Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/190)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Sorting of furin at the trans-Golgi network. Interaction of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals with AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly proteins. (2/190)

The eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease furin is found predominantly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and cycles between this compartment, the cell surface, and the endosomes. There is experimental evidence for endocytosis from the plasma membrane and transport from endosomes to the TGN, but direct exit from the TGN to endosomes via clathrin-coated vesicles has only been discussed but not directly shown so far. Here we present data showing that expression of furin promotes the first step of clathrin-coat assembly at the TGN, the recruitment of the Golgi-specific assembly protein AP-1 on Golgi membranes. Further, we report that furin indeed is present in isolated clathrin-coated vesicles. Packaging into clathrin-coated vesicles requires signal components in the furin cytoplasmic domain which can be recognized by AP-1 assembly proteins. We found that besides depending on the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site, interaction of the furin tail with AP-1 and its mu1subunit is mediated by a tyrosine motif and to less extent by a leucine-isoleucine signal, whereas a monophenylalanine motif is only involved in binding to the intact AP-1 complex. This study implies that high affinity interaction of AP-1 or mu1 with the cytoplasmic tail of furin needs a complex interplay of signal components rather than one distinct signal.  (+info)

ADP-ribosylation factor 1 dependent clathrin-coat assembly on synthetic liposomes. (3/190)

The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles on Golgi membranes is initiated by the GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor (ARF), which generates high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the heterotetrameric AP-1 adaptor complex. Once bound, the AP-1 recruits clathrin triskelia, which polymerize to form the coat. We have found that ARF.GTP also recruits AP-1 and clathrin onto protein-free liposomes. The efficiency of this process is modulated by the composition of the liposomes, with phosphatidylserine being the most stimulatory phospholipid. There is also a requirement for cytosolic factor(s) other than ARF. Thin-section electron microscopy shows the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles that resemble those formed in vivo. These results indicate that AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles can form in the absence of integral membrane proteins. Thus, ARF.GTP, appropriate lipids, and cytosolic factor(s) are the minimal components necessary for AP-1 clathrin-coat assembly.  (+info)

Glucose transporter Glut3 is targeted to secretory vesicles in neurons and PC12 cells. (4/190)

In rat brain and cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells, Glut3 is localized at the cell surface and, also, in a distinct population of homogenous synaptic-like vesicles. Glut3-containing vesicles co-purify with "classical" synaptic vesicles, but can be separated from the latter by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Unlike classical synaptic vesicles, Glut3-containing vesicles possess a high level of aminopeptidase activity, which has been identified as aminopeptidase B. This enzyme has recently been shown to be a marker of the secretory pathway in PC12 cells (Balogh, A., Cadel, S., Foulon, T., Picart, R., Der Garabedian, A., Rousselet, A., Tougard, C., and Cohen, P. (1998) J. Cell Sci. 111, 161-169). We, therefore, conclude that Glut3 is targeted to secretory vesicles in both neurons and PC12 cells.  (+info)

Yeast VSM1 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein that may act as a negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. (5/190)

We have screened for proteins that interact with v-SNAREs of the late secretory pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel protein, designated Vsm1, binds tightly to the Snc2 v-SNARE in the two-hybrid system and can be coimmunoprecipitated with Snc1 or Snc2 from solubilized yeast cell extracts. Disruption of the VSM1 gene results in an increase of proteins secreted into the medium but does not affect the processing or secretion of invertase. In contrast, VSM1 overexpression in cells which bear a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sec9 t-SNARE (sec9-4 cells) results in the accumulation of non-invertase-containing low-density secretory vesicles, inhibits cell growth and the secretion of proteins into the medium, and blocks rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by SNC1 overexpression. Yet, VSM1 overexpression does not affect yeast bearing a sec9-7 allele which, in contrast to sec9-4, encodes a t-SNARE protein capable of forming a stable SNARE complex in vitro at restrictive temperatures. On the basis of these results, we propose that Vsm1 is a novel v-SNARE-interacting protein that appears to act as negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. Moreover, this regulation appears specific to one of two parallel exocytic paths which are operant in yeast cells.  (+info)

Recombinant SFD isoforms activate vacuolar proton pumps. (6/190)

The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow.  (+info)

A di-acidic (DXE) code directs concentration of cargo during export from the endoplasmic reticulum. (7/190)

Efficient export of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), a type I transmembrane protein, from the endoplasmic reticulum requires a di-acidic code (DXE) located in the cytosolic carboxyl-terminal tail (Nishimura, N., and Balch, W. E. (1997) Science 277, 556-558). Mutation of the DXE code by mutation to AXA did not prevent VSV-G recruitment to pre-budding complexes formed in the presence of the activated form of the Sar1 and the Sec23/24 complex, components of the COPII budding machinery. However, the signal was required at a subsequent concentration step preceding vesicle fission. By using green fluorescence protein-tagged VSV-G to image movement in a single cell, we found that VSV-G lacking the DXE code fails to be concentrated into COPII vesicles. As a result, the normal 5-10-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of VSV-G in downstream pre-Golgi intermediates and Golgi compartments was lost. These results demonstrate for the first time that inactivation of the DXE signal uncouples early cargo selection steps from concentration into COPII vesicles. We propose that two sequential steps are required for efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

A Rab2 mutant with impaired GTPase activity stimulates vesicle formation from pre-Golgi intermediates. (8/190)

Rab2 immunolocalizes to pre-Golgi intermediates (vesicular-tubular clusters [VTCs]) that are the first site of segregation of anterograde- and retrograde-transported proteins and a major peripheral site for COPI recruitment. Our previous work showed that Rab2 Q65L (equivalent to Ras Q61L) inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in vivo. In this study, the biochemical properties of Rab2 Q65L were analyzed. The mutant protein binds GDP and GTP and has a low GTP hydrolysis rate that suggests that Rab2 Q65L is predominantly in the GTP-bound-activated form. The purified protein arrests vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport from VTCs in an assay that reconstitutes ER-to-Golgi traffic. A quantitative binding assay was used to measure membrane binding of beta-COP when incubated with the mutant. Unlike Rab2 that stimulates recruitment, Rab2 Q65L showed a dose-dependent decrease in membrane-associated beta-COP when incubated with rapidly sedimenting membranes (ER, pre-Golgi, and Golgi). The mutant protein does not interfere with beta-COP binding but stimulates the release of slowly sedimenting vesicles containing Rab2, beta-COP, and p53/gp58 but lacking anterograde grade-directed cargo. To complement the biochemical results, we observed in a morphological assay that Rab2 Q65L caused vesiculation of VTCs that accumulated at 15 degrees C. These data suggest that the Rab2 protein plays a role in the low-temperature-sensitive step that regulates membrane flow from VTCs to the Golgi complex and back to the ER.  (+info)

Membrane, Proteins, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Reticulum, Secretory Pathway, Yeast, Gtpase, Coated Vesicles, Copi, Copi-coated Vesicles, and Clathrin
La Vita-Prep de Vitamix es un artículo obligado en las ocupadas cocinas por su versatilidad, calidad y constancia. Lea más sobre la Vita-Prep.
Recently, Lanoix et al. 1999 have analyzed the resident protein (glycosyltransferase) content of an uncoated membrane fraction produced from Golgi membranes in vitro (in the presence of GTP) that is thought to be derived from COPI-coated vesicles, and compared this with bona fide COPI-coated vesicles prepared with GTPγS. They report (Table IV in Lanoix et al., 1999) a 9.6-fold higher concentration (protein/phospholipid) of NAGT I and a 4.8-fold higher concentration of Man II, in the uncoated (GTP) vesicles than in the starting Golgi fraction and an exclusion of residents in the GTPγS -prepared coated vesicles. There was no corresponding enrichment in anterograde-directed cargo in the GTP-produced uncoated vesicles (1.7-fold for pIgR) or in bona fide COP I-coated vesicles made with GTPγS (1.2-fold). In contradiction to this, Nickel et al. 1998 analyzed bona fide coated COPI vesicles produced in the presence of GTP versus GTPγS, and report that anterograde-directed cargo is up to 50-fold more ...
Metastases are a major cause of cancer mortality. AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in many tumors, is a potent oncogenic driver of metastatic cell motility and has been identified as broadly relevant in cancer drug resistance. Despite its frequent association with changes in cancer phenotypes, the precise mechanism leading to AXL activation is incompletely understood. In addition to its ligand growth arrest specific-6 (Gas6), activation of AXL requires the lipid moiety phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylserine is only available to mediate AXL activation when it is externalized on cell membranes, an event that occurs during certain physiologic processes such as apoptosis. Here, it is reported that exposure of cancer cells to phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles, including synthetic liposomes and apoptotic bodies, contributes to enhanced migration of tumor cells via a PS-Gas6-AXL signaling axis. These findings suggest that anticancer treatments that induce fractional cell ...
List of causes of Abdomen blister and Vesicles on one eyelid, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
Structural Component Of 3 Distinct Complexes; Subunit Of Nup84 Nuclear Pore Sub-complex (NPC), COPII Vesicle Coat, And Seh1-associated (SEA) Complex; COPII Vesicle Coat Is Required For ER To Golgi Transport; The Nup84 Subcomplex Contributes To Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, NPC Biogenesis And Processes That May Require Localization Of Chromosomes At The Nuclear Periphery, Including Transcription; Homologous To Human SEC13; Abundance Increases Under DNA Replication Stress
Structural component of 3 distinct complexes; subunit of Nup84 nuclear pore sub-complex (NPC), COPII vesicle coat, and Seh1-associated (SEA) complex; COPII vesicle coat is required for ER to Golgi transport; the Nup84 subcomplex contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPC biogenesis and processes that may require localization of chromosomes at the nuclear periphery, including transcription; homologous to human SEC13; abundance increases under DNA replication stress ...
Structural component of 3 distinct complexes; subunit of Nup84 nuclear pore sub-complex (NPC), COPII vesicle coat, and Seh1-associated (SEA) complex; COPII vesicle coat is required for ER to Golgi transport; the Nup84 subcomplex contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPC biogenesis and processes that may require localization of chromosomes at the nuclear periphery, including transcription; homologous to human SEC13; abundance increases under DNA replication stress ...
Component Of The Exomer Complex; Exomer Also Contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, And Bud7p And Is Involved In Export Of Selected Proteins, Such As Chitin Synthase Chs3p, From The Golgi To The Plasma Membrane; Chs5p Is The Only Protein With A BRCT Domain That Is Not Localized To The Nucleus
Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated.
Muresan V, Godek CP, Reese TS, Schnapp BJ. Plus-end motors override minus-end motors during transport of squid axon vesicles on microtubules ...
The apical groove and adjacent rows of amphiesmal vesicles on the epicone. Also called the sulcal furrox or acrobase. This structure plays a central role in food uptake (predatory). The path of ...
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Cellular processesCellular processesSporulation and germinationspore coat assembly protein SafA (TIGR02899; HMM-score: 63.9) ...
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Introdução: Os eventos adversos relacionados à assistência à saúde estão associados ao aumento da morbimortalidade e as IRAS correspondem entre 15% a 25% desses eventos. Há escassez de novos antimicrobianos,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tethering assays for COPI vesicles mediated by golgins. AU - Satoh, Ayano. AU - Malsam, Jörg. AU - Warren, Graham. N1 - Funding Information: We thank all members of the Warren, Mellman, and Toomre laboratories for helpful comments and discussions, and Marino Zerial for generous provision of purified EEA1. This work was supported by the NIH and the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. A.S. was supported by the American Heart Association.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - A method is described that allows the attachment of COPI vesicles and Golgi membranes to glass slides that can then be analyzed using electron microscopy (EM) and immuno-EM methods. Subpopulations of COPI vesicles can be bound selectively using recombinant golgins. Alternatively, COPI vesicles can be attached to prebound Golgi membranes. Marking these vesicles selectively with biotin allows their site of attachment to be identified.. AB - A method is described that allows the attachment of COPI vesicles and Golgi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ADP ribosylation factor 6 regulates neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex through FIP3/arfophilin-1-dependent endosomal trafficking of N-cadherin. AU - Hara, Yoshinobu. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Kanehiro. AU - Kawauchi, Takeshi. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. AU - Sakagami, Hiroyuki. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cellcell and cellextracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 familyinteracting ...
Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High-throughput Analysis of Endocytosis in Budding Yeast, Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Single-molecule Super-resolution Imaging of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane with Novel Fluorescent Probes, Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
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Frigoriferi per installazioni speciali e portatili Refrigerators for special and portable installation MANUALE DI INSTALLAZIONE USO ED ASSISTENZA INSTALLATION USE AND ASSISTANCE MANUAL Leggere attentamente prima delluso Read carefully before use IT 02 EN 16 PT 30 MANUALE DI INSTALLAZIONE USO ED ASSISTENZA IT Frigoriferi per installazioni speciali e portatili Leggere attentamente prima delluso INDICE 1.INTRODUZIONE 2. AVVERTENZE GENERALI 3. INFORMAZIONI GENERALI 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Scopo del manuale Identificazione del costruttore Descrizione del frigorifero per installazioni speciali Descrizione del frigorifero portatile Installazione Pulizia del frigorifero Collegamento elettrico 4. REGOLAZIONE DELLA TEMPERATURA 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. INFORMAZIONI UTILI 6. COSA FARE SE IL FRIGO NON FUNZIONA 7. AVVERTENZE PARTICOLARI 8. ISTRUZIONI DANFOSS BD35/BD50F 12-24 Vcc 9. ISTRUZIONI DANFOSS BD35/BD50F 12-24 Vcc / 110-240 Vca 2 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 7.1 7.2 Termostato Termostato Termostato ...
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La Hipodermia es el uso de una aguja y una jeringa mediante las cuales se pueden introducir sustancias al interior de nuestro cuerpo, como también extraer líquidos para su análisis en laboratorio ...
Microinjection of the slowly hydrolyzable GTP analogue GTP(gamma)S or the ectopic expression of a GTP restricted mutant of the small GTPase arf1 (arf1[Q71L]) leads to the rapid accumulation of COPI coated vesicles and buds in living cells. This effect is blocked at 15 degrees C and by microinjection of antibodies against (beta)-COP. Anterograde and retrograde membrane protein transport markers, which have been previously shown to be incorporated into COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, are depleted from the GTP(gamma)S or arf1[Q71L] induced COPI coated vesicles and buds. In contrast, in control cells 30 to 60% of the COPI carriers co-localize with these markers. These in vivo data corroborate recent in vitro work, suggesting that GTP(gamma)S and arf1[Q71L] interfere with the sorting of membrane proteins into Golgi derived COPI vesicles, and provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of GTP hydrolysis by arf1 in the sorting of cargo into COPI coated vesicles and ...
Pruning, referred to as selective removal of unnecessary neurites without cell death, occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The Drosophila dorsal class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) can serve as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of dendrite pruning. To identify novel molecules orchestrating this developmental degeneration process, I performed an RNAi screen, from which a previously uncharacterized gene named pruning defect 1(prd1) was isolated. It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, AP-2 complex dependent endocytic degradation pathway is also important for dendrite pruning. Interestingly, Prd1 also complexes with a Kinesin-3 family member Immaculate connections (Imac), which plays a critical role in regulating dendrite pruning as well. With the help of Prd1, Imac transports AP-2 enriched Clathrin Coated Vesicles (CCVs) or endocytic vesicles from plasma membrane to early endosomes along ...
A patient suffering with genital herpes had developed multiple vesicles on the glans penis area, he got healed completely with homeopathic medicines prescribed by Dr Shah.
Exit sites (ES) are specialized domains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at which cargo proteins of the secretory pathway are packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. Although the essential COPII proteins (Sar1p, Sec23p-Sec24p, Sec13p-Sec31p) have been characterized in detail and their sequential binding kinetics at ER membranes have been quantified, the basic processes that govern the self-assembly and spatial organization of ERES have remained elusive. Here, we have formulated a generic computational model that describes the process of formation of ERES on a mesoscopic scale. The model predicts that ERES are arranged in a quasi-crystalline pattern, while their size strongly depends on the cargo-modulated kinetics of COPII turnover - that is, a lack of cargo leads to smaller and more mobile ERES. These predictions are in favorable agreement with experimental data obtained by fluorescence microscopy. The model further suggests that cooperative binding of COPII components, for example mediated by regulatory
Transport and Golgi organization protein 1 homolog; Plays a role in the transport of cargos that are too large to fit into COPII-coated vesicles and require specific mechanisms to be incorporated into membrane-bound carriers and exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is required for collagen VII (COL7A1) secretion by loading COL7A1 into transport carriers. It may participate in cargo loading of COL7A1 at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites by binding to COPII coat subunits Sec23/24 and guiding SH3-bound COL7A1 into a growing carrier. Does not play a role in global protein s ...
COPⅠ囊泡:最初研究者利用三磷酸鳥苷(GTP)衍生物GTPγS(一種富含高爾基體膜的細胞質與抗水解的GTP衍生物)共培養時,發現高爾基體池之間存在一種囊泡轉運結構[9](後來在真核細胞中也證實此結構的存在[10])。除了脂質成分外,參與此囊泡形成的成份還有7種外被體蛋白(即外被體α、β、β′、γ、δ、ε、ζ)。這些外被體蛋白相互作用形成的復合物就是COPⅠ囊泡[11][12]。亞單位α、β′、ε在結構上與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的外層組分具有較高的一致性,形成復合物的內層組分稱為B亞復合物(主要負責與靶蛋白結合),而亞單位β、γ、δ、ζ 與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的內層組分相似,形成復合物的內層組分稱為F亞復合物,該亞復合物主要負責與靶蛋白結合,並且直接與COPⅠ囊泡形成的招募者ADP核糖基化因子(英语:ADP ribosylation factor)(ADP ribosylation ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Coated pit: …of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes,…
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Complete information for ARL6IP6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor Like GTPase 6 Interacting Protein 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso: The story goes about our main protagonist called Arima Kousei. He is a very skilled pianist but he does not play the piano an...
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso: The story goes about our main protagonist called Arima Kousei. He is a very skilled pianist but he does not play the piano an...
Au început lucrarile la noul corp de sase etaje al Spitalului Clinic de Copii Victor Gomoiu, primul spital universitar de urgenta pentru copii construit în Bucuresti în ultimii 30 de ani. Demararea lucrarilor a fost marcata, vineri,...
Progynova price progynova a quoi ca sert progynova wirkung progynova kairos progynova online progynova in vitro progynova vaistai progynova adalah
La tricofitosi è una micosi dellinterfaccia, capelli e le unghie che possono essere trattate facilmente facendo uso di antifungoso screma, compresse e sciampo
Coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles are involved in transport processes within the early secretory pathway (Bethune et al., 2006). For their biogenesis, the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) in its GDP-bound form is recruited to the Golgi membrane by dimeric transmembrane proteins of the p24 family (Gommel et al., 2001) or by interaction with membrin (Honda et al., 2005). The membrane-associated Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 catalyzes exchange of the bound GDP to GTP (Zhao et al., 2006). Arf1-GTP dissociates from the p24 proteins and is inserted into the Golgi membrane (Franco et al., 1996; Antonny et al., 1997) as a dimer (Beck et al., 2008) to recruit the heptameric protein complex coatomer (Palmer et al., 1993). Coatomer polymerization leads to the formation of a COPI-coated vesicle (Bremser et al., 1999; Reinhard et al., 1999). Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) catalyze hydrolysis of the GTP bound to Arf1 followed by dissociation of the coat (Tanigawa et al., ...
Protein trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus involves specific uptake into coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles of secretory and of vesicle targeting (v-SNARE) proteins. Here, two ER to Golgi v-SNAREs, Bet1p and Bos1p, were shown to interact specifically with Sar1p, Sec23p, and Sec24p, components of the COPII coat, in a guanine nucleotide-dependent fashion. Other v-SNAREs, Sec22p and Ykt6p, might interact more weakly with the COPII coat or interact indirectly by binding to Bet1p or Bos1p. The data suggest that transmembrane proteins can be taken up into COPII vesicles by direct interactions with the coat proteins and may play a structural role in the assembly of the COPII coat complex. ...
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
p,Coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles mediate retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as transport within the Golgi. Major progress has been made in defining the structure of COPI coats, in vitro and in vivo, at resolutions as high as 9 Å. Nevertheless, important questions remain unanswered, including what specific interactions stabilize COPI coats, how COPI vesicles recognize their target membranes, and how coat disassembly is coordinated with vesicle fusion and cargo delivery. Here, we use X-ray crystallography to identify a conserved site on the COPI subunit α-COP that binds to flexible, acidic sequences containing a single tryptophan residue. One such sequence, found within α-COP itself, mediates α-COP homo-oligomerization. Another such sequence is contained within the lasso of the ER-resident Dsl1 complex, where it helps mediate the tethering of Golgi-derived COPI vesicles at the ER membrane. Together, our findings suggest that α-COP ...
Plant Golgi stacks are mobile organelles that can travel along actin filaments. How COPII (coat complex II) vesicles are transferred from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export sites to the moving Golgi stacks is not understood. We have examined COPII vesicle transfer in high-pressure frozen/freeze-subst …
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Boba Mini a fost creată pentru a purta jucării și păpuși și pentru a împărtăși bucuria babywearing-ului cu copiii din toată lumea. Modelele Boba Mini se potrivesc cu modelele marsupiilor Boba. Se poate folosi de către copii cu vârste mai mari de 3 ani. Pentru copii mai mici, se poate folosi sub supraveghere ...
Peg Perego este un brand care comercializeaza o gama variata de carucioare pentru bebelusi si masini pentru copii. Descopera produsele Peg Perego pentru micutul tau: scaune inalte, carucioare, jucarii de inot si multe altele. Copilul tau merita cea mai buna protectie cu Peg Perego!
La adolescencia es una época difícil. Es importante dejar las expectativas claras sobre el uso de sustancias y ayudarlos a mantenerse seguros.
Acestea sunt insa recomandate doar pentru persoanele care prezinta anumite proteine in celulele canceroase, prin urmare este necesata o biopsie prealabila.
SC DEMOTEKS MEDIKAL SRL este reprezentantul autorizat European al Demoteks Medikal Saglik Insaat Tekstil Ltd Sti din orasul Ankara/Turcia. In colaborare cu producatorii parteneri reusim sa furnizam produse de inalta calitate la preturi de producator pentru dotarea cabinetelor medicale, clinicilor , spitalelor, centrelor de ingrijire persoanelor varstnice sau cu diferite afectiuni.. ...
So I have read many good things about recycle. I have taken Erase and loved it. I was wondering, has anyone taken each product? Have any insight on
A guide to recycling including information on where to recycle, recycling tips, and how to recycle just about anything. Get started recycling today!
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Once the vesicle is coated, it begins to travel to the ER. Before the vesicle can fuse with the ER membrane, the coats ... COP1 coated vesicles also contain p24 proteins that assist with cargo sorting. COP II is a coatomer that coats the vesicles ... This complex polymerizes to form the outer layer of the coat. COP II vesicles must shed their coat before they can fuse with ... Before the COP I protein can coat vesicles on the Golgi membrane, it must interact with a small GTPase called ARF1 (ADP ...
Anderson, RG; Brown, MS; Goldstein, JL (1977). "Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low ... Pearse, BM (1987). "Clathrin and coated vesicles". EMBO J. 6 (9): 2507-2512. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1987.tb02536.x. PMC 553666 ... Clathrin coated pits in the plasma membrane bud a segment of the surface into the cell; this membrane is processed through ...
Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... Pearse, B. M. F.; Bretscher, M. S. (1981). "Membrane Recycling by Coated Vesicles". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 85-101. ... Pearse, B. M. F. (1975). "Coated vesicles from pig brain: Purification and biochemical characterization". Journal of Molecular ... Pearse's main contributions lie in the structure of coated vesicles. ...
Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ... Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 ( ... "A clathrin coat assembly role for the muniscin protein central linker revealed by TALEN-mediated gene editing". eLife. 3. doi: ... is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in ...
Robinow C, Angert ER (1998). "Nucleoids and coated vesicles of Epulopiscium spp". Archives of Microbiology. 170 (4): 227-235. ...
The best characterized type of vesicle is the clathrin coated vesicle (CCV). The formation of a COPII vesicle at the ... but the coat of COPI is not closely related to the coats of either CCVs or COPII vesicles. AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, ... but the ultrastructure of that coat is not known. The coat of AP-4 is unknown. An almost universal feature of coat assembly is ... As illustrated in the accompanying image, the production of a coated vesicle is not instantaneous, and a considerable fraction ...
Coats function to deform the donor membrane to produce a vesicle, and they also function in the selection of the vesicle cargo ... Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated ... Coated vesicles were first purified by Barbara Pearse, who discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1976. Caveolin proteins ... Coat complexes that have been well characterized so far include coat protein-I (COP-I), COP-II, and clathrin. Clathrin coats ...
Goldstein JL, Anderson RG, Brown MS (Jun 1979). "Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis". Nature. 279 ... Anderson RG, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Mar 1977). "Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low ... Mello RJ, Brown MS, Goldstein JL, Anderson RG (Jul 1980). "LDL receptors in coated vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal cortex ... "Immunocytochemical visualization of coated pits and vesicles in human fibroblasts: relation to low density lipoprotein receptor ...
... vesicle coat complex, and the first purified inter-organelle transport vesicles. The Sec proteins are strikingly conserved and ... Schekman, R.; Orci, L. (1996). "Coat Proteins and Vesicle Budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-1533. Bibcode:1996Sci...271.1526S ... Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking. Schekman was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, to ... "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells". Schekman donated his ...
VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin ... the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle ... VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is ... The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and ...
She specifically works with coated vesicles. The best-characterized coated vesicles are the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). ... Her interest was in clathrin-coated vesicles that binds to cargo. She eventually succeeded in purifying components of the coat ... Every form of eukaryotic life on earth contains coated vesicles and adaptors. Her work is also speculated to play a key role in ... Robinson had to stop working on her interest in coated vesicles and work on something closer to what the lab was researching. ...
Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane ... It works with auxilin to remove clathrin from coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is also an important protein involved ... in vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins ...
... I vesicles Clathrin vesicles Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase#ER to Golgi transport Exomer Coat+Protein+Complex+I ... A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly". Science. 349 (6244): 195-198. doi: ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ...
For the membrane coated vesicle used in transport, see here. Fagol Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 16 is an ...
Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to enter cells; they are dependent upon acidification, and ...
... is known to transport Rab3-coated vesicles in the axon. Rab3 functions as a synaptic vesicle protein that controls the ... With KIF1A functioning to transport synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) along neurons, defects in ... Rab GTPases are known to mediate the localization of vesicles from the regulation of GEFs and GAPs that alter its nucleotide ... Further investigations of how the PtdIns(4,5)P2 lipid subdomain facilitates KIF1A vesicle transport led to the idea that this ...
There are three well known types of vesicles. They are clathrin-coated, COPI-coated, and COPII-coated vesicles. Each performs ... clathrin-coated vesicles transport substances between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. COPI- and COPII-coated ... When a vesicle buds off from a membrane it contains specific proteins on its cytosolic surface. Each membrane a vesicle travels ... These vesicles in transit to another part of the cell are called transport vesicles. An alternative mechanism for transport of ...
Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal ... Phonphok Y, Rosenthal KS (April 1991). "Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other ... in four studies It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ...
In non-dividing cells, the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously. Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is ... After a vesicle buds into the cytoplasm, the coat rapidly disassembles, allowing the clathrin to recycle while the vesicle gets ... Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis ... Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for ...
"Intracellular trafficking and secretion of adiponectin is dependent on GGA-coated vesicles". J Biol Chem. 281 (11): 7253-9. doi ... Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network ... 2003). "EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking". J. Cell Biol. 160 (2): 213-22. doi: ...
Korolchuk VI, Banting G (Jun 2002). "CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles". Traffic. 3 (6 ... Umeda A, Meyerholz A, Ungewickell E (May 2000). "Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat ...
Jones, Leandra B.; Kumar, Sanjay; Bell, Courtnee' R.; Peoples, Veolonda A.; Crenshaw, Brennetta J.; Coats, Mamie T.; Scoffield ... In 2019, Scoffield and her team explored how P. aeruginosa infection of microglia impacts extracellular vesicle (EV) biogenesis ... Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Microglial-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Composition. Pathogens. 2019;8(4): ... "Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Microglial-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Composition". Pathogens. 8 (4): ...
In general, reelin binds VLDLR and undergoes endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Meanwhile, an intracellular protein, ... The NPxY motif functions in signal transduction and the targeting of receptors to coated pits and consists of the sequence ... In general, lipoprotein receptors undergo a process by which they are endocytosed with their ligand into clathrin-coated pits. ... Endocytosis is mediated through NPxY sequences known to signal for receptor internalization through clathrin-coated pits. The ...
... which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated ... "Conservation and diversity in families of coated vesicle adaptins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (9): 4814-20. doi: ... Gallusser A, Kirchhausen T (Dec 1993). "The beta 1 and beta 2 subunits of the AP complexes are the clathrin coat assembly ... "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4". Current ...
... unifying principles of vesicle coat assembly". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 7 (10): 727-738. doi:10.1038/nrm2025. ... Budding of these vesicles is essential in the cellular trafficking pathway, through which membrane and luminal cargo proteins ... The repertoire of COP-II paralogs available in mammals could contribute to a wide variety of COP-II coats, thus facilitating ... SEC31A is a component of the COPII protein complex, responsible for vesicle budding from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). It has ...
Clathrin is a major protein component of the cytoplasmic face of intracellular organelles, called coated vesicles and coated ... Hanspal M, Luna E, Branton D (1984). "The association of clathrin fragments with coated vesicle membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 259 ... The basic subunit of the clathrin coat is composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. CLTC has been shown to ... 1998). "Nef-mediated clathrin-coated pit formation". J. Cell Biol. 139 (1): 37-47. doi:10.1083/jcb.139.1.37. PMC 2139808. PMID ...
Both LDL and its receptor form vesicles within a cell via endocytosis. These vesicles then fuse with a lysosome, where the ... Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100, many LDL receptors concentrate in clathrin-coated pits. ...
AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. These vesicles have specific coat proteins ( ... This is an adaptor protein which helps the formation of a clathrin coat around a vesicle. This entry represents a subdomain of ... McMahon HT, Mills IG (August 2004). "COP and clathrin-coated vesicle budding: different pathways, common approaches". Curr. ...
Vesicle coat proteins frequently contain alpha solenoids and share common domain architecture with some NPC proteins. Three ... vesicle coat proteins, and nuclear pore complexes". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 21 (1): 4-13. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2008.12. ... and Clathrin Vesicle Coats". Cell. 142 (1): 123-132. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.030. PMC 2943847. PMID 20579721. Forwood, Jade ... "Components of Coated Vesicles and Nuclear Pore Complexes Share a Common Molecular Architecture". PLOS Biology. 2 (12): e380. ...
1999). "Clathrin-coated vesicles bearing GAIP possess GTPase-activating protein activity in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... 1998). "RGS-GAIP, a GTPase-activating protein for Galphai heterotrimeric G proteins, is located on clathrin-coated vesicles". ... 2000). "Membrane-associated GAIP is a phosphoprotein and can be phosphorylated by clathrin-coated vesicles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
This would reduce the energy needed to curve the membrane into a vesicle, making it easier for the clathrin cage to fix and ... September 2002). "Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin". Nature. 419 (6905): 361-6. doi:10.1038/nature01020. PMID ... This points to a pioneering role for epsin in vesicle budding, as it provides both a driving force and a link between membrane ... September 2002). "Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin". Nature. 419 (6905): 361-6. doi:10.1038/nature01020. PMID ...
... and coated pits pinch off from the surface to form coated endocytic vesicles that carry LDL into the cell. After ... LDL receptors are clustered in clathrin-coated pits, ... important for localizing the receptors to clathrin-coated pits ... are translated by ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum and are modified by the Golgi apparatus before travelling in vesicles ...
Recently, PtdIns(3,4)P2 has been shown to play an important role in vesicle maturation during clathrin-mediated endocytosis ( ... The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP2 regulates endocytic clathrin-coated pit dynamics. J Cell Biol. (2010) 190:307-15. 10.1083/jcb. ... forming vesicles. PI(3,4)P2 plays another possible role at the PM, promoting cytoskeletal rearrangements through actin ... P2 then recruits SNX9 and SNX18 PX-BAR domain proteins which narrow the nascent vesicles neck to eventually be cut and released ...
Endocytosis usually involves clathrin-coated vesicles, though non-clathrin-coated vesicles may also be used. After the ... decreasing synaptic vesicle exocytosis and modulating the mechanisms governing synaptic vesicle recovery and endocytosis. These ... endocytic vesicles lose their clathrin coat, however, they usually do not fuse with larger, low pH endosomes, as they do during ... This release in vesicles, regardless of which pool they are released from, is considered a form of short term synaptic ...
Ligand-coated viruses stimulate type I IFN signaling, activate TAM receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), and suppress type II IFN ... During this procedure, viral transmembrane proteins, also known as "spike" proteins, are integrated into membrane vesicles ...
... although there have been reports of gas vesicles surrounded by a phase separated protein coat in the cytoplasm of some ... solid-state NMR evidence for cross-β assembly of gas vesicles". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (5): 3479-84. doi: ... Wnt signalling effector Dishevelled forms dynamic protein assemblies rather than stable associations with cytoplasmic vesicles ...
Below are just a few: Assay - Coated microspheres provide measuring tool in biology and drug research Buoyancy - Hollow ... In biological systems, a microparticle is synonymous with a microvesicle, a type of extracellular vesicle (EV). Mathematical: ...
Cross-polarised light microscopy has shown the multilamellar vesicles formed by lanolin are identical to those formed by human ... Lanolin's waterproofing property aids sheep in shedding water from their coats. Certain breeds of sheep produce large amounts ... The incorporation of bound water into the stratum corneum involves the formation of multilamellar vesicles. Skin bioengineering ...
We separately encapsulated multiple unlabeled poly-adenosine DNA strands in the t-SNARE vesicle. If the two vesicles, both ~100 ... Even the entry of pathogens can be governed by fusion, as many bilayer-coated viruses have dedicated fusion proteins to gain ... Kinetics of calcium ion induced fusion of phosphatidylserine vesicles followed by a new assay for mixing of aqueous vesicle ... Separate vesicle populations are loaded with ANTS or DPX, respectively. When content mixing happens, ANTS and DPX collide and ...
In both kinds of endocytosis, it has long been known that actin localizes to sites of vesicle invagination and is a vital part ... "Regulation of cortactin/dynamin interaction by actin polymerization during the fission of clathrin-coated pits". J. Cell Sci. ... this suggests that it may play an important part in linking vesicle formation to the as yet unknown functions actin has in ...
COPII is the coat protein complex responsible for vesicle budding from the ER. The role of this gene product is implicated in ... "The transport signal on Sec22 for packaging into COPII-coated vesicles is a conformational epitope". Mol. Cell. 26 (3): 403-14 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SEC24 subfamily of the SEC23/SEC24 family, which is involved in vesicle ... the shaping of the vesicle, and also in cargo selection and concentration. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms ...
"Entrez Gene: PTPRN2 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N polypeptide 2". Caromile LA, Oganesian A, Coats SA, Seifert ... RA, Bowen-Pope DF (April 2010). "The neurosecretory vesicle protein phogrin functions as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase to ...
Kim, M., Nam, S. W., Shin, W., Coats, D. W. and Park, M. G. 2012: Dinophysis caudata (Dinophyceae) sequesters and retains ... The plastids that were ingested are surrounded by membrane vesicles and transferred to the cytoplasm. During plastid ...
"Sugar-coated spleen". Drugs.com. Riva MA, Ferraina F, Paleari A, Lenti MV, Di Sabatino A (2019). "From sadness to stiffness: ... "Rapid neutrophil mobilization by VCAM-1+ endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles , Cardiovascular Research , Oxford ... The spleen may be affected by hyaloserositis, in which it is coated with fibrous hyaline. There has been a long and varied ... The spleen houses antibody-producing lymphocytes in its white pulp and monocytes which remove antibody-coated bacteria and ...
Page LJ, Robinson MS (1995). "Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes". J. Cell Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: AP2S1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit". Pearse BM, Smith CJ, Owen DJ (2000). "Clathrin coat ... 2005). "HIV-1 Tat Enters T Cells Using Coated Pits before Translocating from Acidified Endosomes and Eliciting Biological ...
Orcl L, Palmer DJ, Amherdt M, Rothman JE (1993). "Coated vesicle assembly in the Golgi requires only coatomer and ARF proteins ... 1991). "Beta-COP, a 110 kd protein associated with non-clathrin-coated vesicles and the Golgi complex, shows homology to beta- ... a component of non-clathrin-coated vesicles essential for membrane traffic". J Biol Chem. 269 (48): 30073-6. doi:10.1016/S0021- ... a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles". Nature. 349 (6306): 248-51. ...
... may be involved in the formation of the inner shell of the retromer coat for retrograde vesicles leaving the prevacuolar ... Seaman MN, McCaffery JM, Emr SD (1998). "A Membrane Coat Complex Essential for Endosome-to-Golgi Retrograde Transport in Yeast ...
The fluid coating is produced by the body in order to facilitate the transfer of gases between blood and alveolar air, and the ... The cytoplasm in the thin portion contains pinocytotic vesicles which may play a role in the removal of small particulate ... Without this coating, the alveoli would collapse. The surfactant is continuously released by exocytosis. Reinflation of the ...
In both cases, these types of cargo can be moved across the cell membrane through fusion or budding of vesicles. When a vesicle ... Even the entry of pathogens can be governed by fusion, as many bilayer-coated viruses have dedicated fusion proteins to gain ... Note- the term "liposome" is in essence synonymous with "vesicle" except that vesicle is a general term for the structure ... These loaded vesicles fuse with the cell membrane at the pre-synaptic terminal and their contents are released into the space ...
... or coating, the surface of the pathogen form holes in the plasma membrane of the pathogen, resulting in cytolysis of the ... IFN is secreted through secretory vesicles, where it can activate receptors on both the cell it was released from (autocrine) ...
2007). Two distinct mechanisms of vesicle-to-micelle and micelle-to-vesicle transition are mediated by the packing parameter of ... It is also possible that an outer monolayer of lipid coats the surface of the collection of tubes to protect the hydrophobic ... micelle-to-vesicle_transition_are_mediated_by_the_packing_parameter_of_phospholipid-detergent_systems#pf9 YashRoy R.C. (1994) ... phospholipid-detergent systems, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6124701_Two_distinct_mechanisms_of_vesicle-to-micelle_ ...
Furthermore, the thin coating of dust that covers everything on Mars is the same in all parts of Mars. Spirit pointed its ... They look like volcanic basalt, as they are fine-grained with irregular holes (geologists would say they have vesicles and vugs ... All the rocks contain a fine coating of dust and one or more harder rinds of material. One type can be brushed off, while ... Most rocks contain a coating of dust and one or more harder coatings. Veins of water-deposited minerals are visible, along with ...
It is then stored in clathrin-coated vesicles within the cytosol and ultimately protected from proteolysis. This ensures that ...
It can even be used to coat individual grains of powdered materials, with arbitrarily small size. It can also be used to create ... ISSN 0360-3164 W. T. Ferrar, D. F. O'Brien, A. Warshawsky, and C. L. Voycheck (1988): "Metalization of lipid vesicles via ... In fact, the reaction must be autocatalytic, so that it can continue after the substrate has been coated by the metal. ... A byproduct of the reaction is elemental phosphorus (or boron) which is incorporated in the coating. Tollens' reagent is a ...
September 2006). "Role of the AP2 beta-appendage hub in recruiting partners for clathrin-coated vesicle assembly". PLOS Biol. 4 ...
1993). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coat protein neurotoxicity mediated by nitric oxide in primary cortical cultures". ... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ...
... these coated vesicles were observed sequentially to migrate through the cytoplasm (1 min), to lose their cytoplasmic coat (2 ... Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low density lipoprotein in human fibroblasts Cell. 1977 ... was incorporated into coated endocytic vesicles that were formed by the invagination and pinching-off of the coated membrane ... of the ferritin-labeled LDL that bound to cells at 4 degrees C was localized over short coated segments of the plasma membrane ...
Movement of clathrin coated vesicles into early endosome (Homo sapiens) * MR:soluble antigen [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... FCGR [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * FCGR1A [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo ... FCGR [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * FCGR1A [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo ... FCGR1A [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Bos taurus) FCGR1A [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Canis ...
... coated vesicles. A soluble secretory protein, glycosylated pro-α-factor (gpαf), was enriched ∼20 fold in these vesicles ... mutagenesis of surface residues in coat subunits may be used to create COPII coats that are capable of forming vesicles, but ... Concentrative sorting of secretory cargo proteins into COPII-coated vesicles Per Malkus, Per Malkus ... Per Malkus, Feng Jiang, Randy Schekman; Concentrative sorting of secretory cargo proteins into COPII-coated vesicles . J Cell ...
COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] (Drosophila melanogaster) * Spn77Ba [COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] ( ... COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] (Drosophila melanogaster) * Spn77Ba [COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] ( ... COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] (Drosophila melanogaster) * Spn77Ba [COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] ( ... COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] (Drosophila melanogaster) * Spn77Ba [COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle] ( ...
Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. It ... Coats, Tethers, Rabs, and SNAREs Work Together to Mediate the Intracellular Destination of a Transport Vesicle. / Cai, Huaqing ... Coats, Tethers, Rabs, and SNAREs Work Together to Mediate the Intracellular Destination of a Transport Vesicle. In: ... Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. It ...
Dive into the research topics of Enzymatic recycling of clathrin from coated vesicles. Together they form a unique ...
The role of the 100-kDa polypeptide components of clathrin-coated vesicles in endocytosis was investigated by microinjection of ... 100-kDa polypeptides in peripheral clathrin-coated vesicles are required for receptor-mediated endocytosis. *Chin, Daniel J. ... The role of the 100-kDa polypeptide components of clathrin-coated vesicles in endocytosis was investigated by microinjection of ...
GO:0030126: COPI vesicle coat (Cellular component). One of two multimeric complexes that forms a membrane vesicle coat. The ... Vesicles with COPI coats are found associated with Golgi membranes at steady state. [GOC:mah, PMID:11252894] ...
Characterization of the Coated Vesicle Proton Pump Forgac, Michael D. Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States ... Our previous studies have focused on a structural analysis of the V-ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles and have provided ...
... the knockout of all three mouse endophilins results in the accumulation of clathrin-coated vesicles, but not of clathrin-coated ... Our data support a model in which endophilin recruitment to coated pit necks, because of its curvature-sensing properties, ... primes vesicle buds for subsequent uncoating after membrane fission, without being critically required for the fission reaction ... binds the GTPase dynamin and the phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin and is thought to coordinate constriction of coated ...
Sec12p requires Rer1p for sorting to coatomer (COPI)-coated vesicles and retrieval to the ER Boehm, J., Letourneur, F., ... coated vesicles and retrieval to the ER. Journal of Cell Science, 110, 991-1003. ... coated vesicles and retrieval to the ER ...
... we showed that FLCs are internalized in endothelial and myocardial cell lines and secreted in extracellular vesicles (EVs). MM ... Recently we showed that FLCs are internalized in endothelial and myocardial cell lines and secreted in extracellular vesicles ( ... Exosomes-coated beads were stained on ice for 2 h with PKH26 (Sigma, 1 μl/80 μg of EVs proteins) and with 10 μl of Exo-FITC ... The pelleted serum derived vesicles were observed as single vesicles (Figure 1Ci) or vesicles clusters (Figure 1Cii) as ...
T1 - Purification and characterization of two distinct complexes of assembly polypeptides from calf brain coated vesicles that ... Purification and characterization of two distinct complexes of assembly polypeptides from calf brain coated vesicles that ... title = "Purification and characterization of two distinct complexes of assembly polypeptides from calf brain coated vesicles ... Purification and characterization of two distinct complexes of assembly polypeptides from calf brain coated vesicles that ...
Shedding of ciliary vesicles at a glance. Check out our latest Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster for an ... Clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) form during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) with heterogeneous dynamics, with short-lived CCPs ... Role of PTEN in clathrin-coated pit dynamics Author and article information ... This is a companion to: Loss of PTEN promotes formation of signaling-capable clathrin-coated pits ...
involved_in clathrin-coated vesicle cargo loading, AP-3-mediated IC Inferred by Curator. more info ... located_in clathrin-coated vesicle membrane IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ... The encoded subunit binds clathrin and is phosphorylated by a casein kinase-like protein, which mediates synaptic vesicle coat ... is a heterotrimeric protein complex involved in the formation of clathrin-coated synaptic vesicles. The protein encoded by this ...
Pre-coated microplate (12 x 8 well strips) (10). * Reagents (9). * Microplate (6). ...
COPI-Coated Vesicles use COP-Coated Vesicles. COPII-Coated Vesicles use COP-Coated Vesicles ...
Pearse, B. M. & Crowther, R. A. Structure and assembly of coated vesicles. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 16, 49-68 (1987). ... Ikeda, K. & Bekkers, J. M. Counting the number of releasable synaptic vesicles in a presynaptic terminal. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci ... Jahn, R., Schiebler, W., Ouimet, C. & Greengard, P. A 38,000-dalton membrane protein (p38) present in synaptic vesicles. Proc. ... Blanpied, T. A., Scott, D. B. & Ehlers, M. D. Dynamics and regulation of clathrin coats at specialized endocytic zones of ...
Located in clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle; lysosome; and plasma membrane. Is expressed in embryo; extraembryonic component; ...
Another study used a diffuse GFP reporter to look for clathrin-coated pit (plasma membrane) and intracellular vesicle formation ...
Research Seminar: Coated vesicles (and what happens next…). By sjd3 , 24 October 2018. ... Stacey Lecture Theatre 1 Coated vesicles package … Read more ...
... it is similar to micro-adaptins of clathrin coated vesicle adaptor complexes. ... to a double membrane vesicle called autophagosome. The subsequent fusion of the outer membrane of autophagosome with the ...
Comments: Druse of colorless dodecahedral paulingite-Na crystals coating vesicles in basalt.. Location: Near Ritter, Grant ...
The role of coated vesicles in recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane.. Heuser J., Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 13(12), 1989 PMID: ... Clathrin-coated vesicles in nervous tissue are involved primarily in synaptic vesicle recycling.. Maycox PR, Link E, Reetz A, ... Tandem MS analysis of brain clathrin-coated vesicles reveals their critical involvement in synaptic vesicle recycling.. ... The specificity of vesicle trafficking: coat proteins and SNAREs.. Sanderfoot AA, Raikhel NV., Plant Cell 11(4), 1999 PMID: ...
Data shown were collected from vesicles with a diameter above 6 µm (for smaller vesicles see Supplementary Fig. 12). e, g ... 1 was spin-coated on the conducting surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass slide (Nanion/VisionTek). Chloroform was ... For single vesicle fluorescence reduction traces, vesicles of similar size were kept in focus and images were recorded every 10 ... Preparation of lipid vesicles. GUVs were prepared by electroformation using a Nanion Vesicle Prep Pro setup. 1-palmitoyl-2- ...
The coated vesicles are apparently to protect IgG against lysosomal protein degradation, providing an intact IgG to the fetal ... This selective binding of the maternal IgG is followed by the coating of IgG in vesicles for its transmission across the three ...
These particles are coated with a hydrophilic polymer to decrease non-specific binding and antibody which specifically bind to ... Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by most cell types and contain these marker proteins and microRNAs. MagIso™ uses ...
Receptor-mediated endocytosis by clathrin-coated vesicles: evidence for a dynamic pathway.. Salisbury, J. L., Condeelis, J. S. ... Purification and Characterization of Androgen Receptor from Steer Seminal Vesicle. Chang, C. H., Rowley, D. R., Lobl, T. J. & ...
  • During endocytosis a small area of the plasma membrane folds inward to form an spherical structure, a so-called endocytic vesicle, for transporting nutrients, signals and membrane into the cell. (mpg.de)
  • Making an endocytic vesicle is a delicate artwork and tremendous hard work at the same time, as the plasma membrane does not bend easily. (mpg.de)
  • Recently, we showed that FLCs are internalized in endothelial and myocardial cell lines and secreted in extracellular vesicles (EVs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as pleiotropic actors in intercellular signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Check out our latest Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster for an overview of the mechanism of biogenesis and biological functions of ciliary extracellular vesicles. (biologists.com)
  • Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by most cell types and contain these marker proteins and microRNAs. (selfgrowth.com)
  • For neurotransmitters, solubilization has been proposed to occur after vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane as a consequence of exposure to extracellular medium (for review, see Rahamimoff and Fernandez, 1997 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-coated particles (30 nm - 1,000 nm) released from animal and plant cells. (euramet.org)
  • Although biomarkers for oral cancer have not yet been adopted in clinical practice, many molecular candidates have been investigated for liquid biopsies in oral cancer diagnosis, such as the proteome, metabolome, microRNAome, extracellular vesicles, cell-free DNAs, and circulating tumor cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Three independent markers of bulk flow transport out of the ER indicate that in the absence of an ER export signal, molecules are inefficiently captured into coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • In the absence of Erv29p, a membrane protein that facilitates gpαf transport ( Belden and Barlowe, 2001 ), gpαf is packaged into COPII vesicles as inefficiently as soluble bulk flow markers. (rupress.org)
  • We also found that a plasma membrane protein, the general amino acid permease (Gap1p), is enriched approximately threefold in COPII vesicles relative to membrane phospholipids. (rupress.org)
  • The structure of the COPII transport-vesicle coat assembled on membranes. (mpg.de)
  • The SEC23B gene provides instructions for making one component of a large group of interacting proteins called coat protein complex II (COPII). (medlineplus.gov)
  • COPII is involved in the formation of vesicles, which are small sac-like structures that transport proteins and other materials within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specifically, COPII triggers the formation of vesicles in a cellular structure called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is involved in protein processing and transport. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These COPII vesicles carry proteins that are destined to be exported out of cells (secreted). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fromme JC, Orci L, Schekman R. Coordination of COPII vesicle trafficking by Sec23. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Assembly, organization, and function of the COPII coat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As they do so, their COPII coat is removed and they may fuse together forming larger vesicles. (biology-pages.info)
  • The acidic environment inside secretory vesicles ensures that neuropeptides and peptide hormones are packaged in a concentrated condensed form. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we report that depolarization of the plasma membrane rapidly increases enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged hormone fluorescence inside secretory vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Ca 2+ evokes alkalinization of the inside of secretory vesicles before exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Peptide condensation is promoted by the acidic environment inside secretory vesicles. (jneurosci.org)
  • For example, chromogranin A (CgA) and chromogranin B (CgB), two of the major proteins inside secretory vesicles, aggregate because of pH- and Ca 2+ -dependent conformational changes ( Yoo and Lewis, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Although such a physical state inside secretory vesicles is advantageous for packaging and storage, it may hinder peptides from readily escaping the vesicles during exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, studies in peptidergic systems have revealed that drug-induced alkalinization of secretory vesicles promotes peptide solubilization before exocytosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that a physiological alkalinization of secretory vesicles before exocytosis could promote peptide decondensation and thus alter the kinetics of peptidergic neurotransmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • To date, it has not been possible to monitor whether such an alkalinization occurs specifically in peptidergic secretory vesicles in live cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The fourth type of granules are secretory vesicles, containing albumin and expressing alkaline phosphatase and complement receptor type-1 (CD35) for C3b/C4b-coated particles on their membrane. (medscape.com)
  • Endophilin is a membrane-binding protein with curvature-generating and -sensing properties that participates in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3 complex) is a heterotrimeric protein complex involved in the formation of clathrin-coated synaptic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded subunit binds clathrin and is phosphorylated by a casein kinase-like protein, which mediates synaptic vesicle coat assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Syntaxin 1 and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP-25) are neuronal plasmalemma proteins that appear to be essential for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs). (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • A selective activity-dependent requirement for dynamin 1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dynamin 1 is a neuron-specific guanosine triphosphatase thought to be critically required for the fission reaction of synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Synaptic vesicle endocytosis was severely impaired during strong exogenous stimulation but resumed efficiently when the stimulus was terminated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, dynamin 1-independent mechanisms can support limited synaptic vesicle endocytosis, but dynamin 1 is needed during high levels of neuronal activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A cell membrane is the outer coating of an animal or human cell. (iherb.com)
  • Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vesicles with COPI coats are found associated with Golgi membranes at steady state. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The transition vesicles move toward the cis Golgi on microtubules . (biology-pages.info)
  • These steps take place as shuttle vesicles carry the proteins from cis to medial to the trans Golgi compartments. (biology-pages.info)
  • At the outer face of the trans Golgi, vesicles pinch off and carry their completed products to their various destinations. (biology-pages.info)
  • Recruitment of the Golgi-specific AP-1 adaptor complex onto Golgi membranes is thought to be a prerequisite for clathrin coat assembly on the TGN. (rupress.org)
  • Our results show that the association of the AP-1 complex with Golgi membranes, like the coatomer complex, requires ARF, which accounts for the sensitivity of both to brefeldin A. In addition, they provide the basis for a model for the early biochemical events that lead to clathrin-coated vesicle formation on the TGN. (rupress.org)
  • Because both Arf and PLD1 stimulate vesicle formation in the Golgi, these data raise the possibility that vesicle formation and trafficking may play a role in the transduction of intracellular signals. (embl.de)
  • The binding and assembly of clathrin triskelions on vesicle membranes seem to be mediated by certain assembly polypeptides (Keen, J.H., Willingham, M.C., and Pastau, I.H. (1979) Cell 16, 303-312). (mssm.edu)
  • This binding is thought to be responsible for vesicle docking and apparently precedes membrane fusion, According to the current concept, syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 are members of larger protein families, collectively designated as target-SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs), whose specific localization to subcellular membranes define where transport vesicles bind and fuse, Here we demonstrate that major pools of syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 recycle with SVs. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Membranes are shaped into vesicles by cytoplasmic coats which then dissociate upon GTP hydrolysis. (evanewyork.net)
  • Endophilin also binds the GTPase dynamin and the phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin and is thought to coordinate constriction of coated pits with membrane fission (via dynamin) and subsequent uncoating (via synaptojanin). (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that although synaptojanin is recruited by endophilin at bud necks before fission, the knockout of all three mouse endophilins results in the accumulation of clathrin-coated vesicles, but not of clathrin-coated pits, at synapses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) form during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) with heterogeneous dynamics, with short-lived CCPs thought to arise from a failure to recruit cargo. (biologists.com)
  • CLTB functions as the key structural component of the lattice-type cytoplasmic face of coated pits and vesicles which capture certain macromolecules during receptor-mediated endocytosis. (prospecbio.com)
  • However, during spontaneous network activity, branched, tubular plasma membrane invaginations accumulated, capped by clathrin-coated pits, in synapses of dynamin 1-knockout mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In attempts to attribute pathology of COVID-19 patients directly to tissue damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, investigators have inaccurately reported subcellular structures, including coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and vesiculating rough endoplasmic reticulum, as coronavirus particles. (cdc.gov)
  • 100-kDa polypeptides in peripheral clathrin-coated vesicles are required for receptor-mediated endocytosis. (harvard.edu)
  • The role of the 100-kDa polypeptide components of clathrin-coated vesicles in endocytosis was investigated by microinjection of specific monoclonal antibodies. (harvard.edu)
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis by clathrin-coated vesicles: evidence for a dynamic pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Testosterone promotes the development of the secondary sex characteristics in men and serves to maintain the function of the prostate and seminal vesicles. (cdc.gov)
  • With the electron microscope, we determined that 60-70% of the ferritin-labeled LDL that bound to cells at 4 degrees C was localized over short coated segments of the plasma membrane that accounted for no more than 2% of the total surface area. (nih.gov)
  • The current data indicate that the coated regions of plasma membrane are specialized structures of rapid turnover that function to carry receptor-bound LDL, and perhaps other receptor-bound molecules, into the cell. (nih.gov)
  • (Left) In the traditional view, coat proteins were though to be buried inside the clathrin cage to connect it to the plasma membrane. (mpg.de)
  • The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN , coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS . (bvsalud.org)
  • These particles are coated with a hydrophilic polymer to decrease non-specific binding and antibody which specifically bind to exosomes. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Mucus- penetrating particles are heavily coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), protecting the nanoparticle core from adhesion with mucus 17 . (drugbank.com)
  • However, recent findings have revealed a role for the coat in directing a vesicle to its correct intracellular destination. (elsevier.com)
  • Our previous studies have focused on a structural analysis of the V-ATPase of clathrin-coated vesicles and have provided insight into its intracellular distribution. (grantome.com)
  • Intracellular membrane traffic depends on transport vesicles and tubules, which shuttle proteins and lipids between compartments. (evanewyork.net)
  • Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a cofactor in clathrin-mediated vesicle trafficking. (jci.org)
  • Effect of nanoparticle surface coating on cell toxicity and mitochondria uptake. (cdc.gov)
  • Proteins of the secretory pathway are shuttled between organelles in membrane-bound transport vesicles that are generated by cytoplasmic coat proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Selective inclusion of proteins into these transport vesicles is thought to be the principle mechanism that restricts proteins to individual organelles ( Schekman and Orci, 1996 ). (rupress.org)
  • An alternative model postulates that secretory cargo proteins possess positively acting sorting signals that promote their enrichment in transport vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. (elsevier.com)
  • Last week James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Südhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells. (mskcc.org)
  • You incubate liposomes with a series of purified proteins nomrally found in the coats of cell transport vesicles. (proprofs.com)
  • Activation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by Arf has been implicated in vesicle transport and membrane trafficking. (embl.de)
  • Polyethylene glycol, when free in solution, may also demonstrate attraction to the surfaces of various types of vesicles, cells or macromolecules, leading to polymer adsorption and subsequently either a repulsion or to an attraction, via bridging, of the surfaces or vesicles-again strongly depending on the temperature, molecular weight, and concentration of the polyethylene glycol. (drugbank.com)
  • Both proteins cofractionate with SVs and clathrin-coated vesicles upon subcellular fractionation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • It was once thought that a vesicle must uncoat before it recognizes its target membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • This 20 kDa auxilin construct contains the minimal sequential region required to uncoat clathrin-coated vesicles catalytically. (rcsb.org)
  • With increasing time at 37 degrees C, these coated vesicles were observed sequentially to migrate through the cytoplasm (1 min), to lose their cytoplasmic coat (2 min), and to fuse with either primary or secondary lysosomes (6 min). (nih.gov)
  • These vesicles arise from early endosomes as clathrin coated vesicles and are about 100. (ucsd.edu)
  • A liposome is a spherical vesicle, or bubble, with a phospholipid bilayer, or outer coating with two fat layers. (iherb.com)
  • According to the scientists, this new method involves using spherical vesicles secreted by bacteria coated on gold nanoparticles which can then be delivered to immune cells. (financialexpress.com)
  • These findings show that infection with the SARS-associated coronavirus subsequently were corroborated by immunohistochemical, resulted in distinct ultrastructural features: double-mem- immunofluorescent, and serologic assays, by additional brane vesicles, nucleocapsid inclusions, and large granular culture isolates, and by a variety of molecular approaches, areas of cytoplasm. (cdc.gov)
  • Which of the following are pathways of vesicle trafficking through the cytoplasm that have been discovered? (proprofs.com)
  • Instead, Agarwal's group decided to use Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs). (financialexpress.com)
  • But the OMVs coated on gold nanoparticles (OMV-AuNPs) by the IISc team were found to be uniform in size and stable. (financialexpress.com)
  • Now the team is planning to develop gold-coated OMVs derived directly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and test them on animal models to take the results forward for clinical applications. (financialexpress.com)
  • To overcome this challenge, we propose the use of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) isolated from two ETEC clinical strains. (unav.edu)
  • To study the internalization process, cells were first allowed to bind ferritin-labeled LDL at 4 degrees C and were then warmed to 37 degrees C. Within 10 min, nearly all the surface-bound LDL-ferritin was incorporated into coated endocytic vesicles that were formed by the invagination and pinching-off of the coated membrane regions that contained the receptor-bound LDL. (nih.gov)
  • In yeast, Prk1 and Ark1 phosphorylate factors after vesicle internalization leading to coat disassembly. (duke.edu)
  • after adding one of them to the liposome mixture, budding of vesicles fromt he liposomes began. (proprofs.com)
  • Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all biological fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures. (exosome-rna.com)
  • Furthermore, we identify thorarchaeal proteins with similar features to eukaryotic coat proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Purification and characterization of two distinct complexes of assembly polypeptides from calf brain coated vesicles that differ in their polypeptide composition and kinase activities. (mssm.edu)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Purification and characterization of two distinct complexes of assembly polypeptides from calf brain coated vesicles that differ in their polypeptide composition and kinase activities. (mssm.edu)
  • By using super-resolution imaging and automated tracking of CCPs in breast cancer cell lines, they show that activated EGFR and PTEN are recruited to short-lived CCPs and clathrin-coated structures, indicating that they act as signalling platforms. (biologists.com)
  • Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (such as PEG-400) generally promotes cells or vesicles to adhere (depletion attraction), high molecular weight polyethylene glycol causes them to repel 18 . (drugbank.com)
  • Thus, there are antigen -specific populations of T cells whose ageing fate decisions are based on telomere vesicle transfer upon initial contact with APCs. (hilfenetzwerk-cic.de)
  • Adaptins are components of the adaptor complexes which link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. (fishersci.com)
  • FRET‐based protein proximity mapping revealed the nanoscale organization of the core of the endocytic machinery: Endocytic coat proteins form several functional layers above and below the clathrin meshwork. (mpg.de)
  • For example, vesicle matrix proteins (including CgA and CgB) bind to the vesicle membrane at resting intravesicular pH but become freed from vesicle membrane when intravesicular pH was raised toward physiological pH ( Yoo, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Most importantly we observe the selective accumulation of glutathione coated QDs in vesicles in the mitochondria matrix. (cdc.gov)
  • One of two multimeric complexes that forms a membrane vesicle coat. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Staphylococcus aureus produces membrane-derived vesicles that induce host cell death. (sciendo.com)
  • A soluble secretory protein, glycosylated pro-α-factor (gpαf), was enriched ∼20 fold in these vesicles relative to bulk flow markers. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoisolation of vesicles using synaptophysin and syntaxin specific antibodies revealed that most SVs contain syntaxin 1. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Recruitment of endophilin to clathrin-coated pit necks is required for efficient vesicle uncoating after fission. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our data support a model in which endophilin recruitment to coated pit necks, because of its curvature-sensing properties, primes vesicle buds for subsequent uncoating after membrane fission, without being critically required for the fission reaction itself. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin is a protein that has a key role in the formation of coated vesicles. (prospecbio.com)
  • The serum vesicles from MM patients contained the "proto-oncogene" c-src kinase compared to MGUS and control subjects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each film-coated tablet, for oral administration, contains 300 mg, 400 mg or 800 mg of cimetidine. (nih.gov)
  • Each film-coated tablet contains 60 mg daclatasvir (as dihydrochloride). (who.int)