Vitamin B 12
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Mediterranean Sea. It produces bacteriocins active against a range of other halobacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)
A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Binding of Cob(II)alamin to the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii. Identification of dimethylbenzimidazole as the axial ligand. (1/283)The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii catalyzes the reduction of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates to 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates and uses coenzyme B12, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), as a cofactor. Use of a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylenecytidine 5'-triphosphate, and isotopically labeled RTPR and AdoCbl in conjunction with EPR spectroscopy has allowed identification of the lower axial ligand of cob(II)alamin when bound to RTPR. In common with the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes catalyzing irreversible heteroatom migrations and in contrast to the enzymes catalyzing reversible carbon skeleton rearrangements, the dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of the cofactor is not displaced by a protein histidine upon binding to RTPR. (+info)
The reaction of the substrate analog 2-ketoglutarate with adenosylcobalamin-dependent glutamate mutase. (2/283)Glutamate mutase is one of several adenosylcobalamin-dependent enzymes that catalyze unusual rearrangements that proceed through a mechanism involving free radical intermediates. The enzyme exhibits remarkable specificity, and so far no molecules other than L-glutamate and L-threo-3-methylaspartate have been found to be substrates. Here we describe the reaction of glutamate mutase with the substrate analog, 2-ketoglutarate. Binding of 2-ketoglutarate (or its hydrate) to the holoenzyme elicits a change in the UV-visible spectrum consistent with the formation of cob(II)alamin on the enzyme. 2-ketoglutarate undergoes rapid exchange of tritium between the 5'-position of the coenzyme and C-4 of 2-ketoglutarate, consistent with the formation of a 2-ketoglutaryl radical analogous to that formed with glutamate. Under aerobic conditions this leads to the slow inactivation of the enzyme, presumably through reaction of free radical species with oxygen. Despite the formation of a substrate-like radical, no rearrangement of 2-ketoglutarate to 3-methyloxalacetate could be detected. The results indicate that formation of the C-4 radical of 2-ketoglutarate is a facile process but that it does not undergo further reactions, suggesting that this may be a useful substrate analog with which to investigate the mechanism of coenzyme homolysis. (+info)
Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri -- substitution of the corrinoid harbouring subunit MtaC by free cob(I)alamin. (3/283)Methyl-coenzyme M formation from coenzyme M and methanol in Methanosarcina barkeri is catalysed by an enzyme system composed of three polypeptides MtaA, MtaB and MtaC, the latter of which harbours a corrinoid prosthetic group. We report here that MtaC can be substituted by free cob(I)alamin which is methylated with methanol in an MtaB-catalysed reaction and demethylated with coenzyme M in an MtaA-catalysed reaction. Methyl transfer from methanol to coenzyme M was found to proceed at a relatively high specific activity at micromolar concentrations of cob(I)alamin. This finding was surprising because the methylation of cob(I)alamin catalysed by MtaB alone and the demethylation of methylcob(III)alamin catalysed by MtaA alone exhibit apparent Km for cob(I)alamin and methylcob(III)alamin of above 1 mm. A possible explanation is that MtaA positively affects the MtaB catalytic efficiency and vice versa by decreasing the apparent Km for their corrinoid substrates. Activation of MtaA by MtaB was methanol-dependent. In the assay for methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase activity cob(I)alamin could be substituted by cob(I)inamide which is devoid of the nucleotide loop. Substitution was, however, only possible when the assays were supplemented with imidazole: approximately 1 mm imidazole being required for half-maximal activity. Methylation of cob(I)inamide with methanol was found to be dependent on imidazole but not on the demethylation of methylcob(III)inamide with coenzyme M. The demethylation reaction was even inhibited by imidazole. The structure and catalytic mechanism of the MtaABC complex are compared with the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. (+info)
Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (4/283)We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well. (+info)
Co-ordinate variations in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, and the cobalamin cofactors in human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and the subsequent recovery phase. (5/283)We investigated the co-ordinate variations of the two cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM), and measured the levels of their respective cofactors, methylcobalamin (CH3Cbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) in cultured human glioma cells during nitrous oxide exposure and during a subsequent recovery period of culture in a nitrous oxide-free atmosphere (air). In agreement with published data, MS as the primary target of nitrous oxide was inactivated rapidly (initial rate of 0.06 h(-1)), followed by reduction of CH3Cbl (to <20%). Both enzyme activity and cofactor levels recovered rapidly when the cells were subsequently cultured in air, but the recovery was completely blocked by the protein-synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. During MS inactivation, there was a reduction of cellular AdoCbl and holo-MCM activity (measured in the absence of exogenous AdoCbl) to about 50% of pre-treatment levels. When the cells were transferred to air, both AdoCbl and holo-MCM activity recovered, albeit more slowly than the MS system. Notably, the regain of the holo-MCM and AdoCbl was enhanced rather than inhibited by cycloheximide. These findings confirm irreversible damage of MS by nitrous oxide; hence, synthesis of the enzyme is required to restore its activity. In contrast, restoration of holo-MCM activity is only dependent on repletion of the AdoCbl cofactor. We also observed a synchronous fluctuation in AdoCbl and the much larger hydroxycobalamin pool during the inactivation and recovery phase, suggesting that the loss and repletion of AdoCbl reflect changes in intracellular Cbl homoeostasis. Our data demonstrate that the nitrous oxide-induced changes in MS and CH3Cbl are associated with reversible changes in both MCM holoactivity and the AdoCbl level, suggesting co-ordinate distribution of Cbl cofactors during depletion and repletion. (+info)
Identification and expression of the genes encoding a reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase. (6/283)Adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase undergoes inactivation by glycerol, the physiological substrate, during catalysis. In permeabilized cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the inactivated enzyme is reactivated in the presence of ATP, Mg2+, and adenosylcobalamin. We identified the two open reading frames as the genes for a reactivating factor for glycerol dehydratase and designated them gdrA and gdrB. The reactivation of the inactivated glycerol dehydratase by the gene products was confirmed in permeabilized recombinant Escherichia coli cells coexpressing GdrA and GdrB proteins with glycerol dehydratase. (+info)
Structure and dynamics of the B12-binding subunit of glutamate mutase from Clostridium cochlearium. (7/283)Glutamate mutase (Glm) is an adenosylcobamide-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible rearrangement of (2S)-glutamate to (2S, 3S)-3-methylaspartate. The active enzyme from Clostridium cochlearium consists of two subunits (of 53.6 and 14.8 kDa) as an alpha2beta2 tetramer, whose assembly is mediated by coenzyme B12. The smaller of the protein components, GlmS, has been suggested to be the B12-binding subunit. Here we report the solution structure of GlmS, determined from a heteronuclear NMR-study, and the analysis of important dynamical aspects of this apoenzyme subunit. The global fold and dynamic behavior of GlmS in solution are similar to those of the corresponding subunit MutS from C. tetanomorphum, which has previously been investigated using NMR-spectroscopy. Both solution structures of the two Glm B12-binding subunits share striking similarities with that determined by crystallography for the B12-binding domain of methylmalonyl CoA mutase (Mcm) from Propionibacterium shermanii, which is B12 bound. In the crystal structure a conserved histidine residue was found to be coordinated to cobalt, displacing the endogenous axial ligand of the cobamide. However, in GlmS and MutS the sequence motif, Asp-x-His-x-x-Gly, which includes the cobalt-coordinating histidine residue, and a predicted alpha-helical region following the motif, are present as an unstructured and highly mobile loop. In the absence of coenzyme, the B12-binding site apparently is only partially formed. By comparing the crystal structure of Mcm with the solution structures of B12-free GlmS and MutS, a consistent picture on the mechanism of B12 binding has been obtained. Important elements of the binding site only become structured upon binding B12; these include the cobalt-coordinating histidine residue, and an alpha helix that forms one side of the cleft accommodating the nucleotide 'tail' of the coenzyme. (+info)
Isolation of acetate auxotrophs of the methane-producing archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis by random insertional mutagenesis. (8/283)To learn more about autotrophic growth of methanococci, we isolated nine conditional mutants of Methanococcus maripaludis after transformation of the wild type with a random library in pMEB.2, a suicide plasmid bearing the puromycin-resistance cassette pac. These mutants grew poorly in mineral medium and required acetate or complex organic supplements such as yeast extract for normal growth. One mutant, JJ104, was a leaky acetate auxotroph. A plasmid, pWDK104, was recovered from this mutant by electroporation of a plasmid preparation into Escherichia coli. Transformation of wild-type M. maripaludis with pWDK104 produced JJ104-1, a mutant with the same phenotype as JJ104, thus establishing that insertion of pWDK104 into the genome was responsible for the phenotype. pWDK104 contained portions of the methanococcal genes encoding an ABC transporter closely related to MJ1367-MJ1368 of M. jannaschii. Because high levels of molybdate, tungstate, and selenite restored growth to wild-type levels, this transporter may be specific for these oxyanions. A second acetate auxotroph, JJ117, had an absolute growth requirement for either acetate or cobalamin, and wild-type growth was observed only in the presence of both. Cobinamide, 5', 6'-dimethylbenzimidazole, and 2-aminopropanol did not replace cobalamin. This phenotype was correlated with tandem insertions in the genome but not single insertions and appeared to have resulted from an indirect effect on cobamide metabolism. Plasmids rescued from other mutants contained portions of ORFs denoted in M. jannaschii as endoglucanase (MJ0555), transketolase (MJ0681), thiamine biosynthetic protein thiI (MJ0931), and several hypothetical proteins (MJ1031, MJ0835, and MJ0835.1). (+info)
Identification and expression of the genes encoding a reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification and expression of the genes encoding a reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase. AU - Tobimatsu, Takamasa. AU - Kajiura, Hideki. AU - Yunoki, Michio. AU - Azuma, Muneaki. AU - Toraya, Tetsuo. PY - 1999/7. Y1 - 1999/7. N2 - Adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase undergoes inactivation by glycerol, the physiological substrate, during catalysis. In permeabilized cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the inactivated enzyme is reactivated in the presence of ATP, Mg2+, and adenosylcobalamin. We identified the two open reading frames as the genes for a reactivating factor for glycerol dehydratase and designated them gdrA and gdrB. The reactivation of the inactivated glycerol dehydratase by the gene products was confirmed in permeabilized recombinant Escherichia coli cells coexpressing GdrA and GdrB proteins with glycerol dehydratase.. AB - Adenosylcobalamin-dependent glycerol dehydratase undergoes inactivation by glycerol, the ...
RCSB PDB - 1C9K: THE THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF ADENOSYLCOBINAMIDE KINASE/ ADENOSYLCOBINAMIDE PHOSPHATE...
1C9K: Three-dimensional structure of adenosylcobinamide kinase/adenosylcobinamide phosphate guanylyltransferase (CobU) complexed with GMP: evidence for a substrate-induced transferase active site.
Thermolysis of coenzymes B12 at physiological temperatures: activation parameters for cobalt-carbon bond homolysis and a...
The kinetics of the thermolysis of 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, coenzyme B12) in aqueous solution, pH 7.5, have been studied in the temperature range 30-85 degrees C using AdoCbl tritiated at the adenine C2 position and the method of initial rates. Combined with a careful analysis of the distribution of adenine-containing products, the results permit the dissection of the competing rate constants for carbon-cobalt bond homolysis and heterolysis. After correction for the temperature-dependent occurrence of the much less reactive base-off species of AdoCbl, the activation parameters for homolysis of the base-on species were found to be delta H++homo,on = 33.8 +/- 0.2 kcal mol-1 and delta S++homo,on = 13.5 +/- 0.7 cal mol-1 K-1, values not significantly different from those determined by Hay and Finke (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108 (1986) 4820), in the temperature range 85-115 degrees C. In contrast, the heterolysis of base-on AdoCbl was characterized by a much smaller enthalpy of activation (delta ...
This Week in Science | Science
Bacteria and archaea show a wide range of nutritional specialism. Not every organism can synthesize essential components and may need to trade for them. Taking as an example a diverse and interesting family of enzyme cofactors-the cobalt-containing cobamides, which include vitamin B12-Sokolovskaya et al. reviewed the interdependencies among microorganisms for this suite of nutrients. Cobamides are required for many processes, from catabolism of carbon sources to nucleotide biosynthesis, and are needed by a majority of microbes, from those in the gut to those in the oceans. Availability of cobamides is patchy and habitat specific, and nonspecific scavenging may not be adequate to obtain a specific cobamide structure required by an organism. Therefore, a variety of mutualisms have evolved to deliver and import specific structural variants of cobamides between organisms or among consortia of eukaryotes and prokaryotes by an equal variety of subtle and distinct mechanisms.. Science, this issue p. ...
Sequence Similarity - 1JHA: Structural Investigation of the Biosynthesis of Alternative Lower Ligands for Cobamides...
1JHA: Structural investigation of the biosynthesis of alternative lower ligands for cobamides by nicotinate mononucleotide: 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase from Salmonella enterica.
Why sufficient vitamin B12 is ESSENTIAL for women | Pilates Fitness
B12 from vegetarian sources?. Some dieticians claim you can get B12 from plant sources, such as seaweed, fermented soy, spirulina and brewers yeast. In reality, these foods only contain analogs of B12 called cobamides. Cobamides can block your intake of B12 and increase your need for the real thing. . Why women need to supplement vitamin B12. We have seen how vitamin B-12 deficiency is especially common in vegans and vegetarians because typical vitamin B12 sources (meats, yoghurt, etc.) are simply not present in their diets.. But even meat eaters eating B12 foods several times a day may be deficient in B12 due to poor digestion, particularly older people who suffer a diminished ability to absorb nutrients in their small intestine.. Vitamin B12 can only be absorbed in the small intestine, and due to common intestinal ailments, absorption can be blocked. Vitamin B12 deficiency can be caused by low stomach acid and heavy alcohol use. Drugs like proton pump inhibitors (Prilosec and Nexium) ...
Coenzyme b12 | Article about Coenzyme b12 by The Free Dictionary
Looking for Coenzyme b12? Find out information about Coenzyme b12. see coenzyme coenzyme , any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may... Explanation of Coenzyme b12
Allergy Research Group B12 Adenosylcobalamin 3,000 mcg 60 Lozenges - Swanson®
Allergy Research Group features B12 Adenosylcobalamin a highly absorbable form of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 plays a role in brain and nervous system health. Also features folic...
Which brand has adenosylcobalamin but no folic acid? | Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums
I am considering the addition of adenosylcobalamin to my supplements. Which brand do you use? I want one without folic acid/folate added. Thanks!
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Adenosyl/Hydroxy B12 90 Caps
Vitamin B12 (as adenosylcobalamin and 50% hydroxycobalamin) 2,000 mcg Other Ingredients: Hypoallergenic plant fiber (cellulose, vegetarian capsule (cellulose, water) Warning: If pregnant, consult your physician before taking this or any other product. Keep out of reach of children. Tamper resistant, use only if safety seal is intact. Store sealed in a cool, dry place. ...
Designated organic active ingredient containing (doai) > Ester doai > Z-c(=o)-o-y wherein z is hydrogen or an organic radical...
Description: Subject matter wherein the composition includes an agent which acts as a stabilizer for the active ingredient therein or acts to enhance the topical absorption thereof ...
cob(II)alamin reductase - oi
EC 220.127.116.11; other name: vitamin B12r reductase; a flavoprotein enzyme that catalyses a reaction between NADH and two molecules of cob(ii)alamin to form two molecules of cob(i)alamin and NAD+. ...
ENZYME entry 18.104.22.168
The enzyme catalyzes the the conversion of precorrin-8X to hydrogenobyrinate by methyl rearrangement, a step in the aerobic (late cobalt insertion) pathway of adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis ...
NWMN RS11195 - AureoWiki
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersHeme, porphyrin, and cobalamin5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole synthase (TIGR02476; EC 22.214.171.124; HMM-score: 20.4) ...
cobalt-precorrin-5B (C1)-methyltransferase(EC 126.96.36.199) - Creative Enzymes
This enzyme catalyses the C-1 methylation of cobalt-precorrin-5B in the anaerobic (early cobalt insertion) pathway of adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis.
Manufacturers confidence has seen sharpest fall for 28 years, warns CBI | Daily Mail Online
Manufacturers' confidence has seen its sharpest fall for 28 years during the 'exceptional economic turbulence' of the past three months, the CBI warned today.
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Sakit sa Buto - Sintomas, Sanhi, at Uri | Mediko.ph
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ŞANDRU, S.; BALTAGA, R.; BELÎI, A.; COBÂLEŢCHI, S.; GUZUN, N.; ROJNOVEANU, Gh. Managementul anestezic la pacienţii cu traumă hepatică. În: Săndesc D., Bedreag O., Păpurică M. Recomandări şi protocoale în anestezie. Terapie intensivă şi medicină de urgenţă, Timişoara, 2012, p.169-181. ISBN 978-973-52-1260- ...
Structures of the human GTPase MMAA and vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and insight into their complex formation...
Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin, Cbl) is essential to the function of two human enzymes, methionine synthase (MS) and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). The conversion of dietary Cbl to its cofactor forms, methyl-Cbl (MeCbl) for MS and adenosyl-Cbl (AdoCbl) for MUT, located in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively, requires a complex pathway of intracellular processing and trafficking. One of the processing proteins, MMAA (methylmalonic aciduria type A), is implicated in the mitochondrial assembly of AdoCbl into MUT and is defective in children from the cblA complementation group of cobalamin disorders. To characterize the functional interplay between MMAA and MUT, we have crystallized human MMAA in the GDP-bound form and human MUT in the apo, holo, and substrate-bound ternary forms. Structures of both proteins reveal highly conserved domain architecture and catalytic machinery for ligand binding, yet they show substantially different dimeric assembly and interaction, compared with their bacterial
Evidence for axial coordination of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole to the cobalt atom of adenosylcobalamin bound to diol dehydratase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for axial coordination of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole to the cobalt atom of adenosylcobalamin bound to diol dehydratase. AU - Yamanishi, Mamoru. AU - Yamada, Seiki. AU - Muguruma, Hiroshi. AU - Murakami, Yoshitake. AU - Tobimatsu, Takamasa. AU - Ishida, Atsuhiko. AU - Yamauchi, Jun. AU - Toraya, Tetsuo. PY - 1998/4/7. Y1 - 1998/4/7. N2 - It was demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that organic radical intermediates disappeared and cob(II)alamin accumulated upon suicide inactivation of diol dehydratase by 2-methyl-1,2- propanediol. The resulting EPR spectra showed that the eight hyperfine lines due to the divalent cobalt atom of cob(II)alamin further split into triplets by the superhyperfine coupling to the 14N nucleus. Essentially the same superhyperfine splitting of the octet into triplets was observed with [14N]-and [15N]apoenzyme. When the adenosyl form of [14N2]- and [15N2]imidazolyl analogues of the coenzyme [Toraya, T., and Ishida, A. ...
One pathway can incorporate either adenine or dimethylbenzimidazole as an α-axial ligand of B<sub>12</sub> cofactors in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - One pathway can incorporate either adenine or dimethylbenzimidazole as an α-axial ligand of B12 cofactors in Salmonella enterica. AU - Anderson, Peter J.. AU - Lango, Jozsef. AU - Carkeet, Colleen. AU - Britten, Audrey. AU - Kräutler, Bernhard. AU - Hammock, Bruce D.. AU - Roth, John R.. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - Corrinoid (vitamin B12-like) cofactors contain various α-axial ligands, including 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) or adenine. The bacterium Salmonella enterica produces the corrin ring only under anaerobic conditions, but it can form complete corrinoids aerobically by importing an incomplete corrinoid, such as cobinamide (Cbi), and adding appropriate α- and β-axial ligands. Under aerobic conditions, S. enterica performs the corrinoid-dependent degradation of ethanolamine if given vitamin B12, but it can make B12 from exogenous Cbi only if DMB is also provided. Mutants isolated for their ability to degrade ethanolamine without added DMB converted Cbi to ...
The mechanism of action of coenzyme B12. I: Mechanism of action of coenzyme B12. Hydrogen transfer in the isomerization of beta...
NOTE: Text or symbols not renderable in plain ASCII are indicated by [...]. Abstract is included in .pdf document. PART I. Use of a mixture of non- and tetradeutero-beta-methylaspartate with coenzyme B12 dependent beta-methylaspartate-glutamate mutase has shown that the hydrogen that migrates becomes one of three equivalent hydrogens during the reaction. Kinetic isotope effects suggest that cleavage of the bond in the substrate from carbon to that hydrogen which migrates is an important component of the rate determining step. The evidence also supports the existence of an intermediate which can partition with similar probabilities to beta-methylaspartate or to glutamate. Some possible mechanistic implications of these findings are discussed. PART II. The mechanism and the kinetics of the action of diol dehydrase on 3-fluoro-1,2-propanediol, a new substrate for diol dehydrase, were examined. The results of this study lead to a reexamination of the kinetic behavior of the natural substrate, ...
Generation and reactions of organic radical cations in zeolites<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation and reactions of organic radical cations in zeolites. AU - García, Hermenegildo. AU - Roth, Heinz D.. PY - 2002/11. Y1 - 2002/11. N2 - This review illustrates that zeolites are a large family of versatile, well-characterized acid catalysts, whose structure and properties are relatively well understood. Focus is on their ability to generate spontaneously organic radical cations or to serve as hosts in which these species can be stabilized after chemical, photochemical, or electrochemical generation.. AB - This review illustrates that zeolites are a large family of versatile, well-characterized acid catalysts, whose structure and properties are relatively well understood. Focus is on their ability to generate spontaneously organic radical cations or to serve as hosts in which these species can be stabilized after chemical, photochemical, or electrochemical generation.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036861664&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
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Adsorption and Organization of the Organic Radical 3-Carboxyproxyl on a Cu(110) Surface : A Combined STM, RAIRS, and DFT Study
We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the adsorption of the paramagnetic organic radical 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-carboxypyrrolidine nitroxide (3-carboxyproxyl, 3CP) on a Cu(110) surface. Information from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy, and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveals important insights into the nature of the molecule-metal interface. We find that the molecule is robustly anchored to the surface via the formation of two Cu-O bonds between the carboxylate functionality and specific short-bridge adsorption sites on the Cu(110) surface. The adsorbed organic radicals appear in STM as discrete entities on the surface and can be imaged with submolecular resolution. We observe a tendency for local 2D ordering. Importantly, 3CP molecules adopt a preferred site, dictated by the strong interaction of the carboxylate groups and the steric repulsion of the methyl groups with the surface which orient the ...
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Methylcobalamin is a more predominant and active form of Vitamin B-12. Regular Vitamin B-12 supplements must be converted in the body to Methylcobalamin before they can provide any benefits - taking Methylcobalamin allows you to bypass this step for quicker absorption. B-12 may not be as readily absorbable as you age, so older adults may especially benefit from taking a Methylcobalamin supplement. This biologically active form of B-12 promotes heart health and energy metabolism. Our vegetarian-friendly microlozenges supply you with a high-potency source of B-12.. ...
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Methylcobalamin Max is a higher concentration of B12 at 10,000 mcg/ml, allowing for subcutaneous administration. Methylcobalamin is the most active form of the B12 family. This is what the body converts Cyanocobalamin into, so it is more readily available to the body.. This form of B12 is better absorbed than Cyanocobalamin because it is more bioavailable. Vitamin B12 is an essential component for proper digestion and absorption of foods and for normal metabolism of carbohydrates, and fat. It aids in maintaining healthy nerve cells and red blood cells and is needed to make DNA. Vitamin B12 is also involved in homocysteine metabolism and plays a critical role in proper energy metabolism, immune function, and nerve function. Several disorders have recently been linked to possible vitamin B12 deficiencies. Methylcobalamin also interacts differently with certain neurotransmitters within the brain and appears to be helpful in treating Autism.. *** This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, ...
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What Is Methylcobalamin B-12? | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
Vitamin B-12, a family of compounds called cobalamins, is one of eight essential B-complex vitamins. Foods or dietary supplements might contain several types of cobalamins, but your body converts dietary B-12 into two active forms -- methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin -- and uses these forms to maintain ...
Bluebonnet Nutrition EarthSweet Chewables Methylcobalamin Vitamin B12 1,000 mcg 60 Chwbls - Swanson®
Bluebonnet Earth Sweet Chewables Methylcobalamin Vitamin B12 delivers 1,000 mcg of methylcobalamin, a highly bioavailable form of vitamin B12. Known for its role in energy pro...
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Biologically Active Form of B-12 The methylcobalamin form, available in this convenient chewable tablet, is the most active form of Vitamin B-12 and is shown to have advantages over cyanocobalamin...
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Active Coenzyme Form of Vitamin B-12 Methylcobalamin, an active coenzyme form of Vitamin B-12, is essential for cell growth and replication. It is more concentrated than other forms of B-12...
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Do you think sublingual methylcobalamin, i.e. vitamin b12, will get into the bloodstream and have a local effect, if I apply it to my skin with DMSO?
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Adenozilkobinamidna hidrolaza - Wikipedia
Woodson, J.D. and Escalante-Semerena, J.C. (2004). CbiZ, an amidohydrolase enzyme required for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor cobinamide in archaea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 3591-3596. PMID 14990804. ...
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3. Cob Houses
Cob is an ancient building material thats basically wet earth and straw mixed together and rolled into loaf-sized pieces or cobs. The mixture is very similar to clay, and what makes cob houses unique and beautiful is the organic shape. Instead of assembling and covering a frame, builders stack cobs, then use the same clay-like material to mold the walls by hand [source: Liloia]. The result is a structure with curving lines instead of sharp angles, and many cob structures include lots of fun, built-in features like shelves and hooks molded right into the walls. Some of these homes even feature built-in furniture, like couches and tables, molded from cob.. Because cob is made from natural materials, it has a very low environmental footprint compared to other building materials like concrete. Cob doesnt have to be made in a factory and shipped across the country [source: Liola]. And you can find mud and straw very close to the building site.. ...
HPDIs KIDS MIGHTY-MULTI! is truly one-of-a-kind. It is most similar to the Mighty Multi-Vite! in terms of the nutrients it provides, including antioxidants. However, it is our only chewable and it tastes great.. KIDS MIGHTY-MULTI! is an advanced chewable multivitamin for children incorporating the latest nutritional research in a tasty, complete formula combining the highest-quality and most usable forms of vitamins, minerals, herbs, and cofactors.. Our childrens multivitamin formula provides optimal levels of basic essential nutrients and thereby is an ideal foundation upon which to build a complete nutritional supplement program. A high-quality multivitamin is the starting-point for building a program uniquely designed to suit to your childs individual requirements.. We offer KIDS MIGHTY-MULTI! as a top-of-the-line childrens formula that tastes great and produces exceptional results. This unique formula very effectively provides children with a solid foundation of nutrients for ...
A derivative of arsenic acid by replacement of a hydroxyl group by an organic radical. * * * ar·son·ic ac·id (ahr sonґik) an organic compound containing the AsO(OH)2 functional group
Methylcobalamin is the metabolically active form of B-12. Tired and exhausted, the needed incitement is missing? B12 as methylcobalamin is an excellent supplement for you.. ...next ...
Methylcobalamin I.M. and S.C. injections equivalance to sublingual form | Phoenix Rising ME / CFS Forums
Ive been searching for this but couldnt find a definitive answer. Hope some of you want to share their opinion / expertise. Have there been any...
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ENZYME entry 188.8.131.52
The product of the reaction, alpha-ribazole 5-phosphate, forms part of the corrin biosynthesis pathway and is a substrate for EC 184.108.40.206 ...
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RCSB PDB - 1JHA: Structural Investigation of the Biosynthesis of Alternative Lower Ligands for Cobamides by...
Thermolysis of coenzymes B12 at physiological temperatures: activation parameters for cobalt-carbon bond homolysis and a...
This Week in Science | Science
Cobamides are required for many processes, from catabolism of carbon sources to nucleotide biosynthesis, and are needed by a ... Availability of cobamides is patchy and habitat specific, and nonspecific scavenging may not be adequate to obtain a specific ... Taking as an example a diverse and interesting family of enzyme cofactors-the cobalt-containing cobamides, which include ... Therefore, a variety of mutualisms have evolved to deliver and import specific structural variants of cobamides between ...
Why sufficient vitamin B12 is ESSENTIAL for women | Pilates Fitness
Salmonella enterica synthesizes 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl-(DMB)-α-riboside. Why some Firmicutes do not require the canonical...
Cobamides / metabolism * Firmicutes / metabolism * Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism * Nicotinamide Mononucleotide / analogs ...
Nitrosyl-cobinamide (NO-Cbi), a new nitric oxide donor, improves wound healing through cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase
Vitamin B12-Mediated Restoration of Defective Anaerobic Growth Leads to Reduced Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa |...
Production of Vitamin B12 Analogues in Patients with Small-Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth | Annals of Internal Medicine | American...
Cobamides ([AdeJCNCba, [2-Me Ade] CNCba, [CN]2Cbi and factor E) were found in the intestinal contents in three of the four ... Thus bacterial production of cobamides, both de novo and from ingested CN-Cbl bound to intrinsic factor, occurs in humans with ... We investigated the presence of vitamin B12 analogues (cobamides) and the bacterial conversion of 57Co-B12 (vitamin B12 ... Radioactivity of cobamide zones from duplicate chromatograms showed bacterial conversion of (57Co)-CN-Cbl into cobamides. ...
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Research Brief 276: Novel Cobamide Structure May Hold Clues for More Effective Biological Degradation of Chlorinated Compounds ...
A majority of organisms, including humans, require cobamides for normal functioning. Vitamin B12 is the best-known member of ... Enzymes that depend on cobamides fulfill essential metabolic functions in most organisms, including mammals. As a result, a ... The researchers previously discovered that changes to the lower base structure of cobamides influence the bioremediation ... Understanding the biological and geochemical conditions that support the production of specific cobamides, which efficiently ...
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Metabolism of halophilic archaea | SpringerLink
Fluorinated Vitamin B12 Analogs Are Cofactors of Corrinoid-Dependent Enzymes: a 19F-Labeled Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe...
The phenol-containing cobamides contributed up to 90% of the protein-bound cobamides of the 1,300 to 1,900 nmol of corrinoid ... Hence, it is possible to use 19F-labeled nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for analyses of protein-bound cobamides. ... Phenol and, presumably, 4-fluorophenol were specifically incorporated into these cobamides, since phenol was not metabolized ...
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Myths About Whole Grains and Vegetarianism
... called cobamides) that actually block the B12 receptors and prevents absorption of the real B12. High intake of folic acid ( ...
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Northwestern University - Research Output - Northwestern Scholars
Battocletti, J. H., Linehan, J. H., Larson, S. J., Sances, A., Bowman, R. L., Kudravcev, V., Genthe, W. K., Halbach, R. E. & Evans, S. M., Jan 1 1972, In : IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. BME-19, 6, p. 403-407 5 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Letter ...
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Bixby, M., Baylis, K., Hoover, S. E., Currie, R. W., Melathopoulos, A. P., Pernal, S. F., Foster, L. J. & Guarna, M. M., Jun 1 2017, In : Journal of economic entomology. 110, 3, p. 816-825 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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Anderson, T., Birman, K., Broberg, R., Caesar, M., Comer, D., Cotton, C., Freedman, M. J., Haeberlen, A., Ives, Z. G., Krishnamurthy, A., Lehr, W., Loo, B. T., Mazières, D., Nicolosi, A., Smith, J. M., Stoica, I., Van Renesse, R., Walfish, M., Weatherspoon, H. & Yoo, C. S., Jul 2014, In : Computer Communication Review. 44, 3, p. 81-86 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
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Syntheses and characterization of vitamin B12-Pt(II) conjugates and their adenosylation in an enzymatic assay - Zurich Open...
An in vitro reducing system for the enzymic conversion of cobalamin to adenosylcobalamin. - PubMed - NCBI
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CbiZ, an amidohydrolase enzyme required for salvaging the coenzyme B12 precursor cobinamide in archaea. - PubMed - NCBI
- They found these B12 sources contain B12 analogs called cobamides, which may block the absorption of the body's bio-available B12 and increase the body's need for the nutrient. (lifespa.com)
- But plant foods said to contain B12 actually contain B12 analogs called cobamides that block intake of and increase the need for true B12. (theppk.com)
- However, these plant foods actually contain B12 analogs called cobamides, which are thought to compete with B12 and block its intake, therefore actually increasing the need for B12. (betteryou.com)
- Cobamides are substances that act as a foil to B12 absorption, and they are produced by unhealthy bacterial overgrowth and imbalance in the intestines. (saveourbones.com)
- Thus bacterial production of cobamides, both de novo and from ingested CN-Cbl bound to intrinsic factor, occurs in humans with bacterial overgrowth states and results in a significant loss of vitamin B12 to the host. (annals.org)
- We investigated the presence of vitamin B12 analogues (cobamides) and the bacterial conversion of 57 Co-B12 (vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin, [ 57 Co]-CN-Cbl) into cobamides in the intestinal contents of four patients with bacterial overgrowth. (annals.org)
- The phenol-containing cobamides contributed up to 90% of the protein-bound cobamides of the 1,300 to 1,900 nmol of corrinoid per g of dry cell material formed. (asm.org)
- Despite bearing a rather large metal complex on the beta-axial position, the cobamides in 5 and 7 are recognized by the corrinoid adenosyltransferase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the organometallic C-Co bond present in adenosylcobalamin after release of the Pt(II) complexes. (uzh.ch)
- Cobamides can block your intake of B12 and increase your need for the real thing. (pilatesfitness.co.uk)