Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Arenaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Conus Snail: A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.

Postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxin gene of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix: structure, organization, and phylogenetic analysis. (1/98)

The venom of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix contains highly potent alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) in addition to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cardiotoxin (CTX). In this study, we report the complete characterization of three genes that are responsible for the synthesis of three isoforms of alpha-NTX in the venom of a single spitting cobra. DNA amplification by long-distance polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR) and genome walking have provided information on the gene structure including their promoter and 5' and 3' UTRs. Each NTX isoform is approximately 4 kb in size and contains three exons and two introns. The sequence homology among these isoforms was found to be 99%. Two possible transcription sites were identified by primer extension analysis and they corresponded to the adenine (A) nucleotide at positions +1 and -45. The promoter also contains two TATA boxes and a CCAAT box. Putative binding sites for transcriptional factors AP-2 and GATA are also present. The high percentage of similarity observed among the NTX gene isoforms of N. n. sputatrix as well as with the alpha-NTX and kappa-NTX genes from other land snakes suggests that the NTX gene has probably evolved from a common ancestral gene.  (+info)

Binding of nucleotide triphosphates to cardiotoxin analogue II from the Taiwan cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Elucidation of the structural interactions in the dATP-cardiotoxin analogue ii complex. (2/98)

Snake venom cardiotoxins have been recently shown to block the enzymatic activity of phospholipid protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase. To understand the molecular basis for the inhibitory effects of cardiotoxin on the action of these enzymes, the nucleotide triphosphate binding ability of cardiotoxin analogue II (CTX II) from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom is investigated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional NMR. CTX II is found to bind to all the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) with similar affinity. Detailed studies of the binding of dATP to CTX II indicated that the toxin molecule is significantly stabilized in the presence of the nucleotide. Molecular modeling, based on the NOEs observed for the dATP.CTX II complex, reveals that dATP binds to the CTX II molecule at the groove enclosed between the N- and C-terminal ends of the toxin molecule. Based on the results obtained in the present study, a molecular mechanism to account for the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase is also proposed.  (+info)

Dual effect of cobra cardiotoxin on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. (3/98)

AIM: To assess the cytotoxic effects of cobra cardiotoxin (CTX) on rat aorta. METHODS: Measure of contractility of aortic rings with or without endothelium. RESULTS: In endothelium-intact rings, CTX 10 mumol.L-1 induced a transient relaxation followed by a sustained contraction. Removal of the endothelium or pre-incubation of the rings with NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished the transient relaxation but did not affect the magnitude of the contractile response induced by CTX. CTX itself induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle but also reduced contractions induced by phenylephrine (PhE) or KCl stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Contraction induced by CTX was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. Maximal contractile response to CTX was obtained in medium containing Ca2+ 1 mmol.L-1. This response decreased with higher Ca2+ concentration and disappeared when Ca2+ 7 mmol.L-1, organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers were present in the external solution before CTX addition. In preparations with the endothelium intact and incubated with CTX, relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation of the tension induced by PhE was decreased. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was preserved when Ca2+ 5 mmol.L-1 was added to the medium prior to CTX. CONCLUSION: CTX first triggers the release of NO from the endothelium which results in muscle relaxation, and then causes smooth muscle contraction, Ca2+ and Ca2+ channel blockers prevented the effect of CTX.  (+info)

Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja naja oxiana in aqueous solution: spatial structures with tightly bound water molecules. (4/98)

1H-NMR spectroscopy data, such as NOE intraprotein and (bound water)/protein contacts, 3J coupling constants and deuterium exchange rates were used to determine the in-solution spatial structure of cytotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana snake venom (CTII). Exploiting information from two 1H-NMR spectral components, shown to be due to cis/trans isomerization of the Val7-Pro8 peptide bond, spatial structures of CTII minor and major forms (1 : 6) were calculated using the torsion angle dynamics algorithm of the DYANA program and then energy refined using the FANTOM program. Each form, major and minor, is represented by 20 resulting conformers, demonstrating mean backbone rmsd values of 0.51 and 0.71 A, respectively. Two forms of CTII preserve the structural skeleton as three large loops, including two beta-sheets with bend regions, and demonstrate structural differences at loop I, where cis/trans isomerization occurs. The CTII side-chain distribution constitutes hydrophilic and hydrophobic belts around the protein, alternating in the trend of the three main loops. Because of the Omega-shaped backbone, formed in participation with two bound water molecules, the tip of loop II bridges the tips of loops I and III. This ensures the continuity of the largest hydrophobic belt, formed with the residues of these tips. Comparison revealed pronounced differences in the spatial organization of the tips of the three main loops between CTII and previous structures of homologous cytotoxins (cardiotoxins) in solution.  (+info)

In vivo satellite cell activation via Myf5 and MyoD in regenerating mouse skeletal muscle. (5/98)

Regeneration of adult skeletal muscle is an asynchronous process requiring the activation, proliferation and fusion of satellite cells, to form new muscle fibres. This study was designed to determine the pattern of expression in vivo of the two myogenic regulatory factors, Myf5 and MyoD during this process. Cardiotoxin was used to induce regeneration in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of heterozygous Myf5-nlacZ mice, and the muscles were assayed for the presence of (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) and MyoD. Adult satellite cells identified by M-cadherin labelling, when activated, initially express either MyoD or Myf5 or both myogenic factors. Subsequently all proliferating myoblasts express MyoD and part of the population is (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) positive. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated satellite cells, which express either Myf5 or MyoD, do not accumulate selectively on fast or slow muscle fibres.  (+info)

Activation of high levels of endogenous phospholipase A2 in cultured cells. (6/98)

Activatable cellular phospholipase A2 (PLase; phosphatide 2-acyl-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4) has been proposed to constitute the first and rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis and to regulate membrane function by altering the levels in the membrane of the detergent lipids lysolecithin and free fatty acids. We have observed that a wide variety of cells in culture contain high levels of endogenous PLase that can be activated by polypeptide toxins, such as melittin purified from bee venom and direct lytic factor purified from the venom of African Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus hemachatus). Activation of PLase by sublytic concentrations of these agents results in the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Melittin concentrations greater than or equal to 10 microgram/ml activate sufficient PLase in 3T3-4a mouse fibroblasts to hydrolyze 10% of the cellular lecithin in less than 5 min and virtually all of it within 30 min, demonstrating the existence of sufficient activatable PLase to provide the basis for the proposed mechanism of regulation of membrane function by alteration of membrane lipid composition. Lipases, phospholipases B and C, and sphingomyelinases are not activated by melittin. The PLase activated in 3T3-4a cells exhibits little, if any, specificity for individual phosphoglycerides. The PLase activated by direct lytic factor exhibits a Ca2+ dependence characteristic of lysosomal PLase, wherease the Ca2+ dependence of PLase activated by melittin is consistent with the activation of a cell-surface enzyme. The extent of cell death correlates with percent of maximal PLase activation.  (+info)

Myogenic stem cell function is impaired in mice lacking the forkhead/winged helix protein MNF. (7/98)

Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF) is a winged helix transcription factor that is expressed selectively in myogenic stem cells (satellite cells) of adult animals. Using a gene knockout strategy to generate a functional null allele at the Mnf locus, we observed that mice lacking MNF are viable, but severely runted. Skeletal muscles of Mnf-/- animals are atrophic, and satellite cell function is impaired. Muscle regeneration after injury is delayed and incomplete, and the normal timing of expression of cell cycle regulators and myogenic determination genes is dysregulated. Mnf mutant mice were intercrossed with mdx mice that lack dystrophin and exhibit only a subtle myopathic phenotype. In contrast, mdx mice that also lack MNF die in the first few weeks of life with a severe myopathy. Haploinsufficiency at the Mnf locus (Mnf+/-) also exacerbates the mdx phenotype to more closely resemble Duchenne's muscular dystrophy in humans. We conclude that MNF acts to regulate genes that coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells after muscle injury. Animals deficient in MNF may prove useful for evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions to promote muscle regeneration for patients having Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins. (8/98)

The aim of the present study is to understand the structural features responsible for the lethal activity of snake venom cardiotoxins. Comparison of the lethal potency of the five cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the venom of Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) reveals that the lethal potency of CTX I and CTX V are about twice of that exhibited by CTX II, CTX III, and CTX IV. In the present study, the solution structure of CTX V has been determined at high resolution using multidimensional proton NMR spectroscopy and dynamical simulated annealing techniques. Comparison of the high resolution solution structures of CTX V with that of CTX IV reveals that the secondary structural elements in both the toxin isoforms consist of a triple and double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet domains. Critical examination of the three-dimensional structure of CTX V shows that the residues at the tip of Loop III form a distinct "finger-shaped" projection comprising of nonpolar residues. The occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection leads to the formation of a prominent cleft between the residues located at the tip of Loops II and III. Interestingly, the occurrence of a backbone hydrogen bonding (Val27CO to Leu48NH) in CTX IV is found to distort the "finger-shaped" projection and consequently diminish the cleft formation at the tip of Loops II and III. Comparison of the solution structures and lethal potencies of other cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom shows that a strong correlation exists between the lethal potency and occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection at the tip of Loop III. Critical analysis of the structures of the various CTX isoforms from the Taiwan cobra suggest that the degree of exposure of the cationic charge (to the solvent) contributed by the invariant lysine residue at position 44 on the convex side of the CTX molecules could be another crucial factor governing their lethal potency.  (+info)

*KCNIP1

"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 1 also known as KChIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP1 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP1 Kv channel interacting protein 1". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...

*KCNIP2

"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochemical and ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (Aug 2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochemical and ... Kv channel-interacting protein 2 also known as KChIP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP2 Kv channel interacting protein 2". Burgoyne RD (Mar 2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...

*KCNIP4

"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP4 Kv channel interacting protein 4". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...

*Chinese cobra

"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... A cobra moving along a wall. Back of a Chinese cobra. A Chinese cobra in a defensive posture. Ji, X. & Li, P. (2014). Naja atra ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in southern ... Using I-labelled cobra venom (Naja atra), 1 μg/g mice, its isolated I-neurotoxin (0.2 μg/g) or cardiotoxin (4 μg/g), it has ...

*Equatorial spitting cobra

Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snakes venom protein. This species presented an IV LD50 of 0.50 µg/g mouse. http://www. ... Equatorial spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana) also called the black spitting cobra, Malayan spitting cobra, golden spitting cobra ... Like other cobra species, this snake possesses postsynaptic neurotoxic venom. The venom may also consist of cardiotoxins and ... The venom of the Equatorial spitting cobra exhibited the common characteristic enzymatic activities of Asiatic spitting cobra ...

*Javan spitting cobra

However, the main components of its venom are cardiotoxins with cytotoxic activity. In fact, polypeptide cardiotoxins make up ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix) also called the southern Indonesian cobra, or Indonesian cobra, is a stocky and ... "The Asiatic Cobra Systematics Page". Asiatic Cobras. Bangor University. Retrieved 22 December 2011. O'Shea, Mark (2005). ...

*Cardiotoxin III

... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixteen amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja naja ... Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c. This protein belongs ... Yang SH, Chien CM, Lu MC, Lu YJ, Wu ZZ, Lin SR (July 2005). "Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13. ...

*King cobra

Pung, Y.F.; Kumar, S.V.; Rajagopalan, N.; Fry, B.G.; Kumar, P.P.; Kini, R.M. (2006). "Ohanin, a novel protein from king cobra ... Rajagopalan, N.; Pung, Y.F.; Zhu, Y.Z.; Wong, P.T.H.; Kumar, P.P.; Kini, R.M. (2007). "β-Cardiotoxin: A new three-finger toxin ... They can be distinguished from other cobras by size and hood. King cobras are generally larger than other cobras, and the ... Cobra stones or gems or pearls are believed to develop from the cobra's hood. Stuart, B.; Wogan, G.; Grismer, L.; Auliya, M.; ...

*List of dangerous snakes

"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the Naja genus. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The Cape cobras venom is made up of potent postsynaptic neurotoxins and might also contain cardiotoxins, that affect the ... The forest cobra is one of the least frequent causes of snake bite among the African cobras, this is largely due to its forest- ...

*Spotlight Innovation

The company also licensed a cardiotoxin therapy for acute and chronic nephropathy in 2015. In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech ... a protein found in South American rattlesnake venom, that could cause cell death in malignant cancer cells. Crotoxin was tested ... for rights to develop and commercialize analgesic products for the treatment of chronic pain utilizing active ingredient cobra ... agreement with Atlanta-based Emory University to study the viability of the cell-penetrating peptide Crotamine-a protein found ...

*Elapidae

Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not. The type ... Their venom is mainly neurotoxic, although many of them also possess several other types of toxins, including cardiotoxins and ... Good molecular evidence via karyotyping, protein electrophoretic analysis, immunological distance, DNA sequence analysis, and ... Additionally, some large-sized elapids, such as the Asiatic king cobra, African black mamba, forest cobra, and Australasian ...

*Three-finger toxin

In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... These cardiotoxins also often have generalized cytotoxic effects and are sometimes known as cytolysins. The protein targets in ... Others, including the second-largest 3FTx subgroup, are cardiotoxins. Many of the most well-characterized 3FTx proteins exert ... Because 3FTx proteins of similar structure bind a diverse range of cellular protein targets, the relationships between 3FTx ...

*Snake venom

The king cobra, which does prey on cobras is said to be immune to their venom. The hedgehog (Erinaceidae), the mongoose ( ... The main challenge, however, is to deliver protein to the nerve cells as proteins usually are not applicable as pills. The ... Snake example: Okinawan habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) Cardiotoxins: Cardiotoxins are components that are specifically toxic ... Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. A complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and ...

*Mamba

... s and cobras are in the same family: the Elapidae. Like cobras, a mamba may rear and form a hood as part of its threat ... Their venoms consist mostly of neurotoxins (known as dendrotoxins). Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry cardiotoxins and ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606. CS1 maint: Uses authors ... Typically also, a rearing mamba tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. Stories of black mambas ...

*Caspian cobra

In addition to nonenzymatic proteins, the venom also contains nucleases, which cause tissue damage at the site of the bite and ... S. (1999). "Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja naja oxiana in aqueous solution. Spatial structures with tightly ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, Oxus cobra or Russian cobra, a member of the family ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ...

*Jameson's mamba

Like other mambas it is capable of flattening its neck in mimicry of a cobra when it feels threatened and its body shape and ... Its other components include cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. Its venom may also have hemotoxic and myotoxic components to it. ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... "cobra" or simply "snake", in particular "snake with hood (shield)". Via Latin aspis, it is the source of the English word "asp ...

*Western green mamba

Mortality rates are also higher among green mamba bite victims than with cobra bite victims. Although bites by Dendroaspis ... The venom consists mainly of both pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, and fasciculins. The toxicity of ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... Its venom is a highly potent mixture of rapid-acting presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins and ...

*Eastern green mamba

The venom consists of both neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. The toxicity of individual specimens can vary greatly based on several ... "cobra" or simply "snake", in particular "snake with hood (shield)". Via Latin aspis, it is the source of the English word "asp ... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. doi:10.1006/mpev. ... The venom consists of both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins (dendrotoxins), cardiotoxins, calcicludine, and ...

*Black mamba

It also is likely to form a hood by spreading its neck-flap as cobras do. The mamba's hood however, is narrower than that of a ... ISBN 978-0-86622-522-9 Stocker, Kurt F. (1990). Medical Use of Snake Venom Proteins. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-5846-3 Mebs, ... The black mamba's venom is composed of neurotoxins (dendrotoxin) and cardiotoxins as well as other toxins such as fasciculins. ... "cobra" or simply "snake", in particular "snake with hood (shield)". Via Latin aspis, it is the source of the English word "asp ...
Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced membrane pore formation is one of the major mechanisms responsible for...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
In this study, we have shown that Id-mutant mice, unlike Id3-null mice, display a muscle regeneration phenotype using the cardiotoxin-induced TA muscle regeneration paradigm. The Id1 and Id3 proteins were markedly upregulated in the injured skeletal muscle of WT mice within 24 h, as were BMPR-II and pSmad1/5/8. Hindlimb injection of the BMP antagonist Noggin reduced the amounts of pSmad1/5/8 and both Id1 and Id3 at 24 h after cardiotoxin injury, suggesting that BMP signaling was responsible for their expression. These proteins were also expressed in the satellite cell-derived myogenic cell line C2C12 (3) when actively proliferating as myoblasts, but were all reduced on differentiation into myotubes. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 were all detectable in the nuclei of many Pax7+ myoblasts in the injured mouse hindlimb at day 3 post-cardiotoxin injection. Finally, we showed that the Id-mutant mice, but not Id3-null mice, displayed a reduced number of ...
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins ...
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Pulmonary and systemic vascular effects of three stable prostaglandin (PG) I2 analogs were studied in normoxic and hypoxic conscious newborn lambs. The three agents were : (5E)-6a-carba-PGI2 (analog I); 9-deoxy-9 alpha, 6-nitrilo-PGF1 hydrochloride (analog II); and (2E,5S)-9-deoxy-5,9 alpha-epoxy-13,14-dihydro-delta 1-PGF1 (analog III). Each component was injected into either a branch pulmonary artery or the ascending aorta. Locally induced alterations in pulmonary vascular tone were assessed from changes in the ratio of blood flow to the injected lung over total flow (delta Qinj/Qt). Each compound was a systemic vasodilator, with thresholds from 1 to 3 micrograms/kg. However, analog III was without local pulmonary vasoactivity, and analog I was a pulmonary vasodilator only at the highest dose used (30 micrograms/kg) and in hypoxic lambs. Analog II, in contrast, was a pulmonary vasodilator in both hypoxic (threshold = 3 micrograms/kg) and normoxic (threshold = 10 micrograms/kg) lambs. Moreover, ...
MiR-206 is a muscle specific miRNA involved in muscle development and myogenesis. Importantly its function was mostly associated to muscle regeneration by the down-regulation of several target genes triggered during muscle repair (Pax7, Cx43 and Utrn). In order to better characterize the function of miR-206 in muscle remodelling, we induced acute muscle damage in control mice by injecting cardiotoxin (CTX) in the tibialis (TA) of c57bl mice. We isolated single muscle fiber from injected TA and quantified by absolute Realt-Time PCR (Q-PCR) the expression levels of miR-206. Furthermore in situ hybridization experiments on tissue slices of damaged TA were performed in order to localized miR-206. Data obtained highlighted the over-expression of miR-206 in newly formed and regenerating myofibers, demostrating the association of miR-206 with muscle regeneration. Furthermore, a target-gene prediction-analysis for miR-206 was performed by using 6 different computational algorithms (PITA, TargetScan, ...
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Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channels. However, it remains unknown whether it has any effects on K+ currents. The effects of ACO on ion currents in differentiated clonal cardiac (H9c2) cells and in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were investigated in this study. In H9c2 cells, ACO suppressed ultrarapid-delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur) in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. The IC50 value for ACO-induced inhibition of IKur was 1.4μM. ACO could accelerate the inactivation of IKur with no change in the activation time constant of this current. Steady-state inactivation curve of IKur during exposure to ACO could be demonstrated. Recovery from block by ACO was fitted by a single-exponential function. The inhibition of IKur by ACO could still be observed in H9c2 cells preincubated with ruthenium red (30μM). Intracellular dialysis with ACO (30μM) had no effects on IKur. IKur elicited by ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
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African villagers and experts alike fear the intense pain and suffering the mamba inflicts on its victims. Its poison is neuro-toxic. Unlike most poisonous snakes where the venom travels slowly through the blood stream, allowing a victim time to get treatment and to isolate the poison using a tourniquet, the black mambas poison goes straight for the nerves, attacking the central nervous system and shutting down major organs. Twenty minutes after being bitten you may lose the ability to talk. After one hour youre probably comatose, and by six hours, without an antidote, you are dead.. When feeling very threatened, the Black Mamba usually delivers multiple strikes, injecting its potent neuro- and cardiotoxin with each strike, often attacking the body or head, unlike most other snakes. It can strike up to 12 times in a row. A single bite from a Black Mamba can inject enough venom to kill up to 10-25 grown men, easily killing one unless the appropriate anti-venom is administered in time. When ...
1%, and that the cardiovascular adverse events that occur are manageable when recognized and treated. Imatinib remains a potential cardiotoxin, and the cardiac consequences of its long-term use remain unknown. We recommend treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in imatinib treated patients according the American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heart failure, along with frequent monitoring of signs/symptoms of heart failure.. ...
Objective: This study elucidates the protective effects of propolis against CTX-induced changes in mice. Materials and methods: Forty-eight male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups; group 1 was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 200 µL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS), group 2 was injected with 100 mg/kg/d propolis, group 3 was injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg), and group 4 was injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg) followed by propolis (100 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After 12 d, mice were bled and then sacrificed to analyze the hematological, biochemical, and histological parameters ...
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One thing Hasbro has grown quite good at in recent years is reusing old parts. Be it a mold from 1982 or one from last week, its a pretty safe bet that if its in good working order, youll have a few opportunities to get it. For this line of Joe toys, Hasbro is going back to the well quite frequently. Several figures use parts from Duke, and this red ninja uses parts from both Storm Shadows, which are basically the same figure anyway. The good news, though, is that its one of the better molds in the line. While the Cobra Red Ninja cant sit down perfectly normally due to some obstruction in the hips, he can sit well enough to pilot some vehicles. For example, we crammed him in the recently released direct-to-consumer Cobra H.I.S.S. vehicle and he had no problems fitting right in the drivers seat. Hes not too tall, and fitting him inside didnt require awkward repositioning. Since the figures file card indicates hes a specialist in vehicle operations, its good to know that he can actually ...
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Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
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good morning all, this morning I finally got the Cobra Commander golden trait upon testing it the damage is barely there also the tooltip say 6 secs the snake poison/DPS barely even lasted a full 2 secs is anyone else seeing this issue?
Tiryaka Bhujangasana or twisting Cobra Pose makes the spine flexible and strong. It aso corrects postural defects and improves lung capacity.
Dnes som sa rozhodol, že vás oboznámim s albumom To Hell, pomerne neznámej kapely Cobra z ďalekého Peru. Toto zoskupenie funguje na scéne už od roku 2005 a na konte má dva oficiálne albumy. To Hell, o ktorom je […]. ...
Cobra (Shelby AC) The Shelby AC Cobra was built from 1961 to 1967 and still remains one of the most recognized and sought after sports cars in the World. This one is not as simple, but the Cobra story begins with the British car builder AC Cars in the early 60s; they were using a Bristol straight 6 engine in their small two-seater cars. Carroll Shelby sent a request to AC asking if they would modify one of the cars to fit a V8 under the hood and AC accepted the challenge. After some dead ends with Chevy, Carroll finally got Ford to deliver him one of their new 260 cubic in. V8s (a new lightweight high performance small block V8 engine) to be installed in the car. As testing and development continued it was easy to see how this car was going to be something special. These cars would go on to set records and win a ton of races……making Carroll Shelby a house hold name! Now what did Carroll intend to call this new little hot-rod? The name Cobra is said to have come to Carroll in a dream, he ...
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Great interview found here, with lots of new information from spokesman for the Resitance, Cobra. There is another interview on his website (from Golfish report, I think....)but I found it so hard to hear and understand. THIS ONE is clearly stated, both question and answer. Highlights: information about Russia and its origins Kruschv made the deal with…
New Padded Cheek Riser / Rest For Skeleton Stocks - posted in Cobras Custom: FINALLY ITS DONE! Woot! Introducing- A brand new product Ive been trying to get around to putting together for a couple of years now, but simply havent had any spare time. Between Racegal and her Moms seamstress skills, and my idea for a cool new product I feel is badly needed, we have finally come up with a design I think is pretty cool. It is currently adaptable to fit and easily instal...
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melee weapon, never used any mod figured someone could use it for a project. Make you cut something nice with it. If you can send me a pm if you use it. I would love to see it in action. Thanks everyone!
The Ford SVT Mustang Cobra (also known as SVT Mustang Cobra, SVT Cobra, or simply as Cobra) is a muscle car/pony car model that was built in model years 1993 through 2004 by Ford Motor Companys Special Vehicle Team division (or SVT, for short). The SVT Cobra was a high-performance version of the Ford Mustang, considered as top-of-the-line as it was positioned above the Mustang GT and Mach 1 models during its era of production. On three occasions, the race-ready, street-legal SVT Cobra R variant was produced in limited numbers. The SVT Cobra was succeeded by the 2007 Shelby GT500. Although the GT500 was built by SVT and wears a Cobra emblem, it is not considered an SVT Cobra, as the car is licensed by Shelby and does not have "Cobra" in its model name or description. The 1993 Ford Mustang SVT Cobra was launched during the 1992 Chicago Auto Show. It was the premier vehicle of Fords newly established SVT division, designed to showcase SVTs four hallmarks of Performance, Substance, Exclusivity ...
The NGF (nerve growth factor) from Naja sputatrix has been purified by gel filtration followed by reversed-phase HPLC. The protein showed a very high ability to induce neurite formation in PC12 cells relative to the mouse NGF. Two cDNAs encoding isoforms of NGF have been cloned and an active recombinant NGF, sputa NGF, has been produced in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged fusion protein. Sputa NGF has been found to be non-toxic under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. The induction of neurite outgrowth by this NGF has been found to involve the high-affinity trkA-p75NTR complex of receptors. The pro-survival mechanism of p75NTR has been mediated by the activation of nuclear factor κB gene by a corresponding down-regulation of inhibitory κB gene. Real-time PCR and protein profiling (by surface-enhanced laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight) have confirmed that sputa NGF up-regulates the expression of the endogenous NGF in PC12 cells. Preliminary microarray analysis has also shown that ...
Naja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes known as cobras. Several other genera include species commonly called cobras (for example the ring-necked spitting cobra and the king cobra), but members of the genus Naja are the most widespread and the most widely recognized as "true" cobras. Various species occur in regions throughout Africa, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Until recently, the genus Naja had 20 to 22 species, but it has undergone several taxonomic revisions in recent years, so sources vary greatly. Wide support exists, though, for a 2009 revision that synonymised the genera Boulengerina and Paranaja with Naja. According to that revision, the genus Naja now includes 32 species. The origin of this genus name is from the Sanskrit nāga (with a hard "g") meaning "snake". Some hold that the Sanskrit word is cognate with English "snake", Germanic: *snēk-a-, Proto-IE: *(s)nēg-o-, but this is unlikely. Mayrhofer calls this etymology "unglaubhaft ", "not credible", and ...
King cobras mate early in the year, starting in January and continuing through March. The female lays twenty to fifty eggs which are laid in April through June. Adult cobras will stay with their mate for the rest of the season, and it is thought that they may mate with the same individual each year. Both parents will work together to guard the nest. This nest is special because it is made up of two chambers. The bottom chamber contains the eggs while the top one houses the parents who protect the eggs. Because king cobras , as with all other reptiles, do not produce their own heat, the cobra eggs are incubated by the heat produced by rotting vegetation in the nest. Sixty to ninety days after being laid, the eggs hatch, and the parents leave the nest soon before they hatch. Some scientists think this is because the female may have been fasting for months and does not want to be tempted to eat her own young. At birth, the young king cobras are only around fifteen inches (38 cm) long, but their ...
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Acute pain and sense of oppression at the chest, as though a hot iron had been run in and a hundredweight put on the top of it. Cholera , in the collapse stage, with pulselessness and difficulty of breathing. In heart cases: Depression and lowness about the heart. Frequent sensation of swelling or choking ;grasping at throat with the choking sensations in the throat. Diphtheria with impending paralysis of heart indicates Naja, but the characteristic left to right direction of Lach. does not appear in the Naja provings. ...
... LMP: / / EDD: / / U/S: @ EGA on / + cwd (or f cwd) (if not cwd, then â EDD: / / / CC: in patients own words HPI: Pt is a 24 yo G4P2012 @ 376/7 weeks who presents to obs ed c/o ctxs q 5 mins. Pt reports ± FM. Address the following: ± Vaginal bleeding, ± leakage of fluid/ROM (at what time and consistency i.e. clear, green), ± D/C, ± dysuria (If elevated BPs be sure to document, pertinent positive and negatives i.e. HA, blurry vision, RUQ pain) Summary of prenatal course thus far or any complications/high risk conditions during pregnancy and management: Pt with + PNC with Tulane OB since 10 weeks (or pt with no PNC, limited PNC, 1 obs visit), uncomplicated. Or complicated by chronic hypertension. Her BPss throughout pregnancy have been in mild range, not requiring any BP medications. Her baseline laboratory workup and end-organ workup were negative. She has been in antenatal testing since 32 weeks and fetus has remained reassuring with normal amniotic ...
Universal McCann has resigned its Cobra beer assignment with immediate effect, but declined to explain its reasons. McCann-Erickson will continue to handle creative advertising, however.
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We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
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King Cobra venom is primarily neurotoxic, but somewhat necrotoxic as well. You can see proof of the latter by asking various snake handlers at the King Cobra shows in Thailand where each scar on their hands came from. I have seen three instances where king cobra bites have caused necrosis at the bite site. Some, fairly severe. Still, its the potent neurotoxic venom that will kill you, and when treating a King Cobra bite, thats the main focus. Forget about the fact that you might lose some skin or muscle. Think about the fact that you need to slow the absorption of the venom into your body so it doesnt stop your diaphragm or heart from working.. ...
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This is the terrifying moment when a huge cobra snake invades a house in Malaysia after slithering up through a door to make its way inside.
Hi everyone! Tina and Kate had the brilliant idea of Yoga Pose May where they assigned bloggers a specific pose for each day of May! Mine is the Cobra pose, and I realized this is sort of late, but I was on a flight from Los Angeles to Taipei Taiwan. Right now it is Monday,…
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The experimental work will be focused on the development and optimization of a process for pulse plating metals on stainless steel bipolar plates to obtain high quality coatings of low ICR values as required by fuel cell industry. The optimization of forward-reverse cycling will allow the tailoring of the roughness, the uniformity and conformability of the obtained coatings. The pulse plating bath composition will also be studied and optimized to obtain the best performance.. As Au is a very expensive metal, COBRA also envisages the development of protective coating systems consisting of a pulse plated non-noble metal underlayer and a sol-gel topcoat ...
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I usually say Im part cobra. Its useful becuase if youre ever about to get into a fight with a guy you can say, "Im part fucking cobra!" and put your palms up on the sides of your neck and flap em around and make that "tttfttftftftftf" tongue sound the guy makes in Silence of the Lambs and it should freak the other guy out. In theory.. ...
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Animal blood systems also do biological MNF. Here blood MNF. Man is engines also do big time. Man first found at her to do it via a steam cycle. So MNF initiated the industrial revolution. Nature is not worried that the hydrogen was being compounds. We do get molecular fragments. From water we must get helium, oxygen, gamma wave radiation and heat. Power with no carbon dioxide ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive skeletal muscle degeneration. Inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB), and more specifically the p65 subunit, significantly improves the phenotype of mdx mice, a murine DMD model. However, the ubiquity of NF-κB stands as an obstacle to clinical translation. In this dissertation, we explore the roles of NF-κB/p65 in the regenerative capacity of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) with the goal of identifying alternative approaches to DMD treatment. We found that both cell proliferation and myogenic potential were increased in MDSCs lacking one allele of p65 (p65+/-). In wild type MDSCs, in vitro pharmacologic inhibition of the upstream activating kinase, IKKβ, increased myotube formation in a dose-dependent manner. When transplanted into mdx hind limb muscle, p65+/- MDSCs resulted in significantly larger engraftments. Furthermore, engraftments in cardiotoxin (CTX) injured muscle were ...
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Cobra Gore-Tex (Touring/ADV Boots). The final boot in the Cobra series is the Cobra Gore-Tex™, which features a highly breathable, waterproof Gore-Tex™ membrane that keeps your feet at a cool, comfortable temperature, eve
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Pugh, R.N.; Theakston, R.D.; Reid, H.A., 1980: Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, XIII. Epidemiology of human encounters with the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis, in the Malumfashi area of northern Nigeria
All species in the genus Naja are capable of delivering a fatal bite to a human. Most species have strongly neurotoxic venom, which attacks the nervous system, causing paralysis, but many also have cytotoxic features which cause swelling and necrosis, and have a significant anticoagulant effect. Some also have cardiotoxic components to their venoms. Several Naja species, referred to as spitting cobras, have a specialized venom delivery mechanism, in which their front fangs, instead of releasing venom through the tips (similar to a hypodermic needle), have a rifled opening in the front surface which allows the snake to propel the venom out of the mouth. While typically referred to as "spitting", the action is more like squirting. The range and accuracy with which they can shoot their venom varies from species to species, but it is used primarily as a defense mechanism. Once sprayed onto a victims skin, the venom acts as a severe irritant. If it is introduced to the eye, it can cause a severe ...
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Tempers flared as the temperature increased at Civic Field Saturday. The heated rivalry between the Bellingham Blitz and the Tacoma Cobras reached the boiling point as both teams struggled to keep their cool. Penalties stifled the Blitz offensive machine early as the Cobras took an early 21-0 lead in the first quarter. The Blitz fired back with two touchdowns and a safety to bring the score to 21-16 at the half. However Tacoma rallied and scorched the Blitz in the second half winning the game and securing home-field throughout the playoffs. Final score: 44-25. Click here ...
This study suggests that COBRA-light therapy may be a feasible alternative to COBRA in the first 6 months of treatment. As the CI of the observed difference in ΔDAS44 includes the predefined clinically relevant threshold of 0.5, we are unable to claim non-inferiority fully. However, when analyses were performed with a two-sided 90% CI, or when DAS44 was calculated with CRP, the CI of the ITT and per-protocol analyses are within the predefined threshold of 0.5. The results were consistent across the secondary outcomes, with some trends even favouring COBRA-light (eg, ACR/EULAR remission and ACR50 and ACR70 responses), and only the ESR proved significantly lower in the COBRA arm. In fact, this difference in ESR is the main driver for the observed difference in ΔDAS44 between the groups. In addition, no differences were seen in the safety profile. In other words, COBRA-light therapy seems to be equally effective and safe but has the advantage that it incorporates a lower initial dose of ...
You seem to have javascript disabled. Please note that many of the page functionalities wont work as expected without javascript enabled ...
DLA COBRA. Disestablish Defense Industrial Supply Center (DISC); added costs for delaying closure of Defense Personnel Support Center (DPSC). Box 70, 1A-006.
In order to perform a factory calibration you need have a Self-Support Kit (SSK). The SSK contains a calibration bar and the software required to complete the factory calibration. Without the kit you would need to schedule a support engineer to come to your facility to do the calibration or send the robot in to have it done. Usually a factory calibration is only required to be completed on a VME Cobra when the Robot Signature Card (RSC) in the back of the robot has been and the original RSC data is not available to re-install on the RSC ...
Laughing a lot at your response. I know EXACTLY how you feel ! I have to keep telling myself I am doing this for me. Even so I only manage the basic exercises twice a day, i try and do as many strectches as i can remember during the day but i just dont seem to find the time! I have decided to be more disciplined now. But jeez its hard work especially when you get some replies back, it seems that I am the only one that has time or energy issues. Its got 4 more months and then I am seriously going to look into the operation. By the way discovered this yesterday which may or may not be of use. You know when you have been sitting for a while and then you get up and every thing is tight so you walk like a 90 year old, try crossing you sciatic leg over your good leg for a minute or so before taking off. I seem to be able to walk better, must be the stretch that does it. Also try the Squats, I am told that this helps, do 10 a day and hold for 1 minute ...
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Started hunter a couple of weeks ago after finally getting him to 90 and love it. Its one of those classes I never got around to lvl and now that I did I am wondering y I never did it before. Anyways, I currently play MM because for some reason in my current gear it seems to be the one I am best ...
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c-MET Regulates Myoblast Motility and Myocyte Fusion during Adult Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Estech COBRA® Surgical System has been designed to create epicardial and endocardial lesions on the heart using temperature controlled radiofrequency (TCRF) ablation with the Estech COBRA surgical probes. Temperature control provides a meaningful endpoint, maintaining tissue at safe yet effective temperatures to produce the desired lesion set. Internal probe cooling and advanced suction helps to ensure reproducible transmural (full-thickness) endocardial or epicardial lesions ...
Business Overview. Citrix Systems, Inc (NASDAQ: CTXS) aims to power a world where people, organizations and things are securely connected and accessible to make the extraordinary possible. We help customers reimagine the future of work by providing the most comprehensive secure digital workspace that unifies the apps, data and services people need to be productive and simplifies ITs ability to adopt and manage complex cloud environments. With 2018 annual revenues of $2.9 US billion, Citrix solutions are used by more than 400,000 organizations globally including 99 percent of the Fortune 100 and 98 percent of the Fortune 500.. Citrix operates in the United Kingdom through its subsidiary Citrix Systems UK Limited to whom this statement relates.. Our Workforce. A substantial portion of our workforce consists of skilled labor. In addition, all employees hired by Citrix are subject to a background check.. Citrix also uses independent contractors. Because of the nature of the types of jobs performed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles of ionic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in membrane - Protein interactions. T2 - A surface plasmon resonance study on phospholipases A2. AU - Stahelin, Robert. AU - Cho, W.. PY - 2001/4/17. Y1 - 2001/4/17. N2 - The roles of cationic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in the membrane association and dissociation of five phospholipases A2 (PLA2), including Asp-49 PLA2 from the venom of Agkistodon piscivorus piscivorus, acidic PLA2 from the venom of Naja naja atra, human group IIa and V PLA2s, and the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2, were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Cationic interfacial binding residues of A. p. piscivorus PLA2 (Lys-10) and human group IIa PLA2 (Arg-7, Lys-10, and Lys-16), which mediate electrostatic interactions with anionic membranes, primarily accelerate the membrane association. In contrast, an aliphatic side chain of the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2 (Val-97), which penetrates into the hydrophobic core of the membrane and ...

Skeletal muscle formation  in mouse embryos. Myotome fo | Open-iSkeletal muscle formation in mouse embryos. Myotome fo | Open-i

Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/administration & dosage. *Electrophysiology. *Embryonic and Fetal Development/drug effects/genetics ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2139820_JCB.10913f1&req=4

KCNIP1 - WikipediaKCNIP1 - Wikipedia

"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 1 also known as KChIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP1 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP1 Kv channel interacting protein 1". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KCNIP1

KCNIP2 - WikipediaKCNIP2 - Wikipedia

"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochemical and ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (Aug 2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochemical and ... Kv channel-interacting protein 2 also known as KChIP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP2 Kv channel interacting protein 2". Burgoyne RD (Mar 2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KCNIP2

Role of Heparan Sulfates and Glycosphingolipids in the Pore Formation of Basic Polypeptides of Cobra Cardiotoxin | SpringerLinkRole of Heparan Sulfates and Glycosphingolipids in the Pore Formation of Basic Polypeptides of Cobra Cardiotoxin | SpringerLink

Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced ... Structures of heparin-derived tetrasaccharide bound to cobra cardiotoxins: Heparin binding at a single protein site with ... Non-cytotoxic cobra cardiotoxin A5 binds to avß3 integrin and inhibit bone resorption. Identification of cardiotoxins as nonRGD ... Possible mechanisms of action of cobra snake venom cardiotoxins and bee venom melittin. Toxicon 1993; 31:669-695.CrossRefPubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-6327-7_12

Nanocomputational Observation of Interaction of Two Cytotoxins and Nanobio Membrane: Molecular Dynamics Simulation StudyNanocomputational Observation of Interaction of Two Cytotoxins and Nanobio Membrane: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

Experimental observations have shown that cardio toxins (cobra cytotoxins), small proteins of three-fingered cytotoxin group, ... Molecular dynamics simulations have been used here to study the interaction of cardiotoxins A3 and A4 from Naja atra cobra ... Peripheral binding mode and penetration depth of cobra cardiotoxin on phospholipid membranes as studied by a combined FTIR and ... 1] Dubovskii, P.V., Lesovoy, D.M., Dubinnyi, M.A., Utkin, Y.N., Arseniev, A.S. (2003) Interaction of the P-type cardiotoxin ...
more infohttps://www.scientific.net/AMM.110-116.3888

Biomimetic engineered muscle with capacity for vascular integration and functional
         maturation in vivo.Biomimetic engineered muscle with capacity for vascular integration and functional maturation in vivo.

Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. Mice. Mice, Nude. Microvessels. Muscle Contraction. Muscle Development. Muscle, Skeletal. Tissue ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/8413

Lack of a fusion requirement for development of bone marrow-derived epithelia.  - PubMed - NCBILack of a fusion requirement for development of bone marrow-derived epithelia. - PubMed - NCBI

Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/pharmacology. *Elapid Venoms/pharmacology. *Epithelial Cells/cytology*. *Epithelial Cells/metabolism ... We use the Cre/lox system together with beta-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in transgenic mice ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15232107

Долгих Дмитрий Александрович - ИБХ РАНДолгих Дмитрий Александрович - ИБХ РАН

Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the three-finger protein ... G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) constitute one of the biggest families of membrane proteins. In spite of the fact that they ... Case study of cytotoxin I from cobra N. oxiana. Protein Expr. Purif. 130, 13-20 [+]. ... a retinal protein from Exiguobacterium sibiricum. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1857 (11), 1741-1750 [+]. A retinal protein from ...
more infohttp://www.ibch.ru/structure/groups/proteng/14

Коншина Анастасия Геннадьевна - ИБХ РАНКоншина Анастасия Геннадьевна - ИБХ РАН

Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. They are classified into S- and P-types, the latter ... Dubovskii P.V., Konshina A.G., Efremov R.G. (2014). Cobra Cardiotoxins: Membrane Interactions and Pharmacological Potential. ... Structurally different are cardiotoxins (or cytotoxins, СTs) from cobra venom. They are fully -structured molecules, ...
more infohttp://www.ibch.ru/structure/groups/lbm/433

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Orally Administrated Denatured Naja Naja Atra Venom on Murine Rheumatoid...Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Orally Administrated Denatured Naja Naja Atra Venom on Murine Rheumatoid...

According to the literature, the protein band of MW 7 KD contained cardiotoxin and neurotoxin [21, 22]. In contrast, heat ... cardiotoxin, cobra venom factor (CVF), and so forth. Our recent study has shown that cobratoxin suppressed inflammation and ... This molecular mass may include cardiotoxin and cobrotoxin, or some breakdown fragments from large molecular weight proteins. ... identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins," Protein Science, vol. 9, no ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/616241/

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins , Collagenases - genetics , Muscular Dystrophy, Animal - physiopathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase ... Adenovirus E1A Proteins - genetics , Adenovirus E1A Proteins - biosynthesis , Female , Mice , Genes, ras , Genetic Vectors , ... Recombinant Proteins - metabolism , Elastin - metabolism , Skin - metabolism , Humans , Recombinant Proteins - chemistry , ... JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases - metabolism , NF-kappa B - metabolism , I-kappa B Proteins - metabolism , Promoter ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:IV%20COLLAGENASE%20GELATINASE

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins , Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal - metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis ... Myosin heavy chain , Myogenin , Myocyte enhancer factor-2C , Mitogen-activated protein kinase , Akt , Tumor necrosis factor-α ... Proteins , Receptors , Tubulin , Clonal deletion , Neurodegeneration , Nerves , Deletion , Tumor necrosis factor-TNF , ... p21 , myocyte enhancer factor-2C , myosin heavy chain , PROTEIN-KINASE PATHWAY , PHYSIOLOGY , myogenin , UBIQUITIN LIGASE , ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Receptors,%20Tumor%20Necrosis%20Factor,%20Type%20II%20-%20deficiency

Toxicity of non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii isolated from the Tri An reservoirToxicity of non-microcystin producing Microcystis wesenbergii isolated from the Tri An reservoir

Beta cardiotoxin a novel protein isolated from the venom of ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) showing beta blocker activity * 246 ... Beta cardiotoxin a novel protein isolated from the venom of ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) showing beta blocker activity ... king cobra Structural and functional characterization of haditoxin, a novel neurotoxin isolated from the venom of ophiohagus ...
more infohttp://123doc.org/document/5912921-toxicity-of-non-microcystin-producing-microcystis-wesenbergii-isolated-from-the-tri-an-reservoir.htm

Arg3,14] CTX IV (3-14) - LKT LabsArg3,14] CTX IV (3-14) - LKT Labs

Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of ... Protein Sci. 2000 Apr;9(4):637-46. PMID: 10794406.. Jang JY, Krishnaswamy T, Kumar S, et al. Comparison of the hemolytic ... CTV IV is a cardiotoxin found in the venom of Naja naja atra cobras. ... activity and solution structures of two snake venom cardiotoxin analogues which only differ in their N-terminal amino acid. ...
more infohttps://lktlabs.com/product/arg314-ctx-iv-3-14/

Cobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in RatsCobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in Rats

Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ ... Total urinary protein concentration (grams per liter) was determined using the Bradford protein assay kit (Beyotime Institute ... Measurement of 24 h Urine Protein Output. For urine collection and total urinary protein determination, rats were placed in ... which is a lipid raft-like structure that contains multiple proteins [34]. Nephrin is now accepted as the essential SD protein ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/450581/

Most recent papers with the keyword Inclusion body snake | Read by QxMDMost recent papers with the keyword Inclusion body snake | Read by QxMD

Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the three-finger protein ... Towards universal approach for bacterial production of three-finger Ly6/uPAR proteins: Case study of cytotoxin I from cobra N. ... An antigenically unique 68 KDa protein was identified within the IBD inclusion bodies, called IBD protein... ... universal-approach-for-bacterial-production-of-three-finger-ly6-upar-proteins-case-study-of-cytotoxin-i-from-cobra-n-%C3%A2- ...
more infohttps://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/84817

The integrins | Genome Biology | Full TextThe integrins | Genome Biology | Full Text

... but individual integrins are also specific for particular protein ligands. Immunologically important integrin ligands are the ... Non-cytotoxic cobra cardiotoxin A5 binds to integrin alpha vbeta 3 and inhibits bone resorption: Identification of cardiotoxins ... which are protein modules present in a wide variety of signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. Phosphorylation of the tyrosine (Y ... actin-binding proteins, act as linker proteins to connect the cytoplasmic domains of integrins to the cytoskeleton, resulting ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2007-8-5-215

PDB 4om5 structure summary ‹ Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) ‹ EMBL-EBIPDB 4om5 structure summary ‹ Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) ‹ EMBL-EBI

Endocytotic Routes of Cobra Cardiotoxins Depend on the Spatial Distribution of Positively Charged and Hydrophobic Domains to ... Endocytotic Routes of Cobra Cardiotoxins Depend on the Spatial Distribution of Positively Charged and Hydrophobic Domains to ... Purification and Characterization of Nk-3FTx: A Three Finger Toxin from the Venom of North East Indian Monocled Cobra. Das et ... Naja naja oxiana Cobra Venom Cytotoxins CTI and CTII Disrupt Mitochondrial Membrane Integrity: Implications for Basic Three- ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/entry/pdb/4OM5

Modelling study of dimerization in mammalian defensins | BMC Bioinformatics | Full TextModelling study of dimerization in mammalian defensins | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text

Glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane insertion and internalization of cobra cardiotoxin. The sulfatide.cardiotoxin complex ... Canutescu AA, Shelenkov AA, Dunbrack RL Jr: A graph theory algorithm for protein side-chain prediction. Protein Science 2003, ... Fujii G, Selsted ME, Eisenberg D: Defensins promote fusion and lysis of negatively charged membranes. Protein Sci 1993, 2: 1301 ... In an attempt to understand how a protein so small and highly charged can overcome the gradient of charge-charge repulsions and ...
more infohttps://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-7-S5-S17

Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology EssaySnake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay

Cobras, mambas, sea snakes, kraits and coral snakes are known to possess this venom. The king cobras (ophiophagus hannah) are ... 2) Cardiotoxins:. Actually cardiotoxins are muscle venoms. They bind to particular sites on the surface of muscle cells causing ... Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay. Print Reference this *APA ... 2- Cobras use cobratoxin.. They often result in respiratory paralysis and heart failures. Their effect can range between mild ...
more infohttps://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/snake-venom-enzymes-proteins-substances-neurotoxic-effect-coagulants-biology-essay.php

Cytotoxin 3b precursor - Naja atra (Chinese cobra)Cytotoxin 3b precursor - Naja atra (Chinese cobra)

In addition, it binds to heparin with high affinity, interacts with Kv channel-interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) in a calcium- ... Cardiotoxin, Toxin. Biological process. Cytolysis. ,p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/ ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q98960

Natural Toxins 2 | SpringerLinkNatural Toxins 2 | SpringerLink

Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ... Binding Proteins on Synaptic Membranes for Certain Phospholipases A2 With Presynaptic Toxicity ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4613-0361-9

Print - Biology-OnlinePrint - Biology-Online

... of the proteins in Naja venom closely matched cobra proteins. These results demonstrate that the accuracy of protein ... Cardiotoxin. As shown in Table 1, the cardiotoxins are the most abundant components of Naja venom, with MMs ranging from 6.7 to ... Lane M, protein ladder; lane A, Naja venomous proteins; lane B, Agki venomous proteins. MM values are given in kDa. ... Although some identified proteins have diverse amino acid sequences, these proteins may belong to the same protein family, at ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/kb/print.php?aid=3407

Retinoic Acid Receptors - biobender.comRetinoic Acid Receptors - biobender.com

The third Malaysian cobra varieties is definitely or king cobra. venom offers identified proteins such as the three-finger ... cobra venom element (CVF), cardiotoxin, cytotoxin, and neurotoxin [36,37]. The proteomic characterization of venom recognized ... The common and unique venom proteins from are summarized in Number 1. Five proteins were found to be common to all three cobra ... or monocled cobra was formerly known as is definitely a spitting cobra LCL-161 supplier and it is the most common Elapid of the ...
more infohttp://biobender.com/category/retinoic-acid-receptors/

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 36-C: Animal and Plant ToxinsCLINICAL CHEMISTRY 36-C: Animal and Plant Toxins

Cardiotoxins/ cytotoxins. Act on membrane lipids/proteins of blood cells or heart cells. cobras, scorpions. ... Protein C activators. Premature activation of protein C in the coagulation cascade resulting in net anticoagulation. Vipers and ...
more infohttp://clinicalchemistry36-c.blogspot.com/2011/07/animal-and-plant-toxins.html
  • 80% of gel spots from 2DE displayed high-quality MALDI-TOF-MS spectra, only 50% of these spots were confirmed to be venom proteins, which is more than likely to be a result of incomplete protein databases. (biology-online.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Kv channel-interacting protein 1 also known as KChIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it binds to heparin with high affinity, interacts with Kv channel-interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) in a calcium-independent manner, and binds to integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV/ITGB3) with moderate affinity. (uniprot.org)
  • KCNIP1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lee SC, Guan HH, Wang CH. Structural basis of citrate-dependent and heparin sulfate-mediated cell surface retention of cobra cardiotoxin A3. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, the anti-arthritic activity of Indian monocellate cobra venom was also verified [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cobratoxin, a long-chain neurotoxin, from Thailand cobra venom has been demonstrated to have potent actions on inhibiting formalin-induced inflammatory pain [ 19 ] and adjuvant arthritis [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was identified as a general integrin-binding motif, but individual integrins are also specific for particular protein ligands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Members of the KCNIP family are small calcium binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an attempt to understand how a protein so small and highly charged can overcome the gradient of charge-charge repulsions and aggregate, we have begun a series of detailed investigations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously reported that cobratoxin (CTX), the long-chain α -neurotoxin from Thailand cobra venom, had anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects on adjuvant arthritis [ 6 ] and can relieve the formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest. (uniprot.org)
  • We use the Cre/lox system together with beta-galactosidase and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in transgenic mice to identify epithelial cells in the lung, liver, and skin that develop from BMDCs without cell fusion. (nih.gov)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • In the case of cobras, the percentage of dry bites may be quite high, 45% in one series of 47 cases from Malaysia. (medscape.com)
  • Meanwhile, CTX upregulated the protein level of podocyte-specific nephrin and downregulated the level of fibrosis-related TGF- β . (hindawi.com)