Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.

Postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxin gene of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix: structure, organization, and phylogenetic analysis. (1/98)

The venom of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix contains highly potent alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) in addition to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cardiotoxin (CTX). In this study, we report the complete characterization of three genes that are responsible for the synthesis of three isoforms of alpha-NTX in the venom of a single spitting cobra. DNA amplification by long-distance polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR) and genome walking have provided information on the gene structure including their promoter and 5' and 3' UTRs. Each NTX isoform is approximately 4 kb in size and contains three exons and two introns. The sequence homology among these isoforms was found to be 99%. Two possible transcription sites were identified by primer extension analysis and they corresponded to the adenine (A) nucleotide at positions +1 and -45. The promoter also contains two TATA boxes and a CCAAT box. Putative binding sites for transcriptional factors AP-2 and GATA are also present. The high percentage of similarity observed among the NTX gene isoforms of N. n. sputatrix as well as with the alpha-NTX and kappa-NTX genes from other land snakes suggests that the NTX gene has probably evolved from a common ancestral gene.  (+info)

Binding of nucleotide triphosphates to cardiotoxin analogue II from the Taiwan cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Elucidation of the structural interactions in the dATP-cardiotoxin analogue ii complex. (2/98)

Snake venom cardiotoxins have been recently shown to block the enzymatic activity of phospholipid protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase. To understand the molecular basis for the inhibitory effects of cardiotoxin on the action of these enzymes, the nucleotide triphosphate binding ability of cardiotoxin analogue II (CTX II) from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom is investigated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional NMR. CTX II is found to bind to all the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) with similar affinity. Detailed studies of the binding of dATP to CTX II indicated that the toxin molecule is significantly stabilized in the presence of the nucleotide. Molecular modeling, based on the NOEs observed for the dATP.CTX II complex, reveals that dATP binds to the CTX II molecule at the groove enclosed between the N- and C-terminal ends of the toxin molecule. Based on the results obtained in the present study, a molecular mechanism to account for the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase is also proposed.  (+info)

Dual effect of cobra cardiotoxin on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. (3/98)

AIM: To assess the cytotoxic effects of cobra cardiotoxin (CTX) on rat aorta. METHODS: Measure of contractility of aortic rings with or without endothelium. RESULTS: In endothelium-intact rings, CTX 10 mumol.L-1 induced a transient relaxation followed by a sustained contraction. Removal of the endothelium or pre-incubation of the rings with NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished the transient relaxation but did not affect the magnitude of the contractile response induced by CTX. CTX itself induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle but also reduced contractions induced by phenylephrine (PhE) or KCl stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Contraction induced by CTX was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. Maximal contractile response to CTX was obtained in medium containing Ca2+ 1 mmol.L-1. This response decreased with higher Ca2+ concentration and disappeared when Ca2+ 7 mmol.L-1, organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers were present in the external solution before CTX addition. In preparations with the endothelium intact and incubated with CTX, relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation of the tension induced by PhE was decreased. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was preserved when Ca2+ 5 mmol.L-1 was added to the medium prior to CTX. CONCLUSION: CTX first triggers the release of NO from the endothelium which results in muscle relaxation, and then causes smooth muscle contraction, Ca2+ and Ca2+ channel blockers prevented the effect of CTX.  (+info)

Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja naja oxiana in aqueous solution: spatial structures with tightly bound water molecules. (4/98)

1H-NMR spectroscopy data, such as NOE intraprotein and (bound water)/protein contacts, 3J coupling constants and deuterium exchange rates were used to determine the in-solution spatial structure of cytotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana snake venom (CTII). Exploiting information from two 1H-NMR spectral components, shown to be due to cis/trans isomerization of the Val7-Pro8 peptide bond, spatial structures of CTII minor and major forms (1 : 6) were calculated using the torsion angle dynamics algorithm of the DYANA program and then energy refined using the FANTOM program. Each form, major and minor, is represented by 20 resulting conformers, demonstrating mean backbone rmsd values of 0.51 and 0.71 A, respectively. Two forms of CTII preserve the structural skeleton as three large loops, including two beta-sheets with bend regions, and demonstrate structural differences at loop I, where cis/trans isomerization occurs. The CTII side-chain distribution constitutes hydrophilic and hydrophobic belts around the protein, alternating in the trend of the three main loops. Because of the Omega-shaped backbone, formed in participation with two bound water molecules, the tip of loop II bridges the tips of loops I and III. This ensures the continuity of the largest hydrophobic belt, formed with the residues of these tips. Comparison revealed pronounced differences in the spatial organization of the tips of the three main loops between CTII and previous structures of homologous cytotoxins (cardiotoxins) in solution.  (+info)

In vivo satellite cell activation via Myf5 and MyoD in regenerating mouse skeletal muscle. (5/98)

Regeneration of adult skeletal muscle is an asynchronous process requiring the activation, proliferation and fusion of satellite cells, to form new muscle fibres. This study was designed to determine the pattern of expression in vivo of the two myogenic regulatory factors, Myf5 and MyoD during this process. Cardiotoxin was used to induce regeneration in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of heterozygous Myf5-nlacZ mice, and the muscles were assayed for the presence of (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) and MyoD. Adult satellite cells identified by M-cadherin labelling, when activated, initially express either MyoD or Myf5 or both myogenic factors. Subsequently all proliferating myoblasts express MyoD and part of the population is (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) positive. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated satellite cells, which express either Myf5 or MyoD, do not accumulate selectively on fast or slow muscle fibres.  (+info)

Activation of high levels of endogenous phospholipase A2 in cultured cells. (6/98)

Activatable cellular phospholipase A2 (PLase; phosphatide 2-acyl-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4) has been proposed to constitute the first and rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis and to regulate membrane function by altering the levels in the membrane of the detergent lipids lysolecithin and free fatty acids. We have observed that a wide variety of cells in culture contain high levels of endogenous PLase that can be activated by polypeptide toxins, such as melittin purified from bee venom and direct lytic factor purified from the venom of African Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus hemachatus). Activation of PLase by sublytic concentrations of these agents results in the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Melittin concentrations greater than or equal to 10 microgram/ml activate sufficient PLase in 3T3-4a mouse fibroblasts to hydrolyze 10% of the cellular lecithin in less than 5 min and virtually all of it within 30 min, demonstrating the existence of sufficient activatable PLase to provide the basis for the proposed mechanism of regulation of membrane function by alteration of membrane lipid composition. Lipases, phospholipases B and C, and sphingomyelinases are not activated by melittin. The PLase activated in 3T3-4a cells exhibits little, if any, specificity for individual phosphoglycerides. The PLase activated by direct lytic factor exhibits a Ca2+ dependence characteristic of lysosomal PLase, wherease the Ca2+ dependence of PLase activated by melittin is consistent with the activation of a cell-surface enzyme. The extent of cell death correlates with percent of maximal PLase activation.  (+info)

Myogenic stem cell function is impaired in mice lacking the forkhead/winged helix protein MNF. (7/98)

Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF) is a winged helix transcription factor that is expressed selectively in myogenic stem cells (satellite cells) of adult animals. Using a gene knockout strategy to generate a functional null allele at the Mnf locus, we observed that mice lacking MNF are viable, but severely runted. Skeletal muscles of Mnf-/- animals are atrophic, and satellite cell function is impaired. Muscle regeneration after injury is delayed and incomplete, and the normal timing of expression of cell cycle regulators and myogenic determination genes is dysregulated. Mnf mutant mice were intercrossed with mdx mice that lack dystrophin and exhibit only a subtle myopathic phenotype. In contrast, mdx mice that also lack MNF die in the first few weeks of life with a severe myopathy. Haploinsufficiency at the Mnf locus (Mnf+/-) also exacerbates the mdx phenotype to more closely resemble Duchenne's muscular dystrophy in humans. We conclude that MNF acts to regulate genes that coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells after muscle injury. Animals deficient in MNF may prove useful for evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions to promote muscle regeneration for patients having Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins. (8/98)

The aim of the present study is to understand the structural features responsible for the lethal activity of snake venom cardiotoxins. Comparison of the lethal potency of the five cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the venom of Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) reveals that the lethal potency of CTX I and CTX V are about twice of that exhibited by CTX II, CTX III, and CTX IV. In the present study, the solution structure of CTX V has been determined at high resolution using multidimensional proton NMR spectroscopy and dynamical simulated annealing techniques. Comparison of the high resolution solution structures of CTX V with that of CTX IV reveals that the secondary structural elements in both the toxin isoforms consist of a triple and double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet domains. Critical examination of the three-dimensional structure of CTX V shows that the residues at the tip of Loop III form a distinct "finger-shaped" projection comprising of nonpolar residues. The occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection leads to the formation of a prominent cleft between the residues located at the tip of Loops II and III. Interestingly, the occurrence of a backbone hydrogen bonding (Val27CO to Leu48NH) in CTX IV is found to distort the "finger-shaped" projection and consequently diminish the cleft formation at the tip of Loops II and III. Comparison of the solution structures and lethal potencies of other cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom shows that a strong correlation exists between the lethal potency and occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection at the tip of Loop III. Critical analysis of the structures of the various CTX isoforms from the Taiwan cobra suggest that the degree of exposure of the cationic charge (to the solvent) contributed by the invariant lysine residue at position 44 on the convex side of the CTX molecules could be another crucial factor governing their lethal potency.  (+info)

Cobra cardiotoxin proteins are a type of toxin found in the venom of some cobra snakes. These toxins belong to a larger group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, due to their distinctive three-dimensional shape. Cardiotoxins are so named because they specifically target and disrupt the function of heart muscle cells, leading to serious cardiovascular symptoms such as abnormal heart rhythms, low blood pressure, and even heart failure in severe cases.

Cardiotoxins work by binding to and inserting themselves into the membrane of heart muscle cells, where they form pores that disrupt the electrical activity of the cells. This can lead to arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms, which can be life-threatening in severe cases. Cardiotoxins can also cause direct damage to heart muscle cells, leading to decreased contractility and reduced pumping efficiency of the heart.

Cobra cardiotoxin proteins are being studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the development of new drugs for the treatment of heart disease. However, they are also a significant medical concern in areas where cobra snakes are common, as their venom can cause serious and potentially fatal symptoms in humans and animals.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Cobra venoms are a type of snake venom that is produced by cobras, which are members of the genus Naja in the family Elapidae. These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that have evolved to help the snake immobilize and digest its prey.

Cobra venoms typically contain a variety of toxic components, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. Neurotoxins target the nervous system and can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. Hemotoxins damage blood vessels and tissues, leading to internal bleeding and organ damage. Cytotoxins destroy cells and can cause tissue necrosis.

The specific composition of cobra venoms can vary widely between different species of cobras, as well as between individual snakes of the same species. Some cobras have venoms that are primarily neurotoxic, while others have venoms that are more hemotoxic or cytotoxic. The potency and effects of cobra venoms can also be influenced by factors such as the age and size of the snake, as well as the temperature and pH of the environment.

Cobra bites can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to humans, depending on the species of cobra, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of a cobra bite, including the administration of antivenom therapy to neutralize the effects of the venom.

Cardiotoxins are substances or drugs that have a toxic effect on the heart muscle (myocardium), leading to impaired cardiac function and potentially causing serious complications such as arrhythmias, reduced contractility, and decreased cardiac output. Cardiotoxins can be found in certain animals, plants, and medications.

Animal-derived cardiotoxins include some venoms from snakes, spiders, and scorpions. For example, the venom of the Australian taipan snake contains a powerful cardiotoxin that can cause rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, and even cardiac arrest in severe cases.

Plant-derived cardiotoxins are found in some species of digitalis (foxglove), which have been used traditionally to treat heart conditions but can also be toxic if not administered correctly. The active compounds in digitalis, such as digoxin and digitoxin, affect the electrical activity of the heart by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump in cardiac muscle cells, leading to increased contractility and potentially causing arrhythmias.

Medications can also have cardiotoxic effects when used inappropriately or at high doses. Certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are known to cause cardiac damage and dysfunction, particularly with long-term use or when administered in high cumulative doses. These drugs can lead to a condition called "chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy," which is characterized by reduced heart function and increased risk of congestive heart failure.

Other medications that may have cardiotoxic effects include certain antibiotics (such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin), antifungal agents (such as amphotericin B), and illicit drugs (such as cocaine and methamphetamine).

It is essential to use cardiotoxic substances with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overexposure can lead to severe heart complications.

Cobra neurotoxin proteins refer to a group of toxic proteins found in the venom of cobra snakes. These toxins primarily affect the nervous system and cause paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death in prey or envenomed individuals. Cobra neurotoxins are classified as phospholipases A2 (PLA2) enzymes, which are capable of hydrolyzing membrane phospholipids and inducing various biological effects.

The two main types of cobra neurotoxin proteins are:

1. Short-chain neurotoxins: These toxins consist of 60-74 amino acid residues, with four disulfide bridges that stabilize their structure. They primarily interact with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis by preventing the binding of acetylcholine to its receptors.
2. Long-chain neurotoxins: These toxins contain 110-120 amino acid residues and have five disulfide bridges. They can be further divided into two subcategories:

a. Cardiotoxins: Although they primarily affect the heart, causing cardiac arrhythmias and decreased contractility, these toxins can also interact with nAChRs and contribute to neuromuscular paralysis.

b. Cytotoxins: These toxins mainly cause damage to various cell types by forming pores in the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis and death. They have minimal effects on the nervous system.

Understanding cobra neurotoxin proteins is essential for developing effective antivenoms and treatments for cobra envenomation.

"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in ... The Chinese cobra is a highly venomous member of the true cobras (genus Naja). The murine LD50 values of its venom are 0.29 mg/ ... The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). But it can be easily distinguished by virtue ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 1 also known as KChIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP1 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP1 Kv channel interacting protein 1". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochemical and ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (Aug 2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochemical and ... Kv channel-interacting protein 2 also known as KChIP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP2 Kv channel interacting protein 2". Burgoyne RD (Mar 2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP4 Kv channel interacting protein 4". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
... is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. CTX III is highly basic and hydrophobic protein. It is ... v t e (Protein articles without symbol, Vertebrate toxins, Peripheral membrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein ... Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan; Huang, Chung Chih; Chang, Ding Kwo; Yu, Chin (1994-01-27). "Cardiotoxin III from the Taiwan Cobra (Naja ... "Down-regulation of the JAK2/PI3K-mediated signaling activation is involved in Taiwan cobra cardiotoxin III-induced apoptosis of ...
Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snake's venom protein, higher than sympatric cobras: N. sputatrix (35%), N. siamensis (30 ... golden spitting cobra, Sumatran spitting cobra, or Palawan spitting cobra, is a species of spitting cobra found in Southeast ... The Equatorial spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana) also called the black spitting cobra, Malayan spitting cobra, ... Like other cobra species, this snake possesses postsynaptic neurotoxic venom. The venom also consists of cardiotoxins and ...
Using protein homology information and expression data from different tissues of the cobra, 23,248 protein-coding genes, 31,447 ... The Indian cobra's venom mainly contains a powerful post-synaptic neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. The venom acts on the synaptic ... The Indian cobra (Naja naja), also known commonly as the spectacled cobra, Asian cobra, or binocellate cobra, is a species of ... Indian cobra displaying an impressive hood Albino spectacled cobra Binocellate cobra Indian cobra outside a home in Yelandur, ...
However, the main components of its venom are cardiotoxins with cytotoxic activity. In fact, polypeptide cardiotoxins make up ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix), also called Indonesian cobra or Komodo spitting cobra, is a species of cobra in the ... The Javan spitting cobra is found mostly in tropical forests and wet forest, but the species adapts well to a wide variety of ...
... of total venom proteins. The abundance is much higher than that of most cobras which is usually less than 1%. This protein ... Rajagopalan, N.; Pung, Y. F.; Zhu, Y. Z.; Wong, P. T. H.; Kumar, P. P.; Kini, R. M. (2007). "β-Cardiotoxin: A new three-finger ... SVMPs are the second most protein family isolated from the king cobra's venom, accounting from 11.9% to 24.4% ... Killing a king cobra is punished with imprisonment of up to six years. In the Philippines, king cobras (locally known as ...
... is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... The 3FTx family consists of two major categories, neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. LNTX belongs to the neurotoxin family; other ... refers to the long-chain classification based on mature protein length of the neurotoxin, which is 66-79 amino acid residues ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
In addition to nonenzymatic proteins, the venom also contains nucleases, which cause tissue damage at the site of the bite and ... Two main toxins as well as a number of minor components and three basic polypeptides similar to cardiotoxins (CTXs) and ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra, is a species ... The Caspian cobra (N. oxiana) normally has several dark bands under the throat, whereas in the black phase of the Indian cobra ...
The company also licensed a cardiotoxin therapy for acute and chronic nephropathy in 2015. In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech ... a protein found in South American rattlesnake venom, that could cause cell death in malignant cancer cells. Crotoxin was tested ... for rights to develop and commercialize analgesic products for the treatment of chronic pain utilizing active ingredient cobra ... agreement with Atlanta-based Emory University to study the viability of the cell-penetrating peptide Crotamine-a protein found ...
In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... These cardiotoxins also often have generalized cytotoxic effects and are sometimes known as cytolysins. The protein targets in ... Lee SC, Lin CC, Wang CH, Wu PL, Huang HW, Chang CI, Wu WG (July 2014). "Endocytotic routes of cobra cardiotoxins depend on ... Others, including the second-largest 3FTx subgroup, are cardiotoxins. Many of the most well-characterized 3FTx proteins exert ...
An example is the three-fingered cardiotoxin III from Chinese cobra, an example of the short three-fingered family (InterPro: ... Pre-existing salivary proteins are the likely ancestors of most venom toxin genes. Expression of the new protein in the venom ... The king cobra, which does prey on cobras, is said to be immune to their venom. The hedgehog (Erinaceidae), the mongoose ( ... The main challenge, however, is how to deliver protein to the nerve cells: proteins usually are not applicable as pills. The ...
Cobras, mambas, and taipans are mid- to large sized snakes which can reach 2 m (6 ft 7 in) or above. The king cobra is the ... In 1997, Slowinski, Knight and Rooney found in their phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences from venom proteins, that ... Other toxic components in some species comprise cardiotoxins and cytotoxins, which cause heart dysfunctions and cellular damage ... Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not. The type ...
"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the genus Naja. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The Cape cobras venom is made up of potent postsynaptic neurotoxins and might also contain cardiotoxins, that affect the ... The forest cobra is one of the least frequent causes of snake bite among the African cobras. This is largely due to its forest- ...
... from certain toxic mushrooms Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra Hemotoxin, from vipers Many living organisms employ toxins ... They occur especially as proteins, often conjugated. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919) and ... "Genetic assembly and selective toxicity of diphtheria-toxin-related polypeptide hormone fusion proteins". Biochemical Society ... is derived from the word "toxic". Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on ...
Resembling a cobra, the threat display of a mamba includes rearing, opening the mouth and hissing. The black mamba's mouth is ... All mambas have medically significant venom, with dendrotoxins, short chain alpha-neurotoxins, cardiotoxins and fasciculins. ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606. Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology ... A rearing mamba has a narrower yet longer hood and tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. ...
It also is likely to hiss and spread its neck into a hood similar to that of the cobras in the genus Naja. During the threat ... In 2015, the proteome (complete protein profile) of black mamba venom was assessed and published, revealing 41 distinct ... Members of the three-finger family include alpha-neurotoxin, cardiotoxins, fasciculins and mambalgins. The most toxic ... First formally described by Albert Günther in 1864, it is the second-longest venomous snake after the king cobra; mature ...
"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in ... The Chinese cobra is a highly venomous member of the true cobras (genus Naja). The murine LD50 values of its venom are 0.29 mg/ ... The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). But it can be easily distinguished by virtue ...
... the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other ... similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia ( ... desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje speci... ... Complement-activating proteins. Complement-depleting cobra venom factor (CVF) activates the alternative complement pathway ...
Cobras, mambas, sea snakes, kraits and coral snakes are known to possess this venom. The king cobras (ophiophagus hannah) are ... 2) Cardiotoxins: Actually cardiotoxins are muscle venoms. They bind to particular sites on the surface of muscle cells causing ... The venom breaks down protein in the region of the bite, making prey easier to digest. Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You! ... Snake example: King Cobra and some other cobras 3) Haemotoxins: The toxin destroys red blood cells (erythrocytes). This symptom ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
A bacterial protein secreted out the inclusion into the host cytoplasm id labelled in red. ... Preliminary crystallographic study of the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody directed against a cobra cardiotoxin. ... study of the Fab fragments from a murine monoclonal anti-cardiotoxin antibody M gamma 2-3 directed against a cobra cardiotoxin ... Mutations affecting antigenic determinants of an outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli ...
Cardiotoxins (cytotoxins, CT) are β-structured proteins isolated from the venom of cobra. They consist of 59-61 amino acid ... The protein product of the expression was purified by affinity chromatography. Therefore, the real possibility of RibT protein ... The extracellular vesicles of bacteria mediate the traffic of proteins and genes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions, as ... The amino acid substitutions S277A and S336A destabilized the protein globule. The thermal stabilities of TvDAAO S77A and ...
The protein cardiotoxin from the southern Indonesian spitting cobra Naja sputatrix kills mammalian cells by cytolysis when it ... Annotation of cardiotoxin precursor, from N. sputatrix, using the GO terms cytolysis of cells of another organism ; GO:0051715 ... Annotation ID: A234567 GP: cardiotoxin precursor GO term: host cell cytoplasm ; GO:0030430 In another file, consisting of the ... Annotation ID: A123456 GP: cardiotoxin precursor GO term: cytolysis of cells of another organism ; GO:0051715 ...
The cytotoxic proteins in snake venoms can be divided into myotoxins that target skeletal muscle fibres and cardiotoxins which ... Cytotoxic proteins are found in all venom families but are particularly abundant in king cobra (Ophiophagus) and viper ( ... Some cytotoxic proteins attack multiple target groups at the same time, resulting in indiscriminate tissue death referred to as ... It can induce systemic blood loss by degrading the plasmin protein that helps clot the blood and by causing the vWF factor to ...
The major components in the venom are cytotoxins/cardiotoxins (~75.6% of total venom proteins) and alpha-neurotoxins (~7.4%), ... Neurological effects and intubation were significantly more common after a monocled cobra bite than after a spitting cobra bite ... Previous studies characterized the protein composition of its venom, with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) proteins the most abundant. ... Although antivenom is available for treatment of cobra envenomation, its neutralization potency against cobra-induced necrosis ...
... and cutting-edge omics helps to assemble the Indian cobra genome and may aid in the creation of an effective recombinant ... H3K4me3, SET Proteins, Isw1, and their Role in Transcription (Jane Mellor). * The Role of DNA Methylation in Epilepsy (Katja ... cardiotoxins and anticoagulants. Further, using Iso-seq (Isoform sequencing) the authors detected full-length transcript ... study has made it possible to identify new genes of the cobra venom-ome that encode the minimal core venom effector proteins. ...
Expression of glutathione S-transferase-cardiotoxin fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Chi, L.M., Vyas, A.A., Rule, G.S., Wu, ... Evidence is presented that cobra venom factor, the anticomplementary protein in Naja naja venom, is modified cobra C3 (the ... The complete amino acid sequence of a cardiotoxin from the venom of Naja naja (Cambodian Cobra). Fryklund, L., Eaker, D. ... Circular dichroism study of the unfolding-refolding of a cardiotoxin from Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom. Gałat, A., Yang ...
Proteins [D12.776] * Reptilian Proteins [D12.776.831] * Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins [D12.776.831.222] * Cobra Neurotoxin ... A super-family of non-enzymatic proteins found in ELAPIDAE VENOMS. They possess a unique tertiary structure resembling a hand ... A super-family of non-enzymatic proteins found in ELAPIDAE VENOMS. They possess a unique tertiary structure resembling a hand ... Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins [D23.946.833.850.325.180] * Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins [D23.946.833.850.325.200] ...
Dual effect of cobra cardiotoxin on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. Journal Articles ... Sensitivity to protein kinase C inhibitors of nicardipine‐insensitive component of high K+ contracture in rat and guinea‐pig ... Inhibition by multivalent cations of contraction induced by chinese cobra venom cardiotoxin in guinea pig papillary muscle ... Activation of Protein Kinase C as a Modulator of Potentiated UK-14304-Induced Contractions in Dog Mesenteric Artery and Vein ...
Sequence comparison and computer modelling of cardiotoxins and cobrotoxin isolated from Taiwan cobra.. Chiou, SH; Hung, CC; ... Quantitative proteomic and genomic profiling reveals metastasis-related protein expression patterns in gastric cancer cells.. ...
Mozambique Spitting Cobra. If they spit in your eye, wash it out with a LOT of water and seek medical advice. The venom is ... Their venom is a cardiotoxin and neurotoxin. Children have a matter of minutes if this snake bites them as the venom is very ... the hot water breaks down the proteins, which the sting is made up from). But if you are in any doubt contact a medical ...
Hung, M.C.; Pan, Y.H.; Cheng, K.L.; Chen, Y.H. 1978: The status of tyrosyl residues in a Formosan cobra cardiotoxin. Biochimica ... Müller, R.; Garrett, R.A.; Noller, H.F. 1979: The structure of the RNA binding site of ribosomal proteins S8 and S15. Journal ... Bohannon, D.E.; Kiorpes, T.C.; Wolf, G. 1979: The response of the acute-phase plasma protein alpha2-macroglobulin to vitamin a ... Gendel, S.M.; Fosket, D.E. 1978: The role of chromosomal proteins in the C-banding of Allium cepa chromosomes. Cytobios 22(87- ...
Serine-protein kinase ATM (Fragment). 17. Level 1 data-placement=left src=/Images/silver1.png />. ... Beta-cardiotoxin CTX9. 63. Level 1 data-placement=left src=/Images/silver1.png />. ... Proteoforms in 2016 Melani et al., Mol Cell Proteomics, King Cobra Venom *Home ... Cysteine-rich venom protein ophanin. 221. Level 1 data-placement=left src=/Images/silver1.png />. ...
Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. Although enzymes play an important role, the ... cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. ...
Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra. *Hemotoxin, from vipers. Weaponry[edit]. Many living organisms employ toxins offensively ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... They occur especially as proteins, often conjugated.[3] The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919)[4 ... "Genetic assembly and selective toxicity of diphtheria-toxin-related polypeptide hormone fusion proteins". Biochemical Society ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Targets Mitochondria to Disrupt Mitochondrial Membrane Structure and Function. Toxin. 2019; 11(3): 152. Doi: ... protein chemistry (protein structure/function, molecular mobility, subcellular localization, and stereochemistry), transgenic ... oxiana Cobra Venom Cytotoxins CTI and CTII Disrupt Mitochondrial Membrane Integrity: Implications for Basic. Three-Fingered ... Khomenko T, Deng XM, Jadus MR, Szabo S. Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal ...
  • The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in southern China and a couple of neighboring nations and islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chinese cobra is a highly venomous member of the true cobras (genus Naja). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is higher than mortality rates for Naja naja (the Indian cobra). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein cardiotoxin from the southern Indonesian spitting cobra Naja sputatrix kills mammalian cells by cytolysis when it enters the host cell cytoplasm. (geneontology.org)
  • For example, a neurotoxin isolated from the venom of a black-necked cobra (Naja and other genera) can directly disrupt the electrical impulses that nerves and muscles use to communicate. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Hemotoxic venom from sea snakes (Daboia russelii), cobras (Naja spp) and mambas (Dendroaspis spp) can directly damage nerves in the body. (scoiltrad.com)
  • This study investigated the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of envenomation involving cobra species in Thailand (Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis, and Naja sumatrana). (bvsalud.org)
  • According to Minton (1974), this cobra has a venom yield range of 150 to 200 mg (dry weight). (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurotoxic effects of cobra venom are reversible, though motor recovery may take up to 7 days - and as many as 10 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Coagulopathy is not an expected feature of bites by most cobras, though prolonged bleeding and failure of clot retraction have been reported following bites by African spitting cobras and anticoagulant proteins have been identified in the venom of the African ringhals ( Hemachatus haemachatus ). (medscape.com)
  • Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes and proteins which many of it not harmless to humans, but some are very toxic. (ukessays.com)
  • As mentioned, snake venom is modified saliva which contains a variety of proteins and enzymes. (ukessays.com)
  • Cardiotoxins (cytotoxins, CT) are β-structured proteins isolated from the venom of cobra. (actanaturae.ru)
  • This venom can kill reptiles within minutes by stopping the muscles that help them breathe, and the dead muscle cells clog the kidneys as they try to filter out the proteins. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Hemotoxic and neurotoxic venoms are two ends of a continuum, as most venomous snake species contain a mixture of the two types of proteins in their venom. (scoiltrad.com)
  • In addition, some venom proteins can inhibit platelet function and cause a "true" anticoagulant effect. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Cytotoxic proteins are found in all venom families but are particularly abundant in king cobra (Ophiophagus) and viper (Viperidae) venoms. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Snake venom is complex, containing a deadly concoction of proteins. (activemotif.jp)
  • The study presents high-quality genomic and transcriptomic information about the Indian cobra, making it possible to catalog venom-ome-specific toxins (VSTs) which are toxins that show venom-specific gland expression. (activemotif.jp)
  • Out of these, exclusive expression in the venom gland was reported for 19 toxin genes that likely encode core venom effector toxin proteins. (activemotif.jp)
  • Most venom components appear to bind to multiple physiologic receptors, and attempts to classify venom as toxic to a specific system (eg, neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The authors also presented information on structural modeling and functional diversity of a special group of snake proteins called 3FTxs (Three-finger toxins), broadly classified as neurotoxins, cytotoxins, cardiotoxins and anticoagulants. (activemotif.jp)
  • The venoms of most snake species are mixtures of hemotoxic and neurotoxic proteins. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Ecologically, the neurotoxic proteins in viper and rattlesnake venoms tend to focus on endothermic prey (like mammals, birds and other vertebrates) while hemotoxins dominate in ectothermic snake venoms like those of spitting cobras and adder family members. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Toxins can be small molecules , peptides , or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually all snake venoms contain cytotoxic proteins that disrupt cellular structures, causing local cell death or necrosis. (scoiltrad.com)
  • The cytotoxic proteins in snake venoms can be divided into myotoxins that target skeletal muscle fibres and cardiotoxins which target heart muscles. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We report on the preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of the Fab fragments from a murine monoclonal anti-cardiotoxin antibody M gamma 2-3 directed against a cobra cardiotoxin. (pasteur.fr)
  • Some cytotoxic proteins attack multiple target groups at the same time, resulting in indiscriminate tissue death referred to as cytotoxicity. (scoiltrad.com)
  • The extracellular vesicles of bacteria mediate the traffic of proteins and genes, participate in cell-to-cell interactions, as well as in the pathogenesis and development of resistance to antibiotics. (actanaturae.ru)
  • Cobra envenomation is an extremely variable process. (medscape.com)
  • The definitive therapy for cobra envenomation is antivenom administration. (medscape.com)
  • Local symptoms in victims caused by a Chinese cobra bite are wound darkening, localized redness and swelling, pain, insensibility, and invariably blisters and necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrosis is a serious problem in cases of cobra bite as it may persist for many years after the general recovery of the victim. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis to create a map of the Indian cobra genome, one of the "big four" medically important snakes for the pharmaceutical industry. (activemotif.jp)
  • Like other species of cobra, it is an oviparous snake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, the generated assembly allowed for gene mapping of the chromosomes, analysis of genomic features like GC content, and comparisons of the Indian cobra genome with other species for evolutionary studies by a process called whole-genome synteny comparison. (activemotif.jp)
  • It can induce systemic blood loss by degrading the plasmin protein that helps clot the blood and by causing the vWF factor to decrease. (scoiltrad.com)
  • A bacterial protein secreted out the inclusion into the host cytoplasm id labelled in red. (pasteur.fr)
  • Reports of death within 1 hour of cobra bite exist, but a timeframe of 2-6 hours is more typical of fatal cases. (medscape.com)
  • Neurological effects and intubation were significantly more common after a monocled cobra bite than after a spitting cobra bite. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sequence comparison and computer modelling of cardiotoxins and cobrotoxin isolated from Taiwan cobra. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • These proteins typically act by interacting with anionic phospholipid membranes, disrupting their structure and forming pores which lead to cell lysis, inactivation or depolarization of the cell. (scoiltrad.com)
  • Quantitative proteomic and genomic profiling reveals metastasis-related protein expression patterns in gastric cancer cells. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • A super-family of non-enzymatic proteins found in ELAPIDAE VENOMS . (nih.gov)
  • The Chinese cobra usually escapes to avoid confrontation with humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors determined that the Indian cobra has two complete sets of chromosomes from each parent totaling 19 pairs, among which 1 pair contains the sex chromosomes. (activemotif.jp)
  • Using a combination of various cutting-edge tools, including Hi-C for genome-wide chromatin conformation, the authors generated the near-chromosomal de novo genome assembly for the Indian cobra, and assigned portions of the genome, called scaffolds, to chromosomes. (activemotif.jp)
  • Data of patients who had been bitten by a cobra or inoculated via the eyes/skin in 2018-2021 were obtained from the Ramathibodi Poison Center. (bvsalud.org)
  • Chinese cobra), Zhōushān yǎnjìngshé (舟山眼鏡蛇, lit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chinese cobra is iridescent black with a number of distant transversal double lines of a yellow colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal color of the Chinese cobra is usually brown, grey or black, with or without narrow, light transverse lines at irregular intervals which are especially prominent in juveniles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dual effect of cobra cardiotoxin on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. (mcmaster.ca)