Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)

Postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxin gene of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix: structure, organization, and phylogenetic analysis. (1/98)

The venom of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix contains highly potent alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) in addition to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cardiotoxin (CTX). In this study, we report the complete characterization of three genes that are responsible for the synthesis of three isoforms of alpha-NTX in the venom of a single spitting cobra. DNA amplification by long-distance polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR) and genome walking have provided information on the gene structure including their promoter and 5' and 3' UTRs. Each NTX isoform is approximately 4 kb in size and contains three exons and two introns. The sequence homology among these isoforms was found to be 99%. Two possible transcription sites were identified by primer extension analysis and they corresponded to the adenine (A) nucleotide at positions +1 and -45. The promoter also contains two TATA boxes and a CCAAT box. Putative binding sites for transcriptional factors AP-2 and GATA are also present. The high percentage of similarity observed among the NTX gene isoforms of N. n. sputatrix as well as with the alpha-NTX and kappa-NTX genes from other land snakes suggests that the NTX gene has probably evolved from a common ancestral gene.  (+info)

Binding of nucleotide triphosphates to cardiotoxin analogue II from the Taiwan cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Elucidation of the structural interactions in the dATP-cardiotoxin analogue ii complex. (2/98)

Snake venom cardiotoxins have been recently shown to block the enzymatic activity of phospholipid protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase. To understand the molecular basis for the inhibitory effects of cardiotoxin on the action of these enzymes, the nucleotide triphosphate binding ability of cardiotoxin analogue II (CTX II) from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom is investigated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional NMR. CTX II is found to bind to all the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) with similar affinity. Detailed studies of the binding of dATP to CTX II indicated that the toxin molecule is significantly stabilized in the presence of the nucleotide. Molecular modeling, based on the NOEs observed for the dATP.CTX II complex, reveals that dATP binds to the CTX II molecule at the groove enclosed between the N- and C-terminal ends of the toxin molecule. Based on the results obtained in the present study, a molecular mechanism to account for the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase is also proposed.  (+info)

Dual effect of cobra cardiotoxin on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. (3/98)

AIM: To assess the cytotoxic effects of cobra cardiotoxin (CTX) on rat aorta. METHODS: Measure of contractility of aortic rings with or without endothelium. RESULTS: In endothelium-intact rings, CTX 10 mumol.L-1 induced a transient relaxation followed by a sustained contraction. Removal of the endothelium or pre-incubation of the rings with NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished the transient relaxation but did not affect the magnitude of the contractile response induced by CTX. CTX itself induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle but also reduced contractions induced by phenylephrine (PhE) or KCl stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Contraction induced by CTX was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. Maximal contractile response to CTX was obtained in medium containing Ca2+ 1 mmol.L-1. This response decreased with higher Ca2+ concentration and disappeared when Ca2+ 7 mmol.L-1, organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers were present in the external solution before CTX addition. In preparations with the endothelium intact and incubated with CTX, relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation of the tension induced by PhE was decreased. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was preserved when Ca2+ 5 mmol.L-1 was added to the medium prior to CTX. CONCLUSION: CTX first triggers the release of NO from the endothelium which results in muscle relaxation, and then causes smooth muscle contraction, Ca2+ and Ca2+ channel blockers prevented the effect of CTX.  (+info)

Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja naja oxiana in aqueous solution: spatial structures with tightly bound water molecules. (4/98)

1H-NMR spectroscopy data, such as NOE intraprotein and (bound water)/protein contacts, 3J coupling constants and deuterium exchange rates were used to determine the in-solution spatial structure of cytotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana snake venom (CTII). Exploiting information from two 1H-NMR spectral components, shown to be due to cis/trans isomerization of the Val7-Pro8 peptide bond, spatial structures of CTII minor and major forms (1 : 6) were calculated using the torsion angle dynamics algorithm of the DYANA program and then energy refined using the FANTOM program. Each form, major and minor, is represented by 20 resulting conformers, demonstrating mean backbone rmsd values of 0.51 and 0.71 A, respectively. Two forms of CTII preserve the structural skeleton as three large loops, including two beta-sheets with bend regions, and demonstrate structural differences at loop I, where cis/trans isomerization occurs. The CTII side-chain distribution constitutes hydrophilic and hydrophobic belts around the protein, alternating in the trend of the three main loops. Because of the Omega-shaped backbone, formed in participation with two bound water molecules, the tip of loop II bridges the tips of loops I and III. This ensures the continuity of the largest hydrophobic belt, formed with the residues of these tips. Comparison revealed pronounced differences in the spatial organization of the tips of the three main loops between CTII and previous structures of homologous cytotoxins (cardiotoxins) in solution.  (+info)

In vivo satellite cell activation via Myf5 and MyoD in regenerating mouse skeletal muscle. (5/98)

Regeneration of adult skeletal muscle is an asynchronous process requiring the activation, proliferation and fusion of satellite cells, to form new muscle fibres. This study was designed to determine the pattern of expression in vivo of the two myogenic regulatory factors, Myf5 and MyoD during this process. Cardiotoxin was used to induce regeneration in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of heterozygous Myf5-nlacZ mice, and the muscles were assayed for the presence of (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) and MyoD. Adult satellite cells identified by M-cadherin labelling, when activated, initially express either MyoD or Myf5 or both myogenic factors. Subsequently all proliferating myoblasts express MyoD and part of the population is (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) positive. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated satellite cells, which express either Myf5 or MyoD, do not accumulate selectively on fast or slow muscle fibres.  (+info)

Activation of high levels of endogenous phospholipase A2 in cultured cells. (6/98)

Activatable cellular phospholipase A2 (PLase; phosphatide 2-acyl-hydrolase, EC has been proposed to constitute the first and rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis and to regulate membrane function by altering the levels in the membrane of the detergent lipids lysolecithin and free fatty acids. We have observed that a wide variety of cells in culture contain high levels of endogenous PLase that can be activated by polypeptide toxins, such as melittin purified from bee venom and direct lytic factor purified from the venom of African Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus hemachatus). Activation of PLase by sublytic concentrations of these agents results in the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Melittin concentrations greater than or equal to 10 microgram/ml activate sufficient PLase in 3T3-4a mouse fibroblasts to hydrolyze 10% of the cellular lecithin in less than 5 min and virtually all of it within 30 min, demonstrating the existence of sufficient activatable PLase to provide the basis for the proposed mechanism of regulation of membrane function by alteration of membrane lipid composition. Lipases, phospholipases B and C, and sphingomyelinases are not activated by melittin. The PLase activated in 3T3-4a cells exhibits little, if any, specificity for individual phosphoglycerides. The PLase activated by direct lytic factor exhibits a Ca2+ dependence characteristic of lysosomal PLase, wherease the Ca2+ dependence of PLase activated by melittin is consistent with the activation of a cell-surface enzyme. The extent of cell death correlates with percent of maximal PLase activation.  (+info)

Myogenic stem cell function is impaired in mice lacking the forkhead/winged helix protein MNF. (7/98)

Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF) is a winged helix transcription factor that is expressed selectively in myogenic stem cells (satellite cells) of adult animals. Using a gene knockout strategy to generate a functional null allele at the Mnf locus, we observed that mice lacking MNF are viable, but severely runted. Skeletal muscles of Mnf-/- animals are atrophic, and satellite cell function is impaired. Muscle regeneration after injury is delayed and incomplete, and the normal timing of expression of cell cycle regulators and myogenic determination genes is dysregulated. Mnf mutant mice were intercrossed with mdx mice that lack dystrophin and exhibit only a subtle myopathic phenotype. In contrast, mdx mice that also lack MNF die in the first few weeks of life with a severe myopathy. Haploinsufficiency at the Mnf locus (Mnf+/-) also exacerbates the mdx phenotype to more closely resemble Duchenne's muscular dystrophy in humans. We conclude that MNF acts to regulate genes that coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells after muscle injury. Animals deficient in MNF may prove useful for evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions to promote muscle regeneration for patients having Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins. (8/98)

The aim of the present study is to understand the structural features responsible for the lethal activity of snake venom cardiotoxins. Comparison of the lethal potency of the five cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the venom of Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) reveals that the lethal potency of CTX I and CTX V are about twice of that exhibited by CTX II, CTX III, and CTX IV. In the present study, the solution structure of CTX V has been determined at high resolution using multidimensional proton NMR spectroscopy and dynamical simulated annealing techniques. Comparison of the high resolution solution structures of CTX V with that of CTX IV reveals that the secondary structural elements in both the toxin isoforms consist of a triple and double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet domains. Critical examination of the three-dimensional structure of CTX V shows that the residues at the tip of Loop III form a distinct "finger-shaped" projection comprising of nonpolar residues. The occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection leads to the formation of a prominent cleft between the residues located at the tip of Loops II and III. Interestingly, the occurrence of a backbone hydrogen bonding (Val27CO to Leu48NH) in CTX IV is found to distort the "finger-shaped" projection and consequently diminish the cleft formation at the tip of Loops II and III. Comparison of the solution structures and lethal potencies of other cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom shows that a strong correlation exists between the lethal potency and occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection at the tip of Loop III. Critical analysis of the structures of the various CTX isoforms from the Taiwan cobra suggest that the degree of exposure of the cationic charge (to the solvent) contributed by the invariant lysine residue at position 44 on the convex side of the CTX molecules could be another crucial factor governing their lethal potency.  (+info)

Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced membrane pore formation is one of the major mechanisms responsible for... is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
This manuscript describes a detailed protocol to induce acute skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mice and subsequent manipulations...
A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but much less toxic. To determine if it acts like the cardiotoxins its depolarizing ability was measured. It was about 10 times less potent than the cardiotoxins. Five amino acids are conserved in the sequences studied, on the exposed second and third loops of the toxin backbone. They may be part of the toxins interactive site.. ...
In this study, we have shown that Id-mutant mice, unlike Id3-null mice, display a muscle regeneration phenotype using the cardiotoxin-induced TA muscle regeneration paradigm. The Id1 and Id3 proteins were markedly upregulated in the injured skeletal muscle of WT mice within 24 h, as were BMPR-II and pSmad1/5/8. Hindlimb injection of the BMP antagonist Noggin reduced the amounts of pSmad1/5/8 and both Id1 and Id3 at 24 h after cardiotoxin injury, suggesting that BMP signaling was responsible for their expression. These proteins were also expressed in the satellite cell-derived myogenic cell line C2C12 (3) when actively proliferating as myoblasts, but were all reduced on differentiation into myotubes. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 were all detectable in the nuclei of many Pax7+ myoblasts in the injured mouse hindlimb at day 3 post-cardiotoxin injection. Finally, we showed that the Id-mutant mice, but not Id3-null mice, displayed a reduced number of ...
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins ...
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Pulmonary and systemic vascular effects of three stable prostaglandin (PG) I2 analogs were studied in normoxic and hypoxic conscious newborn lambs. The three agents were : (5E)-6a-carba-PGI2 (analog I); 9-deoxy-9 alpha, 6-nitrilo-PGF1 hydrochloride (analog II); and (2E,5S)-9-deoxy-5,9 alpha-epoxy-13,14-dihydro-delta 1-PGF1 (analog III). Each component was injected into either a branch pulmonary artery or the ascending aorta. Locally induced alterations in pulmonary vascular tone were assessed from changes in the ratio of blood flow to the injected lung over total flow (delta Qinj/Qt). Each compound was a systemic vasodilator, with thresholds from 1 to 3 micrograms/kg. However, analog III was without local pulmonary vasoactivity, and analog I was a pulmonary vasodilator only at the highest dose used (30 micrograms/kg) and in hypoxic lambs. Analog II, in contrast, was a pulmonary vasodilator in both hypoxic (threshold = 3 micrograms/kg) and normoxic (threshold = 10 micrograms/kg) lambs. Moreover, ...
MiR-206 is a muscle specific miRNA involved in muscle development and myogenesis. Importantly its function was mostly associated to muscle regeneration by the down-regulation of several target genes triggered during muscle repair (Pax7, Cx43 and Utrn). In order to better characterize the function of miR-206 in muscle remodelling, we induced acute muscle damage in control mice by injecting cardiotoxin (CTX) in the tibialis (TA) of c57bl mice. We isolated single muscle fiber from injected TA and quantified by absolute Realt-Time PCR (Q-PCR) the expression levels of miR-206. Furthermore in situ hybridization experiments on tissue slices of damaged TA were performed in order to localized miR-206. Data obtained highlighted the over-expression of miR-206 in newly formed and regenerating myofibers, demostrating the association of miR-206 with muscle regeneration. Furthermore, a target-gene prediction-analysis for miR-206 was performed by using 6 different computational algorithms (PITA, TargetScan, ...
Proton NMR studies of the structural and dynamical effect of chemical modification of a single aromatic side-chain in a snake cardiotoxin. Relation to
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Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channels. However, it remains unknown whether it has any effects on K+ currents. The effects of ACO on ion currents in differentiated clonal cardiac (H9c2) cells and in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were investigated in this study. In H9c2 cells, ACO suppressed ultrarapid-delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur) in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. The IC50 value for ACO-induced inhibition of IKur was 1.4μM. ACO could accelerate the inactivation of IKur with no change in the activation time constant of this current. Steady-state inactivation curve of IKur during exposure to ACO could be demonstrated. Recovery from block by ACO was fitted by a single-exponential function. The inhibition of IKur by ACO could still be observed in H9c2 cells preincubated with ruthenium red (30μM). Intracellular dialysis with ACO (30μM) had no effects on IKur. IKur elicited by ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
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Page contains details about MnF2/W bilayer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation and structural perturbation of redox-sensitive enzymes in injured skeletal muscle. AU - Pierce, Anson P.. AU - de Waal, Eric. AU - McManus, Linda M.. AU - Shireman, Paula K.. AU - Chaudhuri, Asish R.. PY - 2007/12/15. Y1 - 2007/12/15. N2 - Molecular events that control skeletal muscle injury and regeneration are poorly understood. However, inflammation associated with oxidative stress is considered a key player in modulating this process. To understand the consequences of oxidative stress associated with muscle injury, inflammation, and regeneration, hind-limb muscles of C57Bl/6J mice were studied after injection of cardiotoxin (CT). Within 1 day post-CT injection, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte accumulation was extensive. Compared to baseline, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was elevated eight- and fivefold at 1 and 7 days post-CT, respectively. Ubiquitinylated protein was elevated 1 day postinjury and returned to baseline by 21 days. Cysteine residues ...
African villagers and experts alike fear the intense pain and suffering the mamba inflicts on its victims. Its poison is neuro-toxic. Unlike most poisonous snakes where the venom travels slowly through the blood stream, allowing a victim time to get treatment and to isolate the poison using a tourniquet, the black mambas poison goes straight for the nerves, attacking the central nervous system and shutting down major organs. Twenty minutes after being bitten you may lose the ability to talk. After one hour youre probably comatose, and by six hours, without an antidote, you are dead.. When feeling very threatened, the Black Mamba usually delivers multiple strikes, injecting its potent neuro- and cardiotoxin with each strike, often attacking the body or head, unlike most other snakes. It can strike up to 12 times in a row. A single bite from a Black Mamba can inject enough venom to kill up to 10-25 grown men, easily killing one unless the appropriate anti-venom is administered in time. When ...
1%, and that the cardiovascular adverse events that occur are manageable when recognized and treated. Imatinib remains a potential cardiotoxin, and the cardiac consequences of its long-term use remain unknown. We recommend treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in imatinib treated patients according the American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heart failure, along with frequent monitoring of signs/symptoms of heart failure.. ...
Objective: This study elucidates the protective effects of propolis against CTX-induced changes in mice. Materials and methods: Forty-eight male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups; group 1 was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 200 µL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS), group 2 was injected with 100 mg/kg/d propolis, group 3 was injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg), and group 4 was injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg) followed by propolis (100 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After 12 d, mice were bled and then sacrificed to analyze the hematological, biochemical, and histological parameters ...
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One thing Hasbro has grown quite good at in recent years is reusing old parts. Be it a mold from 1982 or one from last week, its a pretty safe bet that if its in good working order, youll have a few opportunities to get it. For this line of Joe toys, Hasbro is going back to the well quite frequently. Several figures use parts from Duke, and this red ninja uses parts from both Storm Shadows, which are basically the same figure anyway. The good news, though, is that its one of the better molds in the line. While the Cobra Red Ninja cant sit down perfectly normally due to some obstruction in the hips, he can sit well enough to pilot some vehicles. For example, we crammed him in the recently released direct-to-consumer Cobra H.I.S.S. vehicle and he had no problems fitting right in the drivers seat. Hes not too tall, and fitting him inside didnt require awkward repositioning. Since the figures file card indicates hes a specialist in vehicle operations, its good to know that he can actually ...
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The Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis) is likely one of the most venomous cobra species on the earth based mostly on murine LD50 research. The common subcutaneous LD50 for this species is 0.20 mg/kg. The lowest LD50 reported value for this snake is zero.14 mg/kg SC, whereas the very best is zero.forty eight mg/kg SC. Research has shown its venom is purely a neurotoxin, with no obvious necrotizing components and no cardiotoxins.. It doesnt usually unfold a hood nor maintain up its physique up off the bottom like true cobras do. Envenomation by this species must be thought-about a severe medical emergency. Human fatalities due to envenomation by this species have been reported.. These snakes are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a goal up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) away. Bites from this species produce distinguished neurotoxicity and are thought-about especially dangerous. A research of 39 patients envenomed by … Read More. Read More » ...
Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
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good morning all, this morning I finally got the Cobra Commander golden trait upon testing it the damage is barely there also the tooltip say 6 secs the snake poison/DPS barely even lasted a full 2 secs is anyone else seeing this issue?
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Dnes som sa rozhodol, že vás oboznámim s albumom To Hell, pomerne neznámej kapely Cobra z ďalekého Peru. Toto zoskupenie funguje na scéne už od roku 2005 a na konte má dva oficiálne albumy. To Hell, o ktorom je […]. ...
Cobra (Shelby AC) The Shelby AC Cobra was built from 1961 to 1967 and still remains one of the most recognized and sought after sports cars in the World. This one is not as simple, but the Cobra story begins with the British car builder AC Cars in the early 60s; they were using a Bristol straight 6 engine in their small two-seater cars. Carroll Shelby sent a request to AC asking if they would modify one of the cars to fit a V8 under the hood and AC accepted the challenge. After some dead ends with Chevy, Carroll finally got Ford to deliver him one of their new 260 cubic in. V8s (a new lightweight high performance small block V8 engine) to be installed in the car. As testing and development continued it was easy to see how this car was going to be something special. These cars would go on to set records and win a ton of races……making Carroll Shelby a house hold name! Now what did Carroll intend to call this new little hot-rod? The name Cobra is said to have come to Carroll in a dream, he ...
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... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ... "Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway". Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 ...
Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra. Environmental toxins[edit]. See also: Environmental toxicology ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins, each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), or ...
Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not.[8][9] ... Their venom is mainly neurotoxic, although many of them also possess several other types of toxins, including cardiotoxins and ... Good molecular evidence via karyotyping, protein electrophoretic analysis, immunological distance, DNA sequence analysis, and ... such as the Asiatic king cobra, African black mamba, forest cobra, and Australasian coastal taipan, can inject a large quantity ...
Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced ... Structures of heparin-derived tetrasaccharide bound to cobra cardiotoxins: Heparin binding at a single protein site with ... Non-cytotoxic cobra cardiotoxin A5 binds to avß3 integrin and inhibit bone resorption. Identification of cardiotoxins as nonRGD ... Possible mechanisms of action of cobra snake venom cardiotoxins and bee venom melittin. Toxicon 1993; 31:669-695.CrossRefPubMed ...
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ... "Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway". Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 ...
The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom. ... PKR-associated protein X) (PKR-associating protein X) (Protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase) (Protein ... The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom. Four novel cardiotoxins were isolated from Naja naja ... Brain protein H5) (CE5B3 beta) (Cell division control-related protein 2) (hCDCREL-2) (Cerebral protein 7) (Peanut-like protein ...
... of cardiotoxin and phospholipase A in the blockade of nerve conduction and depolarization of skeletal muscle induced by cobra ... which are made up of regularly and repeatedly organized contractile proteins (actin and myosin filaments). In adult life and in ... 1. Cardiotoxin Injection in the Tibialis Anterior Muscle. *Prepare a 10 μM working solution of cardiotoxin (CTX) by diluting ... Cardiotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica. SIGMA ALDRICH. C9759. Syringe For Insulin BD Micro-Fine+ Needle 30 G x 8 mm - Da ...
Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ ... Total urinary protein concentration (grams per liter) was determined using the Bradford protein assay kit (Beyotime Institute ... Measurement of 24 h Urine Protein Output. For urine collection and total urinary protein determination, rats were placed in ... which is a lipid raft-like structure that contains multiple proteins [34]. Nephrin is now accepted as the essential SD protein ...
... equatorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. The cytotoxicity ... Equitorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. The cytotoxicity ... which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, ... which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, ...
Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the three-finger protein ... Bitopic proteins, a broad subclass of membrane proteins, form dimers containing two membrane-spanning helices. Some aspects of ... The approach was tested with model transmembrane domains and yielded detailed atomic-level data on the protein-protein and ...
Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. They are classified into S- and P-types, the latter ... Dubovskii P.V., Konshina A.G., Efremov R.G. (2014). Cobra Cardiotoxins: Membrane Interactions and Pharmacological Potential. ... Structurally different are cardiotoxins (or cytotoxins, СTs) from cobra venom. They are fully -structured molecules, ...
Glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane insertion and internalization of cobra cardiotoxin. The sulfatide.cardiotoxin complex ... Canutescu AA, Shelenkov AA, Dunbrack RL Jr: A graph theory algorithm for protein side-chain prediction. Protein Science 2003, ... Fujii G, Selsted ME, Eisenberg D: Defensins promote fusion and lysis of negatively charged membranes. Protein Sci 1993, 2: 1301 ... In an attempt to understand how a protein so small and highly charged can overcome the gradient of charge-charge repulsions and ...
According to the literature, the protein band of MW 7 KD contained cardiotoxin and neurotoxin [21, 22]. In contrast, heat ... cardiotoxin, cobra venom factor (CVF), and so forth. Our recent study has shown that cobratoxin suppressed inflammation and ... This molecular mass may include cardiotoxin and cobrotoxin, or some breakdown fragments from large molecular weight proteins. ... identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins," Protein Science, vol. 9, no ...
Cobras, mambas, sea snakes, kraits and coral snakes are known to possess this venom. The king cobras (ophiophagus hannah) are ... 2) Cardiotoxins:. Actually cardiotoxins are muscle venoms. They bind to particular sites on the surface of muscle cells causing ... Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay. Print Reference this *APA ... 2- Cobras use cobratoxin.. They often result in respiratory paralysis and heart failures. Their effect can range between mild ...
In addition, it binds to heparin with high affinity, interacts with Kv channel-interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) in a calcium- ... Cardiotoxin, Toxin. Biological process. Cytolysis. ,p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/ ...
Experimental observations have shown that cardio toxins (cobra cytotoxins), small proteins of three-fingered cytotoxin group, ... Molecular dynamics simulations have been used here to study the interaction of cardiotoxins A3 and A4 from Naja atra cobra ... Peripheral binding mode and penetration depth of cobra cardiotoxin on phospholipid membranes as studied by a combined FTIR and ... 1] Dubovskii, P.V., Lesovoy, D.M., Dubinnyi, M.A., Utkin, Y.N., Arseniev, A.S. (2003) Interaction of the P-type cardiotoxin ...
Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ... Binding Proteins on Synaptic Membranes for Certain Phospholipases A2 With Presynaptic Toxicity ...
... of the proteins in Naja venom closely matched cobra proteins. These results demonstrate that the accuracy of protein ... Cardiotoxin. As shown in Table 1, the cardiotoxins are the most abundant components of Naja venom, with MMs ranging from 6.7 to ... Lane M, protein ladder; lane A, Naja venomous proteins; lane B, Agki venomous proteins. MM values are given in kDa. ... Although some identified proteins have diverse amino acid sequences, these proteins may belong to the same protein family, at ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences * Cardiotoxins Medicine & Life Sciences * Depolarization Chemical Compounds ... Chen, K. C., Chiou, Y. L., Kao, P. H., Lin, S. R., & Chang, L. S. (2008). Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins induce apoptotic death of ... T1 - Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins induce apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells mediated by reactive oxygen species ... Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins induce apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells mediated by reactive oxygen species ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/administration & dosage. *Electrophysiology. *Embryonic and Fetal Development/drug effects/genetics ...
Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins/pharmacokinetics*. ; Cobra Venoms/pharmacokinetics*. ; Phospholipases A2/pharmacokinetics*. ; ... or cardiotoxin (Fi.m.=45.6%). The incomplete absorption of the phospholipase A2 and cardiotoxin may infer the toxins ... To date, however, pharmacokinetic reports on cobra venoms and their toxins are still relatively limited. In the present study, ... of Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra) venom and its major toxins in experimentally envenomed rabbits ...
Cardiotoxins/ cytotoxins. Act on membrane lipids/proteins of blood cells or heart cells. cobras, scorpions. ... Protein C activators. Premature activation of protein C in the coagulation cascade resulting in net anticoagulation. Vipers and ...
LOCATION OF DISULFIDE BRIDGES IN CARDIOTOXIN FROM THE VENOM OF FORMOSAN COBRA (NAJA NAJA ATRA). Narita, K., Cheng, KL. L., ... Interaction between DNA and Escherichia coli protein ω. Formation of a complex between single-stranded DNA and ω protein. Depew ... C. & Li, C. H., Jan 1 1978, In : International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 12, 1, p. 42-46 5 p.. Research output: ... Nonhistone proteins HMG1 and HMG2 change the DNA helical structure. Javaherian, K., Liu, L-F. & Wang, J. C., 1978, In : Science ...
Replaced for 2008 by Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins). Discrete Subaortic Stenosis C14.280.955.249.70.210. DNA Adducts G5.180.104. ... Cobra Neurotoxins D12.776.831.244. (Replaced for 2008 by Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins). Cocaine D2.145.74.722.388. D4.75.80.875. ... Protein Isoprenylation G6.535.797.500. (Replaced for 2008 by Protein Prenylation). Protein-Tyrosine-Phosphatase D8.811.277.352. ... HIV Envelope Protein gp160 D12.776.964.775.325.380 D12.776.964.775.325.164.374. D12.776.964.970.880.325.380 D12.776.964.775. ...
Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of ... Protein Sci. 2000 Apr;9(4):637-46. PMID: 10794406.. Jang JY, Krishnaswamy T, Kumar S, et al. Comparison of the hemolytic ... CTV IV is a cardiotoxin found in the venom of Naja naja atra cobras. ... activity and solution structures of two snake venom cardiotoxin analogues which only differ in their N-terminal amino acid. ...
Cobra venom cytotoxins are basic three-fingered, amphipathic, non-enzymatic proteins that constitute a major fraction of cobra ... Naja mossambica mossambica Cobra Cardiotoxin Targets Mitochondria to Disrupt Mitochondrial Membrane Structure and Function  ... Cobra venom cardiotoxins (CVCs) can translocate to mitochondria to promote apoptosis by eliciting mitochondrial dysfunction. ... Obesity-mediated regulation of cardiac protein acetylation: parallel analysis of total and acetylated proteins via TMT-tagged ...
... the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other ... similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia ( ... desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje speci... ... The second venom category comprises so-called cardiotoxins, which are actually generalized cell-membrane poisons that produce ...
... but individual integrins are also specific for particular protein ligands. Immunologically important integrin ligands are the ... Non-cytotoxic cobra cardiotoxin A5 binds to integrin alpha vbeta 3 and inhibits bone resorption: Identification of cardiotoxins ... which are protein modules present in a wide variety of signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. Phosphorylation of the tyrosine (Y ... actin-binding proteins, act as linker proteins to connect the cytoplasmic domains of integrins to the cytoskeleton, resulting ...
  • Actions of cardiotoxins from the southern Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) on rat cardiac tissue. (
  • Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3 ) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra . (
  • C obra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. (
  • Local lesions1 caused by cardiotoxin isolated from Formosan cobra venom. (
  • Hider RC, Khader F. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of cardiotoxins isolated from cobra venom. (
  • Two distinct types of cardiotoxin as revealed by the structure and activity relationship of their interaction with zwitterionic phospholipid dispersions. (
  • Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides, and a number of studies have described the biological properties of several venomous proteins. (
  • Snake venom is composed mainly of proteins and peptides, which possess a variety of biological activities. (
  • Functional proteins and enzymes of venom include phophodiesterase (lower blood pressure), phospholipase (hemolytic), hyaluronidase (increase tissue permeability), ATPase (ATP hydrolysis), oxidase and protease (digestion) and peptides that inhibit mammalian cholinesterase leading to loss of muscular activity. (
  • The venom of Viperidae snakes is a compound liquid rich in medicinally active proteins and peptides. (
  • Venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides possessing a variety of biological activities. (
  • Proteins and peptides comprise about 90-95% of the dry weight of the venom. (
  • Snake venoms are complex mixtures containing many different biologically active proteins and peptides. (
  • The venom of Viperidae snakes including the Iranian E.carinatus is rich in proteins and peptides effective on the hemostatic system. (
  • Their venoms are complex cocktails of toxic proteins, peptides, and small organic and inorganic molecules. (
  • These toxins are in themselves a diverse and complex group, including smaller neurotoxic peptides, larger phospholipases, and venom proteases, along with many other protein families ( Ducancel, 2016 ). (
  • These venoms also contain several pharmacologically active components that could elicit great interest as a source of proteins and peptides for the design and the development of new drugs with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, analgesic, immunosuppressing and anticancer activities [ 1 , 3 , 5 ]. (
  • Cell growth inhibition is essentially due to proteins and peptides isolated from these venoms, some of them are explored in phase I and phase II clinical trials [ 3 ]. (
  • Among non-enzymatic proteins super families of three finger toxins serine proteinase inhibitors C-type lectin related proteins artrial nutrient peptides and never growth factors have already been well characterized LAAO phospholipase A2 metalloprotease are some examples of super familie of enzyms. (
  • Other than toxicants and proteins the snake venom contains a few peptides, amino acids, starches, lipids, nucleosides, natural amines and metal particles, which make it considerably more intricate than other ordinary proteins. (
  • Toxins can be small molecules , peptides , or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors . (
  • Ce spectre d'activités de même que la spécificité relative des peptides et leur puissance d'action en font des constituants biologiques dont l'élucidation des rôles constitue un objectif majeur dans le domaine biomédical. (
  • Functional analysis based upon toxin categories reveals that, as expected, cobra venom has a high abundance of cardio- and neurotoxins, whereas viper venom contains a significant amount of haemotoxins and metalloproteinases. (
  • These categories are: (i) haemotoxins, which promote haemorrhaging primary to extensive local swelling and necrosis, (ii) neurotoxins, which disable muscle contraction and paralyse the heart as well as hinder respiration, and (iii) cardiotoxins, which elicit specific toxicity to cardiac and muscle cells, causing irreversible depolarization of cell membranes [ 6 ]. (
  • Although the venoms of these cobras contain neurotoxins, necrosis often is the chief or only manifestation of envenoming in humans. (
  • With most species, excluding some of the African spitting cobras, the most clinically significant toxins are postsynaptic neurotoxins that competitively bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to produce depolarizing neuromuscular blockade. (
  • Neurotoxins are fasciculins (Black mamba), dendrotoxins (Green mamba) and alpha-neurotoxins (Cobra and Krait). (
  • The most relevant lethal components, categorized by means of a 'toxicity score', were a-neurotoxins, followed by cytotoxins/cardiotoxins. (
  • Their venom possesses several proteins, including cardiotoxins, neurotoxins and phospholipase A 2 , that are responsible for their toxicity. (
  • Snake venom essentially comprises of neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, poisons that cause blood coagulating, draining poisons (that stops the blood thickening and blood stays to stream consistently considerably after injury), destructive catalysts and other significant segments. (
  • contain high abundances of cytotoxins, which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. (
  • The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, indicates anticancer potentials. (
  • The findings revealed the limitations and challenges that could be faced during the development of new cancer therapy from cobra cytotoxins, notwithstanding their potent anticancer effects. (
  • Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. (
  • Experimental observations have shown that cardio toxins (cobra cytotoxins), small proteins of three-fingered cytotoxin group, damage nanobiomembranes in different cells and vesicles. (
  • Cobra venom cytotoxins are basic three-fingered, amphipathic, non-enzymatic proteins that constitute a major fraction of cobra venom. (
  • Cytotoxins are phospholipases (produced by Habu), cardiotoxins (King cobra) and hemotoxins (Viper and Naga). (
  • Their venom is mainly neurotoxic , although many of them also possess several other types of toxins , including cardiotoxins and cytotoxins . (
  • As with all snake venoms, they are multicomponent products whose toxins are mostly proteins and polypeptides. (
  • Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. (
  • Toxin synergism is a complex biochemical phenomenon, where different animal venom proteins interact either directly or indirectly to potentiate toxicity to a level that is above the sum of the toxicities of the individual toxins. (
  • In general, venoms derive their toxicity from proteins known as toxins. (
  • Impact of membrane partitioning on the spatial structure of an S-type cobra cytotoxin. (
  • Cardiotoxins, as an example, can be a cytotoxin that has proven to have considerable effects on the cardiac muscle cells, or a Myotoxin that specifically affects the heart. (
  • The hypervariable segments encoded by the second and third exon of cardiotoxin genes are located at or near the tips of loop structure of cardiotoxin molecules. (
  • Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes and proteins which many of it not harmless to humans, but some are very toxic. (
  • As mentioned, snake venom is modified saliva which contains a variety of proteins and enzymes. (
  • Enzymes from cobra venom show promise in the treatment and/or prevention of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases [ 3 , 4 ], and the venom from snakes in the viper family has been shown to promote tumour reduction [ 5 ]. (
  • Snake venom is a combination of different proteins and enzymes which have cytotoxic, neurotoxic or coagulant properties. (
  • Snake venom are highly modified saliva made of protein, enzymes, and some other toxic substances. (
  • Snake venoms are mainly made of proteins and enzymes which function primarily to lower blood pressure, destroy red blood cells, immobilize muscles, and eventually death. (
  • The analysis of snake venom has shown that it is a mixture of many toxic proteins and enzymes with diverse and complex pharmacological effects. (
  • The protein present in snake's venom constitute the largest portion and cause severe damage in prey by inhibiting important enzymes. (
  • But the AACE encourages looking at the inflammatory markers highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and in some patients lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), when risk is uncertain and additional information is needed to decide how aggressively to treat. (
  • Anticoagulant action of snake venom proteins is attributed to: (i) the activation of protein C, (ii) the inhibition of blood coagulation factors IX and X by a venom protein that binds to either or both clotting proteins, (iii) a thrombin inhibitor and (iv) phospholipases that degrades phospholipids involved in the formation of complexes critical to the activation of the coagulation pathway [6] . (
  • Most cobras are large snakes, 1.2-2.5 m in length. (
  • Because cobras are popular as show snakes, bites on the hands and fingers are common. (
  • Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. (
  • Few snakes, with the occasional exception of king cobras ( Ophiophagus hannah ) or black mambas ( Dendroaspis polylepis ), act aggressively toward a human without provocation. (
  • The Mozambique Spitting Cobra are one of those snakes with a deadly cytotoxic venom. (
  • Elapid snakes exhibit a wide range of sizes, from 18-centimetre (7.1 in) species of Drysdalia to the 5.6-metre (18 ft) king cobra . (
  • It is thus not surprising that many bacterial and eukaryotic toxic agents are pore-forming proteins. (
  • Most venom components appear to bind to multiple physiologic receptors, and attempts to classify venom as toxic to a specific system (eg, neurotoxin, hemotoxin, cardiotoxin, myotoxin) are misleading and can lead to errors in clinical judgment. (
  • Most species of vipers and cobras and also the infamous tropical rattlesnake has this kind of venom. (
  • The free A subunit of the mistletoe lectin becomes a potent ribosome-inactivating protein in the cytosol, irreversibly inhibiting protein biosynthesis and thus initiating apoptosis. (
  • Cobra venom cardiotoxins (CVCs) can translocate to mitochondria to promote apoptosis by eliciting mitochondrial dysfunction. (
  • Direct cytotoxicity is mainly based on the inhibition of protein synthesis and the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). (
  • Hider RC, Khader F. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of cardiotoxins isolated from cobra venom. (
  • C obra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. (
  • Today, recombinant proteins are quite widely used in biomedical and biotechnological applications. (
  • Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. (
  • Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. (
  • The mammalian system-targeting property of snake venom proteins is typically specific and selective, thus making them a repertoire of bioactive molecules for the discovery of new therapeutic agents ( Lewis and Garcia, 2003 ). (
  • Relative toxicity of snake venom is determined from comparison with Cobra venom which is assigned by point 1 toxicity. (
  • These results, together with the suggestions that the residues at the tips of cardiotoxins' loop structure were involved in the manifestation of the biological activities of cardiotoxins, reflect that the preferential mutations may contribute to alterations in the function of cardiotoxin molecules. (
  • Oxidative stress was analyzed by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels along with assessment of antioxidant status. (
  • The venom of this cobra species is the most fatal among all the others and can spit its venom up to 3 meters. (
  • [10] [13] It is the second-longest venomous snake species, exceeded in length only by the king cobra . (
  • The present work describes a detailed and reproducible protocol to induce acute skeletal muscle regeneration in mice through a single intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin (CTX). (
  • The second venom category comprises so-called cardiotoxins, which are actually generalized cell-membrane poisons that produce irreversible cell depolarization. (
  • Biotoxins vary greatly in purpose and mechanism, and can be highly complex (the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins , each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), or relatively small protein. (
  • Cape cobras and Mambas will alway remain a gigantic issue. (
  • The tests done on african cobra s and mambas produced negetive results and pollyvalent antivenom was eventualy resorted to to ensure the victims survival! (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • Since the pairings of splice sites and gene architecture were supposed to be associated with intron-exon recognition, it is likely that the preferred loci of mutations occurring with the evolution of cardiotoxin genes would not affect the processing of cardiotoxin precursors. (
  • To many people, the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. (
  • The king cobra, which may reach 5.2 m, is the largest venomous snake in the world. (
  • [4] Additionally, some large-sized elapids, such as the Asiatic king cobra , African black mamba , forest cobra , and Australasian coastal taipan , can inject a large quantity of venom during envenomation. (
  • Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (
  • Metalloproteinases were almost exclusively type PIII proteins, with few type PII and no type PI proteins. (
  • The venoms of cobra and krait are neurotoxic, that is, they affect the victim's central nervous system and cause heart failure. (
  • Cobra neurotoxin (CNT), a peptide isolated from snake venom of , shows central analgesic effects in our previous research. (
  • En collaboration avec une équipe de recherche de l'Institut de cardiologie de Montréal, nous avons montré que l'adrénomédulline (AM), un peptide de 52 acides aminés, est capable de chélater certains radioisotopes et que le complexe ainsi formé possède une affinité très significative pour les poumons. (
  • These target bonds in the peptide chains that hold proteins together. (
  • In another series, 1 of 3 snake charmers bitten by large king cobras showed no signs of envenomation. (
  • Cobra envenomation is an extremely variable process. (
  • Two distinct types of cardiotoxin as revealed by the structure and activity relationship of their interaction with zwitterionic phospholipid dispersions. (
  • Interaction between DNA and Escherichia coli protein ω. (
  • LMWHs have much less interaction using the heparin binding protein platelet element 4, protamine, lipase, and histidine-rich glycoprotein, and therefore are connected with a lower price of HIT in comparison to UFH [13]. (
  • With other cobras, local tissue damage is of primary concern. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. (
  • One of the most well-characterized goals of TORC1 consist of p70 s6 kinase 1 (p70s6K) as well as the eukaryotic initiation aspect 4E binding proteins 1 (4E-BP1), which both provide as readouts for TORC1 activity [17,18]. (
  • TORC2 contains the rapamycin-insensitive partner of mTOR (Rictor), GL, and mammalian stress-activated proteins kinase interacting proteins 1 (mSIN1) [19,20]. (
  • TORC2 phosphorylates the serine/threonine proteins kinase AKT/PKB on the serine residue S473 [21]. (
  • Furthermore, among signal pathways involved in stresses, the members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family are crucial for regulating the survival and migration of cells. (
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are involved in mediating processes of cell growth, survival, and death. (
  • Lee SC, Guan HH, Wang CH. Structural basis of citrate-dependent and heparin sulfate-mediated cell surface retention of cobra cardiotoxin A3. (
  • In addition, it binds to heparin with high affinity, interacts with Kv channel-interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) in a calcium-independent manner, and binds to integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV/ITGB3) with moderate affinity. (
  • A better understanding of the processes and proteins involved in myogenesis and muscle regeneration may enable the design of innovative therapies to improve the care of victims of severe muscle trauma, patients with skeletal myopathies, and the elderly. (
  • Purification and Characterization of Nk-3FTx: A Three Finger Toxin from the Venom of North East Indian Monocled Cobra. (
  • In North America and Europe, captive cobras may cause bites to zookeepers or amateur collectors. (
  • In the case of cobras, the percentage of dry bites may be quite high, 45% in one series of 47 cases from Malaysia. (
  • Report from prof Gouse Oberholzer is that those drugs have been used to treat cobra bites in indias for the past 15 years with mixed result! (
  • From a veterinary perspective, I see mostly Cape Cobra bites and these average around R15000-20000 per simple case. (
  • almost all Cape cobra bites in dogs (if the patient survives! (
  • We yet others previously reported that continual signaling through G protein-coupled receptors plays a part in oncogenic signaling despite EGFR inhibition [7,8]. (
  • Targeting crucial intermediates that take part in the combination chat between G protein-coupled receptor and EGFR qualified prospects to additive or synergistic improvement of tumor development inhibition in preclinical tumor versions [8,9]. (