtained from all cobra (naja-genus) ideally from Cobra-Naja naja siamensis a-Cobratoxin is a substance of the venom of certain Naja cobras. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • These venoms have also been discovered to contain several unique venom protein families. (frontiersin.org)
  • New venom protein superfamilies in RFS venoms include matrix metalloproteinases, distinct from but closely related to snake venom metalloproteinases, veficolins, and acid lipases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Though this same protein superfamily is commonly found in the venoms of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, no elapid 3FTxs appear to show prey-specific toxicity (with the exception of perhaps Micrurus ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Rear-fanged snake venoms are therefore of considerable research interest due to the evolutionary novelties they contain, providing insights into the evolution of snake venom proteins and potential predator-prey coevolution in a broader phylogenetic context. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of the limited complexity of these venoms, they represent a more tractable source to inform about the biological roles of specific venom proteins that are found in the venoms of this rich diversity of snakes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, snake venoms typically contain neurotoxins, but they also often include enzymes that promote various hydrolysis reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For many who study the chemistry of venoms, the neurotoxins hold particular interest. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, it varies distinctly from the venoms of many other elapid snakes such as cobras, king cobra, kraits, sea snakes and even the American coral snakes, by the peculiar absence of post-synaptic alpha-neurotoxins in its venom profile. (phys.org)
  • Although the venoms of these cobras contain neurotoxins, necrosis often is the chief or only manifestation of envenoming in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Cobra venoms have been studied extensively. (medscape.com)
  • As with all snake venoms, they are multicomponent products whose toxins are mostly proteins and polypeptides. (medscape.com)
  • The venoms of cobra and krait are neurotoxic, that is, they affect the victim's central nervous system and cause heart failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In protein sequence and structure, anntoxin is very similar to dendrotoxins (the venoms found in cobras and other mamba snakes) and cone snail toxins. (bioquicknews.com)
  • We have previously shown that the lack of clinical neurotoxicity following snake envenoming by some species with 'neurotoxic' venoms may be related to the high prevalence of short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins in these venoms. (bioinfor.com)
  • In the past, biologically-active peptides - small proteins like neurotoxins and hormones that act on cell receptors to alter physiology - were purified from native sources like venoms and then panels of variants were produced in bacteria, or synthesized, to study the structural basis for receptor interaction. (news-medical.net)
  • The majority of viper and cobra venoms cause local pain, swelling and erythema. (casinonepalonline.com)
  • Some cobra venoms can also kill the tissue around the site of the bite. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. (afpm.org.my)
  • Snake venoms, for example, are complex mixtures of enzymatic proteins and different toxins. (cobras.org)
  • Role in treating venoms (neurotoxins) Neurotoxins Neurotoxins are a class of venoms components that affect the neuromuscular junction and c. (exampleessays.com)
  • Slide 4: Onset of Venom Therapy: In the early part of the last century, cobra venoms were established products mainly for the treatment of severe pain, and also for rheumatism, trigeminal neuralgia, asthma, ocular therapy, and neuroses. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • The large number of 3FTx protein sequences available, together with a growing database of RFS venom 3FTxs, make possible predictions concerning structure-function relationships among these toxins and the basis of selective toxicity of specific RFS venom 3FTxs. (frontiersin.org)
  • With most species, excluding some of the African spitting cobras, the most clinically significant toxins are postsynaptic neurotoxins that competitively bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to produce depolarizing neuromuscular blockade. (medscape.com)
  • other members include SNTXs (short chain neurotoxins), WNTXs (weak neurotoxins) and MTXs (muscarinic toxins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stronger responses against larger toxins, but lower against the most critical a-neurotoxins were obtained. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While gene-encoded protein toxins have been identified in many vertebrate animals, including fish, reptiles, and mammals, none has previously been found in amphibians or birds. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. (afpm.org.my)
  • Using the comprehensive genome annotation, the expression patterns of different genes across tissues and similarity to toxins, we have identified 19 relevant toxins in the Indian cobra genome that are highly expressed in the venom gland of this animal. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Once we make the proteins, we can then use a technique called the 'phage display', that won the 2018 Nobel prize in Chemistry, to develop antibodies that can bind to toxins. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Enzymes from cobra venom show promise in the treatment and/or prevention of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases [ 3 , 4 ], and the venom from snakes in the viper family has been shown to promote tumour reduction [ 5 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • For those uncertain about snake taxonomy, "famous" members in the Elapidae Family include cobras, kraits and sea snakes . (phys.org)
  • Most cobras are large snakes, 1.2-2.5 m in length. (medscape.com)
  • Because cobras are popular as show snakes, bites on the hands and fingers are common. (medscape.com)
  • There are more long neurotoxins found in snakes, such as LNTX-2 and LNTX-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of course the Chinese cobra is only one of the snakes that produce cobratoxin, but the other snakes cause similar indications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The predator, which uses neurotoxins to paralyse and kill small animals, is one of the fastest and most dangerous snakes in Africa In addition to synthetic marijuana, K2 and Spice, other brand names include Black Mamba , Bombay Blue, Genie, and Zohai. (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • Now-a-days, king cobras are kept on farms for their venom (= poison) which is used in making pain relieving medicine, and in antidote for snake bite (= some medicine given to the people bitten by venomous snakes), and for the entertainment of the tourists! (cobraintpharmacy.com)
  • They are fast, have a thick coat and have receptors chemical compound acetylcholine shaped like a snakes making it impossible for the snake's Neurotoxins to attach. (bellaonline.com)
  • They are not totally immune to a snake's toxin, usually a cobra is portrayed in accounts about snakes and mongooses, but they do have an high tolerance, mongoose vs cobra or cobra vs mongoose the mongoose will win. (bellaonline.com)
  • The big four member of Indian snakes are Indian cobra,Common krait,Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper. (casinonepalonline.com)
  • Whether in movies, literature, or folklore, poisonous serpents have received bad press, which is unfortunate, because snakes like copperheads and cobras are at this moment at the forefront of some of the most exciting medical breakthroughs. (exampleessays.com)
  • the neurotoxins from the venom of poisonous snakes, like cobras, vipers, and rattlesnakes, paralyze the muscles by blocking nerve impulses. (most-effective-solution.com)
  • Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides, and a number of studies have described the biological properties of several venomous proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • Snake venom is composed mainly of proteins and peptides, which possess a variety of biological activities. (biology-online.org)
  • Functional proteins and enzymes of venom include phophodiesterase (lower blood pressure), phospholipase (hemolytic), hyaluronidase (increase tissue permeability), ATPase (ATP hydrolysis), oxidase and protease (digestion) and peptides that inhibit mammalian cholinesterase leading to loss of muscular activity. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Predicted membrane-binding sites, protein tilt angles and membrane penetration depths are consistent with spin-labeling, chemical modification, fluorescence, NMR, mutagenesis, and other experimental studies of 53 peripheral proteins and peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coordinates of all examined peripheral proteins and peptides with the calculated hydrophobic membrane boundaries, subcellular localization, topology, structural classification, and experimental references are available through the Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Positions of diverse peripheral proteins and peptides in the lipid bilayer can be accurately predicted using their 3D structures that represent a proper membrane-bound conformation and oligomeric state, and have membrane binding elements present. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These categories are: (i) haemotoxins, which promote haemorrhaging primary to extensive local swelling and necrosis, (ii) neurotoxins, which disable muscle contraction and paralyse the heart as well as hinder respiration, and (iii) cardiotoxins, which elicit specific toxicity to cardiac and muscle cells, causing irreversible depolarization of cell membranes [ 6 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • Relative toxicity of snake venom is determined from comparison with Cobra venom which is assigned by point 1 toxicity. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The most relevant lethal components, categorized by means of a 'toxicity score', were a-neurotoxins, followed by cytotoxins/cardiotoxins. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Their venom possesses several proteins, including cardiotoxins, neurotoxins and phospholipase A 2 , that are responsible for their toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This process inactivates many of the venom enzymes, although the neurotoxins can retain their toxicity. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • Tsetlin VI (2015) Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological tools and endogenous modulators. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are prototypic G protein-coupled receptors. (intechopen.com)
  • Long neurotoxin 1 (LNTX-1) is a neurotoxin that binds antagonistically to all types of muscular and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha- neurotoxins attack cholinergic neurons and block acetylcholine receptors resulting in numbness and paralysis. (biotecharticles.com)
  • These "muscle-type" receptors are pentameric proteins with two α subunits and one each of β, γ, and ε(or δ), and such receptors are powerfully blocked by the high affinity binding of both short and long α-neurotoxins. (casinonepalonline.com)
  • The 3FTx family consists of two major categories, neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytotoxins are phospholipases (produced by Habu), cardiotoxins (King cobra) and hemotoxins (Viper and Naga). (biotecharticles.com)
  • Five antigenic candidates were selected after analysing the transcriptome: Atg1 ( Homolog group 8), Atg2 ( Homolog group 7/3/1), Atg3 (Other neurotoxins 1), Atg5 (A2-type phospholipase). (usp.br)
  • it is predominated by phospholipase A2 and three-finger toxin, together accounting for approximately 60% of total venom proteins. (phys.org)
  • Instead, the unique cytotoxin isoform, maticotoxin, comprises the second largest bulk of proteins in the venom, following phospholipase A2. (phys.org)
  • Isolation of Polypeptide Inhibitor of Phospholipase A from Cobra Venom (1970) Beatriz M. Braganca et al. (naver.com)
  • Local tissue swelling, inflammation, and wound necrosis are observed in Taiwan cobra bites. (bvsalud.org)
  • Knowledge of the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites might improve the cobra bite treatment strategy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, we aimed to explore the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cobrotoxin (CTX), a short-chain neurotoxin, was suggested to inhibit NF- κ B signaling activation [ 21 ] and regulated T lymphocytes [ 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One example would be the polypeptide toxin cobrotoxin that was isolated from the Formosan cobra and analyzed in 1965 by Chen-Chung Yang, a distinguished chair professor at Tsing Hua University in Taiwan . (encyclopedia.com)
  • We have investigated the luminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of the highly homologous snake venom neurotoxins α-bungarotoxin (BgTX), α-cobratoxin (CbTX), and cobrotoxin (CoTX) in frozen aqueous glasses. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence variability of Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D is particularly complex.Some serotype C and D strains have unique gene structures that encode mosaic isoforms ofbotulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) containing components of both BoNT type C1 (BoNT/C1) andBoNT type D (BoNT/D). Such sequence variability and the potential for cross neutralisationmust be taken into consideration when developing serotype C and D detection andidentification assays. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Methods for treating psychiatric disorders include intracranial administration of a therapeutically effective amount of a neurotoxin, such as a botulinum toxin type A, to a human patient. (justia.com)
  • Snake venom is a combination of different proteins and enzymes which have cytotoxic, neurotoxic or coagulant properties. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The gastrozooids then attach to the immobilized victim and digest it with enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. (ambergriscaye.com)
  • Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes and proteins which many of it not harmless to humans, but some are very toxic. (ukessays.com)
  • As mentioned, snake venom is modified saliva which contains a variety of proteins and enzymes. (ukessays.com)
  • Now, protein is one of the body's basic building blocks 'antibodies, hormones, enzymes, hair and muscles are all forms of proteins. (exampleessays.com)
  • Interestingly, these data suggest that post-translational modification may be a significant characteristic of venomous proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • To many people, the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. (medscape.com)
  • The king cobra, which may reach 5.2 m, is the largest venomous snake in the world. (medscape.com)
  • LNTX-1 is only one of the compounds of the cocktails of alpha-neurotoxins that this snake produces, making a venomous injection extremely lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobras are all venomous, yet most are not poisonous, so long as the cobra venom glands are not eaten. (cobras.org)
  • LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2007) harv error: no target: CITEREFHue_et_al.2007 (help), but it is unclear how effectively the long neurotoxin can reach the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve on the other side of the synapse (the postsynaptic neuron ) has proteins that are specifically geared to sense the presence of these neurotransmitters. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although previous studies have shown that postsynaptic neurotoxins account for 11-23% of N. atra venom, envenomed patients do not display marked signs of neurotoxicity. (bioinfor.com)
  • 6949 Da), a short-chain postsynaptic neurotoxin, which accounts for approximately 9% of N. atra crude venom. (bioinfor.com)
  • Cobras, mambas, and kraits are also members of the family Elapidae but are not indigenous to the Americas. (medscape.com)
  • Studies of the location of tyrosyl and tryptophyl residues in protein. (meta.org)
  • The "long" refers to the long-chain classification based on mature protein length of the neurotoxin, which is 66-79 amino acid residues long. (wikipedia.org)
  • Table 1 Comparison of membrane-bound residues in peripheral proteins according to experimental studies and calculations peripheral proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When compared to short-chain neurotoxins isolated from cobras in China, α-EPTX-Na1a contained novel residues K47Q (i.e. lysine to glutamine), N48T (i.e. asparagine to threonine) and G49A (i.e. glycine to alanine). (bioinfor.com)
  • This neurotoxin acts by blocking the acetylcholine receptor, causing paralysis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Comparison of Tensilon and antivenom for the treatment of cobra-bite paralysis. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • Neurotoxins produce paralysis, often of the nerve centers that control breathing, thus causing a quicker death from suffocation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Snake venom, however, is a deadly mix of particularly powerful proteins, grouped into neurotoxins and hemotoxins, which set off destructive chain reactions when injected into the human body. (exampleessays.com)
  • The crystal structure (1YI5) of Cbtx in complex with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a soluble homolog of the extracellular binding domain of nAChRs, was selected to prepare an alpha-cobratoxin active binding site for docking. (nih.gov)
  • Slide 5: Applicative approach in venom therapy: Multiple sclerosis & its treatment with alpha-cobra toxin Methods of isolation of alpha cobra toxin Inhibition of Herpes virus by a novel nontoxic protein from cobra venom Modified venom & Its component as an Antiretroviral agent Russell viper venom as potent coagulant Slide 6: What is Actually Multiple sclerosis (MS)? (slidesearchengine.com)
  • A partir de uma biblioteca de cDNA de glândulas de veneno de Micrurus corallinus (cobra-coral), uma serpente da Família Elapidae bastante representada no Brasil e muito comum em áreas florestais tropicais, foram gerados 1.438 Expressed Sequences Tags (ESTs), agrupados em 611 clusters. (usp.br)
  • Only 16% (8/50) of the samples were positive for antibodies against neurotoxin, while 76% (38/50) were positive for antibodies against whole venom. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There was no clear correlation between the presence of antibodies against neurotoxin and clinical features. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A cocktail of such antibodies for the most important/toxic venom proteins should be able to neutralize the often-lethal effects of snakebite in victims. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Today, recombinant proteins are quite widely used in biomedical and biotechnological applications. (ibch.ru)
  • Análise transcriptômica das glândulas de veneno de Micrurus corallinus (cobra-coral). (usp.br)
  • Neurotoxins comprise the majority of coral snake venom. (medscape.com)
  • Some types include the Indian Cobra, coral Snake, and rattlesnake. (exampleessays.com)
  • The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. (afpm.org.my)
  • Cobras are completely immune to the venom produced by their species. (cobras.org)
  • Proteins are often conserved between closely related species. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • In the next step, the identified proteins were isolated directly by electro-elution from preparative gel electrophoresis. (ac.ir)
  • Alpha-Cobratoxin Slide 9: Comparison of the Activities of MS Drugs to MCTX Slide 10: Inhibition of Herpes Virus By a Novel nontoxic protein from cobra venom It is clear that snake venom proteins have been tested for their antiviral properties. (slidesearchengine.com)
  • Purification and characterization of the alpha-bungarotoxin binding protein from rat brain. (naver.com)
  • Cobra neurotoxin (CNT), a peptide isolated from snake venom of , shows central analgesic effects in our previous research. (bireme.br)
  • The purpose of this paper is to encapsulate neurotoxin-I (NT-I), a kind of analgesic peptide, into polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate their transport into the brain after intranasal administration (in) by use of microdialysis sampling technique developed in our laboratory recently. (bvsalud.org)
  • Functional analysis based upon toxin categories reveals that, as expected, cobra venom has a high abundance of cardio- and neurotoxins, whereas viper venom contains a significant amount of haemotoxins and metalloproteinases. (biology-online.org)
  • Merck and researchers from Temple University in Philadelphia isolated one of those proteins from an African snake called the Saw-scaled viper. (pbs.org)
  • our classic cars are the Shelby Cobra and the Dodge Viper. (exampleessays.com)
  • Similarly, the anti-arthritic activity of Indian monocellate cobra venom was also verified [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With other cobras, local tissue damage is of primary concern. (medscape.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Protein sequence homology analysis and phylogenetic classification of all putative Ca ++ -ATPase gene products from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosacchraomyces pombe reveal three clusters of homologous proteins. (portlandpress.com)
  • D r Sekar Seshagiri, President, Science & Education SciGenom Research Foundation (SGRF), Bengaluru, led the Indian scientists who assembled the genome and transcriptome sequence of the Indian Cobra. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • With the aid of cutting-edge genomics technologies and several computational tools, we are able to generate a near-chromosome sequence for the Indian cobra. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Cobratoxin, a long-chain neurotoxin, from Thailand cobra venom has been demonstrated to have potent actions on inhibiting formalin-induced inflammatory pain [ 19 ] and adjuvant arthritis [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We have previously reported that cobratoxin (CTX), the long-chain α -neurotoxin from Thailand cobra venom, had anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects on adjuvant arthritis [ 6 ] and can relieve the formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In North America and Europe, captive cobras may cause bites to zookeepers or amateur collectors. (medscape.com)
  • In the case of cobras, the percentage of dry bites may be quite high, 45% in one series of 47 cases from Malaysia. (medscape.com)
  • Report from prof Gouse Oberholzer is that those drugs have been used to treat cobra bites in indias for the past 15 years with mixed result! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • From a veterinary perspective, I see mostly Cape Cobra bites and these average around R15000-20000 per simple case. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • almost all Cape cobra bites in dogs (if the patient survives! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • With effective serum more available, however, the high death rate from cobra bites in some areas of Asia has decreased. (cobras.org)
  • Doctors knew that some snakebite victims bleed to death because the venom contains anti-clotting proteins. (pbs.org)
  • Cape cobras and Mambas will alway remain a gigantic issue. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • The tests done on african cobra s and mambas produced negetive results and pollyvalent antivenom was eventualy resorted to to ensure the victims survival! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • Neurotoxins are fasciculins (Black mamba), dendrotoxins (Green mamba) and alpha-neurotoxins (Cobra and Krait). (biotecharticles.com)
  • The S1 subunit causes hydrolysis of cellular NAD and the resulting ADP-ribose is then transported to a specific cysteine residue in the C-terminal of the G proteins' α-subunit. (ukessays.com)
  • Enzymatic proteins in venom impart its destructive properties. (medscape.com)