Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.COP-Coated Vesicles: TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Coatomer Protein: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Adaptor Protein Complex gamma Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Coat Protein Complex I: A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits: A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1: ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.alpha-L-Fucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47HexosephosphatesMannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Auxilins: A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMembrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Adaptor Protein Complex sigma Subunits: A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Etorphine: A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PhosphoproteinsCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Dynamin I: A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.GlucosidesModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Asialoglycoprotein Receptor: A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chorionic Villi: The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Pyridinium CompoundsChromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Synaptotagmins: A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Synapsins: A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.PeroxidasesProtein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Exosomes: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Synaptotagmin I: A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.rab3A GTP-Binding Protein: The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Munc18 Proteins: A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Syntaxin 1: A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins: The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/190)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Sorting of furin at the trans-Golgi network. Interaction of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals with AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly proteins. (2/190)

The eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease furin is found predominantly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and cycles between this compartment, the cell surface, and the endosomes. There is experimental evidence for endocytosis from the plasma membrane and transport from endosomes to the TGN, but direct exit from the TGN to endosomes via clathrin-coated vesicles has only been discussed but not directly shown so far. Here we present data showing that expression of furin promotes the first step of clathrin-coat assembly at the TGN, the recruitment of the Golgi-specific assembly protein AP-1 on Golgi membranes. Further, we report that furin indeed is present in isolated clathrin-coated vesicles. Packaging into clathrin-coated vesicles requires signal components in the furin cytoplasmic domain which can be recognized by AP-1 assembly proteins. We found that besides depending on the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site, interaction of the furin tail with AP-1 and its mu1subunit is mediated by a tyrosine motif and to less extent by a leucine-isoleucine signal, whereas a monophenylalanine motif is only involved in binding to the intact AP-1 complex. This study implies that high affinity interaction of AP-1 or mu1 with the cytoplasmic tail of furin needs a complex interplay of signal components rather than one distinct signal.  (+info)

ADP-ribosylation factor 1 dependent clathrin-coat assembly on synthetic liposomes. (3/190)

The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles on Golgi membranes is initiated by the GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor (ARF), which generates high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the heterotetrameric AP-1 adaptor complex. Once bound, the AP-1 recruits clathrin triskelia, which polymerize to form the coat. We have found that ARF.GTP also recruits AP-1 and clathrin onto protein-free liposomes. The efficiency of this process is modulated by the composition of the liposomes, with phosphatidylserine being the most stimulatory phospholipid. There is also a requirement for cytosolic factor(s) other than ARF. Thin-section electron microscopy shows the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles that resemble those formed in vivo. These results indicate that AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles can form in the absence of integral membrane proteins. Thus, ARF.GTP, appropriate lipids, and cytosolic factor(s) are the minimal components necessary for AP-1 clathrin-coat assembly.  (+info)

Glucose transporter Glut3 is targeted to secretory vesicles in neurons and PC12 cells. (4/190)

In rat brain and cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells, Glut3 is localized at the cell surface and, also, in a distinct population of homogenous synaptic-like vesicles. Glut3-containing vesicles co-purify with "classical" synaptic vesicles, but can be separated from the latter by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Unlike classical synaptic vesicles, Glut3-containing vesicles possess a high level of aminopeptidase activity, which has been identified as aminopeptidase B. This enzyme has recently been shown to be a marker of the secretory pathway in PC12 cells (Balogh, A., Cadel, S., Foulon, T., Picart, R., Der Garabedian, A., Rousselet, A., Tougard, C., and Cohen, P. (1998) J. Cell Sci. 111, 161-169). We, therefore, conclude that Glut3 is targeted to secretory vesicles in both neurons and PC12 cells.  (+info)

Yeast VSM1 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein that may act as a negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. (5/190)

We have screened for proteins that interact with v-SNAREs of the late secretory pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel protein, designated Vsm1, binds tightly to the Snc2 v-SNARE in the two-hybrid system and can be coimmunoprecipitated with Snc1 or Snc2 from solubilized yeast cell extracts. Disruption of the VSM1 gene results in an increase of proteins secreted into the medium but does not affect the processing or secretion of invertase. In contrast, VSM1 overexpression in cells which bear a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sec9 t-SNARE (sec9-4 cells) results in the accumulation of non-invertase-containing low-density secretory vesicles, inhibits cell growth and the secretion of proteins into the medium, and blocks rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by SNC1 overexpression. Yet, VSM1 overexpression does not affect yeast bearing a sec9-7 allele which, in contrast to sec9-4, encodes a t-SNARE protein capable of forming a stable SNARE complex in vitro at restrictive temperatures. On the basis of these results, we propose that Vsm1 is a novel v-SNARE-interacting protein that appears to act as negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. Moreover, this regulation appears specific to one of two parallel exocytic paths which are operant in yeast cells.  (+info)

Recombinant SFD isoforms activate vacuolar proton pumps. (6/190)

The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow.  (+info)

A di-acidic (DXE) code directs concentration of cargo during export from the endoplasmic reticulum. (7/190)

Efficient export of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), a type I transmembrane protein, from the endoplasmic reticulum requires a di-acidic code (DXE) located in the cytosolic carboxyl-terminal tail (Nishimura, N., and Balch, W. E. (1997) Science 277, 556-558). Mutation of the DXE code by mutation to AXA did not prevent VSV-G recruitment to pre-budding complexes formed in the presence of the activated form of the Sar1 and the Sec23/24 complex, components of the COPII budding machinery. However, the signal was required at a subsequent concentration step preceding vesicle fission. By using green fluorescence protein-tagged VSV-G to image movement in a single cell, we found that VSV-G lacking the DXE code fails to be concentrated into COPII vesicles. As a result, the normal 5-10-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of VSV-G in downstream pre-Golgi intermediates and Golgi compartments was lost. These results demonstrate for the first time that inactivation of the DXE signal uncouples early cargo selection steps from concentration into COPII vesicles. We propose that two sequential steps are required for efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

A Rab2 mutant with impaired GTPase activity stimulates vesicle formation from pre-Golgi intermediates. (8/190)

Rab2 immunolocalizes to pre-Golgi intermediates (vesicular-tubular clusters [VTCs]) that are the first site of segregation of anterograde- and retrograde-transported proteins and a major peripheral site for COPI recruitment. Our previous work showed that Rab2 Q65L (equivalent to Ras Q61L) inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in vivo. In this study, the biochemical properties of Rab2 Q65L were analyzed. The mutant protein binds GDP and GTP and has a low GTP hydrolysis rate that suggests that Rab2 Q65L is predominantly in the GTP-bound-activated form. The purified protein arrests vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport from VTCs in an assay that reconstitutes ER-to-Golgi traffic. A quantitative binding assay was used to measure membrane binding of beta-COP when incubated with the mutant. Unlike Rab2 that stimulates recruitment, Rab2 Q65L showed a dose-dependent decrease in membrane-associated beta-COP when incubated with rapidly sedimenting membranes (ER, pre-Golgi, and Golgi). The mutant protein does not interfere with beta-COP binding but stimulates the release of slowly sedimenting vesicles containing Rab2, beta-COP, and p53/gp58 but lacking anterograde grade-directed cargo. To complement the biochemical results, we observed in a morphological assay that Rab2 Q65L caused vesiculation of VTCs that accumulated at 15 degrees C. These data suggest that the Rab2 protein plays a role in the low-temperature-sensitive step that regulates membrane flow from VTCs to the Golgi complex and back to the ER.  (+info)

Membrane, Proteins, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Reticulum, Secretory Pathway, Yeast, Gtpase, Coated Vesicles, Copi, Copi-coated Vesicles, and Clathrin
Metastases are a major cause of cancer mortality. AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in many tumors, is a potent oncogenic driver of metastatic cell motility and has been identified as broadly relevant in cancer drug resistance. Despite its frequent association with changes in cancer phenotypes, the precise mechanism leading to AXL activation is incompletely understood. In addition to its ligand growth arrest specific-6 (Gas6), activation of AXL requires the lipid moiety phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylserine is only available to mediate AXL activation when it is externalized on cell membranes, an event that occurs during certain physiologic processes such as apoptosis. Here, it is reported that exposure of cancer cells to phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles, including synthetic liposomes and apoptotic bodies, contributes to enhanced migration of tumor cells via a PS-Gas6-AXL signaling axis. These findings suggest that anticancer treatments that induce fractional cell ...
List of causes of Abdomen blister and Vesicles on one eyelid, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
Structural Component Of 3 Distinct Complexes; Subunit Of Nup84 Nuclear Pore Sub-complex (NPC), COPII Vesicle Coat, And Seh1-associated (SEA) Complex; COPII Vesicle Coat Is Required For ER To Golgi Transport; The Nup84 Subcomplex Contributes To Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, NPC Biogenesis And Processes That May Require Localization Of Chromosomes At The Nuclear Periphery, Including Transcription; Homologous To Human SEC13; Abundance Increases Under DNA Replication Stress
Component Of The Exomer Complex; Exomer Also Contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, And Bud7p And Is Involved In Export Of Selected Proteins, Such As Chitin Synthase Chs3p, From The Golgi To The Plasma Membrane; Chs5p Is The Only Protein With A BRCT Domain That Is Not Localized To The Nucleus
ISTRUZIONI D USO INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE GEBRAUCHSANWEISUNGEN INSTRUCTIONS D UTILISATION INSTRUCCIONES DE USO OΔΗΓΙΕΣ ΧΡΗΣΗΣ Made in Italy ISTRUZIONI D USO PAG. 2 INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE PAG. 18 GEBRAUCHSANWEISUNGEN
Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated.
The apical groove and adjacent rows of amphiesmal vesicles on the epicone. Also called the sulcal furrox or acrobase. This structure plays a central role in food uptake (predatory). The path of ...
Cellular processesCellular processesSporulation and germinationspore coat assembly protein SafA (TIGR02899; HMM-score: 63.9) ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - ADP ribosylation factor 6 regulates neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex through FIP3/arfophilin-1-dependent endosomal trafficking of N-cadherin. AU - Hara, Yoshinobu. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Kanehiro. AU - Kawauchi, Takeshi. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. AU - Sakagami, Hiroyuki. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cellcell and cellextracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 familyinteracting ...
Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High-throughput Analysis of Endocytosis in Budding Yeast, Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Single-molecule Super-resolution Imaging of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane with Novel Fluorescent Probes, Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
Frigoriferi per installazioni speciali e portatili Refrigerators for special and portable installation MANUALE DI INSTALLAZIONE USO ED ASSISTENZA INSTALLATION USE AND ASSISTANCE MANUAL Leggere attentamente prima delluso Read carefully before use IT 02 EN 16 PT 30 MANUALE DI INSTALLAZIONE USO ED ASSISTENZA IT Frigoriferi per installazioni speciali e portatili Leggere attentamente prima delluso INDICE 1.INTRODUZIONE 2. AVVERTENZE GENERALI 3. INFORMAZIONI GENERALI 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Scopo del manuale Identificazione del costruttore Descrizione del frigorifero per installazioni speciali Descrizione del frigorifero portatile Installazione Pulizia del frigorifero Collegamento elettrico 4. REGOLAZIONE DELLA TEMPERATURA 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. INFORMAZIONI UTILI 6. COSA FARE SE IL FRIGO NON FUNZIONA 7. AVVERTENZE PARTICOLARI 8. ISTRUZIONI DANFOSS BD35/BD50F 12-24 Vcc 9. ISTRUZIONI DANFOSS BD35/BD50F 12-24 Vcc / 110-240 Vca 2 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 7.1 7.2 Termostato Termostato Termostato ...
La Hipodermia es el uso de una aguja y una jeringa mediante las cuales se pueden introducir sustancias al interior de nuestro cuerpo, como también extraer líquidos para su análisis en laboratorio ...
Microinjection of the slowly hydrolyzable GTP analogue GTP(gamma)S or the ectopic expression of a GTP restricted mutant of the small GTPase arf1 (arf1[Q71L]) leads to the rapid accumulation of COPI coated vesicles and buds in living cells. This effect is blocked at 15 degrees C and by microinjection of antibodies against (beta)-COP. Anterograde and retrograde membrane protein transport markers, which have been previously shown to be incorporated into COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, are depleted from the GTP(gamma)S or arf1[Q71L] induced COPI coated vesicles and buds. In contrast, in control cells 30 to 60% of the COPI carriers co-localize with these markers. These in vivo data corroborate recent in vitro work, suggesting that GTP(gamma)S and arf1[Q71L] interfere with the sorting of membrane proteins into Golgi derived COPI vesicles, and provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of GTP hydrolysis by arf1 in the sorting of cargo into COPI coated vesicles and ...
Pruning, referred to as selective removal of unnecessary neurites without cell death, occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The Drosophila dorsal class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) can serve as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of dendrite pruning. To identify novel molecules orchestrating this developmental degeneration process, I performed an RNAi screen, from which a previously uncharacterized gene named pruning defect 1(prd1) was isolated. It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, AP-2 complex dependent endocytic degradation pathway is also important for dendrite pruning. Interestingly, Prd1 also complexes with a Kinesin-3 family member Immaculate connections (Imac), which plays a critical role in regulating dendrite pruning as well. With the help of Prd1, Imac transports AP-2 enriched Clathrin Coated Vesicles (CCVs) or endocytic vesicles from plasma membrane to early endosomes along ...
A patient suffering with genital herpes had developed multiple vesicles on the glans penis area, he got healed completely with homeopathic medicines prescribed by Dr Shah.
Exit sites (ES) are specialized domains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at which cargo proteins of the secretory pathway are packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. Although the essential COPII proteins (Sar1p, Sec23p-Sec24p, Sec13p-Sec31p) have been characterized in detail and their sequential binding kinetics at ER membranes have been quantified, the basic processes that govern the self-assembly and spatial organization of ERES have remained elusive. Here, we have formulated a generic computational model that describes the process of formation of ERES on a mesoscopic scale. The model predicts that ERES are arranged in a quasi-crystalline pattern, while their size strongly depends on the cargo-modulated kinetics of COPII turnover - that is, a lack of cargo leads to smaller and more mobile ERES. These predictions are in favorable agreement with experimental data obtained by fluorescence microscopy. The model further suggests that cooperative binding of COPII components, for example mediated by regulatory
COPⅠ囊泡:最初研究者利用三磷酸鳥苷(GTP)衍生物GTPγS(一種富含高爾基體膜的細胞質與抗水解的GTP衍生物)共培養時,發現高爾基體池之間存在一種囊泡轉運結構[9](後來在真核細胞中也證實此結構的存在[10])。除了脂質成分外,參與此囊泡形成的成份還有7種外被體蛋白(即外被體α、β、β′、γ、δ、ε、ζ)。這些外被體蛋白相互作用形成的復合物就是COPⅠ囊泡[11][12]。亞單位α、β′、ε在結構上與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的外層組分具有較高的一致性,形成復合物的內層組分稱為B亞復合物(主要負責與靶蛋白結合),而亞單位β、γ、δ、ζ 與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的內層組分相似,形成復合物的內層組分稱為F亞復合物,該亞復合物主要負責與靶蛋白結合,並且直接與COPⅠ囊泡形成的招募者ADP核糖基化因子(英语:ADP ribosylation factor)(ADP ribosylation ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Coated pit: …of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes,…
Complete information for ARL6IP6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor Like GTPase 6 Interacting Protein 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso: The story goes about our main protagonist called Arima Kousei. He is a very skilled pianist but he does not play the piano an...
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso: The story goes about our main protagonist called Arima Kousei. He is a very skilled pianist but he does not play the piano an...
DIRECTIONS FOR USE ENGLISH INSTRUCCIONES DE USO ESPAÑOL MODE D EMPLOI FRANÇAIS TABLE OF CONTENTS English Español Français Caution: For dental use
Au început lucrarile la noul corp de sase etaje al Spitalului Clinic de Copii Victor Gomoiu, primul spital universitar de urgenta pentru copii construit în Bucuresti în ultimii 30 de ani. Demararea lucrarilor a fost marcata, vineri,...
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Coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles are involved in transport processes within the early secretory pathway (Bethune et al., 2006). For their biogenesis, the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) in its GDP-bound form is recruited to the Golgi membrane by dimeric transmembrane proteins of the p24 family (Gommel et al., 2001) or by interaction with membrin (Honda et al., 2005). The membrane-associated Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 catalyzes exchange of the bound GDP to GTP (Zhao et al., 2006). Arf1-GTP dissociates from the p24 proteins and is inserted into the Golgi membrane (Franco et al., 1996; Antonny et al., 1997) as a dimer (Beck et al., 2008) to recruit the heptameric protein complex coatomer (Palmer et al., 1993). Coatomer polymerization leads to the formation of a COPI-coated vesicle (Bremser et al., 1999; Reinhard et al., 1999). Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) catalyze hydrolysis of the GTP bound to Arf1 followed by dissociation of the coat (Tanigawa et al., ...
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
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La adolescencia es una época difícil. Es importante dejar las expectativas claras sobre el uso de sustancias y ayudarlos a mantenerse seguros.
Acestea sunt insa recomandate doar pentru persoanele care prezinta anumite proteine in celulele canceroase, prin urmare este necesata o biopsie prealabila.
So I have read many good things about recycle. I have taken Erase and loved it. I was wondering, has anyone taken each product? Have any insight on
Coatomer coated (COPI) vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. Our focus is on betaCOP, one of the most well known components of the COPI multi-protein complex. Amino acid differences in be
Sec24-like transport protein; Component of the COPII coat, that covers ER-derived vesicles involved in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. COPII is composed of at least five proteins- the SEC23/24 complex, the SEC13/31 complex, and the protein SAR1. Acts in the cytoplasm to promote the transport of secretory, plasma membrane, and vacuolar proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex (By similarity) (1038 aa ...
Complete information for ARF6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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O projeto de novos materiais para aplicações tecnológicas em biomateriais e bioengenharia é altamente dependente de como as células aderem à superfície de um material. A adesão e crescimento em biomateriais...
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Plays a role in the transport of cargos that are too large to fit into COPII-coated vesicles and require specific mechanisms to be incorporated into membrane-bound carriers and exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is required for collagen VII (COL7A1) secretion by loading COL7A1 into transport carriers. It may participate in cargo loading of COL7A1 at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites by binding to COPII coat subunits Sec23/24 and guiding SH3-bound COL7A1 into a growing carrier. Does not play a role in global protein secretion and is apparently specific to COL7A1 cargo loading. However, it may participate in secretion of other proteins in cells that do not secrete COL7A1. It is also specifically required for the secretion of lipoproteins by participating in their export from the endoplasmic reticulum (PubMed:27138255 ...
A- A-Beta incubated with TTR (A-Beta+TTR) shows a weaker A-Beta monomer band as compared to A-Beta alone (A-Beta), indicative of proteolysis, as analyzed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis followed by western blot. Pre-incubation of TTR with pefabloc (A-Beta+(TTR+pefabloc)) and with an αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) inhibits TTR proteolytic activity, whereas the αAPP peptide without the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) facilitates proteolysis. B- % of inhibition of TTR proteolysis by quantification of band intensity in A. C- Ultrastructural analysis by TEM of preparations incubated for 15 hours, as described in Materials and Methods. TTR inhibited A-Beta aggregation as compared with A-Beta incubated alone (upper panels). Pre-incubation of TTR with αAPP peptide containing the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI+−APP)) abrogated TTR ability to avoid A-Beta aggregation, whereas αAPP lacking the KPI domain (A-Beta+(TTR+KPI−−APP)) did not affected TTR activity ...
Vesicular motility is regulated by kinesin and myosin motors attached to the surface of the ER vesicle. This series of movies shows the motion of vesicles on microtubules (slow) and on actin (fast). The movies above are compressed in a variety of formats to retain as much information as possible. Some versions are annotated and others are silent but contain additional animation footage ...
Hi wana JF mimi ni mvulana nina vichunusi lakini sio sana hali iliyopelekea nipate madoa meusi na uso wangu kupoteza hali ya usoft.Nataka niwe soft...
... . La primera comunidad veterinaria de habla hispana con presencia en Espa a y Am rica del Sur.
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... s may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. In addition to its ... Little is known about the role plant Epsin plays in clathrin coated vesicle formation. ... membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin-coated vesicles. ... Epsins contribute to membrane deformations like endocytosis, and block vesicle formation during mitosis.[1] ...
Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(75)80024-6. Pearse, B. M. F.; Bretscher, M. S. (1981). "Membrane Recycling by Coated Vesicles". Annual ... Pearse, B. M. F. (1975). "Coated vesicles from pig brain: Purification and biochemical characterization". Journal of Molecular ... subscription required) Pearse, B. M. (1987). "Clathrin and coated vesicles". The EMBO Journal. 6 (9): 2507-12. PMC 553666 . ...
There are three well known types of vesicles. They are clathrin-coated, COPI-coated, and COPII-coated vesicles. Each performs ... Vesicles[edit]. Main article: Vesicle (biology). Vesicles are small membrane-enclosed transport units that can transfer ... clathrin-coated vesicles transport substances between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. COPI- and COPII-coated ... These vesicles in transit to another part of the cell are called transport vesicles.[23][26] An alternative mechanism for ...
In non-dividing cells, the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously. Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is ... After a vesicle buds into the cytoplasm, the coat rapidly disassembles, allowing the clathrin to recycle while the vesicle gets ... Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles. Clathrin was first isolated and named by ... Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for ...
The best characterized type of vesicle is the clathrin coated vesicle (CCV). The formation of a COPII vesicle at the ... but the coat of COPI is not closely related to the coats of either CCVs or COPII vesicles. AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, ... but the ultrastructure of that coat is not known. The coat of AP-4 is unknown. An almost universal feature of coat assembly is ... As illustrated in the accompanying image, the production of a coated vesicle is not instantaneous, and a considerable fraction ...
Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ... Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 ( ... "A clathrin coat assembly role for the muniscin protein central linker revealed by TALEN-mediated gene editing". eLife. 3. doi: ... is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in ...
Robinow C, Angert ER (1998). "Nucleoids and coated vesicles of Epulopiscium spp". Archives of Microbiology. 170 (4): 227-235. ... These structures form a cortex within Epulopiscium that are made of vesicles, capsules, and tubules that excrete and transport ...
These contents digest the jelly coat and eventually the vitelline membrane. In addition to the release of acrosomal vesicles, ... The acrosomal vesicles of the sperm fuse with the plasma membrane and are released. In this process, molecules bound to the ... Resact is a 14 amino acid peptide purified from the jelly coat of A. punctulata that attracts the migration of sperm. ... After finding the egg, the sperm penetrates the jelly coat through a process called sperm activation. In another ligand/ ...
... vesicles that have a morphologically characteristic coat made up of the cytosolic protein clathrin. Clathrin-coated vesicles ( ... Coats function to deform the donor membrane to produce a vesicle, and they also function in the selection of the vesicle cargo ... Coated vesicles were first purified by Barbara Pearse, who discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1976. Active transport ... Coat complexes that have been well characterized so far include coat protein-I (COP-I), COP-II, and clathrin. Clathrin coats ...
Goldstein JL, Anderson RG, Brown MS (Jun 1979). "Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis". Nature. 279 ... Anderson RG, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Mar 1977). "Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low ... Mello RJ, Brown MS, Goldstein JL, Anderson RG (Jul 1980). "LDL receptors in coated vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal cortex ... "Immunocytochemical visualization of coated pits and vesicles in human fibroblasts: relation to low density lipoprotein receptor ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. • protein complex. • apical part of cell. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • ruffle. • ... endocytic vesicle. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • actin filament. • macromolecular complex. • clathrin-coated vesicle. • filopodium. ... "Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. 20 (14 ... clathrin-coated pit. • filamentous actin. • plasma membrane. • nuclear membrane. • cytoplasm. • cell cortex. • microvillu. • ...
... which govern the intracellular trafficking of proteins in coat protein (COP)-coated vesicles. Mutations in the SAR1B gene are ... Schekman R, Orci L (March 1996). "Coat proteins and vesicle budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-33. doi:10.1126/science. ... "Mutations in a Sar1 GTPase of COPII vesicles are associated with lipid absorption disorders". Nature Genetics. 34 (1): 29-31. ... "Mutations in a Sar1 GTPase of COPII vesicles are associated with lipid absorption disorders". Nature Genetics. 34 (1): 29-31. ...
... vesicle coat complex, and the first purified inter-organelle transport vesicles. The Sec proteins are strikingly conserved and ... Schekman, R.; Orci, L. (1996). "Coat Proteins and Vesicle Budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-1533. doi:10.1126/science. ... Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking. Schekman was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, to ... "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells". Schekman "has already ...
... of SNARE proteins in the Golgi which would otherwise be bound to coat protein-coated vesicles and removed with the vesicles ... Coat protein recruitment is necessary for proper vesicle formation and transport. Brefeldin A reversibly inhibits the function ... Activated Arf1p then recruits coat protein β-COP, a subunit of the COP-I complex, to cargo-bound receptors on the membrane.[9] ... Brefeldin A inhibits vesicle formation and transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus which ultimately ...
Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane ... It works with auxilin to remove clathrin coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is also an important protein involved in ... vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins ...
VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin ... the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle ... VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is ... The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and ...
"In vitro binding of the asialoglycoprotein receptor to the beta adaptin of plasma membrane coated vesicles". The EMBO Journal. ...
運輸囊泡(Transport vesicles)在真核生物中,通過在不同細胞器及細胞表面進行轉運發揮它的作用。目前已知的運輸囊泡有網格蛋白囊泡、外被體蛋白(英语:Coat protein)Ⅰ(coat protein、COPI(英语:COPI)囊泡)和 ... Synaptic vesicle)(Synaptic vesicle)及基質小泡(matrix vesicle)等,可以由複雜的真核生物,包括革蘭氏陰性菌和革蘭氏陽性菌、分枝
Transport of vesicles within the cell. (GTPases control assembly of vesicle coats.) The hydrolysis of the γ phosphate of GTP ...
She specifically works with coated vesicles. The best-characterized coated vesicles are the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). ... Her interest was in clathrin-coated vesicles that binds to cargo. She eventually succeeded in purifying components of the coat ... Every form of eukaryotic life on earth contains coated vesicles and adaptors. Her work is also speculated to play a key role in ... Robinson had to stop working on her interest in coated vesicles and work on something closer to what the lab was researching. ...
... I vesicles Clathrin vesicles Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase#ER to Golgi transport Exomer Coat Protein Complex I ... A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly". Science. 349 (6244): 195-198. doi: ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ...
For the membrane coated vesicle used in transport, see here. Fagol Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 16 is an ...
11] Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Nature. 1979 Jun 21; 279 (5715) :679-85 ... 7] Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low density lipoprotein in human fibroblasts. Cell. ... 12] LDL receptors in coated vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal cortex: binding sites unmasked by detergent treatment. Cell. ... 10] Immunocytochemical visualization of coated pits and vesicles in human fibroblasts: relation to low density lipoprotein ...
Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to enter cells; they are dependent upon acidification, and ...
Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal ... Phonphok Y, Rosenthal KS (April 1991). "Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other ... in four studies It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • early endosome membrane. • membrane. • bicellular tight ...
COPII-coated vesicle budding Source: MGI. *endoplasmic reticulum organization Source: MGI. *endoplasmic reticulum unfolded ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein BAdd BLAST. 242. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,Q9QY76,VAPB_MOUSE Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B OS=Mus musculus GN=Vapb PE=1 SV=3 ...
COPI-coated vesicles were purified via sucrose density centrifugation. 50% of the vesicle fractions (V) and 0.5% of input (I) ... The formation of coat protein complex I (COPI)-coated vesicles is regulated by the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) ... We found that all three ArfGAPs behave similarly with regard to the yield of COPI-coated vesicles. For a reduction of vesicle ... To test the effect of ArfGAPs on COPI-coated vesicle formation, we performed COPI vesicle-budding assays using Golgi membranes ...
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi ... Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and ... membrane reveal a striking polyhedral pattern reminiscent of a fullerene which arises from the outermost protein in the coat, ...
... also form coated buds and vesicles from the nuclear envelope. Formation of COPI-coated, but not COPII-coated, buds and vesicles ... COPI- and COPII-coated vesicles bud directly from the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast.. Bednarek SY1, Ravazzola M, Hosobuchi M, ... and the small GTP-binding protein Sar1p generate protein transport vesicles by forming the membrane coat termed COPII. We ... However, both vesicle types are devoid of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins, and each contains targeting proteins ...
Dyrk1A binds to multiple endocytic proteins required for formation of clathrin-coated vesicles.. Murakami N1, Bolton D, Hwang ... We then tested whether the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-associated proteins could be phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. Multiple ... Our findings suggest a role for Dyrk1A in controlling synaptic vesicle recycling processes. ...
Clathrin-coated vesicles were the first discovered and remain the most extensively characterized transport vesicles. They ... Cell-free assays for coat assembly, membrane binding, and coated vesicle budding have provided detailed functional and ... Coat constituents not only serve to shape the budding vesicle, but also play a direct role in the packaging of cargo, ... Clathrin-coated vesicle formation and protein sorting: an integrated process.. Schmid SL1. ...
... coated vesicles include Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, Nitrogen Cavitation and ... Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (Coated pits, Cell-membrane) invaginate and pinch off. The ... outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as Clathrin, coat protein ... Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons. Seth Villarreal1, Sung Hoon Lee1,2, Ling-Gang Wu1 ...
Distinct coat proteins mediate each budding event, serving both to shape the transport vesicle and to select by direct or ... The trafficking of proteins within eukaryotic cells is achieved by the capture of cargo and targeting molecules into vesicles ...
... into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies, Techniques for the Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles ... Monitoring the Effect of Osmotic Stress on Secretory Vesicles and Exocytosis, Phase Behavior of Charged Vesicles Under ... Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to ... Preparation of Giant Vesicles Encapsulating Microspheres by Centrifugation of a Water-in-oil Emulsion, Characterizing the ...
In the final coated vesicle, most appendage binding partners are absent and thus the functional status of the appendage domain ... Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis.. Praefcke GJ1, Ford MG, Schmid EM, ... Amphiphysins are also found here and recruit dynamin to the edges of coated pits in preparation for the vesicle scission ... Evolving nature of the AP2 α-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis ...
Thus, tapetosomes are composed of oleosin-coated oil droplets and vesicles, both of which are assembled in and then detached ... Lipid-rich tapetosomes in Brassica tapetum are composed of oleosin-coated oil droplets and vesicles, both assembled in and then ... the amphipathic protein oleosins and putative vesicles and play a predominant role in pollen-coat formation. Here we report the ... and relatively high-density cisternae-like vesicles, which possessed calreticulin and BiP. ...
... vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. Our focus is on betaCOP, ... Coatomer coated (COPI) vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. Our ...
COPII: a membrane coat formed by Sec proteins that drive vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum.. Barlowe C1, Orci L, ... However, GMP-PNP vesicles fail to target and fuse with the Golgi complex whereas GTP vesicles are functional. All the cytosolic ... proteins required for vesicle formation are retained on GMP-PNP vesicles, while Sar1p dissociates from GTP vesicles. Thin ... microscopy of purified preparations reveals a uniform population of 60-65 nm vesicles with a 10 nm thick electron dense coat. ...
AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ...
Here, we investigated the transfer process of water-in-oil (W/O) droplets coat 2013 Hot Papers ... the transfer method has been shown to be useful for preparing cell-sized phospholipid bilayer vesicles, within which desired ... bilayer vesicles from lipid. -coated droplets across a planar monolayer at an oil/water interface H. Ito, T. Yamanaka, S. Kato ... bilayer vesicles from lipid. -coated droplets across a planar monolayer at an oil/water interface ...
In untreated HSY cells, there was only a slight co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles. When HSY cells were ... Therefore, in HSY cells PLD appears to be involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles as well as in ... Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the number of Golgi-associated coated vesicles was greater. Treatment with 1- ... especially in the juxtanuclear region and the co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles was augmented. ...
Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF ... Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles.. G Tanigawa, L Orci, M Amherdt ... Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles. ... helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. ...
AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Rattus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Sus scrofa) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Xenopus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Canis familiaris) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio ... clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 Complex [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
Vesicle-mediated transport (Rattus norvegicus) * * Membrane Trafficking (Rattus norvegicus) * Clathrin-mediated endocytosis ( ...
Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Bos taurus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Canis familiaris) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Gallus gallus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Sus scrofa) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ...
AP2A1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP2A2(1-939) [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] ( ... clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 Complex [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ... AP2A1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Caenorhabditis elegans) AP2A1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) AP-2 complex large subunits [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
Coat Protein Golgi Complex Coated Vesicle Vesicular Structure Membrane Traffic These keywords were added by machine and not by ... β-COP, a Coat Protein of Nonclathrin-Coated Vesicles of the Golgi Complex, is Involved in Transport of Vesicular Stomatitis ... 1993) β-COP, a Coat Protein of Nonclathrin-Coated Vesicles of the Golgi Complex, is Involved in Transport of Vesicular ... is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein. Cell 67: 239-253PubMed ...
Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ... Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ... Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ... Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ...
Bcr (breakpoint cluster region) protein binds to PDZ-domains of scaffold protein PDZK1 and vesicle coat protein Mint3 ... Bcr (breakpoint cluster region) protein binds to PDZ-domains of scaffold protein PDZK1 and vesicle coat protein Mint3 ... Bcr (breakpoint cluster region) protein binds to PDZ-domains of scaffold protein PDZK1 and vesicle coat protein Mint3 ... Bcr (breakpoint cluster region) protein binds to PDZ-domains of scaffold protein PDZK1 and vesicle coat protein Mint3 ...
Ii clathrin coated vesicle (Danio rerio) * Clathrin coated MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [clathrin-coated endocytic ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * mhc2dab [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * mhc2dab [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) ... clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * MHC class II alpha/beta dimer [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
  • A recent study suggested that calcyon-containing vesicles might transport D1DR by associating calcyon with D1DR through their assembly to clathrin [ PMID: 16595675 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It is exclusively expressed in neurons, and localized in moving vesicles and it thought to play a role in brain plasticity [ PMID: 17885599 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Consideration of the surface structure in the light of current understanding of the cell membrane as a dynamic system leads to a possible explanation of the process of vesicle formation in this context and of the selective nature of uptake by micropinocytosis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • 2008), initiates a signalling process that not only induces proliferation, differentiation and functional activation of hematopoietic cells but can also determine surfactant uptake into alveolar macrophages and its degradation via clathrin-coated vesicles. (reactome.org)
  • At a much higher concentration (100 μM), IKA also significantly reduces the internalization of styryl dyes, indicating uptake via clathrin-coated vesicles (CV). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Describe the release and uptake mechanisms of extracellular vesicles All lectures are given in English. (coursera.org)
  • And I'm going to talk about the mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake. (coursera.org)
  • Virus-containing vesicles recruit components of the actin machinery for their interaction, thus inducing its own uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • If stimulation is occurring at a high enough frequency and with enough strength, neurotransmitters will be released at a faster rate than re-uptake can recycle them which will ultimately deplete them until there are no longer readily releasable vesicles and a signal can no longer be transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF hydrolyzes GTP, allowing the uncoated vesicle to fuse. (rupress.org)
  • Schekman shared the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with James Rothman and Thomas C. Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process constitutes an effective cell-cell signaling mechanism via membrane vesicle trafficking from secretory cell to the target cells in human or animal body. (wikipedia.org)
  • We visualized the insulin binding structure of coated vesicles by cross-linking 125I-insulin to detergent-solubilized coated vesicles using the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate followed by electrophoresis and autoradiography. (rupress.org)
  • Pearse's main contributions lie in the structure of coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have a characteristic tubulo-vesicular structure (vesicles up to 1 µm in diameter with connected tubules of approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings suggest that evoked synchronous and asynchronous release originate from the same vesicle pool that recycles rapidly in a dynamin-dependent manner, whereas a distinct vesicle pool sustains spontaneous release independent of dynamin activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • As a vesicle invaginates, dynamin polymerizes into a helical tube around the neck of the vesicle. (wikipedia.org)