Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Strontium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Krypton Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Barium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Tin Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Copper Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Beta Particles: High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Mercury Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Cerium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.Hafnium: Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Gold Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Lead Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Lutetium: Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Rhenium: Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)Samarium: Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Bromine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ruthenium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Selenium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Nuclear Medicine: A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.

RSR13, an allosteric effector of haemoglobin, and carbogen radiosensitize FSAII and SCCVII tumours in C3H mice. (1/346)

Pre-clinical evaluation has demonstrated that 2-[4-(((3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl)methyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropi onic acid (RSR13) acts as an allosteric effector of haemoglobin (Hb). RSR13 binding to Hb results in decreased haemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity, improved tumour oxygenation, and enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in several experimental tumour systems. In the present work, ex vivo clonogenic survival analyses are applied in two murine tumour systems to characterize the relationship between the magnitude of decrease in Hb-O2 affinity and radiosensitization, the influence of inspired pO2 upon this effect, and the efficacy of combining RSR13 and radiation during a course of repeated radiation exposures. For FSaII tumours in C3H mice breathing air, 100 mg kg(-1) RSR13 administered intraperitoneally produced an enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.3, but there was marked desensitization at a RSR13 dose of 300 mg kg(-1) (ER 0.6). The most likely reason for the increased radioresistance was insufficient oxygen loading of Hb in the pulmonary circulation due to reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity because carbogen breathing combined with 300 mg kg(-1) RSR13 reversed the effect and produced an ER of 1.8. In SCCVII tumours in C3H mice irradiated with eight fractions of 2.5 Gy over 4 days, the surviving fraction was reduced to 58-67% of control values when RSR13 was combined with radiation on days 1 and 2, days 3 and 4, or days 1-4. These results confirm that combining RSR13 and irradiation within a fractionated course of clinically relevant low-dose exposures provides significant radiosensitization. Additional preclinical experimentation is needed to define better the optimum dose-scheduling conditions for clinical applications.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of radiation-sensitive mutations in the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. (2/346)

The linkage of two mutations leading to increased sensitivity to ultraviolet light and 60Co gamma rays was determined in the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum using a genetic analysis based on the parasexual cycle. Diploids were selected from a mixture of radiation-sensitive, temperature-resistant and radiation-resistant, temperature-sensitive haploids on the basis of simultaneous radiation and temperature resistance. Analysis of drug-resistant haploid segregants of the heterozygous diploids indicated that one of the radiation-sensitive mutations, radA20, was linked to linkage group I whereas the other, radB13, was linked to the recently defined linkage group VI.  (+info)

Change in centromeric and acentromeric micronucleus frequencies in human populations after chronic radiation exposure. (3/346)

Acute radiation exposure of humans was observed to induce various forms of cytogenetic damage, including increased frequencies of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations. However, the cytogenetic effects of chronic low dose radiation exposure in vivo needs further characterization. Sixteen subjects with chronic low dose rates of gamma-radiation exposure from 60Co-contaminated steel in radioactive buildings were compared with seven non-exposed reference subjects for micronucleus frequencies after they relocated. By in situ hybridization using a digoxigenin-labeled anti-alpha all human centromere probe, the exposed subjects were shown to have a significant increase in cytochalasin B-modulated micronucleus (CBMN) frequencies, as well as a significant increase in centromere-positive (C+) CBMN, centromere-negative (C-) CBMN, total C+signals, single C+ MN signals and multiple C+ signals/1000 binucleated cells (BN). However, decreases in the ratios C+MN/C- MN and C+MN/total CBMN (%) were also noted in the exposed subjects. By mixed effects analysis, considering individuals from the same families, the C- MN and single C+ MN/1000 BN were both positively and moderately associated with previous cumulative exposure. When the time period of relocation post-exposure (relocation time or RT) was considered, total C+MN and multiple C+MN/1000 BN were negatively and significantly associated with RT. Moreover, the C+MN, C- MN, C+MN/C- MN ratio and single C+MN/1000 BN were all negatively and moderately associated with RT, but not with exposure dose. This suggested that acentromeric and single or multiple centromeric CBMN cytogenetic damage seems to disappear differentially in human subjects post chronic low dose radiation exposure.  (+info)

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine act additively to enhance the hemopoietic spleen colony formation in irradiated mice. (4/346)

The effects of combined administration of two drugs elevating extracellular adenosine, namely dipyridamole (DP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on hemopoietic stem cells in vivo were investigated. The experiments were performed on mice using the endogenous spleen colony formation in gamma-irradiated animals as an endpoint. The results have shown that DP and AMP act additively with G-CSF to enhance spleen colony formation and thus the erythroid repopulation of the spleen. These findings indicate that the signaling pathways of G-CSF and drugs elevating extracellular adenosine can interact at the level of primitive hemopoietic stem cells. The enhancement of hemopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF by DP and AMP, which are low-priced and clinically available drugs, could improve the cost-effectiveness of the therapy with G-CSF.  (+info)

Classification and behavior of canine mammary epithelial neoplasms based on life-span observations in beagles. (5/346)

As part of a study of the effects of low-level radiation, 1,343 Beagles, including 671 males and 672 females, were evaluated over their full lifetime for the occurrence of mammary neoplasia; there were 139 control males and 138 control females and 532 irradiated males and 534 irradiated females. All nodules found in surgical specimens or at necropsy were evaluated histologically. The overall incidence, metastasis and recurrence rates, and contribution to mortality of mammary neoplasms were determined. Based on this unique opportunity to correlate morphologic characteristics with ultimate biological behavior of all mammary tumors in a defined canine population, we propose a histogenetically based reclassification of epithelial mammary tumors. Of the 672 female dogs, 70.8% (476) had at least one mammary neoplasm; 60.7% (408) had more than one. Two male dogs had mammary neoplasms. Of 1,639 mammary carcinomas in the 672 females, 18.7% (307) were classified as ductular carcinomas (arising from the small interlobular or intralobular ductules), whereas 80.7% (1,322) were classified as adenocarcinomas of other histogenetic origin. Of 73 fatal carcinomas, ductular carcinomas accounted for 48 fatalities (65.8%), whereas other adenocarcinomas accounted for only 20 fatalities (27.4%). Radiation had no effect on this ratio. Ductular carcinomas also had a higher rate of metastasis than did adenocarcinomas. Existing classifications of mammary carcinomas do not recognize the characteristic morphologic features, the degree of malignancy, and the prognostic importance of these ductular carcinomas. Metastasis rates did not differ between simple and complex carcinomas or between those lesions and adenocarcinomas in mixed tumors. True carcinosarcomas metastasized more frequently (100%, or 5/5) than did adenocarcinomas in mixed tumors (34.4%, or 22/64), emphasizing the importance of not lumping these tumors under the classification of malignant mixed tumors.  (+info)

Radioprotective effects of sodium tungstate on hematopoietic injury by exposure to 60Co gamma-rays in Wistar rats. (6/346)

Radioprotective effects of sodium tungstate (ST) on 60Co gamma-ray induced decrease in hematocrit value and in survival rate in Wistar strain male rats were examined. A long-term administration of ST (less than 150 mg/kg body weight/day) for 60-300 days had no significant effects on body and organs weights and survival days. The LD50/60 in 20 weeks old rats was 220 mg/kg body weight/day. Daily administration of 38, 75 or 150 mg from 7 days before and after irradiation to 60 days significantly mitigated the decrease in hematocrit values, especially at 23 days after irradiation (P < 0.05). The highest mitigation rate of the decrease in hematocrit value was observed in rats administered at a dose of 38 mg ST/day. Simultaneously, a dose of 38 mg ST/day inhibited lethal effect of 60Co gamma-rays significantly. The dose-reduction factor for survival of 38 mg ST administered rats was 1.14.  (+info)

Base substitution spectra of nalidixylate resistant mutations induced by monochromatic soft X and 60Co gamma-rays in Bacillus subtilis spores. (7/346)

Bacillus subtilis spores were exposed to three types of photons, monochromatic soft X-rays with the energy corresponding to the absorption peak of phosphorus K-shell electron (2,153 eV) and with the slightly lower energy (2,147 eV), and 60Co gamma-rays. From the irradiated spores, 233 mutants exhibiting nalidixic acid resistance were isolated, and together with 94 spontaneous mutants, the sequence changes in the 5'-terminal region of the gyrA gene coding for DNA gyrase subunit A were determined. Among eighteen alleles of the gyrA mutations, eight were single-base substitutions, nine were tandem double-base substitutions, and one was a double substitution skipping a middle base pair. About 6% of the radiation-induced mutations were tandem double-base substitutions, whereas none was observed among the spontaneous ones. Among spontaneous mutations, A:T and G:C pairs were equally subjected to mutations, whereas the substitutions from G:C pairs and those to A:T pairs predominated among those induced with soft X-rays. The peak-energy X-rays were more effective in killing and causing mutations than the low-energy X-rays, however, there seemed no base-change events uniquely attributable to phosphorus K-shell absorption.  (+info)

Syrian hamster dermal cell immortalization is not enhanced by power line frequency electromagnetic field exposure. (8/346)

Several epidemiological studies have suggested associations between exposure to residential power line frequency electromagnetic fields and childhood leukaemia, and between occupational exposure and adult leukaemia. A variety of in vitro studies have provided limited supporting evidence for the role of such exposures in cancer induction in the form of acknowledged cellular end points, such as enhanced mutation rate and cell proliferation, though the former is seen only with extremely high flux density exposure or with co-exposure to ionizing radiation. However, in vitro experiments on a scale large enough to detect rare cancer-initiating events, such as primary cell immortalization following residential level exposures, have not thus far been reported. In this study, large cultures of primary Syrian hamster dermal cells were continuously exposed to power line frequency electromagnetic fields of 10 100 and 1000 microT for 60 h, with and without prior exposure to a threshold (1.5 Gy), or sub-threshold (0.5 Gy), immortalizing dose of ionizing radiation. Electromagnetic field exposure alone did not immortalize these cells at a detectable frequency (> or = 1 x 10(-7)); furthermore, such exposure did not enhance the frequency of ionizing radiation-induced immortalization.  (+info)

You have 5 grams of carbon-14; whose half-life is 5730 years. a)Write the rule of the function that gives the amount of carbon-14 remaining after x years. b)How much carbon-14 will be left after 4,000 years ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzyme deactivation due to metal-ion dissociation during turnover of the cobalt-β-lactamase catalyzed hydrolysis of β-lactams. AU - Badarau, Adriana. AU - Page, Michael I.. PY - 2006/9/12. Y1 - 2006/9/12. N2 - Metallo-β-lactamases are native zinc enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics but are also able to function with cobalt (II) and require one or two metal ions for catalytic activity. The kinetics of the hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin catalyzed by cobalt substituted β-lactamase from Bacillus cereus (BcII) are biphasic. The dependence of enzyme activity on pH and metal-ion concentration indicates that only the di-cobalt enzyme is catalytically active. A mono-cobalt enzyme species is formed during the catalytic cycle, which is virtually inactive and requires the association of another cobalt ion for turnover. Two intermediates with different metal to enzyme stoichiometries are formed on a branched reaction pathway. The di-cobalt enzyme intermediate is ...
MEXICO CITY (AP) A missing shipment of radioactive cobalt-60 was found Wednesday near where the stolen truck transporting the material was abandoned in central Mexico state, the country s nuclear safety director said.
McMurry reactions of (η5-acetylcyclopentadienyl) cobalt-(η4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene) with benzophenone: ketone couplings and a pinacol/pinacolone rearrangement Conference Paper ...
Temporo-spatial cell-cycle kinetics in HeLa cells irradiated by Ir-192 high dose-rate remote afterloading system (HDR-RALS)Temporo-spatial cell-cycle kinetics in HeLa cells irradiated by Ir-192 high dose-rate remote afterloading system (HDR-RALS) ...
We have used a 150 MBq [sup 56]Co source to perform gamma-ray total absorption cross section measurements with very high precision. The use of [sup 56]Co allowed us to simultaneously measure the total cross section at 15 energies ranging from 0.847 MeV to 3.451 MeV. Seven sample materials were measured: Be, C, Cu, Ta, W, Pb, and U. In general, the measurement precision is better than 0.5% and in all cases better than 1.3%.
Tracy Sippl MS, CCC-SLP (Click here to learn more) Certificate Available CEU Approved: AZ, CA Number of hours: 1 hour Instructional Level: Intermediate Enroll: $40.00 Course InfoInstructionsFinancial/Non-financial DisclosuresCertificateASHA InfoFAQ Considering teletherapy but wondering where to begin? You have heard and/or read about it, but where should you go to find the information you need to get started? This courseRead more. ...
IN 97-61, "U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Letter to Medical Device Manufacturers on the Year 2000 Problem," was issued on August 6, 1997, to all medical licensees, veterinarians, and manufacturers/distributors of medical devices. It informs addressees of a letter issued by the HHS Food and Drug Administration about the Year-2000 computer problem. Contact: Patricia K. Holahan, NMSS, 301-415-8125, e-mail:[email protected] IN 97-64, "Potential Problems Associated with Loss of Electrical Power in Certain Teletherapy Units," was issued on August 13, 1997, to all medical teletherapy licensees. It informs addressees of potential problems with the Theratron 1000 teletherapy unit manufactured by Theratronics International, Limited. Contact: Nader Mamish, NMSS, 301-415-6316, e-mail: [email protected] IN 97-65, "Failures of High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Remote Afterloading Device Source Guide Tubes, Catheters, and Applicators," was issued on August 15, 1997, to all HDR remote afterloader licensees. It ...
Cobalt-57 (57Co) is a radioactive isotope of cobalt,it has a half-life of 271.79 days. Cobalt-57 is a radioactive metal that is used in medical tests; it is used as a radiolabel for vitamin B-12 uptake. It is useful for the Schilling test. Co-57 as PerkinElmer catalog number NEZ022, offers conveniently packaged and in stock radionuclides with documented quality control and quick turnaround times from ordering to shipment ensuring robust radioactive markers in your experiments whenever needed.. ...
Thanks to recent advances in technology, health authorities are able to select from among a variety of radiotherapy technologies. An IAEA General Conference side event held today provided guidance on the most important factors to be considered when deciding on the type of radiotherapy equipment to invest in for cancer treatment.
I.e. radiation therapy to the chest, mediastinum, supraclavicula fossae or breast. See also under other radiation therapy headings including SBRT. Radiation therapy techniques have changed in the past decades. More adverse effects were observed in the past following 67Co radiation therapy. Reviews at PMID 10682772, 12932614, 23473474, 23583253, 23876528, 23972736. Chemotherapy sensitizes the lung to the effects of radiation (PMID 12118569) and vice versa. Incidence of radiation pneumonitis following reirradiation may be greater than for first-hand irradiation (PMID: 25841506)
Performance of the DT-236/PD and CP-696/UD dosimetry system has been studied in preliminary tests at AFRRI in cobalt-60 and in TRIGA-reactor radiation fields. The test results are relevant to the reproducibility of the dosimeter reader, the variability of readings among identically irradiated of dosimeter response in the AFFRI radiation fields. The performance specifications for this system list + or - 40% accuracy at doses of 50-1000 rads and + or - 20- rad accuracy at 0-50 rads. The present tests showed the system to be capable of meeting these specifications and, with care, a level of accuracy of + or - 10% to 20% was achieved at high doses. At low doses, the accuracy of the system was limited by the + or - 20-rad (2 SD) variability in readings of nonirradiated dosimeters. Factors found to improve the precision of dosimeter readings were (a) warm-up time of several hours for the reader unit, (B) sustained firm pressure on the mechanical switch that initiates the read cycle, (c) triplicate readings
The cobalt-60 was found, removed from its casing, in a rural area near the town of Hueypoxtla, about 25 miles from where the truck was stolen. Jimenez said he suspected that curiosity got the better of the thieves, and they opened the box. So far the carjackers have not been arrested, but authorities expect they will not live long ...
Greta Olson and Sonja Schillings: On Un-Doing Law, in On_Culture 3 (Summer 2017), eds. id.: Law Undone: De-humanizing, Queering, and Dis-abling the Law.
Find Video Counseling Therapists, Psychologists and Video Counseling Counseling in 92037, get help for Video Counseling in 92037, get help with Online Therapy in 92037, get help with Skype in 92037, get help with Teletherapy in 92037.
Biotech venture group Flagship Ventures is doubling down on the microbiome. The Cambridge, MA-based firm, which specializes in building new therapeutics co Source: Evelo Launches With $35M To Fight Cancer With Cocktails of Bacteria | Xconomy
The brightest gamma ray beam ever created- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun- has been produced in research led at the University of Strathclyde- and could open up new possibilities for medicine.
The brightest gamma ray beam ever created -- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun -- has been produced in research led at
The goal of research in our clinic is to identify the best current available treatments for the specific condition in order to offer such to the patient. Moreover, we try to identify the fundamental questions whose response promises a further improvement of the treatment and gain answers to these questions ...
In conjunction with a having a key associated with your account, to have the possibility of exporting private event information necessitates the creation of a persistent key. This new key is also associated with your account and whilst it is active the data which can be obtained through using this key can be obtained by anyone in possession of the link provided. Due to this reason, it is extremely important that you keep links generated with this key private and for your use only. If you think someone else may have acquired access to a link using this key in the future, you must immediately remove it from My Profile under the HTTP API tab and generate a new key before regenerating iCalendar links ...
COBALT juristu komandu veido akadēmiski augsti kvalificēti speciālisti. Pēc tiesību zinātņu doktoru un maģistru skaita COBALT ir viena no vadošajām komandām tirgū.
Proton irradiation effects have been studied on CMOS image sensors manufactured in a 0.18 μm technology dedicated to imaging. The ionizing dose and displacement damage effects were discriminated and localized thanks to 60Co irradiations and large photodiode reverse current measurements. The only degradation observed was a photodiode dark current increase. It was found that ionizing dose effects dominate this rise by inducing generation centers at the interface between shallow trench isolations and depleted silicon regions. Displacement damages are responsible for a large degradation of dark current non-uniformity. This work suggests that designing a photodiode tolerant to ionizing radiation can mitigate an important part of proton irradiation effects. ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Daniel Chin, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
A hand gamma camera system for generating an image of a gamma radiation source, the camera including a housing designed to be hand held, a gamma radiation image detector mounted on or in the housing that generates detection data responsive to radiation data from a gamma source incident on the radiation detector, a controller connected to the radiation detector that receives the detection data and generates image data and a display mounted on or in the housing that receives the image data from the controller and generates an image.
Hi Neale, , , On Thu, Oct 17, 2002 at 03:51:12PM -0700, Neale Pickett wrote: , , This probably isnt news so I wont do a full write-up, but as I didnt , , see anything in archives about Debian on a Cobalt Qube, I thought Id , , drop a line that I got it working and its great. Even the LCD display , , works. Should I package this up? , , , If the list members would like, Ill detail what installation entails , , and some of the snares I hit. , , Since I was told by someone at Sun that the software to control the LCD , was not available in source form, and this is the main thing currently , holding me back from wiping our RaQ 2 and installing Debian on it, I for , one would be interested in such a write-up. Well look here: http://devel.alal.com/pipermail/cobalt-22/2002-July/000298.html It is a the bottom. Regards, Soeren Laursen ...
Curt Schilling, the former Red Sox pitcher and ESPN analyst, announced today during the WEEI/NESN Jimmy Fund Radio Telethon that he was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma-which is cancer in the mouth-in February….. "I didnt talk about it for two reasons. No. 1, I didnt want to get into the chewing tobacco debate, which I knew was going to come about, which to me, Ill go to my grave believing that was why I got what I got… absolutely, no question in my mind about that. And the second thing was I didnt want people to feel sorry for me. I didnt want the pity or any of that stuff because early on… I ended up spending about six months in the hospital because I had a bad reaction. I had a staph infection. I had whats called C. diff. I had a couple different problems and there was a week there, theres a week of my life I dont remember while I was in the hospital going through this.. "The second or third day-I got chemo and radiation for seven weeks-and I came back to the room and my ...
David Schilling is professor Emeritus of Management Sciences. He joined Fisher in 1978 after receiving his PhD from Johns Hopkins University. His research and consulting in the public and private sectors focuses on business analytics, specifically in the design and implementation of computer-based tools to support management decision making. He teaches courses in business analytics, including data analysis/statistics in the MBA, Executive MBA and Master of Business Operational Excellence programs, as well as optimization and simulation modeling in the BSBA and MBA programs.
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Last week scientists took pictures of a gamma ray burst while it was still happening. Gamma ray bursts are very fast and its hard to take pictures of them. This is the first time scientists have ever taken a picture of one. Scientists used a computer-conrolled telescope to look at the burst. It would have taken too long for a person to find it. The burst began to fade after less than half a minute ...
A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles.
Gamma Ray - Silence Lyrics. Gamma Ray Heading For Tomorrow Silence Music/ Lyrics: Hansen When youre drowning, when youre freezin, when youre feeling cold There
Context. The detection and the characterization of the highenergy emission component from individual gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the key science objectives of the currently operating gamma-ray satellite AGILE, launched in April 2007. In its first two years of operation AGILE detected three GRBs with photons of energy larger than 30 MeV. One more GRB was detected in AGILE third operation year, while operating in spinning mode. Aims. For the 64 other GRBs localized during the period July 2007 to October 2009 in the field of view of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID), but not detected by this instrument, we estimate the count and flux upper limits on the GRB high energy emission in the AGILE-GRID energy band (30 MeV-3 GeV). Methods. To calculate the count upper limits, we adopted a Bayesian approach. The flux upper limits are derived using several assumptions on the high-energy spectral behavior. For 28 GRBs with available prompt spectral information, a flux upper limit and the ...
The AGILE satellite, currently in its Science Verification Phase, during the Observing Block that started on 2007-11-02 12:00 UT, detected significant gamma-ray emission from a source coincident with the blazar 3C 454.3, as reported in ATEL #1278. The source continues to be active in > 100 MeV gamma rays, showing variability on day-to-day time scales, with particular activity within the last two days. We strongly encourage continued multi-frequency observations of the field of the gamma-ray source detected by AGILE. ...
Author(s): Wiesmeier M, Poeplau C, Sierra C, Maier H, Frühauf C, Hübner R, Kühnel A, Spörlein P, Geuß U, Hangen E, Schilling B, von Lützow M, Kögel-Knabner ...
V. G. Talalaev, A. A. Tonkih, N. D. Zaharov, A. V. Senicev, J. W. Tomm, P. Werner, B. V. Novikov, L. V. Asryan, B. Fuhrmann, J. Schilling, H. S. Leipner, A. D. Buravlev, Ju. B. Samsonenko, A. I. Hrebtov, I. P. Sosmikov, G. E. ...
Map directions to 148-150 Cobalt St Carole Park, QLD 4300. Easily find directions to 148-150 Cobalt St in Carole Park, QLD 4300 using Whereis®.
TheCarConnection.coms spy photographers just snapped the latest and best shots yet of the car that looks to be the 2011 Chevrolet Cobalt. A similar prototype has been shot in various guises, but never from all pertinent angles while uncovered--in full Chevrolet trim. The new 2011 Chevrolet Cobalt will utilize GMs new global compact vehicle architecture...
The effects of irradiation with gamma rays and protons on HTB140 human melanoma cell morphology and viability were analyzed. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated close to the Bragg peak maximum of the 62-MeV proton beam, as well as with (60)Co gamma rays, with doses ranging from 8 to 24 Gy. The overall cell morphology was unchanged 6 and 48 h after gamma irradiation, also showing a relatively weak cell-inactivation level. After exposure to proton beam, considerable changes in cell morphology followed by stronger cell inactivation were achieved. Proliferation capacity of irradiated cells significantly decreased in both experimental set-ups. Higher ionization level of protons with respect to gamma rays, representing the main physical difference between these two types of radiation, was also revealed on the cell membrane level through larger pro-apoptotic capacity of protons ...
Background and purpose: To determine the influence of the number of fractions (or the dose per fraction) on the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Materials and methods: Intestinal crypt regeneration in mice was used as the biological endpoint. RBE was determined relative to cobalt-60 gamma rays for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions separated by a time interval of 3.5 h. Proton irradiations were performed at the middle of a 7-cm Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). Results: Proton RBEs (and corresponding gamma dose per fraction) at the level of 20 regenerated crypts per circumference were found equal to 1.15 ± 0.04 (10.0 Gy), 1.15 ± 0.05 (4.8 Gy) and 1.14 ± 0.07 (1.7 Gy) for irradiations in one, three and ten fractions, respectively. Alpha/beta ratios as derived from direct analysis of the quantal radiation response data were found to be 7.6 Gy for gamma rays and 8.2 Gy for protons. Additional proton irradiations in ten fractions at the end of the SOBP were found to be more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential response to gamma radiation of human stomach cancer cells in vitro. AU - Jenkins, V. K.. AU - Barranco, S. C.. AU - Townsend, Courtney. AU - Perry, R. R.. AU - Ives, K. L.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - In vitro effects of radiation were studied in two permanent cell lines (AGS and SII) from two patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and three permanent sublines from each cell line. Radiation survival parameters for AGS and SII parent cell lines and sublines were determined after in vitro irradiation of their cells with 0·5 to 10 Gy of 60Co gamma rays. The AGS and SII cell lines had different growth properties, DNA contents and radiation survival curves. Surviving fractions of SII parent cells (76 chromosomes) after 2·0 and 10 Gy were 1·22 and 17·8 times greater, respectively, than values for AGS parent cells (47 chromosomes). Sensitivities (D0) were 1·08 and 1·45 Gy for AGS and SII parent lines, respectively. The D0 values for AGS parent cells and sublines ...
The practical methods for generating fast-neutron beams for cancer radiotherapy are compared (DT versus D on Be). A general effort is made to compare and contrast the interactions and depth-dose patterns for gamma ray beams with those for the NRL fast-neutron beam of app. 14-MeV average energy (35-MeV D+ on Be). Typical instrumentation for dosimetry and monitoring are described, and the procedure for absolute dose calibration of non-tissue-equivalent ionization chambers is outlined, based on application of the Bragg-Gray relation. The buildup of the dose by the secondary proton field in TE first few millimeters of tissue (which gives rise to skin-sparing in radiotherapy) has been measured in TE plastic, and the compromise of skin sparing by superposition of various materials is also shown, along with restoration of skin sparing by interposing lead foils to filter out the recoil protons. Narrow-broad-beam attenuation coefficients for 60 Co gamma rays vs the NRL neutron beam are shown for a variety of
Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size (,5mm), low cost, reusability and inert nature. This study investigated the dosimetric characteristics of glass beads. The beads were irradiated by 6MV photons using a medical linear-accelerator and Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1cGy using the TL system ...
|div class=ep_strongtext|Speakers: Prof. Paul Nolan, Physics Department Liverpool University |/div| |p|Speaker: Professor Paul Nolan|br|Most radioactive nuclei decay by emitting gamma radiation. For a given isotopes the energies of the gamma rays emitted are unique. This means that an accurate measurement of the gamma radiation emitted by an unknown isotope allows it to be identified uniquely. There are many different circumstances when the measurement of gamma radiation gives important information. The energies of gamma rays emitted by an excited nucleus gives information on the neutrons and protons that make up the nucleus and on the nuclear shape (spherical or deformed?). The measurement of the gamma radiation from an unknown source allows radioactive material to be identified and its exact nature determined. This has uses in security applications and following incidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Gamma ray emitting isotopes are also widely used in medical diagnostic using imaging modalities
Previous studies in pig models showed that the effective prescribed dose for brachytherapy using a gamma source was 3.5 to 14 Gy at 2 mm (9)or 15 to 20 Gy at 1.5 mm (10-12)from the center of the lumen. Ideally, treatment protocols should be designed to deliver a uniform dose to the target; however, the source is rarely centered within the lumen, and the lumen and stent are rarely centered within the artery. This precludes centering the source within the artery and delivering a uniform dose to the adventitia.. Human ISR treatment protocols using gamma irradiation have selected either a fixed prescription (e.g., 15 Gy at 2 mm from the center of the source [3]) or a calculated and variable dose prescription (minimum of 8 Gy as long as the maximum dose is limited to 30 Gy [2,13]). However, in these ISR protocols, there have been little attempts to calculate the actual delivered dose and the affect of the delivered dose on the biologic process-neointimal regrowth. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the ...
Abstract: Various authors have shown that the backscattering by a finite thin cylindrical shell at oblique incidence is enhanced when resonance conditions are met for the propagation of a leaky wave on the shell [see, e.g., M. L. Rumerman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 55--65 (1993)]. To explore the backscattering enhancements relevant to high-frequency detection, impulse response measurements were carried out for slender thick cylindrical shells using a broad bandwidth PVDF sheet source, for tilt angles ranging from broadside to end-on incidence. These measurements reveal large backscattering enhancements beyond the shear wave cutoff angle, which extend to near end-on incidence in the coincidence frequency region. A simple approximation for the phase velocities of several surface waves is used to identify the underlying mechanisms. A broad enhancement feature is shown to result from the axial propagation of the supersonic a[inf 0] leaky Lamb wave. The associated meridional ray radiates a backward ...
Radiosenstitizing effects of combination of a minor groove DNA ligand, Hoechst-33342, with the glucose analogue and inhibitor of glycolysis, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) have been investigated in Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) bearing mice following focal irradiation of the tumour with 60Co gamma-rays. Treatment-induced tumour growth delay and tumour free animal survival were evaluated as parameters of radiation response. Focal irradiation of the tumour with a single fraction of 10 Gy induced a moderate delay in tumour growth but did not lead to complete regression in any of the tumours. Intravenous administration of H-342 1 hr before irradiation enhanced radiation-induced growth delay in a dose dependent manner. Complete regression of the tumour was observed only at a dose of 10 mg/kg body wt, leading to a cure (tumour free survival for more than 100 days) rate of 55%. Administration of 2-DG (2 g/kg body wt; iv), immediately before irradiation significantly enhanced radiation-induced growth delay and ...
The unsaturated binding capacities (UBBC) of individual vitamin B12- binding proteins in plasma were measured by a two-step procedure. Transcobalamin II (TC II) was separated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate; the "R"-type binders remaining soluble were then divided into two components by bath separation with anion exchange on DEAE- cellulose. The two R components were designated alpha1-R (TC 1) and alpha2-R (third binder, fetal binder, PV binder, TC III). Ten normal sera were studied by this technique giving a separation into TC III and total plasma R identical to that obtained simultaneously by gel filtration. The mean UBBC of TC II was 969 plus or minus 204 pg of 57 Co B12 per ml of serum. The mean contamination of the precipitated TC III with plasma R was 3%. The UBBCs of alpha 2-R and alpha 1-R were 127 plus or minus 42 and 40 plus or minus 12 pg/ml, respectively. The mean contamination of the R fraction by TC II was 14% as evaluated by gel filtration. By isoelectric focusing it was ...
Even though DOEs proposal has yet to become official policy, American consumers already need to be wary of the safety of metal-based products, particularly those imported from other countries. As we reported last January, domestic merchandise retailer Bed, Bath & Beyond recalled a line of tissue holders produced in India from its stores after learning that the metal used in their production was tainted with radio-isotope cobalt-60. In fact, radioactive goods routinely slip through customs, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which is a serious cause for concern ...
has established itself as the 3rd-best team in the NFL. Which makes them as likely to win the Super Bowl this season as my college intramural team. Big Ben ends up as the Fantasy QB of the Week, throwing for a Steelers single-game record 5 TD passes.. MLB GM Meetings: I cant understand the resistance to instant replay. Theyre talking about home-run "in-or-out" calls foul-line "in-or-out" calls. Thats a start. (They need plays at the plate, but that will never happen.) Regardless, I can imagine this as a clusterf--- waiting to happen, because you know the implementation will be brutal. (Heres my think about instant replay: If its good enough for the NFL and college football -- and even the NBA, at end of quarters -- then Im not quite sure how its not good for MLB.. MLB Hot Stove: Curt Schilling returning to Red Sox? That makes sense. (Plus, hes managing the Red Sox in the Sporting News Strat-o-Matic recreation of the 1986 season, in which Im managing the Cubs. Heres a link. The season ...
Davis-based Schilling Robotics LLC, manufacturer of subsea systems, announced opening a service and support center in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Hotels cannot afford to wait for local code to require CO detectors. Sufficient notice exists in the form of hotel trade industry news over the past few years involving deaths and illnesses caused by carbon monoxide. Boone is not the first hotel to experience CO death and illness. The CO sources in these incidents are well-known and limited. As described, the cost to install detectors in areas strategically connected to pool heaters, hot water heaters and furnaces is modest compared to the risk of death or illness to a guest or employee who you have a duty to protect. Even if code does not require them, it is a failure to undertake reasonable care to assure the safety of guests and employees if an owner/operator fails to address this increasingly well-known hazard.. ...
A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles.
Here, we discuss the difference between alpha beta and gamma radiation in terms of what they are made of, their charge, mass, speed, ionising power, effect
The AGILE satellite is detecting a significant enhancement in gamma-ray activity from the FSRQ 3C 454.3 since the recent ATel #9176. According to a maximum likelihood analysis of the AGILE-GRID data for the integration period between 2016-06-22 02:50:00 UT and 2016-06-24 02:50:00 UT, the flux is F(E > 100 MeV) = (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10^-5 ph/cm^2/s; this corresponds to a flux increase of approximately a factor of 6 above the average flux during the last 6 days. The current flux level is similar to the gamma-ray activity reported by AGILE in 2014 (ATel #6234). This measurement was obtained with AGILE observing a large portion of the sky in spinning mode. Multifrequency observations of the source are strongly encouraged. The 3C 454.3 gamma-ray flaring activity can be followed with the APP "AGILEScience".. AGILE-GRID sky map (E , 100 MeV) during the period 22-24 June, 2016. ...
Je misschien al tegengekomen De Cobalt Code Binaire Opties Software - uw binaire opties trading geld verdubbeling app, and as the name suggests, De Cobalt Code verdubbelt je geld. Is it true? Of is het Cobalt Code systeem uitzien als een ander binair scam product?. Ambtenaar De Cobalt Code Website: Klik hier om toegang tot de Cobalt Code System Risk nu gratis. The Cobalt Code Software is helemaal klaar om te starten op 13 juli, 2016. The Cobalt Code binaire systeem is nieuw en dus moest ik dieper in het er door te investeren in het als een Beta tester. In deze De Cobalt code reviews zal ik u uitleggen wat ik vond over dit systeem. Lees mijn eerlijke beoordeling voor meer informatie over The Cobalt Code systeem te leren.. Wat is de Cobalt Code?. Binary options trading has become a very interesting market. There are trends and charts that the newcomer is unaccustomed with, and therefore suffers from losses. However at the same time, there are the long term binary traders who hold all the secrets ...
These are really months of hard work at the Gamma Ray camp. After finishing the tour with Helloween, during which they received the news of the Hamburg fire that destroyed their studio and equipment, they are now back in another studio, working on Empire Of The Undead, that will be released in March 2014 via earMUSIC ...
The ethereal, sensual groove of A Ghost to Find, the latest by the Minneapolis band Sun Gods for Gamma Rays, is a promising sign of whats to come from this up-and-coming band.
B.C. Collins, C.L. Hunter, Y. Liu, B. Schilling, G. Rosenberger, S.L. Bader, D.W. Chan, B.W. Gibson, A.C. Gingras, J.M. Held, M. Hirayama-Kurogi, G. Hou, C. Krisp, B. Larsen, L. Lin, S. Liu, M.P. Molloy, R.L. Moritz, S. Ohtsuki, R. Schlapbach, N. Selevsek, S.N. Thomas, S.C. Tzeng, H. Zhang, R. Aebersold: Multi-laboratory assessment of reproducibility, qualitative and quantitative performance of SWATH-mass spectrometry. Nat Commun. 8:291 (2017 ...
College Park MD (SPX) Jul 26, 2017 - Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic and explosive events in the universe. They are also short-lived, lasting from a few milliseconds to about a minute. This has made it tough for astronome
Breaking News. A science team have released preliminary news that they can now very easily replicate proof of Cold Fusion / LENR with easy to get material.
The United States is the world's largest consumer of cobalt, but we do not mine any cobalt in this country (we do produce some cobalt by recycling). Cobalt is considered a critical metal and is included in ...
Wahrscheinlichkeit Analysis: 1 assigned downloads, like Maß und Integral: Eine Einführung für Bachelor-Studenten - René L. Schilling from ebook-reader
Looking to buy a Chevrolet Cobalt in Port Coquitlam? Visit autoTRADER.ca, Canadas largest selection for new & used Chevrolet Cobalt.
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Read all about how we use X rays and gamma rays in hospitals to find and treat cancer, broken bones and more. Then do the test ...
This 7.5mm comfort fit ring is crafted from superior quality cobalt. The rich black finish gives this ring a modern and edgy look.
Page contains details about cobalt deposited on Si/SiO2 . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Quirky sci-fi platformer Cobalt gets another shot at the big leagues in this multiplayer-centric spinoff, with elements of Counter-Strike & Tribes
这篇文章讲述了一个女性如何在自己的领域为乳腺癌的初诊做的事情。 Curated Paper Visualiza […]. ...
The circumferential constriction in the distal oesophagus is compatible with a fixed B-ring with a caliber |13 mm. Since it produces some degree of dysphagia and chest pain secondary to food impaction, it is termed a Schatzki ring. It is common ...
Purpose: Investigations have shown that a Cobalt-60 (Co-60) radioactive source has the potential to play a role in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this paper, Co-60 tomotherapys conformal dose delivery potential is evaluated by delivering conformal dose plans on a cylindrical homogeneous phantom containing clinical structures similar to those found in a typical head and neck (H and N) cancer. Also, the clinical potential of Co-60 tomotherapy is investigated by generating 2D clinical treatment plans for H and N and prostate anatomical regions. These plans are compared with the 6 MV based treatment plans for modalities such as linear accelerator-based tomotherapy and broad beam IMRT, and 15 MV based 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT).Methods: For experimental validation studies, clinical and nonclinical conformal dose patterns were delivered on circular, homogeneous phantoms containing GafChromic film. For clinical planning study, dose calculations were performed with the ...
An attempt has been made to develop the genetics of Micrococcus radiodurans by analysing transformation and conjugation processes. The nature of the transformation process in M. radiodurans was studied by investigating the effect of various factors on the efficiency of transformations. M. radiodurans can be transformed by exogenous DNA at a frequency of 10 without special treatment. The presence of glucose or amino acids during growth or transformation had no significant effect on the frequency. Treatment of recipient cells with calcium chloride at the optimum concentration of 30 mM increased the frequency of transformation up to 10,000-fold for some markers, e.g. rifampicin resistance. Magnesium and strontium ions could not replace calcium while sine ions completely inhibited transformation. The efficiency of transformation was also affected by the pH, pH 7.0 being the most effective with CaCl-treated cells. The minimum time required for phenotypic expression varied wiith different markers, ...
Rutgers Cancer Institute and Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital are pleased to offer the Gamma Knife Perfexion, a noninvasive tool specifically designed to treat many brain conditions including brain tumors and brain cancer.. We are only facility in New Jersey that is a member of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium.. The Gamma Knife is not a regular knife. There are no blades and the physician does not make any incisions in your head. Instead, the Gamma Knife uses radiation. This approach, known as radiosurgery, focuses radiation directly, and very precisely, on the targeted area of the brain without affecting surrounding healthy tissue.. The radiation source used is called cobalt-60. There are approximately 192 sources of cobalt-60 loaded within the Gamma Knife unit. Thousands of radiation beams can be generated with a level of accuracy of more than 0.5mm, about the thickness of a strand of hair. Individually, each radiation beam is too weak to damage the normal tissues it crosses on ...
The IAEA maintaines a register of radiotherapy hospitals and clinical institutions having radionuclide and high-energy teletherapy machines. The Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) is a continuous update, based on replies to questionnaires circulated by the IAEA among its Member States. It includes data not only on teletherapy machines, but also on sources and devices used in brachytherapy, and on equipment for dosimetry, patient dose calculation and quality assurance. Staff strength at the installations (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, technicians, etc.) is included as well.
The IAEA maintaines a register of radiotherapy hospitals and clinical institutions having radionuclide and high-energy teletherapy machines. The Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) is a continuous update, based on replies to questionnaires circulated by the IAEA among its Member States. It includes data not only on teletherapy machines, but also on sources and devices used in brachytherapy, and on equipment for dosimetry, patient dose calculation and quality assurance. Staff strength at the installations (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, technicians, etc.) is included as well.
Victims of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may get as much benefit from teletherapy - therapy via teleconferencing - as they do from traditional face-to-face therapy.. Stephane Guay of the University of Montreal had 17 post-traumatic stress victims in a rural area undergo 16-25 sessions of teletherapy with Montreal therapists.. Read more on Dial-A-Therapist for PTSD?…. ...
Cyanocobalamin - Is it really true that cyanocobalamin can be used as a sex stimulus? Only if it is low. Cyanocobalamin is also known as vitamin b12. While it can boost energy in some people, generally, if it is not low to begin with, it will likely have little effect.
serendipitous contamination of 1700 apartments in Taiwan with cobalt-60 (T1/2 = 5.3 y). This experience indicates that chronic exposure of the whole body to low-dose-rate radiation, even accumulated to a high annual dose, may be beneficial to human health. Approximately 10,000 people occupied these buildings and received an average radiation dose of 0.4 Sv, unknowingly, during a 9-20 year period. They did not suffer a higher incidence of cancer mortality, as the LNT theory would predict. On the contrary, the incidence of cancer deaths in this population was greatly reduced-to about 3 per cent of the incidence of spontaneous cancer death in the general Taiwan public. In addition, the incidence of congenital malformations was also reduced - to about 7 per cent of the incidence in the general public. These observations appear to be compatible with the radiation hormesis model. ...
Oncology: 1995-1996. BATTISTA, J. J. Papiez, L., and J.J. Battista. 1995. Radiance and particle fluence. Physics Medical Biology 40: 1731-1732.. Sharpe, M.B., D.A. Jaffray, J.J. Battista, and P.N. Munro. 1995. Extra-focal radiation: a unified approach to the production of beam penumbra and output factors for megavoltage x-ray beams. Medical Physics 22: 2065-2074.. Van Dyk, J., and J.J. Battista. 1996. Cobalt-60: An old modality, a renewed challenge. Current Oncology 3: 8-17.. BRAMWELL, V. H. C. Bautista, D.S., Z. Saad, A.F. Chambers, K.S. Tonkin, F.P. OMalley, S. Singhal, S. Tokmakejian, V.H.C. Bramwell, and J.F. Harris. 1996. Quantification of osteopontin in human plasma with an ELISA: basal levels in pre- and postmenopausal women. Clinical Biochemistry 29: 231-239.. Bramwell, V.H.C. 1995. The role of chemotherapy in osteogenic sarcoma. Clinical Reviews in Oncology/Haematology 20: 61-85.. Bramwell, V.H.C., E.A. Eisenhauer, M. Blackstein, G. Boos, Knowling, J. Jolivet, and W. Bogues. 1995. ...
Dr. Wendy J Schillings, MD, rated 2.8/5 by patients. 23 reviews, Phone number & practice locations, Reproductive Endocrinologist in Allentown, PA.
Teletherapy is a form of virtual counseling with a licensed therapist via webcam, phone, email or text message. While the service has been around for decades, its now a primary alternative to in-person therapy for those in need.
As was the case for the first ChemMedChem December, 2007 cover issue (posted previously), the cover story in this month’s issue is a communication by myself and members and collaborators of the Robert Doyle Group here at Syracuse University. In this case, the work for the cover image actually went into computational research published in the associated article (instead of just a pretty cover image to complement the associated article, which was the intent of the previous cover).. The image below shows the Transcobalamin II (TCII) protein (in teal ribbons, with a bound cyanocobalamin (B12) shown in red. The PDB code for this complex is 2BB5) sitting within the surface-accessible fragment of the gigantic insulin receptor (PDB code 2DTG. The cell membrane would be at the bottom of this image, with the remainder of the complete protein sitting both within the cell membrane and then into the cytoplasm). Saving the lead-up to this structure generation for the associated published ...
Brachytherapy remains an important component of radical radiation therapy in the modern management of cancer. Widespread adoption of remote afterloading now enables brachytherapy to be delivered with minimum exposure to staff and other patients. Technical advances in imaging and computing power have improved the precision of implantation and complex dosimetry can now be achieved in routine practice.
We report a nominally high-confidence gamma-ray quasi-periodic modulation in the blazar PKS 0301-243. For this target, we analyze its Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data from 2008 August to 2017 May. Two techniques, i.e., maximum likelihood optimization and exposure-weighted aperture photometry, are used to build the gamma-ray light curves. Then, both the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and the weighted wavelet Z-transform are applied to the light curves to search for period signals. A quasi-periodicity with a period of 2.1 +/- 0.3 yr appears at the significance level of similar to 5 sigma, although it should be noted that this putative quasi-period variability is seen in a data set that is barely four times longer. We speculate that this gamma-ray quasi-periodic modulation may be evidence of a binary supermassive black hole ...
2019 Alatarvas T , Vuolio T, Heikkinen E-P, Shu Q, Fabritius T Prediction of Inclusion State in Molten Steel by Morphology and Appearance of Inclusions in Liquid Steel Samples.
The brightest events in the Universe since the Big Bang; extremely powerful flashes of gamma rays that are believed to originate in massive supernova events. They are highly directional, concentrating in narrow beams that shine for a few seconds, containing as much energy as the Sun will emit in its entire lifetime.. ...
To me, when you hire a public persona, youre not just hiring a face in front of a camera but youre hiring the brand of that persons name. A persons private life in large part determines that brand, and hiring them means accepting that. Some people will take the good and the bad with that brand and be themselves. Others will try to meticulously sculpt an image. Theres nothing wrong with either, but short of choosing to not renew a contract, once a broadcaster has signed the agreement they should be stuck with the person they picked. Its just a matter of equal rights. If ESPN came out in favor of a political decision Shilling disagrees with do you think he would get the option to just break his contract or to not be associated with his employers views ...
Barakat, M.F. and Abdelhamid, M.M. (2013) Valence Stabilization of Polyvalent Ions during Gamma Irradiation of Aqueous Solutions by Sacrificial Protection. (III) Valence Stabilization of Fe(II) Ions by Organic Additives. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 298, 1619-1627.
What Sam accused you of, correctly or not, is not name-calling. He gave you a reason, a basis, why he discounts your view on a particular matter. You, and others with you, here continually respond by merely accusing someone of whining (or "whingeing," he said, flicking an imaginary crumb from his irreproachable mechlin cuffs), or of being a misogynist, a woman-hater, a deadbeat, or as you do here above, tarring a person as someone into Victimology-in other words by evading the merits of the assertions by substituting mere name-calling and taunt. Theres substance to what Sam said, none to your accusing me of only being into victimology, thus making light of a serious issue, an issue that regardless of what you think of me or anyone else has substance and merit ...
The remaining 5-10% are names which could have some traffic or some value to more than one person. Names which could be called meaningful, powerful or generic. Thats 5-10 million domain names globally. It doesnt take a mathematician to determine that there are just not enough great names to go around. Its not possible for every person or company to have even one "good" registration. That shortage of supply and global demand keeps prices high... and will for years to come. In fact if the examples above show anything, its that great domain names are "still" cheap." ...
The treasurer said Tuesday its wrong for a state to take action to help individual companies. He says Massachusetts should try to retain all businesses by lower tax rates across the board and improving its regulatory climate. ...
FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether this medication can harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Cyanocobalamin passes into breast milk, but it is not known whether cyanocobalamin could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby ...
Radioactive isotopes EG carbon and nitrogen are combined with other elements which are specific to the part of the body that is being scanned.The radioactive isotope is introduced to the body by a drip, being swallowed or being injected, as the element is in the specific part of the body it emits gamma rays, more active areas of the body will take up more of the element so it will give off more gamma rays EG a cancerous areas.. And less active organs take up less of the element (damaged organs).. A gamma camera detects the gamma rays that are being emmitted from the part of the body, which are converted into an image by a computer.. The advantages of this is that it is good for detecting problems with tissues and organs.. The disadvantages of this are the health risks involved with raditation.. ...
Using ever more energetic lasers, Lawrence Livermore researchers have produced a record high number of electron-positron pairs, opening exciting opportunities to study extreme astrophysical processes, such as black holes and gamma-ray bursts.
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The blasts emit surges of gamma rays as well as X-rays, and they produce afterglows that are visible at optical and radio energies.
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Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) later on in the ileum of the small intestine. In humans, the gastric intrinsic factor protein is encoded by the GIF gene. Haptocorrin (also known as HC, R protein, and transcobalamin I, TCN1) is another glycoprotein secreted by the salivary glands which binds to vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is acid sensitive and in binding to transcobalamin I it can safely pass through the acidic stomach to the duodenum. In the less acidic environment of the small intestine, pancreatic enzymes digest the glycoprotein carrier and vitamin B12 can then bind to intrinsic factor. This new complex is then absorbed by the epithelial cells (enterocytes) of the ileum. Inside the cells, B12 dissociates once again and binds to another protein, transcobalamin II (TCN2); the new complex can then exit the epithelial cells to be carried ...
Introduction. Surgery is the primary treatment for stage 1 endometrial cancer, and radiotherapy can be used as adjuvant treatment. Medical literature has not defined the best adjuvant treatment for stage 1A endometrial cancer, histological grades 1 and 21. Teletherapy is advocated by some authors, high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) by others, and also low dose rate brachytherapy (LDRB) has been described2-7. There are also authors who question the use of any adjuvant radiotherapy8,9. A meta-analysis evaluated the benefit of adjuvant teletherapy in cancer of endometrium stage I. With four randomized controlled trials included, 1,770 patients were analyzed, with 870 in the treatment group and 900 in the control group. There was a reduction of 72% in the risk of loco-regional recurrence, p , 0.00001, with NNT (number needed to treat) of 16.7 to prevent a recurrence. There was no difference between the rates of distant recurrence, overall survival, and deaths, but higher toxicity10.. There are no ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Management of malignant airway obstruction. T2 - Clinical and dosimetric considerations using an iridium-192 afterloading technique in conjunction with the neodymium-YAG laser. AU - Schray, Mark F.. AU - McDougall, John C.. AU - Martinez, Alvaro. AU - Edmundson, Gregory K.. AU - Cortese, Denis. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Fourteen patients with malignant airway obstruction have had 21 placements of a flexible nylon catheter for afterloading Iridium-192 using the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. Prescribed therapy was completed in 13 patients (18 courses). All patients had prior full-dose external irradiation, and no effective surgical or chemotherapeutic options remained. While many have had a trial of neodymium-YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser therapy alone, eight patients received laser treatment one to three weeks prior to planned brachytherapy to provide immediate relief of symptoms and/or facilitate access and safe catheter placement. Most patients (64%) had recurrent ...
Radium has been replaced by much cheaper cobalt-60 and other radioisotopes in radiation treatment. Noncorroding lead as a cable ... Cobalt had been in an iffy supply status ever since the Belgian Congo (world's only significant source of cobalt) was given a ... While the cobalt supply was disrupted and the price shot up, nickel and other substitutes were pressed into service. Following ... An important way of getting around a cobalt situation or a "Resource War" situation is to use substitutes for a material in its ...
In addition to cobalt-60, MDS Nordion also produces radioisotopes that are essential in diagnostic therapy. Some can be mixed ... About 85% of the world's medical and industrial cobalt-60 is produced in Canada. The medical-use cobalt-60 is produced in the ... in these units some adjuster rods are made of cobalt-59 for this purpose). Furthermore, over half the cobalt-60 therapy ... Canada pioneered the cobalt-60 cancer therapy technology that became standard medical practice throughout the world (the first ...
The facilities also include a Hot Cell and high-activity cobalt source and high level radioisotope laboratories. Researchers ... Commercial activities include radioisotope production and neutron radiography. ... reactor physics experiments and radioisotopes for tracers and counting experiments. Graduate studies use neutron beams for ...
A radiotherapy machine may have roughly 1000 Ci of a radioisotope such as caesium-137 or cobalt-60. This quantity of ...
The longest-lived radioisotope is 73As has a half-life of 80 days. Arsenic has been proposed as a "salting" material for ... nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material). A jacket of 75As, irradiated by the intense highenergy ...
This makes the plutonium-238 isotope suitable for usage in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope ... OPG currently produces Cobalt 60 for use in the sterilization of surgical and medical supplies using a similar process. The ... The Radioisotope Heater Units were the unsung heroes of space exploration beginning with the Apollo Radioisotope Heaters (ALRH ... RTG technology was first developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory during the 1960s and 1970s to provide radioisotope ...
Embalse produces the cobalt-60 radioisotope, which is employed in medicine (cancer therapy) and industrial applications. ... www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/non-power-nuclear-applications/radioisotopes-research/radioisotopes-in-medicine.aspx ...
Longer-life radioisotopes, typically caesium-137 and strontium-90, present a long-term hazard. Intense beta radiation from the ... For ground bursts, the elements of concern are aluminium-28, silicon-31, sodium-24, manganese-56, iron-59, and cobalt-60. The ... The primary fallout hazard is gamma radiation from short-lived radioisotopes, which represent the bulk of activity. Within 24 ... The induced isotopes include cobalt-60, 57 and 58, iron-59 and 55, manganese-54, zinc-65, yttrium-88, and possibly nickel-58 ...
The radioactive isotope radioisotope cobalt-60 is used as the source in all commercial scale gamma irradiation facilities. ... Cobalt-60 is bred from cobalt-59 using neutron irradiation in specifically designed nuclear reactors. In limited applications ... In most designs, to nullify the effects of radiation, the radioisotope is lowered into a water-filled storage pool, which ... "Food Irradiation in Asia, the European Union, and the United States" (PDF). Japan Radioisotope Association. May 2013. Archived ...
Many labs have stopped performing the Schilling test, due to lack of production of the cobalt radioisotopes and labeled-B12 ... using different cobalt radioisotopes 57Co and 58Co, which have different radiation signatures, in order to differentiate the ...
The X-10 reactor at Oak Ridge was used to produce radioisotopes such as cobalt-60, phosphorus-32, sulfur-35, and carbon-14. As ... A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine (University of Chicago Press, 2013) on the use of radioisotopes in science ... Natural radioisotopes were used as tracers to track atoms and illuminate biological processes in living creatures and ... Bud, Robert (August 2015). "Angela N. H. Creager, Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine". Social ...
Cobalt therapy, teletherapy machines using megavolt gamma rays emitted by cobalt-60, a radioisotope produced by irradiating ... Cobalt machines were relatively cheap, robust and simple to use, although due to its 5.27 year half-life the cobalt had to be ... A major use of systemic radioisotope therapy is in the treatment of bone metastasis from cancer. The radioisotopes travel ... Systemic radioisotope therapy (RIT) is a form of targeted therapy. Targeting can be due to the chemical properties of the ...
... the division developed one of the first teletherapy units that used the radioisotope cobalt-60 to destroy cancerous tumours. ... Nordion supplies cobalt-60, the isotope that produces the gamma radiation required to destroy harmful micro-organisms. The ... Soon after, the division was given responsibility for selling radioisotopes produced by the newly established nuclear research ... and for cobalt-60 sources and industrial food irradiators. The Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, facility is located on the ...
... is usually reserved for photons that are emitted from a radioisotope such as cobalt-60 (see below). Such radiation is not ... CyberKnife may be compared to Gamma Knife therapy (see above), but it does not use gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes. It also ... The success of this first unit led to the construction of a second device, containing 179 cobalt-60 sources. This second Gamma ... In 1982, the Spanish neurosurgeon J. Barcia-Salorio began to evaluate the role of cobalt-generated and then Linac-based photon ...
It is emitted by a radioisotope, usually cobalt-60(60Co) or caesium-137 (137Cs), which have photon energies of up to 1.3 and ... non-water-soluble cobalt-60. Cobalt-60 gamma photons have about twice the energy, and hence greater penetrating range, of ... Use of a radioisotope requires shielding for the safety of the operators while in use and in storage. With most designs, the ... One variant keeps the radioisotope under water at all times and lowers the product to be irradiated into the water towards the ...
... which then decays to radioactive cobalt-56 (half life 77 days). These radioisotopes excite the surrounding material to ... The visual light curve continues to decline at a rate slightly greater than the decay rate of the radioactive cobalt (which has ... This luminosity is generated by the radioactive decay of nickel-56 through cobalt-56 to iron-56. The peak luminosity of the ... Fields, Brian D.; Hochmuth, Kathrin A.; Ellis, John (2005). "Deep‐Ocean Crusts as Telescopes: Using Live Radioisotopes to Probe ...
Cobalt units which use radiation from the radioisotope cobalt-60 produce stable, dichromatic beams of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, ... Cobalt treatment still has a useful role to play in certain applications (for example the Gamma Knife) and is still in ... The role of the cobalt unit has largely been replaced by the linear accelerator, which can generate higher energy radiation. ... or cobalt-60. Such photon beams, derived from radioactive decay, are more or less monochromatic and are properly termed gamma ...
In 1939 he pioneered the non-medical use of radioisotopes in New Zealand, and conducted a series of experiments to determine ... the role of cobalt in animal metabolism. With the outbreak of World War II Marsden was given the title of Director of ...
Some of the 60Co was generated by activation of the cobalt in the soil, but some was also generated by the activation of the ... A paper on the radioisotopes left on an island by the French nuclear bombs tests of the 20th century has been printed by the ... A recent paper reports the levels of long lived radioisotopes in the trinitite. 152Eu and 154Eu was mainly formed by the ... Many atomic batteries have been of the Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) type. The Plutonium-238 used in RTGs has a ...
His department subsequently developed one of the world's first radioisotope scanners. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal ... inventor of the cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, that Johns was prompted to go into medical physics. ...
As well as their use for electricity, Candu power reactors produce almost all the world's supply of the cobalt-60 radioisotope ... Cobalt is mined like any other mineral. It's removed from the ground and processed into pure Cobalt-59 powder. Once processed ... Following the harvest, new rods of Cobalt-59 (becomes Cobalt-60 after up to two years in the reactor) were inserted in Unit ... where the cobalt is activated by absorbing neutrons to become Cobalt-60. The rods are in the reactor for a minimum of one year ...
It also contrasts to EBRT, in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a radioisotope like cobalt-60) are ... Cobalt needles were also used briefly after World War II. Radon and cobalt were replaced by radioactive tantalum and gold, ... The capsule may be removed later, or (with some radioisotopes) it may be allowed to remain in place. A feature of brachytherapy ... Brachytherapy instead involves the precise placement of short-range radiation-sources (radioisotopes) directly at the site of ...
Other than radioisotope production, the NRU provides irradiation services for nuclear materials and fuels testing, as well as ... Canada also pioneered use of cobalt-60 for medical diagnosis in 1951 and currently the NRU reactor produces the medical-use ... In addition, AECL manufactures nuclear medicine radioisotopes for supply to MDS Nordion in Ottawa, Ontario, and is the world's ... Official website "Why was a Chalk River reactor shut down in November 2007, causing a shortage in medical radioisotopes?" ( ...
There the cobalt would be activated by the neutron flux in the reactor and become cobalt-60, a radioisotope with a five year ... Stellite alloy is a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear resistance. It may also contain tungsten or molybdenum ... The alloys also tend to have extremely high melting points due to the cobalt and chromium content. Typical applications include ... Stellite is a family of completely non-magnetic and corrosion-resistant cobalt alloys of various compositions that have been ...
... includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes. All radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of ... uranium and cobalt in a 100:10:1 ratio was subjected to a very short pulse of thermal neutrons. The initial radioactivity would ... Radiochemistry also includes the study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the environment; for instance, a forest or grass ... for example the action of cosmic rays on the air is responsible for the formation of radioisotopes (such as 14C and 32P), the ...
More recently discovered radioisotopes, such as cobalt-60 and caesium-137, are replacing radium in even these limited uses ... Currently, safer and more available radioisotopes are used instead. Uranium had no large scale application in the late 19th ...
Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... Cobaltocene, Co(C5H5)2, is a metallocene, the cobalt analogue of ferrocene. It is a dark purple solid. Cobaltocene has 19 ... All of the alkali metals except lithium and caesium have at least one naturally occurring radioisotope: sodium-22 and sodium-24 ...
... by radioisotopes emitting EMR: by nuclear medicine by brachytherapy quackery type: electromagnetic therapy (alternative ... radiosurgery Gamma Knife radiosurgery stereotactic radiation therapy cobalt therapy by radiation generally: radiation therapy ( ...
Nonradioactive cobalt occurs naturally in various minerals and has long been used as a blue coloring agent for ceramic and ... www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/radionuclides/cobalt.htmlexternal icon. ... Cobalt-60 (Co-60)plus icon *Radioisotope Brief. *Toxicological ...
Radioisotope Brief. * Toxicological Profile. Toxicologic & adverse health effects information from the Agency for Toxic ...
BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CHARGED PARTICLES; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHEMISTRY; COBALT ISOTOPES; ... RADIOISOTOPES; SECONDS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; SILVER ISOTOPES; SODIUM ISOTOPES; THERMAL ANALYSIS; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS; ... The compositions of the cobalt and silver-exchanged forms of synthetic zeolite Sieve A have been determined by radiochemical ... abstractNote = {The compositions of the cobalt and silver-exchanged forms of synthetic zeolite Sieve A have been determined by ...
EVALUATION OF CUPRIMINE® AND SYPRINE® FOR DECORPORATION OF RADIOISOTOPES OF CESIUM, COBALT, IRIDIUM AND STRONTIUM. Levitskaia, ...
Cobalt Radioisotopes*. Humans. Iridium Radioisotopes*. Quality Assurance, Health Care*. Radiometry / instrumentation*. Chemical ...
Radioisotopes uses in medicine and industry - Preliminary chemistry - Research Paper. 511 words - 3 pages ]. Marsh, G. (2019). ... Uses of Cobalt-60. [online] Radioactive Isotopes. Available at: https://radioactiveisotopes.weebly.com/uses-of-cobalt-60.html [ ...
Tens of millions of nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing rapidly ... the use of radioisotopes for diagnostics, radiation therapy, radiopharmaceuticals and other beneficial medical uses of nuclear ... Cobalt-60 (5.27 yr):. Formerly used for external beam radiotherapy, now almost universally used for sterilising. High-specific- ... The global radioisotope market was valued at $9.6 billion in 2016, with medical radioisotopes accounting for about 80% of this ...
... cobalt, nickel, copper, molybdenum; The other transition metals and zinc; The metalloids: arsenic, antimony, selenium, ... tellurium and boron; The new metal contaminants; The radioactive metals; Radioisotopes; The catalytic metals; The electronic ...
Chemicals/CAS: Cobalt Radioisotopes; Codon; DNA Polymerase I, EC 2.7.7.-; DNA, Viral; Oxygen, 7782-44-7 ... Chemicals/CAS: DNA, 9007-49-2; oxygen, 7782-44-7; thiol derivative, 13940-21-1; Azo Compounds; Cobalt Radioisotopes; Cyclic N- ... Cobalt Radioisotopes · Codon · Coliphages · DNA Polymerase I · DNA Repair · DNA, Viral · Escherichia coli · Gamma Rays · ... Cobalt Radioisotopes · Coliphages · Cyclic N-Oxides · Cysteamine · DNA Viruses · DNA, Circular · DNA, Viral · Dose-Response ...
The main radioisotopes involved are strontium, cesium, and some cobalt. Cobalt has approximately a five-year half-life, but ... However, on a mass quantity and in terms of ordinary toxicology, an enormous amount of cobalt-60 would decay to such a tiny ... Also, the amount of cesium, strontium, and cobalt in fish in the Clinch River is very low. The calculated dose from eating fish ... Then there are some of the longer-lived half-lives such as cobalt-60, which can be distributed throughout the entire body. ...
used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units as an energy source for spacecraft ... Cobalt-60 27. 33. 5.3 y. β−. 2824 Synthetic. produces high energy gamma rays, used for radiotherapy, equipment sterilisation, ... "Radioisotopes in Industry". World Nuclear Association.. *. Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. ... most commonly used medical radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer Iodine-129 53. 76. 15,700,000 y. β−. 194 Cosmogenic. ...
Cobalt Absorption. Gastrointestinal Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of Radiocesium Intestinal Absorption of Strontium ... use of radioisotopes to assess intestinal flux of calcium in humans; and calcium and structure of cell membranes. The ... intestinal absorption of zinc, cobalt, and strontium and absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract are underscored. ...
Radioisotope Competitive Edge: Cobalt 60 Units vs. Linear Accelerators Comparative Assessment of Teletherapy Units and Linear ... Systemic Radioisotope Therapy (RIT) Radiation Therapy for Treating Oral Cancer Other Forms of Radiation Therapy Photoradiation ... Benefits of LINACs over Cobalt 60 Units Treatment Planning System: An Innovative Technique in Radiation Therapy Radiation ...
Vitamin B 12 can be tagged with a radioisotope of cobalt to study the absorption of the vitamin from the gastrointestinal tract ... June 2007-50 Which radioisotope is used in medicine to treat thyroid disorders?. (1) cobalt-60 (3) phosphorus-32. (2) iodine- ... 2) cobalt-60 (4) uranium-238. June 2003-39 Which isotope is most commonly used in the radioactive dating of the remains of ... Jan 2006-50 The decay of which radioisotope can be used to estimate the age of the fossilized remains of an insect?. (1) Rn-222 ...
what radioisotope would be used to kill certain cancerous tumors cobalt-60 ...
During the last half of the twentieth century, the radioisotope cobalt-60 was the frequently used source of radiation used in ... Proton-rich radioisotopes are manufactured in cyclotrons. During radioactive decay, the nucleus of a radioisotope seeks ... Radioisotopes decay at a known rate; often a nuclide that decays rapidly may be chosen, allowing the patient to be radiation- ... Radiation and radioisotopes are extensively used medications to allow physicians to image internal structures and processes in ...
Radioisotopes have become increasingly more important in many fields in the past 60 years or so. Some radioisotopes are ... An example of this reaction is the production from cobalt-59 to cobalt-60, a good source of gamma radiation for many ... Over one thousand radioisotopes-radioactive isotopes-either exist in nature or have been made artificially by bombarding stable ... producing a ther-apeutically useful radioisotope of sodium. Newer radioisotopes produced this way for medical applications ...
... external sources of radiation such as x-ray machines and cobalt-60 therapy units; and liquid radioisotopes such as iodine-131 ... Beta particles are high-energy electrons, which are emitted by radioisotopes of lighter elements. Gamma rays are high-energy ... Alpha particles are high-energy helium-4 nuclei consisting of two protons and two neutrons, which are emitted by radioisotopes ... The distinction between the two is that gamma rays originate from the decay of radioacive substances (like radium and cobalt-60 ...
The radioisotope used, cobalt- 60, is a powerful gamma-ray emitter. The radiation is aimed at the target area with the aid of ... A cobalt source is being used, which delivers a finite, high-power dose to a localised area. ... A cobalt source is being used, which delivers a finite, high-power dose to a localised area. The radioisotope used, cobalt- 60 ...
The cobalt and copper analogs are nonfluorescent. Metal free phthalocyanines are not capable of being rendered reactive or ... The field of nuclear medicine utilizes radioisotopes, usually gamma-emitting isotopes, for diagnostic purposes. Radioactive ... Metz, J. et al., Synthesis and properties of substituted ( phthalocyanito)iron and -cobalt compounds and their pyridine ... Metallophthalocyanines and TBTAPs suitable for radioactive imaging and therapeutic applications would bear radioisotopes of ...
For example, radioisotopes of the elements copper, cobalt, gallium, germanium, yttrium, strontium, technetium, indium, ... 2. for the radiodiagnosis and the radiotherapy in the form of their complexes with the radioisotopes of the elements with ... Suitable ions are, for example, the chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), praseodymium( ... Another imaging method with radioisotopes is the positron emission tomography, which uses positron-emitting isotopes, such as, ...
In magnets, medical radio-isotopes and (as a compound) blue or green pigment in ceramics and glasses. ... Cobalt blue was known even earlier in China and was used for pottery glazes.[4] Modern cobalt was officially discovered by a ... Cobalt salts have been used for centuries to give pottery and other items a blue color. Radioactive cobalt-60 is also useful to ... Cobalt (KO-bolt) is a lustrous, silvery-blue metal which is magnetic.[1] ...
Cobalt sources Gamma sources ?? ?? Ҽ Radioisotope sources ?? Calibration sources ?? ?? ?? ??ġ Medical diagnostic x ray products ... ۯ????????? ) radioisotope radioisotope ?? ?? artificial radioisotope ?? ?? ?? radioisotope ?? ?? carrier-free radioisotope ... radioactive isotope =RADIOISOTOPE radioisotope ?? ?? , -isotopic a. ?? ?? (ۯ????????? Radioisotope) Archaeologists use ... radioisotope. ٸ ???? ã ??̹???? ?? ??? Cambridge M-W M-W Thesaurus OneLook Wordnet Google. ...
Radium has been replaced by much cheaper cobalt-60 and other radioisotopes in radiation treatment. Noncorroding lead as a cable ... Cobalt had been in an iffy supply status ever since the Belgian Congo (worlds only significant source of cobalt) was given a ... While the cobalt supply was disrupted and the price shot up, nickel and other substitutes were pressed into service. Following ... An important way of getting around a cobalt situation or a "Resource War" situation is to use substitutes for a material in its ...
  • Khan NT (2017) Radioisotopes and Their Biomedical Applications. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cobalt products sales accounted for approximately 7% of the Company's total revenue in 2017 and approximately 13% in 2016. (biospace.com)
  • During 2017, however, the Company successfully contracted with a supplier for significant quantities of bulk cobalt with deliveries starting in 2018. (biospace.com)
  • Cobalt-based blue pigments have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth. (phys.org)
  • The attributes of naturally decaying atoms, known as radioisotopes, give rise to several applications across many aspects of modern day life (see also information paper on The Many Uses of Nuclear Technology ). (world-nuclear.org)
  • The gamma radiation emitted by the cobalt-60 radioisotope is ionizing, with high penetration power, which when interacting with the products, even inside its packages, transfers its energy by means of collisions to the electrons of the atoms that make up the products. (usp.br)
  • ORINS offered the first special basic radioisotope course for foreign nationals as part of President Dwight Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" program, established to share the peaceful atom with other countries. (orau.org)
  • The isotopes of an element, therefore, As more sites are evaluated, the sites at which have different atomic mass numbers [number of cobalt is found may increase. (cdc.gov)
  • Cobalt ( /ˈkoʊbɒlt/ or /ˈkoʊbɔːlt/) is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. (phys.org)
  • Cobalt in inorganic form is also a micronutrient for bacteria , algae , and fungi . (cfapps.io)
  • The biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in the human body. (nih.gov)
  • This paper reviews information on the biological behavior of inorganic cobalt in humans and laboratory animals and proposes a model of the systemic biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in adult humans. (nih.gov)
  • I like to [compare] Cobalt-60 radiation technology to what I would consider to be like the carburetor technology of automotive cars and electron beam and x-ray technologies to be the more modern version[s]," Pillai asserts. (ift.org)
  • The decrease is the result of the continuing interruption in cobalt supply from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) which started in 2014, and the Company's limited options for obtaining alternate cobalt supplies in the global marketplace. (biospace.com)
  • Cobalt products were historically the Company's largest revenue segment prior to the supply interruption in 2014, and with the additional long-term sources of supply, we expect cobalt products to be a large revenue contributor going forward. (biospace.com)
  • The global radioisotope market was valued at $9.6 billion in 2016, with medical radioisotopes accounting for about 80% of this, and it is poised to reach about $17 billion by 2021. (world-nuclear.org)
  • This collaboration is in addition to a number of agreements Bruce Power has recently signed to advance its production of medical radioisotopes. (brucepower.com)
  • Our BR2 reactor plays an important part in the production of various types of medical radioisotopes. (sckcen.be)
  • The project team is testing lithium cobalt oxide battery cells for a solar array/battery mission concept, and it is testing lithium iron phosphate cells for an ASRG mission scenario. (nasa.gov)
  • Incorporation of radioisotopes to biologically active substances is introduced into body in order to observe the functioning of an organ functioning or a metabolic path way etc. (omicsonline.org)
  • In recent years specialists have also come from radiology, as dual positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures have become established, increasing the role of accelerators in radioisotope production. (world-nuclear.org)
  • In 2015, we executed a ten-year production purchase agreement with the DOE for bulk cobalt produced in the ATR. (biospace.com)
  • At the first stage of Mo-99 production startup, a rod-type target was chosen the optimal one based on a comparative analysis of thermal-hydraulic parameters taking into account the well-established procedures to fabricate targets to be used for radioisotopes accumulation. (niiar.ru)
  • The radioisotopes employed in RS emit high energy - radiation, which induces water hydrolysis, production of reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis due to oxidative stress . (termedia.pl)
  • The production of radioisotopes and distribution to our clients are subject to rigorous quality controls , a process which is EN ISO 9001:2000 certified . (sckcen.be)
  • In the process of achieving stability a part of the nucleus of a radioisotope disintegrates and emits particles and energy. (ratical.org)
  • Our Zeolite goes through a crucial 3 step cleansing and "Activation" process, yielding maximum Zeolite purity, cation-exchange potential and Radioisotope Adsorption. (pureeffectfilters.com)
  • The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia yields most of the cobalt metal mined worldwide. (phys.org)
  • Compared with the ICRP's current model, the proposed model yields similar predictions of whole-body retention but substantially different predictions of the systemic distribution of cobalt as a function of time after uptake to blood. (nih.gov)