Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.
Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It is the source of cirensenosides (triterpenoid saponins).
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A genus of cone-shaped marine snails in the family Conidae, class GASTROPODA. It comprises more than 600 species, many containing unique venoms (CONUS VENOMS) with which they immobilize their prey.

Postsynaptic alpha-neurotoxin gene of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix: structure, organization, and phylogenetic analysis. (1/98)

The venom of the spitting cobra, Naja naja sputatrix contains highly potent alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) in addition to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cardiotoxin (CTX). In this study, we report the complete characterization of three genes that are responsible for the synthesis of three isoforms of alpha-NTX in the venom of a single spitting cobra. DNA amplification by long-distance polymerase chain reaction (LD-PCR) and genome walking have provided information on the gene structure including their promoter and 5' and 3' UTRs. Each NTX isoform is approximately 4 kb in size and contains three exons and two introns. The sequence homology among these isoforms was found to be 99%. Two possible transcription sites were identified by primer extension analysis and they corresponded to the adenine (A) nucleotide at positions +1 and -45. The promoter also contains two TATA boxes and a CCAAT box. Putative binding sites for transcriptional factors AP-2 and GATA are also present. The high percentage of similarity observed among the NTX gene isoforms of N. n. sputatrix as well as with the alpha-NTX and kappa-NTX genes from other land snakes suggests that the NTX gene has probably evolved from a common ancestral gene.  (+info)

Binding of nucleotide triphosphates to cardiotoxin analogue II from the Taiwan cobra venom (Naja naja atra). Elucidation of the structural interactions in the dATP-cardiotoxin analogue ii complex. (2/98)

Snake venom cardiotoxins have been recently shown to block the enzymatic activity of phospholipid protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase. To understand the molecular basis for the inhibitory effects of cardiotoxin on the action of these enzymes, the nucleotide triphosphate binding ability of cardiotoxin analogue II (CTX II) from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom is investigated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional NMR. CTX II is found to bind to all the four nucleotide triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) with similar affinity. Detailed studies of the binding of dATP to CTX II indicated that the toxin molecule is significantly stabilized in the presence of the nucleotide. Molecular modeling, based on the NOEs observed for the dATP.CTX II complex, reveals that dATP binds to the CTX II molecule at the groove enclosed between the N- and C-terminal ends of the toxin molecule. Based on the results obtained in the present study, a molecular mechanism to account for the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase and Na+,K+-ATPase is also proposed.  (+info)

Dual effect of cobra cardiotoxin on vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. (3/98)

AIM: To assess the cytotoxic effects of cobra cardiotoxin (CTX) on rat aorta. METHODS: Measure of contractility of aortic rings with or without endothelium. RESULTS: In endothelium-intact rings, CTX 10 mumol.L-1 induced a transient relaxation followed by a sustained contraction. Removal of the endothelium or pre-incubation of the rings with NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished the transient relaxation but did not affect the magnitude of the contractile response induced by CTX. CTX itself induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle but also reduced contractions induced by phenylephrine (PhE) or KCl stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Contraction induced by CTX was dependent on the external Ca2+ concentration. Maximal contractile response to CTX was obtained in medium containing Ca2+ 1 mmol.L-1. This response decreased with higher Ca2+ concentration and disappeared when Ca2+ 7 mmol.L-1, organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers were present in the external solution before CTX addition. In preparations with the endothelium intact and incubated with CTX, relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation of the tension induced by PhE was decreased. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was preserved when Ca2+ 5 mmol.L-1 was added to the medium prior to CTX. CONCLUSION: CTX first triggers the release of NO from the endothelium which results in muscle relaxation, and then causes smooth muscle contraction, Ca2+ and Ca2+ channel blockers prevented the effect of CTX.  (+info)

Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja naja oxiana in aqueous solution: spatial structures with tightly bound water molecules. (4/98)

1H-NMR spectroscopy data, such as NOE intraprotein and (bound water)/protein contacts, 3J coupling constants and deuterium exchange rates were used to determine the in-solution spatial structure of cytotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana snake venom (CTII). Exploiting information from two 1H-NMR spectral components, shown to be due to cis/trans isomerization of the Val7-Pro8 peptide bond, spatial structures of CTII minor and major forms (1 : 6) were calculated using the torsion angle dynamics algorithm of the DYANA program and then energy refined using the FANTOM program. Each form, major and minor, is represented by 20 resulting conformers, demonstrating mean backbone rmsd values of 0.51 and 0.71 A, respectively. Two forms of CTII preserve the structural skeleton as three large loops, including two beta-sheets with bend regions, and demonstrate structural differences at loop I, where cis/trans isomerization occurs. The CTII side-chain distribution constitutes hydrophilic and hydrophobic belts around the protein, alternating in the trend of the three main loops. Because of the Omega-shaped backbone, formed in participation with two bound water molecules, the tip of loop II bridges the tips of loops I and III. This ensures the continuity of the largest hydrophobic belt, formed with the residues of these tips. Comparison revealed pronounced differences in the spatial organization of the tips of the three main loops between CTII and previous structures of homologous cytotoxins (cardiotoxins) in solution.  (+info)

In vivo satellite cell activation via Myf5 and MyoD in regenerating mouse skeletal muscle. (5/98)

Regeneration of adult skeletal muscle is an asynchronous process requiring the activation, proliferation and fusion of satellite cells, to form new muscle fibres. This study was designed to determine the pattern of expression in vivo of the two myogenic regulatory factors, Myf5 and MyoD during this process. Cardiotoxin was used to induce regeneration in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of heterozygous Myf5-nlacZ mice, and the muscles were assayed for the presence of (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) and MyoD. Adult satellite cells identified by M-cadherin labelling, when activated, initially express either MyoD or Myf5 or both myogenic factors. Subsequently all proliferating myoblasts express MyoD and part of the population is (beta)-galactosidase (Myf5) positive. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated satellite cells, which express either Myf5 or MyoD, do not accumulate selectively on fast or slow muscle fibres.  (+info)

Activation of high levels of endogenous phospholipase A2 in cultured cells. (6/98)

Activatable cellular phospholipase A2 (PLase; phosphatide 2-acyl-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4) has been proposed to constitute the first and rate-limiting step in prostaglandin synthesis and to regulate membrane function by altering the levels in the membrane of the detergent lipids lysolecithin and free fatty acids. We have observed that a wide variety of cells in culture contain high levels of endogenous PLase that can be activated by polypeptide toxins, such as melittin purified from bee venom and direct lytic factor purified from the venom of African Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus hemachatus). Activation of PLase by sublytic concentrations of these agents results in the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Melittin concentrations greater than or equal to 10 microgram/ml activate sufficient PLase in 3T3-4a mouse fibroblasts to hydrolyze 10% of the cellular lecithin in less than 5 min and virtually all of it within 30 min, demonstrating the existence of sufficient activatable PLase to provide the basis for the proposed mechanism of regulation of membrane function by alteration of membrane lipid composition. Lipases, phospholipases B and C, and sphingomyelinases are not activated by melittin. The PLase activated in 3T3-4a cells exhibits little, if any, specificity for individual phosphoglycerides. The PLase activated by direct lytic factor exhibits a Ca2+ dependence characteristic of lysosomal PLase, wherease the Ca2+ dependence of PLase activated by melittin is consistent with the activation of a cell-surface enzyme. The extent of cell death correlates with percent of maximal PLase activation.  (+info)

Myogenic stem cell function is impaired in mice lacking the forkhead/winged helix protein MNF. (7/98)

Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF) is a winged helix transcription factor that is expressed selectively in myogenic stem cells (satellite cells) of adult animals. Using a gene knockout strategy to generate a functional null allele at the Mnf locus, we observed that mice lacking MNF are viable, but severely runted. Skeletal muscles of Mnf-/- animals are atrophic, and satellite cell function is impaired. Muscle regeneration after injury is delayed and incomplete, and the normal timing of expression of cell cycle regulators and myogenic determination genes is dysregulated. Mnf mutant mice were intercrossed with mdx mice that lack dystrophin and exhibit only a subtle myopathic phenotype. In contrast, mdx mice that also lack MNF die in the first few weeks of life with a severe myopathy. Haploinsufficiency at the Mnf locus (Mnf+/-) also exacerbates the mdx phenotype to more closely resemble Duchenne's muscular dystrophy in humans. We conclude that MNF acts to regulate genes that coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic stem cells after muscle injury. Animals deficient in MNF may prove useful for evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions to promote muscle regeneration for patients having Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.  (+info)

Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins. (8/98)

The aim of the present study is to understand the structural features responsible for the lethal activity of snake venom cardiotoxins. Comparison of the lethal potency of the five cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the venom of Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) reveals that the lethal potency of CTX I and CTX V are about twice of that exhibited by CTX II, CTX III, and CTX IV. In the present study, the solution structure of CTX V has been determined at high resolution using multidimensional proton NMR spectroscopy and dynamical simulated annealing techniques. Comparison of the high resolution solution structures of CTX V with that of CTX IV reveals that the secondary structural elements in both the toxin isoforms consist of a triple and double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet domains. Critical examination of the three-dimensional structure of CTX V shows that the residues at the tip of Loop III form a distinct "finger-shaped" projection comprising of nonpolar residues. The occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection leads to the formation of a prominent cleft between the residues located at the tip of Loops II and III. Interestingly, the occurrence of a backbone hydrogen bonding (Val27CO to Leu48NH) in CTX IV is found to distort the "finger-shaped" projection and consequently diminish the cleft formation at the tip of Loops II and III. Comparison of the solution structures and lethal potencies of other cardiotoxin isoforms isolated from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom shows that a strong correlation exists between the lethal potency and occurrence of the nonpolar "finger-shaped" projection at the tip of Loop III. Critical analysis of the structures of the various CTX isoforms from the Taiwan cobra suggest that the degree of exposure of the cationic charge (to the solvent) contributed by the invariant lysine residue at position 44 on the convex side of the CTX molecules could be another crucial factor governing their lethal potency.  (+info)

Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced membrane pore formation is one of the major mechanisms responsible for...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. It is an example of a group of snake cardio/cytotoxins (InterPro: IPR003572), which are made up of shorter snake venom three-finger toxins.[1] Recent evidence has shown that CTX III may induce apoptosis in K562 cells via the release of cytochrome c.[2] ...
This manuscript describes a detailed protocol to induce acute skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mice and subsequent manipulations...
Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: Metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial biogenesis. response of skeletal muscle to damage. In our conditions, metformin treatment did not significantly influence muscle regeneration. On the other hand we Adrucil cell signaling observed that the muscles of metformin treated mice are more resilient to cardiotoxin injury displaying lesser muscle damage. Accordingly myotubes, originated from differentiated C2C12 myoblast cell line, become more resistant to cardiotoxin damage after pre-incubation with metformin. Our results indicate that metformin limits cardiotoxin damage by protecting myotubes from necrosis. Although the details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect remain to be elucidated, we report a correlation between the ability of metformin to promote resistance to damage and its capacity to counteract the increment Adrucil cell signaling of intracellular calcium levels induced by cardiotoxin treatment. Since increased cytoplasmic ...
A cardiotoxin-like basic polypeptide from the venom of Naja naja atra is homologous to cardiotoxins from the same venom, but much less toxic. To determine if it acts like the cardiotoxins its depolarizing ability was measured. It was about 10 times less potent than the cardiotoxins. Five amino acids are conserved in the sequences studied, on the exposed second and third loops of the toxin backbone. They may be part of the toxins interactive site.. ...
In this study, we have shown that Id-mutant mice, unlike Id3-null mice, display a muscle regeneration phenotype using the cardiotoxin-induced TA muscle regeneration paradigm. The Id1 and Id3 proteins were markedly upregulated in the injured skeletal muscle of WT mice within 24 h, as were BMPR-II and pSmad1/5/8. Hindlimb injection of the BMP antagonist Noggin reduced the amounts of pSmad1/5/8 and both Id1 and Id3 at 24 h after cardiotoxin injury, suggesting that BMP signaling was responsible for their expression. These proteins were also expressed in the satellite cell-derived myogenic cell line C2C12 (3) when actively proliferating as myoblasts, but were all reduced on differentiation into myotubes. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that pSmad1/5/8, Id1, and Id3 were all detectable in the nuclei of many Pax7+ myoblasts in the injured mouse hindlimb at day 3 post-cardiotoxin injection. Finally, we showed that the Id-mutant mice, but not Id3-null mice, displayed a reduced number of ...
Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins ...
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Pulmonary and systemic vascular effects of three stable prostaglandin (PG) I2 analogs were studied in normoxic and hypoxic conscious newborn lambs. The three agents were : (5E)-6a-carba-PGI2 (analog I); 9-deoxy-9 alpha, 6-nitrilo-PGF1 hydrochloride (analog II); and (2E,5S)-9-deoxy-5,9 alpha-epoxy-13,14-dihydro-delta 1-PGF1 (analog III). Each component was injected into either a branch pulmonary artery or the ascending aorta. Locally induced alterations in pulmonary vascular tone were assessed from changes in the ratio of blood flow to the injected lung over total flow (delta Qinj/Qt). Each compound was a systemic vasodilator, with thresholds from 1 to 3 micrograms/kg. However, analog III was without local pulmonary vasoactivity, and analog I was a pulmonary vasodilator only at the highest dose used (30 micrograms/kg) and in hypoxic lambs. Analog II, in contrast, was a pulmonary vasodilator in both hypoxic (threshold = 3 micrograms/kg) and normoxic (threshold = 10 micrograms/kg) lambs. Moreover, ...
MiR-206 is a muscle specific miRNA involved in muscle development and myogenesis. Importantly its function was mostly associated to muscle regeneration by the down-regulation of several target genes triggered during muscle repair (Pax7, Cx43 and Utrn). In order to better characterize the function of miR-206 in muscle remodelling, we induced acute muscle damage in control mice by injecting cardiotoxin (CTX) in the tibialis (TA) of c57bl mice. We isolated single muscle fiber from injected TA and quantified by absolute Realt-Time PCR (Q-PCR) the expression levels of miR-206. Furthermore in situ hybridization experiments on tissue slices of damaged TA were performed in order to localized miR-206. Data obtained highlighted the over-expression of miR-206 in newly formed and regenerating myofibers, demostrating the association of miR-206 with muscle regeneration. Furthermore, a target-gene prediction-analysis for miR-206 was performed by using 6 different computational algorithms (PITA, TargetScan, ...
Proton NMR studies of the structural and dynamical effect of chemical modification of a single aromatic side-chain in a snake cardiotoxin. Relation to
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ASAP Awards Autodesk and Citrix 2009 Alliance Excellence Award: SAN RAFAEL, Calif., April 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Companies Recognized for Excellence in Product Development, Quality, Services, Support and Sales SAN RAFAEL, Calif., April 6 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Autodesk, Inc. (NASDAQ: ADSK) a leader in 2D and 3D design and engineering software, and Citrix Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: CTXS), the global leader in application …
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Yi Xin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Yi Xin is available on the Drugs.com website.
He Xin is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to He Xin is available on the Drugs.com website.
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The essential role of tyrosine residue(s) of cardiotoxin II in the biological activity of the toxin was evaluated using N-bromosuccinimide. N-bromosuccinimide effected oxidation of the tyrosine residues in cardiotoxin II with enhancement in absorbance at 260 nm. The influence of various solvent media such as acetate-formate buffer (pH 4.0), 0.01 N H2SO4 (pH 2.0) and Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5) on oxidation of tyrosine residues was exa mined. In comparison with 0.01 N H2S O4, acetate-formate buffer could prevent secondary oxidations as revealed by lower consumption of oxidant, N-bromosuccinimide, to achieve oxidation. In Tris-HCl buffer oxidation of tyrosine did not take place effectively. N-iodo-succinimide caused only limited oxidation as evident from minor increase in absorbance at 260 nm. N-chlorosuccinimide was completely ineffective. Oxidation of cardiotoxin II with 3.75 equivalents of N-bromosuccinimide tyrosine residue led to complete loss of lethal activity. However, the derivative retained ...
Aconitine (ACO), a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid, is recognized to have effects on cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channels. However, it remains unknown whether it has any effects on K+ currents. The effects of ACO on ion currents in differentiated clonal cardiac (H9c2) cells and in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were investigated in this study. In H9c2 cells, ACO suppressed ultrarapid-delayed rectifier K+ current (IKur) in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. The IC50 value for ACO-induced inhibition of IKur was 1.4μM. ACO could accelerate the inactivation of IKur with no change in the activation time constant of this current. Steady-state inactivation curve of IKur during exposure to ACO could be demonstrated. Recovery from block by ACO was fitted by a single-exponential function. The inhibition of IKur by ACO could still be observed in H9c2 cells preincubated with ruthenium red (30μM). Intracellular dialysis with ACO (30μM) had no effects on IKur. IKur elicited by ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxidation and structural perturbation of redox-sensitive enzymes in injured skeletal muscle. AU - Pierce, Anson P.. AU - de Waal, Eric. AU - McManus, Linda M.. AU - Shireman, Paula K.. AU - Chaudhuri, Asish R.. PY - 2007/12/15. Y1 - 2007/12/15. N2 - Molecular events that control skeletal muscle injury and regeneration are poorly understood. However, inflammation associated with oxidative stress is considered a key player in modulating this process. To understand the consequences of oxidative stress associated with muscle injury, inflammation, and regeneration, hind-limb muscles of C57Bl/6J mice were studied after injection of cardiotoxin (CT). Within 1 day post-CT injection, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte accumulation was extensive. Compared to baseline, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was elevated eight- and fivefold at 1 and 7 days post-CT, respectively. Ubiquitinylated protein was elevated 1 day postinjury and returned to baseline by 21 days. Cysteine residues ...
African villagers and experts alike fear the intense pain and suffering the mamba inflicts on its victims. Its poison is neuro-toxic. Unlike most poisonous snakes where the venom travels slowly through the blood stream, allowing a victim time to get treatment and to isolate the poison using a tourniquet, the black mambas poison goes straight for the nerves, attacking the central nervous system and shutting down major organs. Twenty minutes after being bitten you may lose the ability to talk. After one hour youre probably comatose, and by six hours, without an antidote, you are dead.. When feeling very threatened, the Black Mamba usually delivers multiple strikes, injecting its potent neuro- and cardiotoxin with each strike, often attacking the body or head, unlike most other snakes. It can strike up to 12 times in a row. A single bite from a Black Mamba can inject enough venom to kill up to 10-25 grown men, easily killing one unless the appropriate anti-venom is administered in time. When ...
1%, and that the cardiovascular adverse events that occur are manageable when recognized and treated. Imatinib remains a potential cardiotoxin, and the cardiac consequences of its long-term use remain unknown. We recommend treatment of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in imatinib treated patients according the American Heart Association guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heart failure, along with frequent monitoring of signs/symptoms of heart failure.. ...
Objective: This study elucidates the protective effects of propolis against CTX-induced changes in mice. Materials and methods: Forty-eight male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups; group 1 was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 200 µL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS), group 2 was injected with 100 mg/kg/d propolis, group 3 was injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg), and group 4 was injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg) followed by propolis (100 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After 12 d, mice were bled and then sacrificed to analyze the hematological, biochemical, and histological parameters ...
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The Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis) is likely one of the most venomous cobra species on the earth based mostly on murine LD50 research. The common subcutaneous LD50 for this species is 0.20 mg/kg. The lowest LD50 reported value for this snake is zero.14 mg/kg SC, whereas the very best is zero.forty eight mg/kg SC. Research has shown its venom is purely a neurotoxin, with no obvious necrotizing components and no cardiotoxins.. It doesnt usually unfold a hood nor maintain up its physique up off the bottom like true cobras do. Envenomation by this species must be thought-about a severe medical emergency. Human fatalities due to envenomation by this species have been reported.. These snakes are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a goal up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) away. Bites from this species produce distinguished neurotoxicity and are thought-about especially dangerous. A research of 39 patients envenomed by … Read More. Read More » ...
COBRA continuing coverage is usually paid for by the covered individual. That includes both their share and the employers share (i.e., the entire premium). People can pick and choose which coverages to keep and who to cover (themselves or dependents), which could vary the cost.. In response to the COVID-19 crisis, Congress is considering expanded COBRA options. A bill drafted by the House of Representatives proposes covering furloughed individuals in addition to those who were laid off. In its current form, the drafted legislation would also cover up to 100 percent of the premium. COBRA law currently allows up to 18 months of continuing coverage, and the proposed legislation could keep that time frame or adjust it. If approved, it would be significantly more than the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). ARRA was passed during the 2009 recession and covered 65 percent of COBRA premiums for up to 15 months.. ...
Synonyms for Cobra gabonica in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cobra gabonica. 1 synonym for Bitis gabonica: gaboon viper. What are synonyms for Cobra gabonica?
Indian Cobra - This handsomely hooded reptile is deadly because it lives in populated areas and its venom very toxic. It doesnt really dance to the music.
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good morning all, this morning I finally got the Cobra Commander golden trait upon testing it the damage is barely there also the tooltip say 6 secs the snake poison/DPS barely even lasted a full 2 secs is anyone else seeing this issue?
A huge snake believed to be a cobra left patients and nurses scurrying for cover after it sneaked into one of the hospital wards and sought comfort under a pati...
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Cobra (Shelby AC) The Shelby AC Cobra was built from 1961 to 1967 and still remains one of the most recognized and sought after sports cars in the World. This one is not as simple, but the Cobra story begins with the British car builder AC Cars in the early 60s; they were using a Bristol straight 6 engine in their small two-seater cars. Carroll Shelby sent a request to AC asking if they would modify one of the cars to fit a V8 under the hood and AC accepted the challenge. After some dead ends with Chevy, Carroll finally got Ford to deliver him one of their new 260 cubic in. V8s (a new lightweight high performance small block V8 engine) to be installed in the car. As testing and development continued it was easy to see how this car was going to be something special. These cars would go on to set records and win a ton of races……making Carroll Shelby a house hold name! Now what did Carroll intend to call this new little hot-rod? The name Cobra is said to have come to Carroll in a dream, he ...
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"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 1 also known as KChIP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP1 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP1 Kv channel interacting protein 1". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochemical and ... Lin YL, Chen CY, Cheng CP, Chang LS (Aug 2004). "Protein-protein interactions of KChIP proteins and Kv4.2". Biochemical and ... Kv channel-interacting protein 2 also known as KChIP2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP2 Kv channel interacting protein 2". Burgoyne RD (Mar 2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
"Evidence showing an intermolecular interaction between KChIP proteins and Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Kv channel-interacting protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNIP4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP4 Kv channel interacting protein 4". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ...
... (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13. Yang SH, Chien CM ... Lu MC, Lu YJ, Wu ZZ, Lin SR (July 2005). "Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated ...
Using protein homology information and expression data from different tissues of the cobra, 23,248 protein-coding genes, 31,447 ... The Indian cobra's venom mainly contains a powerful post-synaptic neurotoxin and cardiotoxin. The venom acts on the synaptic ... The Indian cobra (Naja naja), also known as the spectacled cobra, Asian cobra, or binocellate cobra, is a species of the genus ... Indian cobra displaying an impressive hood Albino spectacled cobra Binocellate cobra Indian cobra outside a home in Yelandur, ...
"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in ... The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). But it can be easily distinguished by virtue ... The Chinese cobra is a highly venomous member of the true cobras (genus Naja). Its venom consists mainly of postsynaptic ...
However, the main components of its venom are cardiotoxins with cytotoxic activity. In fact, polypeptide cardiotoxins make up ... The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, ... The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix), also called Indonesian cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found in ... The Javan spitting cobra is found mostly in tropical forests and wet forest, but the species adapts well to a wide variety of ...
Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snakes venom protein. This species presented an IV LD50 of 0.50 µg/g mouse. Grismer, L.; ... Malayan spitting cobra, golden spitting cobra, or Sumatran spitting cobra, is a species of spitting cobra found in Southeast ... Like other cobra species, this snake possesses postsynaptic neurotoxic venom. The venom may also consist of cardiotoxins and ... The Equatorial spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana) also called the black spitting cobra, ...
The company also licensed a cardiotoxin therapy for acute and chronic nephropathy in 2015. In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech ... a protein found in South American rattlesnake venom, that could cause cell death in malignant cancer cells. Crotoxin was tested ... for rights to develop and commercialize analgesic products for the treatment of chronic pain utilizing active ingredient cobra ... agreement with Atlanta-based Emory University to study the viability of the cell-penetrating peptide Crotamine-a protein found ...
... is found in the venom of the king cobra (Ophioophagus hannah). LNTX-1 is an acronym for long neurotoxin 1. The "long" ... The 3FTx family consists of two major categories, neurotoxins and cardiotoxins. LNTX belongs to the neurotoxin family; other ... refers to the long-chain classification based on mature protein length of the neurotoxin, which is 66-79 amino acid residues ... He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun (2004-09-01). "Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra ( ...
An example is the three-fingered cardiotoxin III from cobra, an example of the short three-fingered family (InterPro: IPR003572 ... The main challenge, however, is to deliver protein to the nerve cells as proteins usually are not applicable as pills. The ... The king cobra, which does prey on cobras, is said to be immune to their venom. The hedgehog (Erinaceidae), the mongoose ( ... Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. A complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and ...
... a novel protein from king cobra venom: Its cDNA and genomic organization". Gene. 371 (2): 246-256. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.12. ... Rajagopalan, N.; Pung, Y. F.; Zhu, Y. Z.; Wong, P. T. H.; Kumar, P. P.; Kini, R. M. (2007). "β-Cardiotoxin: A new three-finger ... Killing a king cobra is punished with imprisonment of up to six years. A ritual in Myanmar involves a king cobra and a female ... Cobra stones or pearls are believed by tantrikas to develop from the cobra's hood. Stuart, B.; Wogan, G.; Grismer, L.; Auliya, ...
In the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Eastern green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps), 3FTx proteins make up about 70% of ... These cardiotoxins also often have generalized cytotoxic effects and are sometimes known as cytolysins. The protein targets in ... Lee SC, Lin CC, Wang CH, Wu PL, Huang HW, Chang CI, Wu WG (July 2014). "Endocytotic routes of cobra cardiotoxins depend on ... Others, including the second-largest 3FTx subgroup, are cardiotoxins. Many of the most well-characterized 3FTx proteins exert ...
"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... Spitting cobras are another group of cobras that belong to the genus Naja. Spitting cobras can be found in both Africa and Asia ... The Cape cobras venom is made up of potent postsynaptic neurotoxins and might also contain cardiotoxins, that affect the ... The forest cobra is one of the least frequent causes of snake bite among the African cobras. This is largely due to its forest- ...
... from certain toxic mushrooms Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra The term "environmental toxin" can sometimes explicitly ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... or relatively small protein. Biotoxins in nature have two primary functions: Predation, such as in the spider, snake, scorpion ... the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins, each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), ...
Cobras, mambas, and taipans are mid- to large sized snakes which can reach 2 m (6 ft 7 in) or above. The king cobra is the ... In 1997, Slowinski, Knight and Rooney found in their phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences from venom proteins, that ... Other toxic components in some species comprise cardiotoxins and cytotoxins, which cause heart dysfunctions and cellular damage ... Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not. The type ...
... s and cobras are in the same family: the Elapidae. Like cobras, a mamba may rear and form a hood as part of its threat ... Mamba venoms consist mostly of neurotoxins (known as dendrotoxins). Besides the neurotoxins, they also carry cardiotoxins and ... binds to potassium channel proteins.]". Epilepsy Research Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter ... Typically also, a rearing mamba tends to lean well forward, instead of standing erect as a cobra does. Stories of black mambas ...
In addition to nonenzymatic proteins, the venom also contains nucleases, which cause tissue damage at the site of the bite and ... Dementieva, Daria V.; Bocharov, Eduard V.; Arseniev, Alexander S. (1999). "Two forms of cytotoxin II (cardiotoxin) from Naja ... The Caspian cobra (Naja oxiana), also called the Central Asian cobra, ladle snake, Oxus cobra, or Russian cobra is a species of ... The Caspian cobra is the most venomous species of cobra in the world, slightly ahead of the Philippine cobra, based on a 1992 ...
It also is likely to hiss and spread its neck into a hood similar to that of the cobras in the genus Naja. During the threat ... In 2015, the proteome (complete protein profile) of black mamba venom was assessed and published, revealing 41 distinct ... Member of the three-finger family include alpha-neurotoxin, cardiotoxins, fasciculins and mambalgins. The most toxic components ... First formally described by Albert Günther in 1864, it is the second-longest venomous snake after the king cobra; mature ...
Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra. Environmental toxins[edit]. See also: Environmental toxicology ... Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body ... the venom of the cone snail contains dozens of small proteins, each targeting a specific nerve channel or receptor), or ...
Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not.[8][9] ... Their venom is mainly neurotoxic, although many of them also possess several other types of toxins, including cardiotoxins and ... Good molecular evidence via karyotyping, protein electrophoretic analysis, immunological distance, DNA sequence analysis, and ... such as the Asiatic king cobra, African black mamba, forest cobra, and Australasian coastal taipan, can inject a large quantity ...
Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced ... Structures of heparin-derived tetrasaccharide bound to cobra cardiotoxins: Heparin binding at a single protein site with ... Non-cytotoxic cobra cardiotoxin A5 binds to avß3 integrin and inhibit bone resorption. Identification of cardiotoxins as nonRGD ... Possible mechanisms of action of cobra snake venom cardiotoxins and bee venom melittin. Toxicon 1993; 31:669-695.CrossRefPubMed ...
"Crystallographic studies of snake venom proteins from Taiwan cobra (Naja nana atra). Cardiotoxin-analogue III and phospholipase ... The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in ... The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). But it can be easily distinguished by virtue ... The Chinese cobra is a highly venomous member of the true cobras (genus Naja). Its venom consists mainly of postsynaptic ...
Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snakes venom protein. This species presented an IV LD50 of 0.50 µg/g mouse. Grismer, L.; ... Malayan spitting cobra, golden spitting cobra, or Sumatran spitting cobra, is a species of spitting cobra found in Southeast ... Like other cobra species, this snake possesses postsynaptic neurotoxic venom. The venom may also consist of cardiotoxins and ... The Equatorial spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana) also called the black spitting cobra, ...
A lethal cardiotoxic-cytotoxic protein from the Indian monocellate cobra (Najakaouthia) venom. Toxicon. 2010 Sep 15;56(4):569- ... Snake venom cardiotoxins-structure, dynamics, function and folding. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 1997 Dec;15(3):431-63., 4343. Raynor ... Fusion of sphingomyelin vesicles induced by proteins from Taiwan cobra (Najanajaatra) venom. Interactions of zwitterionic ... A lethal cardiotoxic-cytotoxic protein from the Indian monocellate cobra (Najakaouthia) venom. Toxicon. 2010 Sep 15;56(4):569- ...
Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ ... Total urinary protein concentration (grams per liter) was determined using the Bradford protein assay kit (Beyotime Institute ... Measurement of 24 h Urine Protein Output. For urine collection and total urinary protein determination, rats were placed in ... which is a lipid raft-like structure that contains multiple proteins [34]. Nephrin is now accepted as the essential SD protein ...
... equatorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. The cytotoxicity ... Equitorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. The cytotoxicity ... which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, ... which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, ...
Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the three-finger protein ... Bitopic proteins, a broad subclass of membrane proteins, form dimers containing two membrane-spanning helices. Some aspects of ... The approach was tested with model transmembrane domains and yielded detailed atomic-level data on the protein-protein and ...
Protein Pept. Sci. 13 (6), 570-84 [+]. Cytotoxins (or cardiotoxins; CTs) are toxins from cobra venom characterized by the three ... Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. They are classified into S- and P-types, the latter ... Dubovskii P.V., Konshina A.G., Efremov R.G. (2014). Cobra Cardiotoxins: Membrane Interactions and Pharmacological Potential. ... Structurally different are cardiotoxins (or cytotoxins, СTs) from cobra venom. They are fully -structured molecules, ...
Cardiotoxin II of the Indian cobra. (Naja naja). contains approximately four Mg2+ per mol. Complete demetallation of the toxin ... The enzyme activity is intrinsic to a protein fraction in the venom which is normally termed cardiotoxin, cobramine, cytotoxin ... Effect of N-bromosuccinimide-modification of tyrosine side chains of cardiotoxin II of the Indian cobra on biological activity ... Non-identity of reaction centres for pyrophosphatase and toxic actions of cardiotoxin II: The status of cardiotoxin II as a ...
Glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane insertion and internalization of cobra cardiotoxin. The sulfatide.cardiotoxin complex ... Canutescu AA, Shelenkov AA, Dunbrack RL Jr: A graph theory algorithm for protein side-chain prediction. Protein Science 2003, ... Fujii G, Selsted ME, Eisenberg D: Defensins promote fusion and lysis of negatively charged membranes. Protein Sci 1993, 2: 1301 ... In an attempt to understand how a protein so small and highly charged can overcome the gradient of charge-charge repulsions and ...
According to the literature, the protein band of MW 7 KD contained cardiotoxin and neurotoxin [21, 22]. In contrast, heat ... cardiotoxin, cobra venom factor (CVF), and so forth. Our recent study has shown that cobratoxin suppressed inflammation and ... This molecular mass may include cardiotoxin and cobrotoxin, or some breakdown fragments from large molecular weight proteins. ... identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins," Protein Science, vol. 9, no ...
Cobras, mambas, sea snakes, kraits and coral snakes are known to possess this venom. The king cobras (ophiophagus hannah) are ... 2) Cardiotoxins:. Actually cardiotoxins are muscle venoms. They bind to particular sites on the surface of muscle cells causing ... Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay. Print Reference this *APA ... 2- Cobras use cobratoxin.. They often result in respiratory paralysis and heart failures. Their effect can range between mild ...
In addition, it binds to heparin with high affinity, interacts with Kv channel-interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) in a calcium- ... Cardiotoxin, Toxin. Biological process. Cytolysis. ,p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR003572 Cytotoxin_Cobra. IPR003571 Snake_3FTx. IPR018354 Snake_toxin_con_site. IPR035076 Toxin/ ...
Experimental observations have shown that cardio toxins (cobra cytotoxins), small proteins of three-fingered cytotoxin group, ... Molecular dynamics simulations have been used here to study the interaction of cardiotoxins A3 and A4 from Naja atra cobra ... Peripheral binding mode and penetration depth of cobra cardiotoxin on phospholipid membranes as studied by a combined FTIR and ... 1] Dubovskii, P.V., Lesovoy, D.M., Dubinnyi, M.A., Utkin, Y.N., Arseniev, A.S. (2003) Interaction of the P-type cardiotoxin ...
Structure and Function of Cobra Venom Factor, the Complement-Activating Protein in Cobra Venom ... A CASE STUDY OF CARDIOTOXIN III FROM THE TAIWAN COBRA (Naja naja atra) Solution Structure and Other Physical Properties ... Structure and Functions of Coagulation Factor IX/Factor X-Binding Protein Isolated from the Venom of Trimeresurus flavoviridis ... Binding Proteins on Synaptic Membranes for Certain Phospholipases A2 With Presynaptic Toxicity ...
keywords = "B-factors, Backbone dynamics, Cardiotoxin, Order parameters, Protein simulation",. author = "Ying-Chieh Sun and ... N2 - Molecular dynamics simulation of a small, basic, all β-sheet cardiotoxin, CTX II, from Taiwan cobra venom, with proper ... AB - Molecular dynamics simulation of a small, basic, all β-sheet cardiotoxin, CTX II, from Taiwan cobra venom, with proper ... Dive into the research topics of A 500-ps molecular dynamics simulation trajectory of cardiotoxin II from Taiwan cobra venom ...
... of the proteins in Naja venom closely matched cobra proteins. These results demonstrate that the accuracy of protein ... Cardiotoxin. As shown in Table 1, the cardiotoxins are the most abundant components of Naja venom, with MMs ranging from 6.7 to ... Lane M, protein ladder; lane A, Naja venomous proteins; lane B, Agki venomous proteins. MM values are given in kDa. ... Although some identified proteins have diverse amino acid sequences, these proteins may belong to the same protein family, at ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences * Cardiotoxins Medicine & Life Sciences * Depolarization Chemical Compounds ... Chen, K. C., Chiou, Y. L., Kao, P. H., Lin, S. R., & Chang, L. S. (2008). Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins induce apoptotic death of ... T1 - Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins induce apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells mediated by reactive oxygen species ... Taiwan cobra cardiotoxins induce apoptotic death of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells mediated by reactive oxygen species ...
Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... This membrane protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ... "Cardiotoxin III induces apoptosis in K562 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway". Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins Entry term(s). Cardiotoxin Proteins, Cobra Cardiotoxin, Cobra Cobra Cardiotoxin Cobra Cytotoxin ... Cobra Cardiotoxin. Cobra Cytotoxin Proteins. Cobra Toxin Gamma. Cobra Venom Cardiotoxin D. Cytotoxin Proteins, Cobra. Cytotoxin ... Cardiotoxin I. Cardiotoxin II. Cardiotoxin Like Basic Polypeptide. Cardiotoxin Proteins, Cobra. Cardiotoxin VII 4. Cardiotoxin ... Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins - Preferred Concept UI. M0006549. Scope note. Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic ...
Cobra Neurotoxins. Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins. Direct Lytic Factors. Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins. D23 - Biological Factors. Shiga ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ... Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ...
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/toxicity , Elapid Venoms/toxicity , Drug Antagonism , ... Inhibitory activity of cardiotoxin II of the Indian cobra & certain antibiotics on lysis of bacteria promoted by lysozyme. ...
Animals , Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Melitten , Rhodnius , Trypanosomatina/drug effects ... Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/pharmacology , Elapid Venoms/pharmacology , Drug Stability , Micrococcus/drug effects , Protoplasts/ ... Humans , Animals , Hemolysis , Viper Venoms/pharmacology , Elapid Venoms/pharmacology , Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/pharmacology ... Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/pharmacology , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Caspases/metabolism , ...
Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins/administration & dosage. *Electrophysiology. *Embryonic and Fetal Development/drug effects/genetics ...
Cardiotoxins/ cytotoxins. Act on membrane lipids/proteins of blood cells or heart cells. cobras, scorpions. ... Protein C activators. Premature activation of protein C in the coagulation cascade resulting in net anticoagulation. Vipers and ...
  • Actions of cardiotoxins from the southern Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) on rat cardiac tissue. (springer.com)
  • Indian spectacled cobra ( Naja naja ) venom increased the lifespan of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice, showing cytotoxicity on EAC cells and normalizing the antioxidant profile. (scielo.br)
  • Cobra venom from Naja naja atra comprises a variety of active peptides such as neurotoxin, cardiotoxin, and phospholipase A2 [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Venoms of cobras ( Naja spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study set to explore the anticancer properties of the venoms and cytotoxins from Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra) and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra), two highly venomous species in Southeast Asia. (frontiersin.org)
  • An inorganic pyrophosphatase has been purified to apparent homogeniety from Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom, with a ten-fold increase in specific activity. (ias.ac.in)
  • Cardiotoxin II of the Indian cobra (Naja naja) contains approximately four Mg 2+ per mol. (ias.ac.in)
  • Molecular dynamics simulations have been used here to study the interaction of cardiotoxins A3 and A4 from Naja atra cobra venom with hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-1- sn -3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayer in two separate systems. (scientific.net)
  • The Equatorial spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana) also called the black spitting cobra, Malayan spitting cobra, golden spitting cobra, or Sumatran spitting cobra, is a species of spitting cobra found in Southeast Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, the populations of this species were assigned to several different subspecies of Naja naja (Indian cobra), in particular N. n. sumatrana (Sumatra), N.n. sputatrix (Peninsular Malaysia) and N.n. miolepis (Borneo, Palawan). (wikipedia.org)
  • Population affinities of the Asiatic cobra (Naja naja) species complex in south‑east Asia: reliability and random resampling" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Taxonomic changes and toxinology: systematic revisions of the Asiatic cobras (Naja naja species complex)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chinese cobra (Naja atra), also called the Taiwan cobra, is a species of cobra in the family Elapidae, found mostly in southern China and a couple of neighboring nations and islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Chinese cobra is sometimes confused with the Monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Naja naja atra cardiotoxin 3 (CTX3) and cardiotoxin 4 (CTX4) showed different cytotoxicity toward human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, the two toxins induced apoptotic death on SK-N-SH cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3 ) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiotoxin III (CTX III), a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have anticancer activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • CTV IV is a cardiotoxin found in the venom of Naja naja atra cobras. (lktlabs.com)
  • Elucidation of the solution structure of cardiotoxin analogue V from the Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra)--identification of structural features important for the lethal action of snake venom cardiotoxins. (lktlabs.com)
  • Cobras discussed in this article include species in the genus Naja and other similar venomous snakes, such as Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Hemachatus haemachatus (ringhals), Walterinnesia aegyptia (desert black snake), Boulengerina species (water cobras), and Pseudohaje species (tree cobras). (medscape.com)
  • Necrosis is typical of bites by the African spitting cobras ( Naja nigricollis , Naja mossambica , Naja pallida , and Naja katiensis ), the Chinese cobra ( Naja atra ), the Monocellate cobra ( Naja kaouthia ), and the Sumatran spitting cobra ( Naja sumatrana ). (medscape.com)
  • Occasionally, a combination of neurologic dysfunction and tissue necrosis may occur as with the Indian cobra ( Naja naja ). (medscape.com)
  • Naja kaouthia (Monocellate cobra). (medscape.com)
  • Naja naja (Indian Cobra). (medscape.com)
  • The venom proteome of the monocled cobra, Naja kaouthia, from Thailand, was characterized by RPHPLC, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses, yielding 38 different proteins that were either identified or assigned to families. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Moreover, given the historical focus on the 'big four' Indian snakes, our understanding of venom variation in medically important yet neglected snakes, such as the monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia), remains unclear. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most common poisonous snakes in the country are cobra ( Naja naja ), krait ( Bungarus caeruleus ), Russell's viper ( Daboia russelli ) and saw-scaled viper ( Echis carinatus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here the construction of cardiotoxin V gene, from cobra snake venom (Naja naja atra), by chemically synthesized oligonucleotides and its expression as a glutathione S-transferase-cardiotoxin fusion protein in the inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli. (elsevier.com)
  • Bites by vipers and some cobras ( Naja and other genera) are painful and tender. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Four novel cardiotoxins were isolated from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom by successive separation on a SP-Sephadex C-25 column and a reverse phase column. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Comparative analyses on the amino acid sequences of cardiotoxins from the venoms of N. naja atra and other Naja species indicated that amino acid substitutions of cardiotoxin isoforms frequently occurred at positions 7-11, 27-32 and 45-47. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Analysis on the secondary structure of pre-mRNAs of N. naja atra cardiotoxin 4 gene and N. naja sputatrix cardiotoxin 3 gene has shown that the hypervariable regions of the exon 2 pertain to form intra-exon pairings and are not involved in the formation of intron-exon pairings. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In India, greater part of chomps and mortality are because of King cobra, naja, Daboia Russelli Russells snake, Bangarus caeruleus (basic krait) and Echis carinatus (saw-scaled snake). (blogspot.com)
  • Many are harmless or are a rarity though the puff adder ( Bitis arietans ), Gabon viper ( Bitis gabonica ), green or Jameson's mamba ( Dendroaspis jamesoni ), black mamba ( Dendroaspis polylepis ), forest cobra ( Naja melanoleuca ), and black-necked spitting cobra ( Naja naja nigricollis ) are listed as venomous [ 10 , 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, exceptions occur - the venom of the black-necked spitting cobra ( Naja nigricollis ), an elapid, consists mainly of cytotoxins , while that of the Mojave rattlesnake ( Crotalus scutulatus ), a viperid, is primarily neurotoxic. (orange.com)
  • Hemolytic activity of thionin from Pyrularia pubera nuts and snake venom toxins of Naja naja species: Pyrularia thionin and snake venom cardiotoxin compete for the same membrane site. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Snake venom is a complex mixture of proteins and peptides, and a number of studies have described the biological properties of several venomous proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • Snake venom is composed mainly of proteins and peptides, which possess a variety of biological activities. (biology-online.org)
  • Predicted membrane-binding sites, protein tilt angles and membrane penetration depths are consistent with spin-labeling, chemical modification, fluorescence, NMR, mutagenesis, and other experimental studies of 53 peripheral proteins and peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coordinates of all examined peripheral proteins and peptides with the calculated hydrophobic membrane boundaries, subcellular localization, topology, structural classification, and experimental references are available through the Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Positions of diverse peripheral proteins and peptides in the lipid bilayer can be accurately predicted using their 3D structures that represent a proper membrane-bound conformation and oligomeric state, and have membrane binding elements present. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional proteins and enzymes of venom include phophodiesterase (lower blood pressure), phospholipase (hemolytic), hyaluronidase (increase tissue permeability), ATPase (ATP hydrolysis), oxidase and protease (digestion) and peptides that inhibit mammalian cholinesterase leading to loss of muscular activity. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The venom of Viperidae snakes is a compound liquid rich in medicinally active proteins and peptides. (scidoc.org)
  • Venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides possessing a variety of biological activities. (scidoc.org)
  • Proteins and peptides comprise about 90-95% of the dry weight of the venom. (scidoc.org)
  • Snake venoms are complex mixtures containing many different biologically active proteins and peptides. (scidoc.org)
  • The venom of Viperidae snakes including the Iranian E.carinatus is rich in proteins and peptides effective on the hemostatic system. (scidoc.org)
  • Their venoms are complex cocktails of toxic proteins, peptides, and small organic and inorganic molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • These toxins are in themselves a diverse and complex group, including smaller neurotoxic peptides, larger phospholipases, and venom proteases, along with many other protein families ( Ducancel, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These venoms also contain several pharmacologically active components that could elicit great interest as a source of proteins and peptides for the design and the development of new drugs with antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, analgesic, immunosuppressing and anticancer activities [ 1 , 3 , 5 ]. (scielo.br)
  • Cell growth inhibition is essentially due to proteins and peptides isolated from these venoms, some of them are explored in phase I and phase II clinical trials [ 3 ]. (scielo.br)
  • Among non-enzymatic proteins super families of three finger toxins serine proteinase inhibitors C-type lectin related proteins artrial nutrient peptides and never growth factors have already been well characterized LAAO phospholipase A2 metalloprotease are some examples of super familie of enzyms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other than toxicants and proteins the snake venom contains a few peptides, amino acids, starches, lipids, nucleosides, natural amines and metal particles, which make it considerably more intricate than other ordinary proteins. (blogspot.com)
  • Toxins can be small molecules , peptides , or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ce spectre d'activités de même que la spécificité relative des peptides et leur puissance d'action en font des constituants biologiques dont l'élucidation des rôles constitue un objectif majeur dans le domaine biomédical. (inrs.ca)
  • Functional analysis based upon toxin categories reveals that, as expected, cobra venom has a high abundance of cardio- and neurotoxins, whereas viper venom contains a significant amount of haemotoxins and metalloproteinases. (biology-online.org)
  • These categories are: (i) haemotoxins, which promote haemorrhaging primary to extensive local swelling and necrosis, (ii) neurotoxins, which disable muscle contraction and paralyse the heart as well as hinder respiration, and (iii) cardiotoxins, which elicit specific toxicity to cardiac and muscle cells, causing irreversible depolarization of cell membranes [ 6 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • Although the venoms of these cobras contain neurotoxins, necrosis often is the chief or only manifestation of envenoming in humans. (medscape.com)
  • With most species, excluding some of the African spitting cobras, the most clinically significant toxins are postsynaptic neurotoxins that competitively bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to produce depolarizing neuromuscular blockade. (medscape.com)
  • The most relevant lethal components, categorized by means of a 'toxicity score', were a-neurotoxins, followed by cytotoxins/cardiotoxins. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Neurotoxins are fasciculins (Black mamba), dendrotoxins (Green mamba) and alpha-neurotoxins (Cobra and Krait). (biotecharticles.com)
  • Their venom possesses several proteins, including cardiotoxins, neurotoxins and phospholipase A 2 , that are responsible for their toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Snake venom essentially comprises of neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, poisons that cause blood coagulating, draining poisons (that stops the blood thickening and blood stays to stream consistently considerably after injury), destructive catalysts and other significant segments. (blogspot.com)
  • Among hundreds, even thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic proteins (which also have pharmacological properties), and many enzymes, especially hydrolytic ones. (orange.com)
  • Polypeptide toxins (molecular weight 5-10 KDa) include cytotoxins , cardiotoxins , and postsynaptic neurotoxins (such as α-bungarotoxin and α-Cobratoxin ), which bind to acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions. (orange.com)
  • Cobra cytotoxins (CTs) belong to the three-fingered protein family. (ibch.ru)
  • contain high abundances of cytotoxins, which contribute to tissue necrosis in cobra envenomation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tissue-necrotizing activity of cobra cytotoxins, nevertheless, indicates anticancer potentials. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings revealed the limitations and challenges that could be faced during the development of new cancer therapy from cobra cytotoxins, notwithstanding their potent anticancer effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Experimental observations have shown that cardio toxins (cobra cytotoxins), small proteins of three-fingered cytotoxin group, damage nanobiomembranes in different cells and vesicles. (scientific.net)
  • The venom may also consist of cardiotoxins and cytotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cobra venom cytotoxins are basic three-fingered, amphipathic, non-enzymatic proteins that constitute a major fraction of cobra venom. (unr.edu)
  • Cytotoxins are phospholipases (produced by Habu), cardiotoxins (King cobra) and hemotoxins (Viper and Naga). (biotecharticles.com)
  • Das T, Bhattacharya S, Biswas A, Gupta SD, Gomes A, Gomes A. Inhibition of leukemic U937 cell growth by induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and suppression of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities by cytotoxin protein NN-32 purified from Indian spectacled cobra (Najanaja) venom. (scielo.br)
  • Impact of membrane partitioning on the spatial structure of an S-type cobra cytotoxin. (ibch.ru)
  • The enzyme activity is intrinsic to a protein fraction in the venom which is normally termed cardiotoxin, cobramine, cytotoxin and so on. (ias.ac.in)
  • Cardiotoxins, as an example, can be a cytotoxin that has proven to have considerable effects on the cardiac muscle cells, or a Myotoxin that specifically affects the heart. (serpentoxin.com)
  • Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snakes venom protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes from cobra venom show promise in the treatment and/or prevention of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases [ 3 , 4 ], and the venom from snakes in the viper family has been shown to promote tumour reduction [ 5 ]. (biology-online.org)
  • Most cobras are large snakes, 1.2-2.5 m in length. (medscape.com)
  • Because cobras are popular as show snakes, bites on the hands and fingers are common. (medscape.com)
  • Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Few snakes, with the occasional exception of king cobras ( Ophiophagus hannah ) or black mambas ( Dendroaspis polylepis ), act aggressively toward a human without provocation. (livenews24.pk)
  • The Mozambique Spitting Cobra are one of those snakes with a deadly cytotoxic venom. (sleekfood.com)
  • The venom of the Equatorial spitting cobra exhibited the common characteristic enzymatic activities of Asiatic spitting cobra venoms: low protease, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase and L-amino-acid oxidase activities, moderately high acetylcholinesterase and hyaluronidase activities and high phospholipase A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the AACE encourages looking at the inflammatory markers highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and in some patients lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), when risk is uncertain and additional information is needed to decide how aggressively to treat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Relative toxicity of snake venom is determined from comparison with Cobra venom which is assigned by point 1 toxicity. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Toxin synergism is a complex biochemical phenomenon, where different animal venom proteins interact either directly or indirectly to potentiate toxicity to a level that is above the sum of the toxicities of the individual toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, venoms derive their toxicity from proteins known as toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interaction of cardiotoxins with membranes: a molecular modeling study. (springer.com)
  • 4] Huang W.N., Sue, S.C., Wang, D.S., Wu, P.L., Wu,W.G. (2003) Peripheral binding mode and penetration depth of cobra cardiotoxin on phospholipid membranes as studied by a combined FTIR and computer simulation approach. (scientific.net)
  • More than half of all proteins interact with membranes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Positions of proteins in membranes can also be determined computationally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypervariable segments encoded by the second and third exon of cardiotoxin genes are located at or near the tips of loop structure of cardiotoxin molecules. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • As with all snake venoms, they are multicomponent products whose toxins are mostly proteins and polypeptides. (medscape.com)
  • Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. (orange.com)
  • It is distinct from the king cobra which belongs to the monotypic genus Ophiophagus. (pet-ark.com)
  • Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes and proteins which many of it not harmless to humans, but some are very toxic. (ukessays.com)
  • As mentioned, snake venom is modified saliva which contains a variety of proteins and enzymes. (ukessays.com)
  • Snake venom is a combination of different proteins and enzymes which have cytotoxic, neurotoxic or coagulant properties. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Snake venom are highly modified saliva made of protein, enzymes, and some other toxic substances. (sleekfood.com)
  • Snake venoms are mainly made of proteins and enzymes which function primarily to lower blood pressure, destroy red blood cells, immobilize muscles, and eventually death. (sleekfood.com)
  • N-bromosuccinimide effected oxidation of the tyrosine residues in cardiotoxin II with enhancement in absorbance at 260 nm. (ias.ac.in)
  • Table 1 Comparison of membrane-bound residues in peripheral proteins according to experimental studies and calculations peripheral proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It shows that these cardiotoxins comprise 60 amino acid residues. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • These results, together with the suggestions that the residues at the tips of cardiotoxins' loop structure were involved in the manifestation of the biological activities of cardiotoxins, reflect that the preferential mutations may contribute to alterations in the function of cardiotoxin molecules. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Hider RC, Khader F. Biochemical and pharmacological properties of cardiotoxins isolated from cobra venom. (springer.com)
  • [2] Some of the proteins in snake venom have very specific effects on various biological functions including blood coagulation, blood pressure regulation, and transmission of the nervous or muscular impulses, and have been developed for use as pharmacological or diagnostic tools, and even useful drugs. (orange.com)
  • Anticoagulant action of snake venom proteins is attributed to: (i) the activation of protein C, (ii) the inhibition of blood coagulation factors IX and X by a venom protein that binds to either or both clotting proteins, (iii) a thrombin inhibitor and (iv) phospholipases that degrades phospholipids involved in the formation of complexes critical to the activation of the coagulation pathway [6] . (scidoc.org)
  • C obra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. (springer.com)
  • Knowledge of the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites might improve the cobra bite treatment strategy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, we aimed to explore the factors influencing local tissue necrosis after cobra bites. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mammalian system-targeting property of snake venom proteins is typically specific and selective, thus making them a repertoire of bioactive molecules for the discovery of new therapeutic agents ( Lewis and Garcia, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 80% of gel spots from 2DE displayed high-quality MALDI-TOF-MS spectra, only 50% of these spots were confirmed to be venom proteins, which is more than likely to be a result of incomplete protein databases. (biology-online.org)
  • This species of cobra has no hood marks and colouration varies based upon geographical location. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species of cobra is found in the equatorial Southeast Asian nations of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and in the Philippines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other cobra species, this snake possesses postsynaptic neurotoxic venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative stress was analyzed by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels along with assessment of antioxidant status. (scielo.br)
  • Most species of vipers and cobras and also the infamous tropical rattlesnake has this kind of venom. (sleekfood.com)
  • The Indian cobra is a moderately sized, heavy bodied species. (pet-ark.com)
  • This cobra species can easily be identified by its relatively large and quite impressive hood, which it expands when threatened. (pet-ark.com)
  • Interestingly, these data suggest that post-translational modification may be a significant characteristic of venomous proteins. (biology-online.org)
  • To many people, the cobra is the quintessential venomous snake. (medscape.com)
  • The king cobra, which may reach 5.2 m, is the largest venomous snake in the world. (medscape.com)
  • Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The free A subunit of the mistletoe lectin becomes a potent ribosome-inactivating protein in the cytosol, irreversibly inhibiting protein biosynthesis and thus initiating apoptosis. (mistletoe-therapy.org)
  • Cobra venom cardiotoxins (CVCs) can translocate to mitochondria to promote apoptosis by eliciting mitochondrial dysfunction. (unr.edu)
  • Direct cytotoxicity is mainly based on the inhibition of protein synthesis and the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). (mistletoe-therapy.org)
  • Modulation of Bax, Bcl-X(L), and the Endo G proteins, release of mitochondrial cytochome c, and activation of caspase-3 and -9 all are involved in the CTX III-triggered apoptotic process in human leukemia K562 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Today, recombinant proteins are quite widely used in biomedical and biotechnological applications. (ibch.ru)
  • Shake flasks are widely used during the development of bioprocesses for recombinant proteins. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli with orbital mixing (OM) have an oxygen limitation negatively affecting biomass growth and recombinant-protein production. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Molecular dynamics simulation of a small, basic, all β-sheet cardiotoxin, CTX II, from Taiwan cobra venom, with proper treatment of long-range electrostatic interactions, was carried out to examine the backbone mobility of CTX II in solution and aid in interpretation of order parameters of C α -H bonds obtained from NMR experiments based on the Lipari-Szabo theory. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • Local tissue swelling, inflammation, and wound necrosis are observed in Taiwan cobra bites. (bvsalud.org)
  • The β-propeller domain contains seven repeats of about 60 amino acids each that fold into a seven-bladed β-propeller structure similar to the β subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The venoms of cobra and krait are neurotoxic, that is, they affect the victim's central nervous system and cause heart failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, it binds to heparin with high affinity, interacts with Kv channel-interacting protein 1 (KCNIP1) in a calcium-independent manner, and binds to integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV/ITGB3) with moderate affinity. (uniprot.org)
  • Rotavirus spike protein VP5* binds alpha2beta1 integrin on the cell surface and competes with virus for cell binding and infectivity. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Wu PL, Lee SC, Chuang CC, Mori S, Akakura N, Wu WG, Takada Y . Non-cytotoxic cobra cardiotoxin A5 binds to alpha(v)beta3 integrin and inhibits bone resorption. (ucdavis.edu)
  • With other cobras, local tissue damage is of primary concern. (medscape.com)
  • Cape cobras and Mambas will alway remain a gigantic issue. (sareptiles.co.za)
  • The tests done on african cobra s and mambas produced negetive results and pollyvalent antivenom was eventualy resorted to to ensure the victims survival! (sareptiles.co.za)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Since the pairings of splice sites and gene architecture were supposed to be associated with intron-exon recognition, it is likely that the preferred loci of mutations occurring with the evolution of cardiotoxin genes would not affect the processing of cardiotoxin precursors. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Snake venoms are complex substances, chiefly proteins, with enzymatic activity. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Metalloproteinases were almost exclusively type PIII proteins, with few type PII and no type PI proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reconstitution of toxin by treatment of the apo-protein with Mg 2+ restores metal content and inorganic pyrophosphatase activity only to the extent of two atoms/mol and 65%, respectively. (ias.ac.in)
  • The essential role of tyrosine residue(s) of cardiotoxin II in the biological activity of the toxin was evaluated using N-bromosuccinimide. (ias.ac.in)
  • Unlike cardiotoxin II oxidized with N-chlorosuccinimide (50 equivalents/mol of toxin) which retained lethal activity as well as the ability to protect protoplasts from lysis, performic acid-oxidized toxin had lost both the activities. (ias.ac.in)
  • Purification and Characterization of Nk-3FTx: A Three Finger Toxin from the Venom of North East Indian Monocled Cobra. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Calmette A, Saenz A, Costil L. Effects du venin de cobra sur les greffescancereuses et sur le cancer spontane (adeno-carcinome) de la souris. (scielo.br)
  • Molecular structure and target recognition of neuronal calcium sensor proteins. (epfl.ch)