Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.

NMR spatial structure of alpha-conotoxin ImI reveals a common scaffold in snail and snake toxins recognizing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (1/95)

A 600 MHz NMR study of alpha-conotoxin ImI from Conus imperialis, targeting the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is presented. ImI backbone spatial structure is well defined basing on the NOEs, spin-spin coupling constants, and amide protons hydrogen-deuterium exchange data: rmsd of the backbone atom coordinates at the 2-12 region is 0.28 A in the 20 best structures. The structure is described as a type I beta-turn (positions 2-5) followed by a distorted helix (positions 5-11). Similar structural patterns can be found in all neuronal-specific alpha-conotoxins. Highly mobile side chains of the Asp-5, Arg-7 and Trp-10 residues form a single site for ImI binding to the alpha7 receptor. When depicted with opposite directions of the polypeptide chains, the ImI helix and the tip of the central loop of long chain snake neurotoxins demonstrate a common scaffold and similar positioning of the functional side chains, both of these structural elements appearing essential for binding to the neuronal nAChRs.  (+info)

Subunit interface selectivity of the alpha-neurotoxins for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (2/95)

Peptide toxins selective for particular subunit interfaces of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor have proven invaluable in assigning candidate residues located in the two binding sites and for determining probable orientations of the bound peptide. We report here on a short alpha-neurotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica (NmmI) that, similar to other alpha-neurotoxins, binds with high affinity to alphagamma and alphadelta subunit interfaces (KD approximately 100 pM) but binds with markedly reduced affinity to the alphaepsilon interface (KD approximately 100 nM). By constructing chimeras composed of portions of the gamma and epsilon subunits and coexpressing them with wild type alpha, beta, and delta subunits in HEK 293 cells, we identify a region of the subunit sequence responsible for the difference in affinity. Within this region, gammaPro-175 and gammaGlu-176 confer high affinity, whereas Thr and Ala, found at homologous positions in epsilon, confer low affinity. To identify an interaction between gammaGlu-176 and residues in NmmI, we have examined cationic residues in the central loop of the toxin and measured binding of mutant toxin-receptor combinations. The data show strong pairwise interactions or coupling between gammaGlu-176 and Lys-27 of NmmI and progressively weaker interactions with Arg-33 and Arg-36 in loop II of this three-loop toxin. Thus, loop II of NmmI, and in particular the face of this loop closest to loop III, appears to come into close apposition with Glu-176 of the gamma subunit surface of the binding site interface.  (+info)

Snake venom alpha-neurotoxins and other 'three-finger' proteins. (3/95)

The review is mainly devoted to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins which target different muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The primary and spatial structures of other snake venom proteins as well as mammalian proteins of the Ly-6 family, which structurally resemble the 'three-finger' snake proteins, are also briefly discussed. The main emphasis is placed on recent data characterizing the alpha-neurotoxin interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  (+info)

How do acetylcholine receptor ligands reach their binding sites? (4/95)

The access pathway to the binding sites for large competitive antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica electric tissue was analyzed by binding and photolabeling experiments with alpha-neurotoxins. Binding assays with [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin showed an increase in the number of accessible binding sites upon stepwise solubilization of the receptor-rich membranes. Similarily, ligand binding is facilitated upon fluidization of the membrane by increasing the temperature. The access to the binding sites seems to be sterically 'hindered' in the densely packed membrane state. Using a novel series of large biotinylated photoactivatable derivatives of neurotoxin II, we observed that the accessibility to the alpha/gamma- but not to the alpha/delta-binding site was considerably decreased for some derivatives under native conditions. This effect was less apparent at higher temperatures and could be abolished by complete solubilization. These observations support the nonequivalence of the receptor's binding sites. Together, our data suggest (a) that alpha-neurotoxins approach their binding sites from the membrane-facing periphery of the receptor's extramembrane domain rather than through the channel mouth and (b) that different entrance pathways to each binding site exist which vary in their sensitivity to the physical state of the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Variability among the sites by which curaremimetic toxins bind to torpedo acetylcholine receptor, as revealed by identification of the functional residues of alpha-cobratoxin. (5/95)

alpha-Cobratoxin, a long chain curaremimetic toxin from Naja kaouthia venom, was produced recombinantly (ralpha-Cbtx) from Escherichia coli. It was indistinguishable from the snake toxin. Mutations at 8 of the 29 explored toxin positions resulted in affinity decreases for Torpedo receptor with DeltaDeltaG higher than 1.1 kcal/mol. These are R33E > K49E > D27R > K23E > F29A >/= W25A > R36A >/= F65A. These positions cover a homogeneous surface of approximately 880 A(2) and mostly belong to the second toxin loop, except Lys-49 and Phe-65 which are, respectively, on the third loop and C-terminal tail. The mutations K23E and K49E, and perhaps R33E, induced discriminative interactions at the two toxin-binding sites. When compared with the short toxin erabutoxin a (Ea), a number of structurally equivalent residues are commonly implicated in binding to muscular-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These are Lys-23/Lys-27, Asp-27/Asp-31, Arg-33/Arg-33, Lys-49/Lys-47, and to a lesser and variable extent Trp-25/Trp-29 and Phe-29/Phe-32. In addition, however, the short and long toxins display three major differences. First, Asp-38 is important in Ea in contrast to the homologous Glu-38 in alpha-Cbtx. Second, all of the first loop is insensitive to mutation in alpha-Cbtx, whereas its tip is functionally critical in Ea. Third, the C-terminal tail may be specifically critical in alpha-Cbtx. Therefore, the functional sites of long and short curaremimetic toxins are not identical, but they share common features and marked differences that might reflect an evolutionary pressure associated with a great diversity of prey receptors.  (+info)

Molecular determinants by which a long chain toxin from snake venom interacts with the neuronal alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (6/95)

Long chain curarimimetic toxins from snake venom bind with high affinities to both muscular type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) (K(d) in the pm range) and neuronal alpha 7-AChRs (K(d) in the nm range). To understand the molecular basis of this dual function, we submitted alpha-cobratoxin (alpha-Cbtx), a typical long chain curarimimetic toxin, to an extensive mutational analysis. By exploring 36 toxin mutants, we found that Trp-25, Asp-27, Phe-29, Arg-33, Arg-36, and Phe-65 are involved in binding to both neuronal and Torpedo (Antil, S., Servent, D., and Menez, A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 34851-34858) AChRs and that some of them (Trp-25, Asp-27, and Arg-33) have similar binding energy contributions for the two receptors. In contrast, Ala-28, Lys-35, and Cys-26-Cys-30 selectively bind to the alpha 7-AChR, whereas Lys-23 and Lys-49 bind solely to the Torpedo AChR. Therefore, alpha-Cbtx binds to two AChR subtypes using both common and specific residues. Double mutant cycle analyses suggested that Arg-33 in alpha-Cbtx is close to Tyr-187 and Pro-193 in the alpha 7 receptor. Since Arg-33 of another curarimimetic toxin is close to the homologous alpha Tyr-190 of the muscular receptor (Ackermann, E. J., Ang, E. T. H., Kanter, J. R., Tsigelny, I., and Taylor, P. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 10958-10964), toxin binding probably occurs in homologous regions of neuronal and muscular AChRs. However, no coupling was seen between alpha-Cbtx Arg-33 and alpha 7 receptor Trp-54, Leu-118, and Asp-163, in contrast to what was observed in a homologous situation involving another toxin and a muscular receptor (Osaka, H., Malany, S., Molles, B. E., Sine, S. M., and Taylor, P. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5478-5484). Therefore, although occurring in homologous regions, the detailed modes of toxin binding to alpha 7 and muscular receptors are likely to be different. These data offer a molecular basis for the design of toxins with predetermined specificities for various members of the AChR family.  (+info)

Binding properties of agonists and antagonists to distinct allosteric states of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor are incompatible with a concerted model. (7/95)

Recent work has shown that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) can be fixed in distinct conformations by chemical cross-linking with glutardialdehyde, which abolishes allosteric transitions in the protein. Here, two conformations that resemble the desensitized and the resting states were compared with respect to their affinities for different classes of ligands. The same ligands were tested for their ability to convert the nAChR from a conformation with low affinity to a conformation with high affinity for acetylcholine. As expected, agonists were found to bind with higher affinity to the desensitized state-like conformation and to induce a shift of the nAChR to this high affinity state. In contrast, although most antagonists tested bound preferentially to the desensitized receptor as well they failed to induce a change of the affinity for acetylcholine. These observations sharply contradict basic predictions of the concerted model, including the postulate of a preformed equilibrium between the different states of the nAChR in the absence of agonist. With a similar approach we could show that the non-competitive inhibitor ethidium is displaced in a non-allosteric manner by other well characterized channel blockers from the cross-linked nAChR. These results require revision of current models for the mechanisms underlying non-competitive antagonism at the nAChR.  (+info)

"Weak toxin" from Naja kaouthia is a nontoxic antagonist of alpha 7 and muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (8/95)

A novel "weak toxin" (WTX) from Naja kaouthia snake venom competes with [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin for binding to the membrane-bound Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR), with an IC(50) of approximately 2.2 microm. In this respect, it is approximately 300 times less potent than neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana and alpha-cobratoxin from N. kaouthia, representing short-type and long-type alpha-neurotoxins, respectively. WTX and alpha-cobratoxin displaced [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin from the Escherichia coli-expressed fusion protein containing the rat alpha7 AChR N-terminal domain 1-208 preceded by glutathione S-transferase with IC(50) values of 4.3 and 9.1 microm, respectively, whereas for neurotoxin II the IC(50) value was >100 microm. Micromolar concentrations of WTX inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in Xenopus oocyte-expressed rat muscle AChR and human and rat alpha7 AChRs, inhibiting the latter most efficiently (IC(50) of approximately 8.3 microm). Thus, a virtually nontoxic "three-fingered" protein WTX, although differing from alpha-neurotoxins by an additional disulfide in the N-terminal loop, can be classified as a weak alpha-neurotoxin. It differs from the short chain alpha-neurotoxins, which potently block the muscle-type but not the alpha7 AChRs, and is closer to the long alpha-neurotoxins, which have comparable potency against the above-mentioned AChR types.  (+info)

Cobra neurotoxin proteins refer to a group of toxic proteins found in the venom of cobra snakes. These toxins primarily affect the nervous system and cause paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death in prey or envenomed individuals. Cobra neurotoxins are classified as phospholipases A2 (PLA2) enzymes, which are capable of hydrolyzing membrane phospholipids and inducing various biological effects.

The two main types of cobra neurotoxin proteins are:

1. Short-chain neurotoxins: These toxins consist of 60-74 amino acid residues, with four disulfide bridges that stabilize their structure. They primarily interact with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis by preventing the binding of acetylcholine to its receptors.
2. Long-chain neurotoxins: These toxins contain 110-120 amino acid residues and have five disulfide bridges. They can be further divided into two subcategories:

a. Cardiotoxins: Although they primarily affect the heart, causing cardiac arrhythmias and decreased contractility, these toxins can also interact with nAChRs and contribute to neuromuscular paralysis.

b. Cytotoxins: These toxins mainly cause damage to various cell types by forming pores in the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis and death. They have minimal effects on the nervous system.

Understanding cobra neurotoxin proteins is essential for developing effective antivenoms and treatments for cobra envenomation.

Cobra venoms are a type of snake venom that is produced by cobras, which are members of the genus Naja in the family Elapidae. These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that have evolved to help the snake immobilize and digest its prey.

Cobra venoms typically contain a variety of toxic components, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. Neurotoxins target the nervous system and can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. Hemotoxins damage blood vessels and tissues, leading to internal bleeding and organ damage. Cytotoxins destroy cells and can cause tissue necrosis.

The specific composition of cobra venoms can vary widely between different species of cobras, as well as between individual snakes of the same species. Some cobras have venoms that are primarily neurotoxic, while others have venoms that are more hemotoxic or cytotoxic. The potency and effects of cobra venoms can also be influenced by factors such as the age and size of the snake, as well as the temperature and pH of the environment.

Cobra bites can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to humans, depending on the species of cobra, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of a cobra bite, including the administration of antivenom therapy to neutralize the effects of the venom.

Cobra cardiotoxin proteins are a type of toxin found in the venom of some cobra snakes. These toxins belong to a larger group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, due to their distinctive three-dimensional shape. Cardiotoxins are so named because they specifically target and disrupt the function of heart muscle cells, leading to serious cardiovascular symptoms such as abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, and even heart failure in severe cases.

Cardiotoxins work by binding to and inserting themselves into the membrane of heart muscle cells, where they form pores that disrupt the electrical activity of the cells. This can lead to arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms, which can be life-threatening in severe cases. Cardiotoxins can also cause direct damage to heart muscle cells, leading to decreased contractility and reduced pumping efficiency of the heart.

Cobra cardiotoxin proteins are being studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the development of new drugs for the treatment of heart disease. However, they are also a significant medical concern in areas where cobra snakes are common, as their venom can cause serious and potentially fatal symptoms in humans and animals.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Neurotoxins are substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve cells (neurons) and the nervous system. They can cause damage by destroying neurons, disrupting communication between neurons, or interfering with the normal functioning of the nervous system. Neurotoxins can be produced naturally by certain organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals, or they can be synthetic compounds created in a laboratory. Examples of neurotoxins include botulinum toxin (found in botulism), tetrodotoxin (found in pufferfish), and heavy metals like lead and mercury. Neurotoxic effects can range from mild symptoms such as headaches, muscle weakness, and tremors, to more severe symptoms such as paralysis, seizures, and cognitive impairment. Long-term exposure to neurotoxins can lead to chronic neurological conditions and other health problems.

Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN) is a protein that is released from the granules of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. EDN has both neurotoxic and ribonucleolytic activities, meaning it can damage nerve cells and also degrade RNA. It is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases such as asthma and some forms of inflammatory bowel disease. EDN is also known as eosinophil cationic protein or ECP.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by specialized glands in snakes. They primarily consist of proteins and peptides, including enzymes, neurotoxins, hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and cardiotoxins. These toxins can cause a variety of pharmacological effects on the victim's body, such as disruption of the nervous system, blood coagulation, muscle function, and cell membrane integrity, ultimately leading to tissue damage and potentially death. The composition of snake venoms varies widely among different species, making each species' venom unique in its toxicity profile.

A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra, is a species ... The Caspian cobra (N. oxiana) normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of the Indian cobra ... The Caspian cobra is considered to be the most venomous species of cobra in the world. Several different toxinological studies ...
... is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... refers to the long-chain classification based on mature protein length of the neurotoxin, which is 66-79 amino acid residues ... LNTX belongs to the neurotoxin family; other members include SNTXs (short chain neurotoxins), WNTXs (weak neurotoxins) and MTXs ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
The cobratoxin of the Thailand cobra belongs to the neurotoxins. An important property of neurotoxins is that they are not ... When a complex was formed with an α7 receptor-like protein(AChBP-complex) and 5 α-Cobratoxins, it is not able to twist anymore ... including the Thailand cobra, the Indo-Chinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) and the Chinese cobra (Naja atra). The cobras ... Long neurotoxins like Cobratoxin also block neuronal α7 nAChRs, but it is unclear how effectively the long neurotoxin can reach ...
Using protein homology information and expression data from different tissues of the cobra, 23,248 protein-coding genes, 31,447 ... The Indian cobra's venom mainly contains a powerful post-synaptic neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. The venom acts on the synaptic ... The Indian cobra (Naja naja), also known commonly as the spectacled cobra, Asian cobra, or binocellate cobra, is a species of ... Indian cobra displaying an impressive hood Albino spectacled cobra Binocellate cobra Indian cobra outside a home in Yelandur, ...
... sputa-neurotoxin 1 (SN1) and sputa-neurotoxin 2 (SN2) isolated from the venom, are "short" neurotoxins, with 62 and 61 amino ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix), also called Indonesian cobra or Komodo spitting cobra, is a species of cobra in the ... Like all cobra species, this species' venom also consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins. However, the main components of its ...
Furthermore, Evert Karlsson and David Eaker were able to successfully purify the specific neurotoxins found in Cobra (Naja ... Conversely, snake venom is made up of more complex protein such as modified saliva proteins (CRISPs & kallikrein) and protein ... Tsetlin, Victor (September 1999). "Snake venom alpha-neurotoxins and other 'three-finger' proteins". European Journal of ... These methods optimise the protein identification process by producing the DNA sequences of all proteins expressed in the venom ...
... of total venom proteins. The abundance is much higher than that of most cobras which is usually less than 1%. This protein ... He, Y. Y.; Lee, W. H.; Zhang, Y. (2004). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)". ... SVMPs are the second most protein family isolated from the king cobra's venom, accounting from 11.9% to 24.4% ... Killing a king cobra is punished with imprisonment of up to six years. In the Philippines, king cobras (locally known as ...
Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in their venom is as complex as the mixture of proteins found in ... Neurotoxins, which primarily affect the nervous systems of animals, such as ion channel toxins. These are found in many ... king cobras or black mambas. Among marine animals, eels are resistant to sea snake venoms, which contain complex mixtures of ... The toxins are composed of peptides and proteins. They are used to acquire prey and to deter predators by causing pain, loss of ...
Venoms of the water cobras were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 values of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... commonly known as the banded water cobra or the ringed water cobra, is a species of water cobra native to western and central ... The species is one of the two species of water cobra in the world, the other one being the Congo water cobra (Naja christyi). ...
Venoms of the water cobras, were assayed for lethality, proteolytic activity and protein content. Naja annulata annulata and ... Short-chain neurotoxins 1 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi had murine intraperitoneal LD50 of 0.052 and 0.083 mg/kg, ... Naja christyi (formerly Boulengerina christyi), commonly known as the Congo water cobra or Christy's water cobra, is a species ... The LD50 of long-chain neurotoxins 2 from N. a. annulata and N. christyi venoms were 0.086 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively. The ...
... a new class of nAChR antagonist 3FTx proteins called omega-neurotoxins has been described. A smaller class of 3FTx proteins ... In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... The alpha-neurotoxin family is a group of 3FTx proteins that bind muscle nAChRs, preventing the binding of the neurotransmitter ... Other groups of 3FTx proteins also bind to different nAChR subtypes; for example, kappa-neurotoxins, which are long-chain ...
243 The proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the ... Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families: Elapids - cobras including king cobras, kraits, mambas, Australian ... Studies on captive cobras showed that 13 to 22% of the body length is raised during hooding. The lack of limbs does not impede ... King cobras and the Australian bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Species of the family Pareidae have more teeth on the right ...
In addition, it shows partial homology with helothermine (52.8%), a venom protein of the Mexican beaded lizard; this protein, ... Piscivorin from the Eastern Cottonmouth Triflin from the Habu snake Ophanin from the King Cobra Latisemin from the Erabu snake ... Ion channel toxins, Neurotoxins, Vertebrate toxins). ... The protein can be found in the venom of the Japanese Mamushi ... The protein ablomin is a component of the venom of the Japanese Mamushi snake, Gloydius blomhoffii. The term 'ablomin' is an ...
Snake examples: king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) (known as hannahtoxin containing α-neurotoxins), sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) ( ... The hundreds, even thousands, of proteins found in venom include toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic ... Snake example: mambas α-neurotoxins Alpha-neurotoxins are a large group; over 100 postsynaptic neurotoxins having been ... He YY, Lee WH, Zhang Y (September 2004). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)". ...
v t e (Protein articles without symbol, Vertebrate toxins, Peripheral membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Determination of Structure in Solution and Comparison with Short Neurotoxins". Journal of Molecular Biology. 235 (4): 1291-1301 ... CTX III is highly basic and hydrophobic protein. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), ...
... also forms both covalent homodimers and low-abundance covalent heterodimers with other 3FTx proteins found in monocled cobra ( ... Protein pages needing a picture, Neurotoxins). ... a non-covalent homodimer with a very different protein-protein ... Irditoxin is an abundant protein in the venom of the brown tree snake and accounts for about 10% of the protein found in venom ... It is a heterodimer composed of two distinct protein chains, each of the three-finger protein fold, linked by an intermolecular ...
Resembling a cobra, the threat display of a mamba includes rearing, opening the mouth and hissing. The black mamba's mouth is ... "Neurotoxins in Snake Venom". Retrieved 2019-12-26. van Aswegen G, van Rooyen JM, Fourie C, Oberholzer G (May 1996). "Putative ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606. Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology ... A rearing mamba has a narrower yet longer hood and tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. ...
The inland taipan's venom consists of: Neurotoxins: Presynaptic neurotoxins; paradoxin (PDX), and postsynaptic neurotoxins; ... As of 2005, the amino acid sequences of only seven proteins from inland taipan have been submitted to SWISS-PROT databases. The ... Indian cobra 0.565 mg/kg, North American eastern diamondback rattlesnake 11.4 mg/kg, the inland taipan has a smaller venom ... beta-neurotoxins yet discovered. Beta-neurotoxins keep nerve endings from liberating the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ...
The venomous king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is also named for this habit. The mythic associations of snakes are discussed at ... Sharon A. Jansa; Robert S. Voss (2011). "Adaptive evolution of the venom-targeted vWF protein in opossums that eat pitvipers". ... and alpha-neurotoxin. [1] Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Watson, Jeff (2010). The Golden Eagle. A&C Black. ... in which a mongoose named Rikki-Tikki defends a human family against a pair of evil cobras. On a basic, natural level, most ...
Ismail M, al-Bekairi AM, el-Bedaiwy AM, Abd-el Salam MA (1993). "The ocular effects of spitting cobras: I. The ringhals cobra ( ... The neurotoxins can either bind to and block membrane receptors at the post-synaptic neurons or they can be taken up into the ... The toxins cause direct damage to the glomeruli in the kidneys as well as causing protein deposits in Bowman's capsule. Or the ... Unlike the elongated oval shaped exit orifices of non-spitting cobras, spitting cobras have circular exit orifice at their fang ...
Cobras, mambas, and taipans are mid- to large sized snakes which can reach 2 m (6 ft 7 in) or above. The king cobra is the ... In 1997, Slowinski, Knight and Rooney found in their phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences from venom proteins, that ... "Horse immunization with short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin generates antibodies against broad spectrum of elapid venomous ... Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not. The type ...
Because sites of protein-protein interaction have often been found to be flanked by prolines, the presence of the two prolines ... For example, cobra venom has been found to have a bioavailability of 41.7% when injected intramuscular, and for other venoms ... Calciseptine (CaS) is a natural neurotoxin isolated from the black mamba Dendroaspis p. polylepis venom. This toxin consists of ... Proteins from this family are small and consist of 58 to 74 amino acids. They all have the same three-fingered structure which ...
The Indochinese spitting cobra (Naja siamensis) is a venomous spitting cobra whose venom consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins, ... ISBN 0-7136-6817-2. Wang, A H; Yang, C C (September 1981). "Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the genus Naja. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The major α-neurotoxin in Naja kaouthia venom is a long neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin; the minor α-neurotoxin is different from ...
... produces a pore forming toxin Neurotoxins primarily affect the nervous systems of animals. The group neurotoxins generally ... They occur especially as proteins, often conjugated. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919) and ... from Chinese cobra Hemotoxin, from vipers Many living organisms employ toxins offensively or defensively. A relatively small ... Organisms that possess neurotoxins include: The black widow spider. Most scorpions The box jellyfish Elapid snakes The cone ...
... cobra venoms MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.190 - cobra neurotoxins MeSH D23.946.833.850.325.220.260 - direct lytic factors MeSH ... hiv core protein p24 MeSH D23.050.327.520.330 - hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D23.050.327.520.350 - hiv envelope protein gp120 ... adenovirus e1 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.060 - adenovirus e2 proteins MeSH D23.050.327.045.070 - adenovirus e3 proteins MeSH ... ldl-receptor related protein 2 MeSH D23.050.422.500.750 - ldl-receptor related protein-associated protein MeSH D23.050.550.325 ...
The proteins then evolved into various venom proteins through natural selection. This process, known as the birth-and-death ... The spitting of venom displayed by some species of spitting cobra is solely a defensive adaptation. A 2021 study showed that ... For instance, the rattlesnake ancestor is believed to have had the PLA2 genes for a heterodimeric neurotoxin now found in ... The venom of rattlesnakes, for example, includes nearly 40 different proteins from different protein families, and other snake ...
... is a neurotoxin that acts as a selective, reversible, voltage-gated sodium channel blocker. One of the most potent ... It binds directly in the pore of the channel protein, occluding the opening, and preventing the flow of sodium ions through the ... However, in 1975 the CIA reported to Congress that it had kept a small amount of saxitoxin and cobra venom against Nixon's ... Saxitoxin is a neurotoxin naturally produced by certain species of marine dinoflagellates (Alexandrium sp., Gymnodinium sp., ...
The venom of this elapid, L. colubrina, is a very powerful neurotoxic protein, with a subcutaneous LD50 in mice of 0.45 mg/kg ... Fewer bites from this species are recorded compared to other venomous species such as cobras and vipers, as it is less ... The venom is an α-neurotoxin that disrupts synapses by competing with acetylcholine for receptors on the postsynaptic membrane ... Sato, S.; Yoshida, H.; Abe, H.; Tamiya, N. (1969-10-01). "Properties and biosynthesis of a neurotoxic protein of the venoms of ...
... and can be labelled with fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein or the rhodamine dye tetramethylrhodamine ... The venom of the many-banded krait consists of both pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins (known as α-bungarotoxins and β- ... Indan cobra) or two Micrurus species (New World or American coral snakes). Minton (1981), Schwaner et al. and Cadle & Gorman ( ... December 2015). "Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus ...
Botulinum, the neurotoxin responsible for botulism, can be injected into specific muscles (such as those controlling the eyelid ... These first messengers interact with cellular receptors which are composed of proteins. Cellular receptors in turn activate ... α-bungarotoxin from cobras). As with plant feeding deterrents, this biological activity is attributed to natural selection, ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. Bibcode:2015PChem.117...51D. doi ...
A number of small nonenzymatic proteins are found in the venom, including neurotoxins and members of the cytotoxin family, ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra, is a species ... The Caspian cobra (N. oxiana) normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of the Indian cobra ... The Caspian cobra is considered to be the most venomous species of cobra in the world. Several different toxinological studies ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
... the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other ... similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia ( ... desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje speci... ... Some of cobra venom components include:. * α-neurotoxins (or α-cobratoxins). Also called three-fingered toxins due to their ...
We demonstrated that resistance to alpha-neurotoxins convergently evolved at least fifteen times across the caecilian tree ( ... electrostatic charge repulsion of the positively charged neurotoxins, through the introduction of a positively charged amino ... The evolution of snake venom alpha-neurotoxins has triggered the corresponding evolution of resistance in the post-synaptic ... Takacs, Z.; Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Sorota, S. Snake α-neurotoxin binding site on the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) nicotinic ...
Of note, alpha-neurotoxins (belonging to 3FTX) are the least in the Penang specimen (Ns-PG, 5.41% of total venom proteins), ... Neurological effects and intubation were significantly more common after a monocled cobra bite than after a spitting cobra bite ... The major components in the venom are cytotoxins/cardiotoxins (~75.6% of total venom proteins) and alpha-neurotoxins (~7.4%), ... Previous studies characterized the protein composition of its venom, with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) proteins the most abundant. ...
... the most lethal known serpentine neurotoxin, along with a dash of protease enzymes that help digest proteins, and procoagulants ... King cobras, found in South-East Asia, are the worlds longest venomous snake, reaching lengths up to nearly six meters - ... The neurotoxin PHTX3 is one component of their venom. It overstimulates serotonin receptor sites on nerves throughout the body ... And the venom the box jellies carry is one of the most powerful concoctions known: a cocktail of neurotoxins which mess with ...
... a localization pattern much like the matrix protein HSP60 and various in the inner membrane protein COXIV, a subunit from the ... These poisons connect to high affinity with muscle-type nAChR [137]. Weak neurotoxins type the band of three fingered poisons ... Egyptian cobra)Muscle mass [ 140]CM10, CM12, CM-13b, CM-14(Eastern Jamesons mamba)Muscle mass [ 143]S6C4(jamesons mamba)67% ... these are abundant with a variety of short-chain and long-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins that bind to nAChR in skeletal muscle ...
Arabian cobra. Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen. N. ashei. Wüster and Broadley, 2007. 0. Ashes spitting cobra (giant spitting cobra) ... J. Pierre Bargetz (July 1974). The major lethal neurotoxin of the venom of Naja naja phillippinensis: Purification, physical ... and chemical properties, partial amino acid sequence. International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 6 (4): 201-222. ... Mandalay spitting cobra (Burmese spitting cobra). Myanmar (Burma). N. melanoleuca. Hallowell, 1857. 0. Forest cobra. Angola, ...
This protein has an altered shape that prevents neurotoxins found in snake venom from binding effectively. Normally, these ... Javan Mongoose or Small asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) fighting with Javanese cobra. Firstly, its crucial to understand ... At the heart of the mongooses resistance to venom is a specialized protein called "mongoose acetylcholine receptor." ...
Neurotoxins are proteins that act on the nervous system, causing paralysis and death. Hemotoxins are proteins that act on the ... In ancient Egypt, cobras were used to keep rats and other rodents away from grain stores. In India, cobras were used to protect ... Its venom is composed of a variety of proteins, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. This venom is used to ... Its venom is composed of a variety of proteins, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. This venom is used to ...
protein kinase C activation. Proc Natl. Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90(11):4917-21. ... Neurotoxin and the Reduced Disulfi. de Bond α(Cys 192 -Cys 193 ) ... growth factor from Chinese cobra. venom. J Nat Toxins. 1999;8(3 ...
Associated with the different stages in basal snakes such as the king cobra construct nests and stay in the vicinity of the. ... Is also related to neurotoxins but also directly affect muscle tissue and many other toxins that affect the body in different ... Animals including lizards frogs other snakes such as crows and foxes).[70 snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and are ... And the assyrian national god ashur.[126 in egyptian history the snake occupies a primary role with the nile cobra adorning the ...
Snakes in the Elapidae family include cobras, mambas, and coral snakes found in subtropical and tropical areas throughout the ... The venom contains proteins called conotoxins that can rapidly cause paralysis, coma, and death. ... and vision changes due to neurotoxins in the venom. Deaths are rare but have been reported to occur within hours, typically due ...
Neurotoxins,Myotoxin,Cytotoxin. Resources and Tools used for venom allpications. Taxonomy of venomous snake families under ... Elapids and Hydrophids (Cobras, Sea snakes, Kraits, Australian Elapids) Weak neurotoxins Post-synaptic; weak affinity to both ... Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRiSP). Induce hypothermia, immobilize prey. Colubridae, Elapidae, Viperidae. ... Elapids and Hydrophids (Cobras, Sea snakes, Kraits, Australian Elapids) Long-chain neurotoxins Post-synaptic; comparatively ...
CD Proteins • T Cell CD Proteins • B Cell CD Proteins Immune Checkpoint Proteins • Co-inhibitory Immune Checkpoint Proteins • ... Naja Melanoleuca Venom (Forest Cobra Venom) is a snake venom derived from Naja Melanoleuca, exhibiting hemolytic activity ... It contains α-neurotoxins that isolate from the venom and inhibit the .... ... CAR-T Therapy Target Proteins • Hematologic Malignancies Target Proteins • Solid Tumors Target Proteins Enzymes • ...
Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. Although enzymes play an important role, the ... neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. ...
The Tories failed to deliver Brexit. They will point to others as the cause of that failure, but it was their divisions and their lack of vision that made it impossible. Their bluster cannot hide that truth. Two prime ministers with two failed deals.
BOZOS TACKLER SCRIVES CODAS DIETY AUTOSENSITIVITY AWNED COMPOSTING FACE AVOWS EDICT ARBITRATIONS COBOL BOLOMETER DEVALUE COBRA ... INTERVIEWER COPRA DELPHINIA CORER CORES MACHICOLATION BELLYBUTTON PSYCHOSOMATICS EUTROPHICATION BULKS EERIE APPRENTICE PROTEINS ... SIDESLIPPED ADRENALECTOMY ZINCIFY TEMPERATENESS ACETABULUM SPERMICIDAL NEUROTOXIC GRANULATES HEIRESSS UNFAILING MEWS NEUROTOXIN ... KLONG COMBUSTIBLE RELICENSED KNELT MIRTHS BUFFLEHEAD COUNTERS COCKLE COUNTESS CODGER RELICENSES MISHANDLED COMBUSTIBLY COBRAS ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
To identify high-affinity interactions between long-chain α-neurotoxins and nicotinic receptors, we determined the crystal ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins / chemistry Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Figure 2. Comparison of α-neurotoxin complexes with α7/AChBP, α 1 and AChBP (a) Structural superimposition of α7/AChBP (cyan) ... Human Three-Finger Protein Lypd6 Is a Negative Modulator of the Cholinergic System in the Brain. Kulbatskii D, Shenkarev Z, ...
Applying a protein decomplexation approach, [...] Read more. Naja nivea (Cape Cobra) is endemic to southern Africa. Envenoming ... A Thermostable Dissolving Microneedle Vaccine with Recombinant Protein of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A by Baohua Zhao, ... The major components in the venom are cytotoxins/cardiotoxins (~75.6% of total venom proteins) and alpha-neurotoxins (~7.4%), ... small-sized and spherical particles with high Bothrops jararaca venom protein association efficiency. The high protein loading ...
Proteins [D12.776] * Reptilian Proteins [D12.776.831] * Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins [D12.776.831.222] * Cobra Neurotoxin ... 2008; see COBRA NEUROTOXINS 1991-2007, COBRA VENOMS 1978-1990. History Note. 2008(1991); use COBRA NEUROTOXINS 1991-2007, COBRA ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins Preferred Concept UI. M0004666. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins Preferred Term Term UI T698993. Date06/05/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ...
Proteins [D12.776] * Reptilian Proteins [D12.776.831] * Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins [D12.776.831.222] * Cobra Neurotoxin ... 2008; see COBRA NEUROTOXINS 1991-2007, COBRA VENOMS 1978-1990. History Note. 2008(1991); use COBRA NEUROTOXINS 1991-2007, COBRA ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins Preferred Concept UI. M0004666. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) ... Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins Preferred Term Term UI T698993. Date06/05/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins D12.776.831.244. (Replaced for 2008 by Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins). Cocaine D2.145.74.722.388. D4.75.80.875. ... Protein Isoprenylation G6.535.797.500. (Replaced for 2008 by Protein Prenylation). Protein-Tyrosine-Phosphatase D8.811.277.352. ... Replaced for 2008 by Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins). Discrete Subaortic Stenosis C14.280.955.249.70.210. DNA Adducts G5.180.104. ... HIV Envelope Protein gp160 D12.776.964.775.325.380 D12.776.964.775.325.164.374. D12.776.964.970.880.325.380 D12.776.964.775. ...
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, ... "Cobra Venoms" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cobra Venoms" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cobra Venoms" by people in Profiles. ...
D4.75.80.875.99.221.750.625.150 Cobra Neurotoxins D12.776.831.244 (Replaced for 2008 by Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins) Cocaine ... E7.695.680 Protein Isoprenylation G6.535.797.500 (Replaced for 2008 by Protein Prenylation) Protein-Tyrosine-Phosphatase D8.811 ... Replaced for 2008 by Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins) Discrete Subaortic Stenosis C14.280.955.249.70.210 DNA Adducts G5.180.104 DNA ... E5.478.594.385 HIV Core Protein p24 D12.776.964.775.350.400 D12.776.964.775.350.362.500 D12.776.964.970.600.850.350.400 D12.776 ...
Cobalt Isotopes N0000166124 Cobalt Radioisotopes N0000168399 Cobamides N0000171449 Cobra Neurotoxins N0000171447 Cobra Venoms ... N0000169241 HMGB3 Protein N0000169206 HMGN Proteins N0000169207 HMGN1 Protein N0000169208 HMGN2 Protein N0000171143 HN Protein ... HMGA Proteins N0000169231 HMGA1a Protein N0000169233 HMGA1b Protein N0000169232 HMGA1c Protein N0000169234 HMGA2 Protein ... Protein Precursors N0000170932 Protein S N0000170621 Protein Sorting Signals N0000169154 Protein Subunits N0000168186 Protein- ...
These are three-fingered alpha-neurotoxins, characteristic of all asps, including mambas and cobras. They cause flaccid ... It has proteins and peptides of different types, with a wide variety of structures, functions and biological objectives. Some ... They analyzed data on long three-toed alpha-neurotoxins stored in the Medically Useful Snakes database. Of 60 billion human ...
Really, it comes down to these proteins. You find the protein and need to neutralize it from doing other things to the body. ... This wasnt actually a cobra, so I said that it was not going to work, but it was tried, and in fact, it did not work. We were ... Our medical books describe that there are heme toxins (you bleed to death) or neurotoxins (youre paralyzed). ... The proteins are so different geographically. If you have the same species in a different location or the food is a little bit ...
This is the first report showing unique neuritogenesis potency of Indian Cobra N. naja venom long-chain α-neurotoxin (Nn-α- ... protein, and up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, as well as executer protein caspase-7 to induced ... The LC-MS/MS analysis did not identify any protein in NCBI protein database, nevertheless some de novo sequences of Ruviapyrase ... and down-regulation of expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL and heat-shock proteins (HSP-90 and HSP-70). Rusvinoxidase ...
Human monoclonal ScFv neutralize lethal Thai cobra, Naja kaouthia, neurotoxin, Journal of Proteomics, 10.1016/j.jprot.2008.12. ... americana protein that contained the mimotope/epitope to MAb38G6 was a pan-insect protein. This protein was previously shown to ... protein-protein BLAST) software (NCBI 2005 ), it was revealed that the mimotope had an 83-100% identity with various proteins ... The protein in the gel plug at spot 2 (the most intense protein spot) was also subjected to MS-PMF. The MS profile of the ...
Neuromuscular transmission in the Chinese cobra Naja naja atra was not affected by its own toxin (cobrotoxin) at a conce... ... Neutralization of cobra venom by cocktail antiserum against venom proteins of cobra (Naja naja naja).. ... SNAKE neurotoxins of the a-type, such as a-bungarotoxin (a-BuTX) and cobrotoxin bind selectively to acetylcholine receptors ( ... Characterization of a cytotoxin-like basic protein from the cobra (Naja naja naja) venom. ...
Venom-gland transcriptome and venom proteome of the Malaysian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).. Tan CH; Tan KY; Fung SY; Tan NH ... 1. A Transcriptomic Approach to the Recruitment of Venom Proteins in a Marine Annelid.. Rodrigo AP; Grosso AR; Baptista PV; ... remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.. von Reumont BM; Blanke A; Richter ...
PhTx neurotoxin family [63], ion-channel inhibitory toxin (Pfam_domain Toxin_12), and Na/K-Atpase Interacting protein [64] ( ... The Indian Cobra Reference Genome and Transcriptome Enables Comprehensive Identification of Venom Toxins. Nat. Genet. 2020, 52 ... This protein shows similarities to both a K+ Channel blocker and a pore-forming protein such as the Beta-defensin [88]. In fact ... 2.5.5. The U-Nemertotoxin-3: Agelenin-like Proteins, a New Toxin?. The Lineus sanguineus mucus presented peptides of a protein ...
Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. Although enzymes play an important role, the ... neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. ...
Neuronal selectivity of botulinum neurotoxins. 23. Ochratoxin A as an alarming health threat for livestock and human: A review ... Protein cross-linking in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes by dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids: Structure-toxicity relationship ... Species-specific and geographical variation in venom composition of two major cobras in Indian subcontinent: Impact on ... Proteins from Rhinella jimi parotoid gland secretion: A comprehensive analytical approach. 7. ...
... changes in heat shock protein 70 and small heat shock proteins indicated an adjustment in the cellular production of proteins. ... They include the neurotoxins; anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s) and saxitoxins plus the hepatotoxins; microcystins, nodularins and ... Determination of DNA methylation by COBRA: A comparative study of CGE with LIF detection and conventional gel electrophoresis. ... PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 11 2006. Dirk Benndorf Dr.. Abstract Pseudomonas putida,KT2440 is often ...
HN - 2024 (2004) BX - Robo Proteins BX - Robo-1 Protein BX - Robo1 Protein BX - Roundabout 1 Protein MH - Second Generation ... Venomous snakes are most often members of ELAPIDAE (e.g., cobras) including sea snakes in HYDROPHIINAE and VIPERIDAE (e.g., ... Many polyether marine toxins are ionophores and neurotoxins and responsible for seafood poisoning. HN - 2024 BX - Marine ... Connexin 32 Protein BX - Cx32 Protein BX - Gap Junction B1 BX - Gap Junction beta1 Protein BX - GJB1 Protein MH - Gap Junction ...
Cobra (naja) alpha-toxin, like a-BTX, is a selective neuromuscular blocker in the mammal, and appears to label the same sites ... 1987). These and related findings show that a family of genes exists that codes for proteins similar to, but not identical with ... Evidence of DA control comes from the observation that the catecholamine neurotoxin, 6-OHDA, when injected into the DA-rich ...
There has been in recent years concern that care in the NHS has not been sufficiently patient centred, or responsive to the needs of the patient on a case basis. It has been felt in care that it as been the patient who has had to adapt to the regime of care, rather than the other way around. Putting patients at the centre of care means being responsive to their needs and supporting them through the process of health care delivery. Patients should not become identikit sausages in a production line. The nurses body, the Nursing and Midwifery Council has responded to this challenge with a revised code of practice reflection get changes in health and social care since the previous code was published in 2008. The Code describes the professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses and midwives. Four themes describe what nurses and midwives are expected to do: prioritise people practise effectively preserve safety, and promote professionalism and trust. The ...
... blood stool blood protein disorder,blood protein disorder botulinum neurotoxin E,botulinum neurotoxin E botulinum neurotoxin F, ... Vibrio Cholera Cytotoxin-Like Basic Protein (Cobra Venom),Cytotoxin-Like Basic Protein (Cobra Venom) DJS - Dubin Johnson ... Protein 27, Heat-Shock Protein 55,Protein 55 Protein AA,Protein AA Protein AA, Amyloid,Protein AA, Amyloid Protein ADP,ATP ... HSV 1 Protein VP 16 HSV 1 Protein VP16,HSV 1 Protein VP16 HSV-1 Protein VP-16,HSV-1 Protein VP-16 HSV-1 Protein VP16,HSV-1 ...
AXIAL CLOTS TACKLER TACKLES CODAS CLOUT AUTOSENSITIVITY CLOWN COMPOSTING COATI EDICT ARBITRATIONS COBOL BOLOMETER COAST COBRA ... OBELIZE INTERVIEWER COPRA DELPHINIA CORER FAMES MACHICOLATION BELLYBUTTON PSYCHOSOMATICS BUNCH CRAPS DITTY APPRENTICE PROTEINS ... SIDESLIPPED ADRENALECTOMY ZINCIFY TEMPERATENESS ACETABULUM SPERMICIDAL NEUROTOXIC GRANULATES OXBLOODS UNFAILING NEUROTOXIN ... READJOURNS VISIBILITY SHANTIES MCCLELLAN ISOIMMUNIZATION HOROLOGIES CODGER COATRACK COASTS LIFEWAY WEAKENERS HASTENED COBRAS ...
... blood stool blood protein disorder,blood protein disorder botulinum neurotoxin E,botulinum neurotoxin E botulinum neurotoxin F, ... Vibrio Cholera Cytotoxin-Like Basic Protein (Cobra Venom),Cytotoxin-Like Basic Protein (Cobra Venom) DJS - Dubin Johnson ... Protein 27, Heat-Shock Protein 55,Protein 55 Protein AA,Protein AA Protein AA, Amyloid,Protein AA, Amyloid Protein ADP,ATP ... HSV 1 Protein VP 16 HSV 1 Protein VP16,HSV 1 Protein VP16 HSV-1 Protein VP-16,HSV-1 Protein VP-16 HSV-1 Protein VP16,HSV-1 ...
  • The neurotoxic effects of cobra venom are reversible, though motor recovery may take up to 7 days - and as many as 10 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Coagulopathy is not an expected feature of bites by most cobras, though prolonged bleeding and failure of clot retraction have been reported following bites by African spitting cobras and anticoagulant proteins have been identified in the venom of the African ringhals ( Hemachatus haemachatus ). (medscape.com)
  • Waglerins are polypeptide isolated through the venom of TNF HO-3867 manufacture South Asian snake comprising 22C24 proteins and including one disulfide bridge. (bioinf.org)
  • Huwentoxin is usually a neurotoxic peptide purified from your venom from the Chinese language parrot spider (Egyptian cobra)Muscle mass [ 140]CM10, CM12, CM-13b, CM-14(Eastern Jameson's mamba)Muscle mass [ 143]S6C4(jamesons mamba)67% series identification with Bucandin. (bioinf.org)
  • At the heart of the mongoose's resistance to venom is a specialized protein called "mongoose acetylcholine receptor. (mystart.com)
  • This protein has an altered shape that prevents neurotoxins found in snake venom from binding effectively. (mystart.com)
  • They produce a venom that is composed of a variety of proteins, including enzymes, peptides, and proteins that act on the nervous system. (reptileszilla.com)
  • Its venom is composed of a variety of proteins, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. (reptileszilla.com)
  • Each species of venomous reptile has its own unique venom, composed of a variety of proteins, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. (reptileszilla.com)
  • For example, the venom of the Gila monster has been used to treat type 2 diabetes, while the venom of the king cobra has been used to treat hypertension. (reptileszilla.com)
  • Naja Melanoleuca Venom (Forest Cobra Venom ) is a snake venom derived from Naja Melanoleuca , exhibiting hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. (targetmol.com)
  • Most venom components appear to bind to multiple physiologic receptors, and attempts to classify venom as toxic to a specific system (eg, neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra, is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A mitochondrial DNA study of Asiatic cobras in the subgenus Naja showed the Caspian cobra diverged from a lineage that gave rise to the monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) and the Andaman cobra (Naja sagittifera) around 3.21 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definitive therapy for cobra envenomation is antivenom administration. (medscape.com)
  • during this period, the subspecific names N. naja oxiana and N. naja caeca were applied to plain-scaled populations of N. naja from the north of India as well as populations corresponding to the Caspian cobra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Confusions may exist with the Indian cobra (Naja naja), as specimens without a hood mark are usually confused with this species, and these two species coexist in Pakistan and northern India. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana) is never fully black, although some specimens may be quite dark. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Caspian cobra (N. oxiana) normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of the Indian cobra (N. naja) from Pakistan, almost the entire throat is black. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of envenomation involving cobra species in Thailand (Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis, and Naja sumatrana). (bvsalud.org)
  • Members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as 'true' cobras. (scientificlib.com)
  • They are not true cobras in that they do not belong to the genus Naja, but instead each belong to monotypic genera Hemachatus (the rinkhals)[1] and Ophiophagus (the king cobra/hamadryad). (scientificlib.com)
  • Fang structure is variable, all species except the Indian cobra (Naja naja) and Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana) have some degree of adaptation to spitting. (scientificlib.com)
  • these are abundant with a variety of short-chain and long-chain postsynaptic neurotoxins that bind to nAChR in skeletal muscle tissue and produce face and bulbar paralysis. (bioinf.org)
  • Weak neurotoxins type the band of three fingered poisons comprising 62-68 amino acidity residues with five disulfide bridges seen as a low toxicity. (bioinf.org)
  • Baltic German naturalist Karl Eichwald described the Caspian cobra originally as Tomyris oxiana in 1831. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maximum lengths for some of the larger species of cobras are around 3.1 m (10 ft), with the forest cobra arguably being the longest species. (scientificlib.com)
  • Some venoms are closely related to digestive enzymes, like those found in saliva, while others are more similar to immune system proteins designed to fight off invading bacteria. (nerdfighteria.info)
  • Cobra envenomation is an extremely variable process. (medscape.com)
  • Described by Karl Eichwald in 1831, it was for many years considered a subspecies of the Indian cobra until genetic analysis revealed it to be a distinct species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several other elapid species are also called 'cobras', such as the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and the rinkhals (Hemachatus haemachatus), but neither are true cobras. (scientificlib.com)
  • Neurotoxins are proteins that act on the nervous system, causing paralysis and death. (reptileszilla.com)
  • Reports of death within 1 hour of cobra bite exist, but a timeframe of 2-6 hours is more typical of fatal cases. (medscape.com)
  • Neurological effects and intubation were significantly more common after a monocled cobra bite than after a spitting cobra bite. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hemotoxins are proteins that act on the blood, causing tissue damage and organ failure. (reptileszilla.com)
  • Cytotoxins are proteins that act on cells, causing cell death and tissue damage. (reptileszilla.com)
  • They're also both the only true non-spitting cobras in Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has proteins and peptides of different types, with a wide variety of structures, functions and biological objectives. (thefanatic.net)
  • Neuromuscular transmission in the Chinese cobra Naja naja atra was not affected by its own toxin (cobrotoxin) at a concentration of as high as 100 pM, while in the frog a concentration of less than 0.1 pM cobrotoxin depressed the amplitude of the end-plate potential to less than 10% of its original value within 30 min or directly blocked the nerve-evoked muscle action potential. (docksci.com)
  • SNAKE neurotoxins of the a-type, such as a-bungarotoxin (a-BuTX) and cobrotoxin bind selectively to acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in the post functional membrane of vertebrate skeletal muscles. (docksci.com)
  • two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms. (nih.gov)
  • Cobra Venoms" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Cobra Venoms" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cobra Venoms" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Cobra Venoms" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our medical books describe that there are heme toxins (you bleed to death) or neurotoxins (you're paralyzed). (medscape.com)
  • neu5Ac synthase and tyrosine phosphatase of Drosophila melanogaster , and a putative protein of Drosophila pseudoobscura . (nih.gov)
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, peptide mass fingerprinting, and BLAST search were used to identify the P. americana protein containing the MAb-specific epitope. (nih.gov)
  • They analyzed data on long three-toed alpha-neurotoxins stored in the Medically Useful Snakes database. (thefanatic.net)
  • To identify high-affinity interactions between long-chain α-neurotoxins and nicotinic receptors, we determined the crystal structure of the complex between α-btx (α-bungarotoxin) and a pentameric ligand-binding domain constructed from the human α7 AChR (acetylcholine receptor) and AChBP (acetylcholine-binding protein). (nih.gov)
  • We conducted this study to identify and characterize the P. americana allergenic protein. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, our results revealed that P. americana arginine kinase is a pan-insect protein and a major CR allergen for CR-allergic Thai patients. (nih.gov)