Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A family of medium adaptin protein subunits of approximately 45 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 and ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 4.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A family of small adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 19 KDa in size.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

Phosphorylation of the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex does not influence its interaction with the tyrosine based internalisation motif of TGN38. (1/190)

Tyrosine based motifs conforming to the consensus YXXphi (where phi represents a bulky hydrophobic residue) have been shown to interact with the medium chain subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes. These medium chains are targets for phosphorylation by a kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles. We have used the clathrin coated vesicle associated kinase activity to specifically phosphorylate a soluble recombinant fusion protein of mu2, the medium chain subunit of the plasma membrane associated adaptor protein complex AP-2. We have tested whether this phosphorylation has any effect on the interaction of mu2 with the tyrosine based motif containing protein, TGN38, that has previously been shown to interact with mu2. Phosphorylation of mu2 was shown to have no significant effect on the in vitro interaction of mu2 with the cytosolic domain of TGN38, indicating that reversible phosphorylation of mu2 does not play a role in regulating its direct interaction with tyrosine based internalisation motifs. In addition, although a casein kinase II-like activity has been shown to be associated with clathrin coated vesicles, we show that mu2 is not phosphorylated by casein kinase II implying that another kinase activity is present in clathrin coated vesicles. Furthermore the kinase activity associated with clathrin coated vesicles was shown to be capable of phosphorylating dynamin 1. Phosphorylation of dynamin 1 has previously been shown to regulate its interaction with other proteins involved in clathrin mediated endocytosis.  (+info)

Sorting of furin at the trans-Golgi network. Interaction of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals with AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly proteins. (2/190)

The eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease furin is found predominantly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and cycles between this compartment, the cell surface, and the endosomes. There is experimental evidence for endocytosis from the plasma membrane and transport from endosomes to the TGN, but direct exit from the TGN to endosomes via clathrin-coated vesicles has only been discussed but not directly shown so far. Here we present data showing that expression of furin promotes the first step of clathrin-coat assembly at the TGN, the recruitment of the Golgi-specific assembly protein AP-1 on Golgi membranes. Further, we report that furin indeed is present in isolated clathrin-coated vesicles. Packaging into clathrin-coated vesicles requires signal components in the furin cytoplasmic domain which can be recognized by AP-1 assembly proteins. We found that besides depending on the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site, interaction of the furin tail with AP-1 and its mu1subunit is mediated by a tyrosine motif and to less extent by a leucine-isoleucine signal, whereas a monophenylalanine motif is only involved in binding to the intact AP-1 complex. This study implies that high affinity interaction of AP-1 or mu1 with the cytoplasmic tail of furin needs a complex interplay of signal components rather than one distinct signal.  (+info)

ADP-ribosylation factor 1 dependent clathrin-coat assembly on synthetic liposomes. (3/190)

The assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles on Golgi membranes is initiated by the GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor (ARF), which generates high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the heterotetrameric AP-1 adaptor complex. Once bound, the AP-1 recruits clathrin triskelia, which polymerize to form the coat. We have found that ARF.GTP also recruits AP-1 and clathrin onto protein-free liposomes. The efficiency of this process is modulated by the composition of the liposomes, with phosphatidylserine being the most stimulatory phospholipid. There is also a requirement for cytosolic factor(s) other than ARF. Thin-section electron microscopy shows the presence of clathrin-coated buds and vesicles that resemble those formed in vivo. These results indicate that AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles can form in the absence of integral membrane proteins. Thus, ARF.GTP, appropriate lipids, and cytosolic factor(s) are the minimal components necessary for AP-1 clathrin-coat assembly.  (+info)

Glucose transporter Glut3 is targeted to secretory vesicles in neurons and PC12 cells. (4/190)

In rat brain and cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells, Glut3 is localized at the cell surface and, also, in a distinct population of homogenous synaptic-like vesicles. Glut3-containing vesicles co-purify with "classical" synaptic vesicles, but can be separated from the latter by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Unlike classical synaptic vesicles, Glut3-containing vesicles possess a high level of aminopeptidase activity, which has been identified as aminopeptidase B. This enzyme has recently been shown to be a marker of the secretory pathway in PC12 cells (Balogh, A., Cadel, S., Foulon, T., Picart, R., Der Garabedian, A., Rousselet, A., Tougard, C., and Cohen, P. (1998) J. Cell Sci. 111, 161-169). We, therefore, conclude that Glut3 is targeted to secretory vesicles in both neurons and PC12 cells.  (+info)

Yeast VSM1 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein that may act as a negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. (5/190)

We have screened for proteins that interact with v-SNAREs of the late secretory pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A novel protein, designated Vsm1, binds tightly to the Snc2 v-SNARE in the two-hybrid system and can be coimmunoprecipitated with Snc1 or Snc2 from solubilized yeast cell extracts. Disruption of the VSM1 gene results in an increase of proteins secreted into the medium but does not affect the processing or secretion of invertase. In contrast, VSM1 overexpression in cells which bear a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Sec9 t-SNARE (sec9-4 cells) results in the accumulation of non-invertase-containing low-density secretory vesicles, inhibits cell growth and the secretion of proteins into the medium, and blocks rescue of the temperature-sensitive phenotype by SNC1 overexpression. Yet, VSM1 overexpression does not affect yeast bearing a sec9-7 allele which, in contrast to sec9-4, encodes a t-SNARE protein capable of forming a stable SNARE complex in vitro at restrictive temperatures. On the basis of these results, we propose that Vsm1 is a novel v-SNARE-interacting protein that appears to act as negative regulator of constitutive exocytosis. Moreover, this regulation appears specific to one of two parallel exocytic paths which are operant in yeast cells.  (+info)

Recombinant SFD isoforms activate vacuolar proton pumps. (6/190)

The vacuolar proton pump of clathrin-coated vesicles is composed of two general sectors, a cytosolic, ATP hydrolytic domain (V1) and an intramembranous proton channel, V0. V1 is comprised of 8-9 subunits including polypeptides of 50 and 57 kDa, termed SFD (Sub Fifty-eight-kDa Doublet). Although SFD is essential to the activation of ATPase and proton pumping activities catalyzed by holoenzyme, its constituent polypeptides have not been separated to determine their respective roles in ATPase functions. Recent molecular characterization of these subunits revealed that they are isoforms that arise through an alternative splicing mechanism (Zhou, Z., Peng, S.-B., Crider, B.P., Slaughter, C., Xie, X.S., and Stone, D.K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 5878-5884). To determine the functional characteristics of the 57-kDa (SFDalpha)1 and 50-kDa (SFDbeta) isoforms, we expressed these proteins in Escherichia coli. We determined that purified recombinant proteins, rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta, when reassembled with SFD-depleted holoenzyme, are functionally interchangeable in restoration of ATPase and proton pumping activities. In addition, we determined that the V-pump of chromaffin granules has only the SFDalpha isoform in its native state and that rSFDalpha and rSFDbeta are equally effective in restoring ATPase and proton pumping activities to SFD-depleted enzyme. Finally, we found that SFDalpha and SFDbeta structurally interact not only with V1, but also withV0, indicating that these activator subunits may play both structural and functional roles in coupling ATP hydrolysis to proton flow.  (+info)

A di-acidic (DXE) code directs concentration of cargo during export from the endoplasmic reticulum. (7/190)

Efficient export of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), a type I transmembrane protein, from the endoplasmic reticulum requires a di-acidic code (DXE) located in the cytosolic carboxyl-terminal tail (Nishimura, N., and Balch, W. E. (1997) Science 277, 556-558). Mutation of the DXE code by mutation to AXA did not prevent VSV-G recruitment to pre-budding complexes formed in the presence of the activated form of the Sar1 and the Sec23/24 complex, components of the COPII budding machinery. However, the signal was required at a subsequent concentration step preceding vesicle fission. By using green fluorescence protein-tagged VSV-G to image movement in a single cell, we found that VSV-G lacking the DXE code fails to be concentrated into COPII vesicles. As a result, the normal 5-10-fold increase in the steady-state concentration of VSV-G in downstream pre-Golgi intermediates and Golgi compartments was lost. These results demonstrate for the first time that inactivation of the DXE signal uncouples early cargo selection steps from concentration into COPII vesicles. We propose that two sequential steps are required for efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

A Rab2 mutant with impaired GTPase activity stimulates vesicle formation from pre-Golgi intermediates. (8/190)

Rab2 immunolocalizes to pre-Golgi intermediates (vesicular-tubular clusters [VTCs]) that are the first site of segregation of anterograde- and retrograde-transported proteins and a major peripheral site for COPI recruitment. Our previous work showed that Rab2 Q65L (equivalent to Ras Q61L) inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport in vivo. In this study, the biochemical properties of Rab2 Q65L were analyzed. The mutant protein binds GDP and GTP and has a low GTP hydrolysis rate that suggests that Rab2 Q65L is predominantly in the GTP-bound-activated form. The purified protein arrests vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport from VTCs in an assay that reconstitutes ER-to-Golgi traffic. A quantitative binding assay was used to measure membrane binding of beta-COP when incubated with the mutant. Unlike Rab2 that stimulates recruitment, Rab2 Q65L showed a dose-dependent decrease in membrane-associated beta-COP when incubated with rapidly sedimenting membranes (ER, pre-Golgi, and Golgi). The mutant protein does not interfere with beta-COP binding but stimulates the release of slowly sedimenting vesicles containing Rab2, beta-COP, and p53/gp58 but lacking anterograde grade-directed cargo. To complement the biochemical results, we observed in a morphological assay that Rab2 Q65L caused vesiculation of VTCs that accumulated at 15 degrees C. These data suggest that the Rab2 protein plays a role in the low-temperature-sensitive step that regulates membrane flow from VTCs to the Golgi complex and back to the ER.  (+info)

Membrane, Proteins, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Reticulum, Secretory Pathway, Yeast, Gtpase, Coated Vesicles, Copi, Copi-coated Vesicles, and Clathrin
La Vita-Prep de Vitamix es un artículo obligado en las ocupadas cocinas por su versatilidad, calidad y constancia. Lea más sobre la Vita-Prep.
Recently, Lanoix et al. 1999 have analyzed the resident protein (glycosyltransferase) content of an uncoated membrane fraction produced from Golgi membranes in vitro (in the presence of GTP) that is thought to be derived from COPI-coated vesicles, and compared this with bona fide COPI-coated vesicles prepared with GTPγS. They report (Table IV in Lanoix et al., 1999) a 9.6-fold higher concentration (protein/phospholipid) of NAGT I and a 4.8-fold higher concentration of Man II, in the uncoated (GTP) vesicles than in the starting Golgi fraction and an exclusion of residents in the GTPγS -prepared coated vesicles. There was no corresponding enrichment in anterograde-directed cargo in the GTP-produced uncoated vesicles (1.7-fold for pIgR) or in bona fide COP I-coated vesicles made with GTPγS (1.2-fold). In contradiction to this, Nickel et al. 1998 analyzed bona fide coated COPI vesicles produced in the presence of GTP versus GTPγS, and report that anterograde-directed cargo is up to 50-fold more ...
Metastases are a major cause of cancer mortality. AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in many tumors, is a potent oncogenic driver of metastatic cell motility and has been identified as broadly relevant in cancer drug resistance. Despite its frequent association with changes in cancer phenotypes, the precise mechanism leading to AXL activation is incompletely understood. In addition to its ligand growth arrest specific-6 (Gas6), activation of AXL requires the lipid moiety phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylserine is only available to mediate AXL activation when it is externalized on cell membranes, an event that occurs during certain physiologic processes such as apoptosis. Here, it is reported that exposure of cancer cells to phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles, including synthetic liposomes and apoptotic bodies, contributes to enhanced migration of tumor cells via a PS-Gas6-AXL signaling axis. These findings suggest that anticancer treatments that induce fractional cell ...
List of causes of Abdomen blister and Vesicles on one eyelid, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
Structural Component Of 3 Distinct Complexes; Subunit Of Nup84 Nuclear Pore Sub-complex (NPC), COPII Vesicle Coat, And Seh1-associated (SEA) Complex; COPII Vesicle Coat Is Required For ER To Golgi Transport; The Nup84 Subcomplex Contributes To Nucleocytoplasmic Transport, NPC Biogenesis And Processes That May Require Localization Of Chromosomes At The Nuclear Periphery, Including Transcription; Homologous To Human SEC13; Abundance Increases Under DNA Replication Stress
Structural component of 3 distinct complexes; subunit of Nup84 nuclear pore sub-complex (NPC), COPII vesicle coat, and Seh1-associated (SEA) complex; COPII vesicle coat is required for ER to Golgi transport; the Nup84 subcomplex contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPC biogenesis and processes that may require localization of chromosomes at the nuclear periphery, including transcription; homologous to human SEC13; abundance increases under DNA replication stress ...
Component Of The Exomer Complex; Exomer Also Contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, And Bud7p And Is Involved In Export Of Selected Proteins, Such As Chitin Synthase Chs3p, From The Golgi To The Plasma Membrane; Chs5p Is The Only Protein With A BRCT Domain That Is Not Localized To The Nucleus
ISTRUZIONI D USO INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE GEBRAUCHSANWEISUNGEN INSTRUCTIONS D UTILISATION INSTRUCCIONES DE USO OΔΗΓΙΕΣ ΧΡΗΣΗΣ Made in Italy ISTRUZIONI D USO PAG. 2 INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE PAG. 18 GEBRAUCHSANWEISUNGEN
Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated.
Muresan V, Godek CP, Reese TS, Schnapp BJ. Plus-end motors override minus-end motors during transport of squid axon vesicles on microtubules ...
The apical groove and adjacent rows of amphiesmal vesicles on the epicone. Also called the sulcal furrox or acrobase. This structure plays a central role in food uptake (predatory). The path of ...
Cellular processesCellular processesSporulation and germinationspore coat assembly protein SafA (TIGR02899; HMM-score: 63.9) ...
Ghiozdane online: ghiozdane online, genti, valize, genti vanzari, rucsacuri, copii articole, birotica papetarie tipizate fiscale vanzari, genti copii, mape birou, articole pentru copii vanzari, calculatoare de birou vanzari,...
Introdução: Os eventos adversos relacionados à assistência à saúde estão associados ao aumento da morbimortalidade e as IRAS correspondem entre 15% a 25% desses eventos. Há escassez de novos antimicrobianos,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tethering assays for COPI vesicles mediated by golgins. AU - Satoh, Ayano. AU - Malsam, Jörg. AU - Warren, Graham. N1 - Funding Information: We thank all members of the Warren, Mellman, and Toomre laboratories for helpful comments and discussions, and Marino Zerial for generous provision of purified EEA1. This work was supported by the NIH and the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. A.S. was supported by the American Heart Association.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - A method is described that allows the attachment of COPI vesicles and Golgi membranes to glass slides that can then be analyzed using electron microscopy (EM) and immuno-EM methods. Subpopulations of COPI vesicles can be bound selectively using recombinant golgins. Alternatively, COPI vesicles can be attached to prebound Golgi membranes. Marking these vesicles selectively with biotin allows their site of attachment to be identified.. AB - A method is described that allows the attachment of COPI vesicles and Golgi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ADP ribosylation factor 6 regulates neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex through FIP3/arfophilin-1-dependent endosomal trafficking of N-cadherin. AU - Hara, Yoshinobu. AU - Fukaya, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Kanehiro. AU - Kawauchi, Takeshi. AU - Nakajima, Kazunori. AU - Sakagami, Hiroyuki. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - During neural development, endosomal trafficking controls cell shape and motility through the polarized transport of membrane proteins related to cellcell and cellextracellular matrix interactions. ADP ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a critical small GTPase that regulates membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane and endosomes. We herein demonstrated that the knockdown of endogenous Arf6 in mouse cerebral cortices led to impaired neuronal migration in the intermediate zone and cytoplasmic retention of N-cadherin and syntaxin12 in migrating neurons. Rescue experiments with separation-of-function Arf6 mutants identified Rab11 familyinteracting ...
Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High-throughput Analysis of Endocytosis in Budding Yeast, Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Single-molecule Super-resolution Imaging of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane with Novel Fluorescent Probes, Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
Frigoriferi per installazioni speciali e portatili Refrigerators for special and portable installation MANUALE DI INSTALLAZIONE USO ED ASSISTENZA INSTALLATION USE AND ASSISTANCE MANUAL Leggere attentamente prima delluso Read carefully before use IT 02 EN 16 PT 30 MANUALE DI INSTALLAZIONE USO ED ASSISTENZA IT Frigoriferi per installazioni speciali e portatili Leggere attentamente prima delluso INDICE 1.INTRODUZIONE 2. AVVERTENZE GENERALI 3. INFORMAZIONI GENERALI 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Scopo del manuale Identificazione del costruttore Descrizione del frigorifero per installazioni speciali Descrizione del frigorifero portatile Installazione Pulizia del frigorifero Collegamento elettrico 4. REGOLAZIONE DELLA TEMPERATURA 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5. INFORMAZIONI UTILI 6. COSA FARE SE IL FRIGO NON FUNZIONA 7. AVVERTENZE PARTICOLARI 8. ISTRUZIONI DANFOSS BD35/BD50F 12-24 Vcc 9. ISTRUZIONI DANFOSS BD35/BD50F 12-24 Vcc / 110-240 Vca 2 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 7.1 7.2 Termostato Termostato Termostato ...
La Hipodermia es el uso de una aguja y una jeringa mediante las cuales se pueden introducir sustancias al interior de nuestro cuerpo, como también extraer líquidos para su análisis en laboratorio ...
Microinjection of the slowly hydrolyzable GTP analogue GTP(gamma)S or the ectopic expression of a GTP restricted mutant of the small GTPase arf1 (arf1[Q71L]) leads to the rapid accumulation of COPI coated vesicles and buds in living cells. This effect is blocked at 15 degrees C and by microinjection of antibodies against (beta)-COP. Anterograde and retrograde membrane protein transport markers, which have been previously shown to be incorporated into COPI vesicles between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, are depleted from the GTP(gamma)S or arf1[Q71L] induced COPI coated vesicles and buds. In contrast, in control cells 30 to 60% of the COPI carriers co-localize with these markers. These in vivo data corroborate recent in vitro work, suggesting that GTP(gamma)S and arf1[Q71L] interfere with the sorting of membrane proteins into Golgi derived COPI vesicles, and provide the first in vivo evidence for a role of GTP hydrolysis by arf1 in the sorting of cargo into COPI coated vesicles and ...
Pruning, referred to as selective removal of unnecessary neurites without cell death, occurs in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The Drosophila dorsal class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) can serve as an excellent model to study the mechanisms of dendrite pruning. To identify novel molecules orchestrating this developmental degeneration process, I performed an RNAi screen, from which a previously uncharacterized gene named pruning defect 1(prd1) was isolated. It binds to Adaptor Protein (AP)-2 complex and regulates dendrite pruning in a cell-autonomous manner. Consistently, AP-2 complex dependent endocytic degradation pathway is also important for dendrite pruning. Interestingly, Prd1 also complexes with a Kinesin-3 family member Immaculate connections (Imac), which plays a critical role in regulating dendrite pruning as well. With the help of Prd1, Imac transports AP-2 enriched Clathrin Coated Vesicles (CCVs) or endocytic vesicles from plasma membrane to early endosomes along ...
A patient suffering with genital herpes had developed multiple vesicles on the glans penis area, he got healed completely with homeopathic medicines prescribed by Dr Shah.
Exit sites (ES) are specialized domains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at which cargo proteins of the secretory pathway are packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. Although the essential COPII proteins (Sar1p, Sec23p-Sec24p, Sec13p-Sec31p) have been characterized in detail and their sequential binding kinetics at ER membranes have been quantified, the basic processes that govern the self-assembly and spatial organization of ERES have remained elusive. Here, we have formulated a generic computational model that describes the process of formation of ERES on a mesoscopic scale. The model predicts that ERES are arranged in a quasi-crystalline pattern, while their size strongly depends on the cargo-modulated kinetics of COPII turnover - that is, a lack of cargo leads to smaller and more mobile ERES. These predictions are in favorable agreement with experimental data obtained by fluorescence microscopy. The model further suggests that cooperative binding of COPII components, for example mediated by regulatory
Transport and Golgi organization protein 1 homolog; Plays a role in the transport of cargos that are too large to fit into COPII-coated vesicles and require specific mechanisms to be incorporated into membrane-bound carriers and exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is required for collagen VII (COL7A1) secretion by loading COL7A1 into transport carriers. It may participate in cargo loading of COL7A1 at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites by binding to COPII coat subunits Sec23/24 and guiding SH3-bound COL7A1 into a growing carrier. Does not play a role in global protein s ...
COPⅠ囊泡:最初研究者利用三磷酸鳥苷(GTP)衍生物GTPγS(一種富含高爾基體膜的細胞質與抗水解的GTP衍生物)共培養時,發現高爾基體池之間存在一種囊泡轉運結構[9](後來在真核細胞中也證實此結構的存在[10])。除了脂質成分外,參與此囊泡形成的成份還有7種外被體蛋白(即外被體α、β、β′、γ、δ、ε、ζ)。這些外被體蛋白相互作用形成的復合物就是COPⅠ囊泡[11][12]。亞單位α、β′、ε在結構上與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的外層組分具有較高的一致性,形成復合物的內層組分稱為B亞復合物(主要負責與靶蛋白結合),而亞單位β、γ、δ、ζ 與網格蛋白及COPⅡ囊泡的內層組分相似,形成復合物的內層組分稱為F亞復合物,該亞復合物主要負責與靶蛋白結合,並且直接與COPⅠ囊泡形成的招募者ADP核糖基化因子(英语:ADP ribosylation factor)(ADP ribosylation ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Coated pit: …of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes,…
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Complete information for ARL6IP6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor Like GTPase 6 Interacting Protein 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso: The story goes about our main protagonist called Arima Kousei. He is a very skilled pianist but he does not play the piano an...
Shigatsu wa Kimi no Uso: The story goes about our main protagonist called Arima Kousei. He is a very skilled pianist but he does not play the piano an...
DIRECTIONS FOR USE ENGLISH INSTRUCCIONES DE USO ESPAÑOL MODE D EMPLOI FRANÇAIS TABLE OF CONTENTS English Español Français Caution: For dental use
Au început lucrarile la noul corp de sase etaje al Spitalului Clinic de Copii Victor Gomoiu, primul spital universitar de urgenta pentru copii construit în Bucuresti în ultimii 30 de ani. Demararea lucrarilor a fost marcata, vineri,...
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La tricofitosi è una micosi dellinterfaccia, capelli e le unghie che possono essere trattate facilmente facendo uso di antifungoso screma, compresse e sciampo
Coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles are involved in transport processes within the early secretory pathway (Bethune et al., 2006). For their biogenesis, the small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) in its GDP-bound form is recruited to the Golgi membrane by dimeric transmembrane proteins of the p24 family (Gommel et al., 2001) or by interaction with membrin (Honda et al., 2005). The membrane-associated Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 catalyzes exchange of the bound GDP to GTP (Zhao et al., 2006). Arf1-GTP dissociates from the p24 proteins and is inserted into the Golgi membrane (Franco et al., 1996; Antonny et al., 1997) as a dimer (Beck et al., 2008) to recruit the heptameric protein complex coatomer (Palmer et al., 1993). Coatomer polymerization leads to the formation of a COPI-coated vesicle (Bremser et al., 1999; Reinhard et al., 1999). Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) catalyze hydrolysis of the GTP bound to Arf1 followed by dissociation of the coat (Tanigawa et al., ...
Protein trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus involves specific uptake into coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles of secretory and of vesicle targeting (v-SNARE) proteins. Here, two ER to Golgi v-SNAREs, Bet1p and Bos1p, were shown to interact specifically with Sar1p, Sec23p, and Sec24p, components of the COPII coat, in a guanine nucleotide-dependent fashion. Other v-SNAREs, Sec22p and Ykt6p, might interact more weakly with the COPII coat or interact indirectly by binding to Bet1p or Bos1p. The data suggest that transmembrane proteins can be taken up into COPII vesicles by direct interactions with the coat proteins and may play a structural role in the assembly of the COPII coat complex. ...
Coat proteins appear to play a general role in intracellular protein trafficking by coordinating a membrane budding event with cargo selection. Here we show that the AP-2 adaptor, a clathrin-associated coat-protein complex that nucleates clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the cell surface, can also initiate the assembly of normal polyhedral clathrin coats on dense lysosomes under physiological conditions in vitro. Clathrin coat formation on lysosomes is temperature dependent, displays an absolute requirement for ATP, and occurs in both semi-intact cells and on purified lysosomes, suggesting that clathrin-coated vesicles might regulate retrograde membrane traffic out of the lysosomal compartment. ...
p,Coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles mediate retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as transport within the Golgi. Major progress has been made in defining the structure of COPI coats, in vitro and in vivo, at resolutions as high as 9 Å. Nevertheless, important questions remain unanswered, including what specific interactions stabilize COPI coats, how COPI vesicles recognize their target membranes, and how coat disassembly is coordinated with vesicle fusion and cargo delivery. Here, we use X-ray crystallography to identify a conserved site on the COPI subunit α-COP that binds to flexible, acidic sequences containing a single tryptophan residue. One such sequence, found within α-COP itself, mediates α-COP homo-oligomerization. Another such sequence is contained within the lasso of the ER-resident Dsl1 complex, where it helps mediate the tethering of Golgi-derived COPI vesicles at the ER membrane. Together, our findings suggest that α-COP ...
Plant Golgi stacks are mobile organelles that can travel along actin filaments. How COPII (coat complex II) vesicles are transferred from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export sites to the moving Golgi stacks is not understood. We have examined COPII vesicle transfer in high-pressure frozen/freeze-subst …
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Peg Perego este un brand care comercializeaza o gama variata de carucioare pentru bebelusi si masini pentru copii. Descopera produsele Peg Perego pentru micutul tau: scaune inalte, carucioare, jucarii de inot si multe altele. Copilul tau merita cea mai buna protectie cu Peg Perego!
La adolescencia es una época difícil. Es importante dejar las expectativas claras sobre el uso de sustancias y ayudarlos a mantenerse seguros.
Acestea sunt insa recomandate doar pentru persoanele care prezinta anumite proteine in celulele canceroase, prin urmare este necesata o biopsie prealabila.
So I have read many good things about recycle. I have taken Erase and loved it. I was wondering, has anyone taken each product? Have any insight on
Storage parenchyma cells of developing legume cotyledons actively transport large amounts of storage proteins to protein storage vacuoles (PSV). These proteins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and pass through the Golgi apparatus. Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both been implicated in the Golgi-to-vacuole transport step. Recent findings that protein storage cells contain more than one type of vacuole have necessitated a re-examination of the role of both types of vesicles in vacuolar protein transport. Immunoblots of highly purified CCV preparations and immunogold labelling with antibodies to the storage proteins vicilin and legumin, indicate that the dense vesicles, but not the CCV, are involved in storage protein transport in pea cotyledons. This result is supported by the finding that alpha-TIP, a protein characteristic of the PSV membrane, is absent from CCV. In addition, complex glycoproteins appear ...
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals, and in the recycling of transmitter receptors in neuronal soma/dendrites. The present study uses electron microscopy (EM) and immunogold EM to document the different categories of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and pits (CCP) in axons compared to soma/dendrites, and the depolarization-induced redistribution of clathrin in these two polarized compartments of the neuron. The size of CCVs in presynaptic terminals (~ 40 nm; similar to the size of synaptic vesicles) is considerably smaller than the size of CCVs in soma/dendrites (~ 90 nm). Furthermore, neuronal stimulation induces an increase in the number of CCV/CCP in presynaptic terminals, but a decrease in soma/dendrites. Immunogold labeling of clathrin revealed that in presynaptic terminals under resting conditions, the majority of clathrin molecules are unassembled and concentrated outside of synaptic vesicle clusters. Upon
Coatomer coated (COPI) vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. Our focus is on betaCOP, one of the most well known components of the COPI multi-protein complex. Amino acid differences in be
Sec24-like transport protein; Component of the COPII coat, that covers ER-derived vesicles involved in transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. COPII is composed of at least five proteins- the SEC23/24 complex, the SEC13/31 complex, and the protein SAR1. Acts in the cytoplasm to promote the transport of secretory, plasma membrane, and vacuolar proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex (By similarity) (1038 aa ...
Complete information for ARF6 gene (Protein Coding), ADP Ribosylation Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Femeile aflate la menopauza: medicina copii, medicina de copii, femeile aflate la menopauza, tratamentul bolilor, efecte benefice, tulburari de menopauza, dermatologie, mici interventii chirurgicale, tratament acnee, afectiuni...
O projeto de novos materiais para aplicações tecnológicas em biomateriais e bioengenharia é altamente dependente de como as células aderem à superfície de um material. A adesão e crescimento em biomateriais...
Curata eficient si mentine o respiratie proaspata si o dantura sanatoasa, nu irita cavitatea bucala .Ideala pentru adulti si copii...
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Once the vesicle is coated, it begins to travel to the ER. Before the vesicle can fuse with the ER membrane, the coats ... COP1 coated vesicles also contain p24 proteins that assist with cargo sorting. COP II is a coatomer that coats the vesicles ... This complex polymerizes to form the outer layer of the coat. COP II vesicles must shed their coat before they can fuse with ... Before the COP I protein can coat vesicles on the Golgi membrane, it must interact with a small GTPase called ARF1 (ADP ...
Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... Pearse, B. M. F.; Bretscher, M. S. (1981). "Membrane Recycling by Coated Vesicles". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 85-101. ... Pearse, B. M. F. (1975). "Coated vesicles from pig brain: Purification and biochemical characterization". Journal of Molecular ... Pearse's main contributions lie in the structure of coated vesicles. ...
She specifically works with coated vesicles. The best-characterized coated vesicles are the clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). ... Her interest was in clathrin-coated vesicles that binds to cargo. She eventually succeeded in purifying components of the coat ... Every form of eukaryotic life on earth contains coated vesicles and adaptors. Her work is also speculated to play a key role in ... Robinson had to stop working on her interest in coated vesicles and work on something closer to what the lab was researching. ...
Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ... Cocucci E, Aguet F, Boulant S, Kirchhausen T (2012). "The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 ( ... "A clathrin coat assembly role for the muniscin protein central linker revealed by TALEN-mediated gene editing". eLife. 3. doi: ... is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in ...
Robinow C, Angert ER (1998). "Nucleoids and coated vesicles of Epulopiscium spp". Archives of Microbiology. 170 (4): 227-235. ...
The best characterized type of vesicle is the clathrin coated vesicle (CCV). The formation of a COPII vesicle at the ... but the coat of COPI is not closely related to the coats of either CCVs or COPII vesicles. AP-5 is associated with 2 proteins, ... but the ultrastructure of that coat is not known. The coat of AP-4 is unknown. An almost universal feature of coat assembly is ... As illustrated in the accompanying image, the production of a coated vesicle is not instantaneous, and a considerable fraction ...
... vesicles that have a morphologically characteristic coat made up of the cytosolic protein clathrin. Clathrin-coated vesicles ( ... Coats function to deform the donor membrane to produce a vesicle, and they also function in the selection of the vesicle cargo ... Coated vesicles were first purified by Barbara Pearse, who discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1976. Endocytosis. For ... Coat complexes that have been well characterized so far include coat protein-I (COP-I), COP-II, and clathrin. Clathrin coats ...
Goldstein JL, Anderson RG, Brown MS (Jun 1979). "Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis". Nature. 279 ... Anderson RG, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Mar 1977). "Role of the coated endocytic vesicle in the uptake of receptor-bound low ... Mello RJ, Brown MS, Goldstein JL, Anderson RG (Jul 1980). "LDL receptors in coated vesicles isolated from bovine adrenal cortex ... "Immunocytochemical visualization of coated pits and vesicles in human fibroblasts: relation to low density lipoprotein receptor ...
... which govern the intracellular trafficking of proteins in coat protein (COP)-coated vesicles. Mutations in the SAR1B gene are ... Schekman R, Orci L (March 1996). "Coat proteins and vesicle budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-33. doi:10.1126/science. ... "Mutations in a Sar1 GTPase of COPII vesicles are associated with lipid absorption disorders". Nature Genetics. 34 (1): 29-31. ... "Mutations in a Sar1 GTPase of COPII vesicles are associated with lipid absorption disorders". Nature Genetics. 34 (1): 29-31. ...
... vesicle coat complex, and the first purified inter-organelle transport vesicles. The Sec proteins are strikingly conserved and ... Schekman, R.; Orci, L. (1996). "Coat Proteins and Vesicle Budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-1533. Bibcode:1996Sci...271.1526S ... Südhof for their ground-breaking work on cell membrane vesicle trafficking. Schekman was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, to ... "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells". Schekman "has already ...
VSIV enters the cell through partially clathrin-coated vesicles; virus-containing vesicles contain more clathrin and clathrin ... the molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle ... VSIV G does not follow the same path as most vesicles because transport of the G protein from the ER to the plasma membrane is ... The main sign in animals is oral disease appearing as mucosal vesicles and ulcers in the mouth, but also on the udder and ...
Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane ... It works with auxilin to remove clathrin from coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is also an important protein involved ... in vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins ...
After the vesicle coat is completely assembled and the vesicle is released from the donor membrane, the Sec23 subunit promotes ... It is a monomeric small GTPase found in COPII vesicles. It regulates the assembly and disassembly of COPII coats. [GDP]-bound ... where it serves as the binding site for the Sec23/Sec24 protein coat complex. ... Sar1 GTPase activity, which triggers the disassembly of the COPII coat. ARF Overview of all the structural information ...
Vesicles are surrounded by coating proteins called COPI and COPII. COPII targets vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and COPI marks ... These are areas where the transport vesicles that contain lipids and proteins made in the ER, detach from the ER and start ... Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. Rab proteins are key ... Proteins that are destined for places outside the endoplasmic reticulum are packed into transport vesicles and moved along the ...
... I vesicles Clathrin vesicles Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase#ER to Golgi transport Exomer Coat+Protein+Complex+I ... A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly". Science. 349 (6244): 195-198. doi: ... "ADP-ribosylation factor is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ...
For the membrane coated vesicle used in transport, see here. Fagol Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 16 is an ...
Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to enter cells; they are dependent upon acidification, and ...
... is known to transport Rab3-coated vesicles in the axon. Rab3 functions as a synaptic vesicle protein that controls the ... With KIF1A functioning to transport synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) along neurons, defects in ... Rab GTPases are known to mediate the localization of vesicles from the regulation of GEFs and GAPs that alter its nucleotide ... Further investigations of how the PtdIns(4,5)P2 lipid subdomain facilitates KIF1A vesicle transport led to the idea that this ...
When the COPII vesicle is in close proximity to the Cis-Golgi membrane, it sheds its coat and the components are recycled to ... After the COPII vesicle forms, the COPII coat proteins remain assembled to allow the Sec23/Sec24 complex to interact with a ... These coat proteins are necessary but insufficient to direct or dock the vesicle to the correct target membrane. SNARE, cargo, ... Sec13/Sec31 complex forms a cage-like outer coat (similar to the formation of clathrin vesicles). Sar1p is a GTPase that acts ...
Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal ... Phonphok Y, Rosenthal KS (April 1991). "Stabilization of clathrin coated vesicles by amantadine, tromantadine and other ... in four studies It is known that the antipsychotic drugs chlorpromazine and clozapine stabilise clathrin coated vesicles and ... The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. ...
In non-dividing cells, the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously. Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is ... After a vesicle buds into the cytoplasm, the coat rapidly disassembles, allowing the clathrin to recycle while the vesicle gets ... Coat-proteins, like clathrin, are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis ... Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) selectively sort cargo at the cell membrane, trans-Golgi network, and endosomal compartments for ...
Both LDL and its receptor form vesicles within a cell via endocytosis. These vesicles then fuse with a lysosome, where the ... Cholesterol is essential for the structure and function of invaginated caveolae and clathrin-coated pits, including caveola- ... Upon binding of apolipoprotein B100, many LDL receptors concentrate in clathrin-coated pits. ...
"Intracellular trafficking and secretion of adiponectin is dependent on GGA-coated vesicles". J Biol Chem. 281 (11): 7253-9. doi ... Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network ... 2003). "EpsinR: an AP1/clathrin interacting protein involved in vesicle trafficking". J. Cell Biol. 160 (2): 213-22. doi: ...
Korolchuk VI, Banting G (Jun 2002). "CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles". Traffic. 3 (6 ... Umeda A, Meyerholz A, Ungewickell E (May 2000). "Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat ...
Jones, Leandra B.; Kumar, Sanjay; Bell, Courtnee' R.; Peoples, Veolonda A.; Crenshaw, Brennetta J.; Coats, Mamie T.; Scoffield ... In 2019, Scoffield and her team explored how P. aeruginosa infection of microglia impacts extracellular vesicle (EV) biogenesis ... Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Microglial-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Composition. Pathogens. 2019;8(4): ... "Effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Microglial-Derived Extracellular Vesicle Biogenesis and Composition". Pathogens. 8 (4): ...
In general, reelin binds VLDLR and undergoes endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Meanwhile, an intracellular protein, ... The NPxY motif functions in signal transduction and the targeting of receptors to coated pits and consists of the sequence ... In general, lipoprotein receptors undergo a process by which they are endocytosed with their ligand into clathrin-coated pits. ... Endocytosis is mediated through NPxY sequences known to signal for receptor internalization through clathrin-coated pits. The ...
... which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated ... "Conservation and diversity in families of coated vesicle adaptins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (9): 4814-20. PMID ... Gallusser A, Kirchhausen T (Dec 1993). "The beta 1 and beta 2 subunits of the AP complexes are the clathrin coat assembly ... "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4". Current ...
Clathrin is a major protein component of the cytoplasmic face of intracellular organelles, called coated vesicles and coated ... Hanspal M, Luna E, Branton D (1984). "The association of clathrin fragments with coated vesicle membranes". J. Biol. Chem. 259 ... The basic subunit of the clathrin coat is composed of three heavy chains and three light chains. }} CLTC has been shown to ... 1998). "Nef-mediated clathrin-coated pit formation". J. Cell Biol. 139 (1): 37-47. doi:10.1083/jcb.139.1.37. PMC 2139808. PMID ...
AP (adaptor protein) complexes are found in coated vesicles and clathrin-coated pits. AP complexes connect cargo proteins and ... and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. These vesicles have specific coat proteins ( ... This is an adaptor protein which helps the formation of a clathrin coat around a vesicle. This entry represents a subdomain of ... McMahon HT, Mills IG (August 2004). "COP and clathrin-coated vesicle budding: different pathways, common approaches". Curr. ...
Vesicle coat proteins frequently contain alpha solenoids and share common domain architecture with some NPC proteins. Three ... vesicle coat proteins, and nuclear pore complexes". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 21 (1): 4-13. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2008.12. ... and Clathrin Vesicle Coats". Cell. 142 (1): 123-132. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.030. PMC 2943847. PMID 20579721. Forwood, Jade ... "Components of Coated Vesicles and Nuclear Pore Complexes Share a Common Molecular Architecture". PLOS Biology. 2 (12): e380. ...
structural constituent of egg coat. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • GO:0005578 ... positive regulation of acrosomal vesicle exocytosis. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... Rankin T, Dean J (2000). "The zona pellucida: using molecular genetics to study the mammalian egg coat". Rev. Reprod. 5 (2): ... Han L, Monné M, Okumura H, Schwend T, Cherry AL, Flot D, Matsuda T, Jovine L (2010). "Insights into egg coat assembly and egg- ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • early endosome membrane. • membrane. • bicellular tight ...
The space inside each segment is a locule filled with juice vesicles, or "pulp". From the endocarp, string-like "hairs" extend ... professor Henri Chapot discovered that the acidity in the more common citrons or lemons is indicated by red on the inner coat ...
"tag" pathogens for destruction by other cells by opsonizing, or coating, the surface of the pathogen ... IFN is secreted through secretory vesicles, where it can activate receptors on both the same cell it was released from ( ...
In posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy small vesicles appear at the level of Descemet membrane. Most patients remain ...
This is how gallstones form when a small piece of calcium gets coated with either cholesterol or bilirubin and the bile ...
... and the freshly split specimens will appear to be faced or coated with this mineral; for example, a piece of mica schist looked ... and in many contact-altered lavas the vesicles are still visible, though their contents have usually entered into new ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Biological process. • positive ... vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late endosome. • blood microparticle. • basal part of cell. • endocytic vesicle ... it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The pH of the vesicle is reduced ... clathrin-coated pit. • secretory granule lumen. • endosome membrane. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. • ...
... coats the oral mucosa mechanically protecting it from trauma during eating, swallowing, and speaking. Mouth soreness is ... Increased calcium causes vesicles within the cells to fuse with the apical cell membrane leading to secretion. ACh also causes ...
... secretions from the primary granules of neutrophils stimulate the phagocytosis of IgG antibody-coated bacteria.[14] The ... Low pH vesicles (3.5-4.0). *Toxic nitrogen oxides (nitric oxide). *Toxic oxygen-derived products (e.g., superoxide, hydrogen ... they are ferocious eaters and rapidly engulf invaders coated with antibodies and complement, as well as damaged cells or ...
The segments are also called "liths", and the space inside each lith is a locule filled with juice vesicles, or "pulp". From ... professor Henri Chapot discovered that the acidity in the more common citrons or lemons is represented by red on the inner coat ...
The urethra consists of three coats: muscular, erectile, and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the ... the ejaculatory duct receives sperm from the vas deferens and ejaculate fluid from the seminal vesicle, (2) several prostatic ...
The surface of the leaf is coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of ... or bunched up into round vesicles called intracytoplasmic membranes.[22] These structures can fill most of the interior of a ... "Atomic-level structural and functional model of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane vesicle". Proceedings of the National ...
... allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell membrane and become a cytoplasmic vesicle.[63] Once the clathrin coat ... "The calcineurin-dynamin 1 complex as a calcium sensor for synaptic vesicle endocytosis". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (37): 25963-6. doi: ... Another possibility is that exocytosis of intracellular vesicles is responsible for AMPA trafficking to the PSD directly.[37] ... consisting of a clathrin-coated pit underneath a section of AMPAR-containing plasma membrane and interacting proteins, is the ...
Most animal epithelial cells have a fuzz-like coating on the external surface of their plasma membranes. This coating consists ... This coat is extremely hydrated and stains with ruthenium red. Bacteria growing in natural ecosystems, such as in soil, bovine ... A glycocalyx, literally meaning "sugar coat" (glykys = sweet, kalyx = husk), is a network of polysaccharides that project from ... Inflammation regulation: Glycocalyx coating on endothelial walls in blood vessels prevents leukocytes from rolling/binding in ...
A portion of the vas deferens is often enlarged to form the seminal vesicle, which stores the sperm before they are discharged ... They can produce glue and protective substances for coating eggs or tough coverings for a batch of eggs called oothecae. ... The seminal vesicles have glandular linings that secrete nutrients for nourishment and maintenance of the sperm. The ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. العمليات الحيوية. • luteinizing hormone signaling pathway. • positive regulation of epidermal ...
... s may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. In addition to its ... Little is known about the role plant Epsin plays in clathrin coated vesicle formation. ... membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin-coated vesicles. ... Epsins contribute to membrane deformations like endocytosis, and block vesicle formation during mitosis.[1] ...
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. • protein complex. • apical part of cell. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • ruffle. • ... endocytic vesicle. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • actin filament. • macromolecular complex. • clathrin-coated vesicle. • filopodium. ... "Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis". The EMBO Journal. 20 (14 ... clathrin-coated pit. • filamentous actin. • plasma membrane. • nuclear membrane. • cytoplasm. • cell cortex. • microvillu. • ...
... is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte ... triggers a highly coordinated cascade of events that includes the formation of an endocytotic vesicle, its fusion with primary ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cell membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of epidermal growth factor ...
5) In the periactive zone the membrane proteins are sequestered and are endocytosed forming a clathrin coated vesicle. (6) The ... the vesicle to be ready for vesicle fusion and release of neurotransmitter (see below: releasable pool). After the vesicle is ... Vesicle pools[edit]. The synapse contains at least two clusters of synaptic vesicles, the readily releasable pool and the ... The cycle begins with (1) a region of the golgi apparatus is pinched off to form the synaptic vesicle and this vesicle is ...
clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • integral component of membrane. • apical plasma membrane. • شبکه آندوپلاسمی. • endoplasmic ... Golgi-associated vesicle membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum Sec complex. • extracellular exosome. • سیتوزول. • endosome membrane ... vesicle docking involved in exocytosis. • transmembrane transport. • sperm capacitation. • positive regulation of insulin ...
"ADP-ribosylation factor is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein ... COPI-coated vesicle. • عصارة خلوية. • Golgi membrane. • غشاء خلوي. • protein-containing complex. • glutamatergic synapse. ... Golgi to transport vesicle transport. • post-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport. • actin filament organization. • lysosomal ... synaptic vesicle budding. • small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • cellular copper ion homeostasis. • long-term synaptic ...
endocytic vesicle membrane. • cytosol. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane. • membrane. • clathrin coat. • Cellbilen. ... membrane coat. • clathrin-coated pit. • clathrin adaptor complex. • AP-2 adaptor complex. • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. ... clathrin coat assembly. • protein transport. • intracellular protein transport. • vesicle-mediated transport. • microtubule- ...
These contents digest the jelly coat and eventually the vitelline membrane. In addition to the release of acrosomal vesicles, ... The acrosomal vesicles of the sperm fuse with the plasma membrane and are released. In this process, molecules bound to the ... Resact is a 14 amino acid peptide purified from the jelly coat of A. punctulata that attracts the migration of sperm. ... After finding the egg, the sperm penetrates the jelly coat through a process called sperm activation. In another ligand/ ...
INSIG1 releases SCAP and the SREBF1-SCAP complex can be sorted into COPII-coated transport vesicles that are exported to the ...
"Amphiphysin is a component of clathrin coats formed during synaptic vesicle recycling at the lamprey giant synapse". Traffic. 5 ... synaptic vesicle membrane. • cytoskeleton. • membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • synaptic vesicle. • leading edge membrane. • ... This gene encodes a protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles. A subset of patients with stiff ... Zhang B, Zelhof AC (July 2002). "Amphiphysins: raising the BAR for synaptic vesicle recycling and membrane dynamics. Bin- ...
Colloidal QD emission can be modulated from UV-Vis to the infrared by using different types of coating agents, such as ZnS, CdS ... "Interaction and structure induction of cell-penetrating peptides in the presence of phospholipid vesicles". Biochimica et ...
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi ... Clathrin assembles from three-legged individual components called triskelions to form a polygonal lattice around the vesicle. ... Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and ... membrane reveal a striking polyhedral pattern reminiscent of a fullerene which arises from the outermost protein in the coat, ...
... also form coated buds and vesicles from the nuclear envelope. Formation of COPI-coated, but not COPII-coated, buds and vesicles ... COPI- and COPII-coated vesicles bud directly from the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast.. Bednarek SY1, Ravazzola M, Hosobuchi M, ... and the small GTP-binding protein Sar1p generate protein transport vesicles by forming the membrane coat termed COPII. We ... However, both vesicle types are devoid of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins, and each contains targeting proteins ...
Dyrk1A binds to multiple endocytic proteins required for formation of clathrin-coated vesicles.. Murakami N1, Bolton D, Hwang ... We then tested whether the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-associated proteins could be phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. Multiple ... Our findings suggest a role for Dyrk1A in controlling synaptic vesicle recycling processes. ...
... coated vesicles include Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, Nitrogen Cavitation and ... Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (Coated pits, Cell-membrane) invaginate and pinch off. The ... outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as Clathrin, coat protein ... Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons. Seth Villarreal1, Sung Hoon Lee1,2, Ling-Gang Wu1 ...
Distinct coat proteins mediate each budding event, serving both to shape the transport vesicle and to select by direct or ... The trafficking of proteins within eukaryotic cells is achieved by the capture of cargo and targeting molecules into vesicles ...
Clathrin and adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the major components of the coats on clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), but they ... Machinery for making coated vesicles. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , MRC LMB Seminar list , Machinery for making coated vesicles ...
... into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies, Techniques for the Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles ... Monitoring the Effect of Osmotic Stress on Secretory Vesicles and Exocytosis, Phase Behavior of Charged Vesicles Under ... Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to ... Preparation of Giant Vesicles Encapsulating Microspheres by Centrifugation of a Water-in-oil Emulsion, Characterizing the ...
... vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. Our focus is on betaCOP, ... Coatomer coated (COPI) vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. Our ...
COPII vesicle formation requires only three coat assembly subunits: Sar1p, Sec13/31p, and Sec23/24p. PI 4-phosphate or PI 4,5- ... coated buds, and coated vesicles of 50-90 nm in diameter. Budding proceeds without rupture of the donor liposome or vesicle ... COPII-coated vesicle formation reconstituted with purified coat proteins and chemically defined liposomes Cell. 1998 Apr 17;93( ... COPII vesicle formation requires only three coat assembly subunits: Sar1p, Sec13/31p, and Sec23/24p. PI 4-phosphate or PI 4,5- ...
AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ... AP-2:cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 cargo [clathrin-coated vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * ...
Here, we investigated the transfer process of water-in-oil (W/O) droplets coat 2013 Hot Papers ... the transfer method has been shown to be useful for preparing cell-sized phospholipid bilayer vesicles, within which desired ... bilayer vesicles from lipid. -coated droplets across a planar monolayer at an oil/water interface H. Ito, T. Yamanaka, S. Kato ... bilayer vesicles from lipid. -coated droplets across a planar monolayer at an oil/water interface ...
In untreated HSY cells, there was only a slight co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles. When HSY cells were ... Therefore, in HSY cells PLD appears to be involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles as well as in ... Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the number of Golgi-associated coated vesicles was greater. Treatment with 1- ... especially in the juxtanuclear region and the co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles was augmented. ...
Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF ... Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles.. G Tanigawa, L Orci, M Amherdt ... Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles. ... helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. ...
AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Mus musculus) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Rattus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Sus scrofa) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Xenopus ... AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Canis familiaris) AP2M1 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Danio ... clathrin:AP-2 [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * AP-2 Complex [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle ...
... ... was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy which also showed that the particles stained by RN 17 antibody are coated vesicles. ... Thus, cultured non-neural cells may contain a novel protein that binds to microtubules, intermediate filaments, and coated ...
Ockleford, Colin and Munn, Ed (1980) Dynamic aspects of coated vesicle function. In: Coated Vesicles. Cambridge University ...
Vesicle-mediated transport (Rattus norvegicus) * * Membrane Trafficking (Rattus norvegicus) * Clathrin-mediated endocytosis ( ...
Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Bos taurus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Canis familiaris) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Gallus gallus) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ... Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated vesicle (Sus scrofa) Clathrin recruits auxilins to the clathrin-coated ...
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both been ... 1989). Coated vesicles are involved in the transport ofstorage proteins during seed development in Pisum sativum L. Plant ... 1995). Coated vesicles: a diversity of form and function. FASEB J 9, 1445-1453. ... 1996). Clathrin-coated vesicles in plants. Int. Rev. Cytol 167, 1-35. ...
Coat Protein Golgi Complex Coated Vesicle Vesicular Structure Membrane Traffic These keywords were added by machine and not by ... β-COP, a Coat Protein of Nonclathrin-Coated Vesicles of the Golgi Complex, is Involved in Transport of Vesicular Stomatitis ... 1993) β-COP, a Coat Protein of Nonclathrin-Coated Vesicles of the Golgi Complex, is Involved in Transport of Vesicular ... is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein. Cell 67: 239-253PubMed ...
Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ... Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ... Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ... Actin coating and compression of fused secretory vesicles are essential for surfactant secretion - a role for Rho, formins and ...
There is a surface structure on the coated vesicles of human placenta. Some features of this structure have been examined. ... OCKLEFORD, C D (1976) A three-dimensional reconstruction of the polygonal pattern on placental coated-vesicle membranes. ... A three-dimensional reconstruction of the polygonal pattern on placental coated-vesicle membranes ... A 3-dimensional reconstruction of the vesicle shows the pattern to be one of raised ridges. Use of a goniometer to tilt the ...
Vesicles with COPII coats are found associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes at steady state.11252894 ... One of two multimeric complexes that forms a membrane vesicle coat. COPII is best characterized in S. cerevisiae, where the ...
These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction ... We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis ... Role of cyclin G-associated kinase in uncoating clathrin-coated vesicles from non-neuronal cells.. *T Greener, X Zhao, H Nojima ... 2-25-2003 AP-1 binding to sorting signals and release from clathrin-coated vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation. *Pradipta ...
We visualized the insulin binding structure of coated vesicles by cross-linking 125I-insulin to detergent-solubilized coated ... little if any specific binding of 125I-insulin to coated vesicles is observed in the absence of detergent. However, coated ... Coated vesicles participate in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin. P F Pilch, P F Pilch ... We isolated liver coated vesicles from rats which had received injections of 125I-insulin in the hepatic portal vein. We found ...
Sorting by COP I-coated vesicles under interphase and mitotic conditions. B Sönnichsen, B Sönnichsen ... COP I-coated vesicles were analyzed for their content of resident Golgi enzymes (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; N- ... B Sönnichsen, R Watson, H Clausen, T Misteli, G Warren; Sorting by COP I-coated vesicles under interphase and mitotic ... The levels of these proteins were similar when the vesicles were prepared under interphase or mitotic conditions showing that ...
Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF ... Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles. G Tanigawa, G Tanigawa ... Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles.. J Cell Biol 15 December 1993; ... Trimeric binding of the 70-kD uncoating ATPase to the vertices of clathrin triskelia: a candidate intermediate in the vesicle ...
Gene Set: GO_COATED_VESICLE_MEMBRANE. Standard name. GO_COATED_VESICLE_MEMBRANE. ...
The coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the formation of COPII vesicles, which are responsible for exporting proteins and ... This suggests that cargo recruitment and vesicle packaging are two distinct steps of COPII vesicle formation. Taken together, ... In the particular case of proTGFα, both its recruitment by the COPII machinery and its final packaging into COPII vesicles ... evidence showing that interaction of cargo proteins with the COPII coat is insufficient for packaging into COPII vesicles. ...
... coated vesicles of rodent liver, both at the mature or trans face of the Golgi apparatus and at the cell surface, as well as ... Coated vesicles of mouse liver are surrounded by a zone of exclusion. *. Emmanuel Croze, Dorothy M. Morré ... Spiny-(clathrin-)coated vesicles of rodent liver, both at the mature or trans face of the Golgi apparatus and at the cell ... article{Croze2005CoatedVO, title={Coated vesicles of mouse liver are surrounded by a zone of exclusion}, author={Emmanuel Croze ...
  • Clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) mediate the vesicular transport of cargo such as proteins between organelles in the post-Golgi network connecting the trans-Golgi network, endosomes, lysosomes and the cell membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • The cytosolic yeast proteins Sec13p-Sec31p, Sec23p-Sec24p, and the small GTP-binding protein Sar1p generate protein transport vesicles by forming the membrane coat termed COPII. (nih.gov)
  • Another set of yeast cytosolic proteins, coatomer and Arf1p (COPI), also form coated buds and vesicles from the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • However, both vesicle types are devoid of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins, and each contains targeting proteins necessary for docking at the Golgi complex. (nih.gov)
  • Dyrk1A binds to multiple endocytic proteins required for formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • We then tested whether the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV)-associated proteins could be phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. (nih.gov)
  • The trafficking of proteins within eukaryotic cells is achieved by the capture of cargo and targeting molecules into vesicles that bud from a donor membrane and deliver their contents to a receiving compartment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Distinct coat proteins mediate each budding event, serving both to shape the transport vesicle and to select by direct or indirect interaction the desired set of cargo molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ultrastructural analysis shows that the binding of COPII coat proteins to liposomes results in coated patches, coated buds, and coated vesicles of 50-90 nm in diameter. (nih.gov)
  • These observations suggest that the assembly of the COPII coat on the ER occurs by a sequential binding of coat proteins to specific lipids and that this assembly promotes the budding of COPII-coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoblots of highly purified CCV preparations and immunogold labelling with antibodies to the storage proteins vicilin and legumin, indicate that the dense vesicles, but not the CCV, are involved in storage protein transport in pea cotyledons. (biologists.org)
  • We suggest on the basis of these data that storage proteins and other vacuolar proteins such as acid hydrolases are not sorted by the same mechanism and are transported by different types of vesicles to different types of vacuoles. (biologists.org)
  • Kreis TE (1992) Regulation of vesicular and tubular membrane traffic of the Golgi complex by coat proteins. (springer.com)
  • SDS PAGE of the coated vesicle preparation followed by Coomassie Blue staining of proteins reveals a protein composition also typical of coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • The levels of these proteins were similar when the vesicles were prepared under interphase or mitotic conditions showing that sorting was unaffected. (rupress.org)
  • The average density relative to starting membranes for resident enzymes (14-30%), cargo (16-23%), and recycling proteins (81-125%) provides clues to the function of COP I vesicles in transport through the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • The coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the formation of COPII vesicles, which are responsible for exporting proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (escholarship.org)
  • The core COPII coat consists of five proteins: the small GTPase Sar1, the Sec23/24 heterodimer, and the Sec13/31 heterotetramer. (escholarship.org)
  • Moreover, I present evidence showing that interaction of cargo proteins with the COPII coat is insufficient for packaging into COPII vesicles. (escholarship.org)
  • Thus, these results indicate that the concentration of the MPRs, i.e., the major transmembrane proteins sorted toward the endosomes, determines the number of clathrin-coated vesicles formed in the TGN. (nih.gov)
  • Anderson disease or chylomicron retention disorder (CMRD), 1 a disease characterized by malabsorption of lipids from the diet and accumulation of chylomicrons in the enterocytes, results from mutations in SAR1B , a component of coat protein complex II (COPII)-coated vesicles that bud from the surface of the ER and transport cargo proteins to the Golgi apparatus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The proteins that are to be transported out of the ER are routed to ER exit sites where they are packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The best studied components are the coat proteins, clathrin and adaptor proteins, and the GTPase dynamin. (grantome.com)
  • Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus . (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins travel within the cell inside of transport vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies establish that auxilin and Hsc70 participate in synaptic vesicle recycling in neurons and that an interaction between these proteins is required for CCV uncoating. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Both pathways can be classified according to their cargo, as well as the proteins and lipids involved in vesicle production and trafficking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is initiated at the plasma membrane with the recruitment of coat machinery and cargo proteins into clathrin-coated membrane invaginations the so called clathrin coated pits (CPs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The remaining 70% contain bona fide vesicles: these particles are 75-150 nm in diameter, and their average mass is about 80 MDa, of which 48 MDa is contributed by coat proteins, 10-12 MDa by phospholipid and cholesterol, and 20-22 MDa by vesicle-associated proteins. (umn.edu)
  • NSG1 and NSG2 may not be resident endosomal proteins, and are also known as neuronal vesicle trafficking-associated proteins 1 and 2 respectively [ PMID: 28874679 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Complementary roles of the neuron-enriched endosomal proteins NEEP21 and calcyon in neuronal vesicle trafficking. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These molecular devices consist of coating protein that type membrane layer proteins shipment, BAR-domain protein to feeling or induce membrane layer deformation, the dynamin GTPase for membrane layer scission, and tethers and soluble = 1.62 10?7 and 7.67 10?7, respectively). (techfromastranger.com)
  • Epsins may be the major membrane curvature-driving proteins in many clathrin-coated vesicle budding events. (wikipedia.org)
  • After synaptic vesicle fusion, vesicle proteins are retrieved from the plasma membrane and recycled into new synaptic vesicles to sustain neuronal transmission. (rupress.org)
  • Recycling is thought to be initiated by the recruitment of clathrin to patches of membrane containing synaptic vesicle proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin molecules exist as individual triskelia in the cytoplasm, and are assembled on PM via adaptor and accessary proteins forming a clathrin-coated pit (CCP), which can then be pinched off to become a clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) in the cytoplasm [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • COPI is a coatomer , a protein complex [1] that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they were originally synthesized , and between Golgi compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] [9] The order in which adaptor proteins associate with cargo, or adaptor proteins associate with ARFs is unclear, however, in order to form a mature transport carrier coat protein, adaptor, cargo, and ARF must all associate. (wikipedia.org)
  • COPII: A Membrane Coat Formed by Sec Proteins That Drive Vesicle Budding from the Endoplasmic Reticulum. (dcyphr.org)
  • All three proteins remain on the vesicles. (dcyphr.org)
  • Vesicle formation requires both proteins in vitro. (dcyphr.org)
  • These three proteins are components of the vesicle coat and aid in vesicle synthesis. (dcyphr.org)
  • These vesicles contain membrane-bound proteins that are characteristic of uncoated ER-derived transport vesicles. (dcyphr.org)
  • The Sar1p loss exposes targeting proteins on the vesicle, such as Sec22p and Bos1p. (dcyphr.org)
  • If vesicles form with a nonhydrolyzable analog like GMP-PNP, Sar1p and the COPII proteins remain on the vesicle (Figure 8). (dcyphr.org)
  • The remaining Sar1p and COPII proteins hinder access of the vesicle to the Golgi. (dcyphr.org)
  • Proteins that function in the ER are not included in these vesicles. (dcyphr.org)
  • Vesicles formed with crude cytosolic proteins contain Bos1p, Sec22p, and Ypt1p. (dcyphr.org)
  • The researchers find Sec22p in vesicles formed with pure cytosolic proteins. (dcyphr.org)
  • cytosolic portions of integral membrane proteins interact with the vesicle coat to. (brainscape.com)
  • vesicle SNARE proteins in protein coat accessible in uncoated vesicle (when pinched off) binds to t-SNARE in target memb. (brainscape.com)
  • COPI vesicles transport proteins retrograde between golgi compartments, and from cis-golgi to ER clathrin vesicles transport proteins from plasma membrane and trans-golgi to endosomes (ex. (brainscape.com)
  • assembly of vesicle coat proteins (ex. (brainscape.com)
  • how does the vesicle coat select the right cargo proteins? (brainscape.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves the assembly of a network of proteins that select cargo, modify membrane shape and drive invagination, vesicle scission and uncoating. (ox.ac.uk)
  • COPI is a coatomer that coats the vesicles transporting proteins from the Golgi complex to the ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • COP1 coated vesicles also contain p24 proteins that assist with cargo sorting. (wikipedia.org)
  • COP II vesicles select the proper cargo by directly interacting with ER export signals that are present in transmembrane ER proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comparative analysis of crystal structures of the four human Sec24 isoforms establishes the structural determinants for discrimination among these transport signals, and provides a framework to understand how an expansion of coat subunits extends the range of cargo proteins packaged into COPII-coated vesicles. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition, we show that MP colocalizes in vesicles with the Rab GTPase AtRAB-F2b, which is resident in prevacuolar late endosomal compartments that deliver proteins to the vacuole for degradation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The selective transport of macromolecules between different compartments of the endomembrane system is mediated by coat proteins promoting the generation of small cargo-trafficking coated vesicles ( Spang, 2008 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In fact we believe that clathrin-coated pit formation is initiated when a network of interacting proteins are stabilized by their associations with cargo and PiP2. (endocytosis.org)
  • Outer Membrane Vesicles are enriched with proteins that enhance their invasive abilities, thereby promoting efficient internalization of OMVs at the host interface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several studies are currently focused on uncovering the nature of MSCs secretome [ 17 , 18 ], which consists of both soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and other proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, released within extracellular vesicles. (hindawi.com)
  • Moving molecules, such as proteins, between these compartments is essential for living eukaryotic cells, and these molecules are usually trafficked inside membrane-bound packages called vesicles. (elifesciences.org)
  • Their function is to select cargo for packaging into transport vesicles, and together with membrane-deforming scaffolding proteins such as clathrin and the COPI B-subcomplex, they facilitate the trafficking of proteins and lipids between membrane compartments in the secretory and endocytic pathways. (elifesciences.org)
  • Roles for these vesicles include cell-cell signalling, removal of unwanted proteins, and transfer of pathogens (including prion-like misfolded proteins) between cells. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Because recruitment of proteins in yeasts and mammals culminates in the formation of a transport vesicle, it is logical to assume that this may also be the case for plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have examined the roles of Hsc70 and auxilin in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) during neuronal endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A conserved clathrin assembly motif essential for synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Coated vesicles participate in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin. (rupress.org)
  • Taken together, these data are compatible with a functional role for coated vesicles in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin. (rupress.org)
  • Coated vesicles are pieces of membrane retrieved from the plasmalemma through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (utexas.edu)
  • Oxymetazoline counteracted the action of dopamine on NKA activity, and this effect was achieved not by preventing α-subunit phosphorylation, but by impaired endocytosis of α-subunits into clathrin vesicles and early and late endosomes. (pnas.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major pathway for selective uptake of surface receptors and their bound ligands into cells and the major pathway for synaptic vesicle recycling required to maintain neurotransmission. (grantome.com)
  • Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion ( exocytosis ), uptake ( endocytosis ) and transport of materials within the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans -Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of endocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The absence of an additive effect, when applied together with IKA, suggests that charasome degradation and constitutive endocytosis (measured via styryl dye uptake) is not inhibited due to membrane retrieval via lipid rafts, but due to clathrin coat formation requirement of a specific set of sterols. (frontiersin.org)
  • Endocytosis is essential for the maintenance of synaptic transmission because it recycles and thus prevents complete depletion of synaptic vesicles in the nerve terminal. (jneurosci.org)
  • The electrophysiological and imaging techniques often are capable of monitoring the key feature of endocytosis, the time course of the membrane, or the vesicle protein uptake. (jneurosci.org)
  • To address this question, we targeted dynamin GTPase, which is required to pinch synaptic vesicles from the plasma membrane during endocytosis ( Praefcke and McMahon, 2004 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This acute inhibition strategy provided two particular advantages in assessing the impact of dynamin-dependent vesicle endocytosis on neurotransmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • Epsins contribute to membrane deformations like endocytosis , and block vesicle formation during mitosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Synaptic vesicles must be recycled to sustain neurotransmission, in large part via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • These data suggest that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the main mechanism used by synapses to recycle vesicles after exocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Our data suggest that despite previous predictions, μ2 is not absolutely required for synaptic vesicle endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis plays an important role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle in presynaptic terminals, and in the recycling of transmitter receptors in neuronal soma/dendrites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dynamin is a GTPase implicated in synaptic vesicle endocytosis and here we show that the walls of these membranous tubules, but not their distal ends, were positive for dynamin immunoreactivity. (nih.gov)
  • Evolving nature of the AP2 alpha-appendage hub during clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: Coated vesicle assembly. (endocytosis.org)
  • The research in my laboratory involves investigating the structure and mechanism of clathrin coated vesicle formation during clathrin-mediated endocytosis using a range of structural and biophysical techniques. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • During endocytosis a clathrin-coated vesicle is formed which contains only specifically selected cargo. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • CCVs that bud from the cell membrane reveal a striking polyhedral pattern reminiscent of a fullerene which arises from the outermost protein in the coat, clathrin. (uniprot.org)
  • Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are a stoichiometric coat component of CCVs alongside clathrin itself, and are considered a major clathrin adaptor contributing the CCV formation. (uniprot.org)
  • Clathrin and adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the major components of the coats on clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), but they are not the only components. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • The cycle of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis by a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, cultured non-neural cells may contain a novel protein that binds to microtubules, intermediate filaments, and coated vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Recent findings that protein storage cells contain more than one type of vacuole have necessitated a re-examination of the role of both types of vesicles in vacuolar protein transport. (biologists.org)
  • Duden R, Griffiths G, Frank R, Argos P, Kreis TE (1991) ß-COP, a 110kD protein associated with nonclathrin coated vesicles and cisternae of the Golgi complex shows homology to b-adaptin. (springer.com)
  • Scheel J, Kreis TE (1991) Motor protein independent binding of endocytic carrier vesicles to microtubules in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Serafini T, Orci L, Amherdt M, Brunner M, Kahn RA, Rothman JE (1991) ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) is a subunit of the coat of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles: a novel role for a GTP-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • Waters MG, Serafini T, Rothman JE (1991) "Coatomer": a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles. (springer.com)
  • The transport of the two mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from the secretory pathway to the endocytic pathway is mediated by carrier vesicles coated with the AP-1 Golgi-specific assembly protein and clathrin. (nih.gov)
  • A) Protein profile of the vesicles isolated from mouse fibroblasts after SDSPAGE and silver staining (left). (nih.gov)
  • When analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by protein staining, the dense fractions exhibited the typical protein profile of purified clathrin-coated vesicles (Fig. 6 A). Beside a few contaminants, the clathrin heavy and light chains as well as the different subunits of the APs were easily detected. (nih.gov)
  • CDAII is caused by mutations in the SEC23B gene, which encodes a core component of the coat protein complex II (COPII). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 15 ⇓ - 17 The core components of the COPII coat form 2 layers: an inner layer composed of the monomeric GTP-binding protein Sar1p and the heterodimeric complex Sec23p-Sec24p, and an outer layer formed by the heterotetrameric complex Sec13p-Sec31p. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using these assays, we will pursue three major aims: 1) To quantitatively define factors that regulate clathrin coated pit initiation and maturation in vivo, including cargo, PI4,52, v-SNAREs and AP2 interactions;2) To define the role of SH3 domain-containing dynamin-1 effectors as regulators of dynamin function in CCV formation in vivo and in vitro;and 3) To reconstitute CCV formation from SUPER templates using purified protein components. (grantome.com)
  • Coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles mediate retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as transport within the Golgi. (princeton.edu)
  • Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, as a single transmembrane protein, it is currently not clear how calcyon can regulate the internalization of D1DR from the plasma membrane to endocytic vesicles. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Calcyon is a brain-specific protein, mainly localized in the intracellular endosomal vesicles of dendritic spines in dopamine expressing pyramidal cells in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and dorsal striatum region [ PMID: 11929934 , PMID: 10698743 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Unexpectedly, we provide evidence that the vRNP components and the Rab11 protein are present at the membrane of a modified, tubulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that extends all throughout the cell, and on irregularly coated vesicles (ICVs). (nature.com)
  • Vesicle biogenesis equipment parts such while coating protein may interact with the actin cytoskeleton for shipment working into multiple paths. (techfromastranger.com)
  • The name "COPI" refers to the specific coat protein complex that initiates the budding process on the cis -Golgi membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coat consists of large protein subcomplexes that are made of seven different protein subunits, namely α, β, β', γ, δ , ε and ζ . (wikipedia.org)
  • Coat protein, or COPI, is an ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-dependent protein involved in membrane traffic. (wikipedia.org)
  • COPII vesicles have specific protein packages. (dcyphr.org)
  • Describe the RNA, protein and lipid content of extracellular vesicles. (coursera.org)
  • This module also covers the different RNA, protein and lipid types present in extracellular vesicles as well as a brief overview what the functions of these molecules are. (coursera.org)
  • The coatomer is a protein complex that coats membrane-bound transport vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the COP I protein can coat vesicles on the Golgi membrane, it must interact with a small GTPase called ARF1 (ADP ribosylation factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two similar sets of protein complexes-each containing four different subunits-ensure that the molecules are packaged inside the correct vesicles. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition to their protein content these vesicles have recently been shown to contain genetic material in the form of protein coding (mRNA) and noncoding RNA species. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • We have analysed the protein and genetic cargo of EVs from a number of cell types and using deep sequencing, characterised the RNA cargo of these vesicles. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • The review begins with an article by Federica Brandizzi that provides the necessary molecular background on coat protein complexes in relation to the so-called secretory units model for ER-Golgi transport in highly vacuolated plant cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • HER2-VIA bound HER2 at the plasma membrane, initially activating the downstream kinases extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and Akt, but subsequently inducing receptor internalization in clathrin-coated pits in a HER2 kinase-independent manner, followed by ubiquitination and degradation of HER2 into a 130 kDa fragment phosphorylated at tyrosine residues 1,221/1,222 and 1,248. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CLINT1 protein binds to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and stimulates clathrin cage vesicle assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • COPI- and COPII-coated vesicles bud directly from the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate by thin section and immunoelectron microscopy that purified COPII components form transport vesicles directly from the outer membrane of isolated yeast nuclei. (nih.gov)
  • Formation of COPI-coated, but not COPII-coated, buds and vesicles on the nuclear envelope is inhibited by the fungal metabolite brefeldin A. The two vesicle populations are distinct. (nih.gov)
  • COPII vesicle formation requires only three coat assembly subunits: Sar1p, Sec13/31p, and Sec23/24p. (nih.gov)
  • Vesicles with COPII coats are found associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes at steady state. (zfin.org)
  • The recognition and subsequent packaging of cargo into COPII vesicles is mediated by interaction with the Sec24 subunit. (escholarship.org)
  • The development of a cell-free vesicle budding reaction has facilitated a biochemical analysis of COPII trafficking. (escholarship.org)
  • In the particular case of proTGFα, both its recruitment by the COPII machinery and its final packaging into COPII vesicles require the cooperation of one or more auxiliary cytosolic factors and a transmembrane cargo receptor, Cornichon-1. (escholarship.org)
  • This suggests that cargo recruitment and vesicle packaging are two distinct steps of COPII vesicle formation. (escholarship.org)
  • Taken together, these observations provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of COPII vesicle formation in mammals. (escholarship.org)
  • Mutations in SEC23A , another component of the COPII coat, result in cranio-lenticulo-sutural-dysplasia (CLSD), 2 an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by sutural cataracts, late closure of the cranial fontanelles, skeletal abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. (bloodjournal.org)
  • COPII coat composition and assembly has been extensively studied and well characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (bloodjournal.org)
  • Constituent of COPII-coated endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles. (rcsb.org)
  • tries to understand the roles COPII and COPI play in vesicle budding. (dcyphr.org)
  • Formation of COPII-coated vesicles do not need acyl coenzyme A. (dcyphr.org)
  • Thus, the human genome encodes four forms of Sec24, the cargo selection subunit of the COPII vesicular coat, and this is proposed to increase the range of cargo accommodated by human COPII-coated vesicles. (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, we combined X-ray crystallographic and biochemical analysis with functional assays of cargo packaging into COPII vesicles to establish molecular mechanisms for cargo discrimination by human Sec24 subunits. (rcsb.org)
  • Confocal microscopy confirmed that oxymetazoline prevents incorporation of NKA molecules into clathrin vesicles by inhibiting the ability of dopamine to recruit clathrin to the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The membrane enclosing the vesicle is also a lamellar phase , similar to that of the plasma membrane , and intracellular vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distinction between them may, in view of other finding, reflect a difference between coated vesicles derived respectively from the Golgi and the plasma membrane. (umn.edu)
  • [1] The role of the ENTH domain is to bind membrane lipids which is currently thought to aid in the invagination of the plasma membrane to form clathrin -coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two paralogs, epsin-1 and epsin-2 are members that contribute to the clathrin coated endocytotic machinery and are localized at the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depleting both auxilins cause an approximately 50% reduction in the number of clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane but enhances the association of clathrin and adaptors with intracellular membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using a new scheme based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigate mechanical properties of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). (uthscsa.edu)
  • We model CCVs as multilayered elastic spherical shells and, from AFM measurements, estimate their bending rigidity to be 285 ± 30 k B T, i.e., ∼20 times that of either the outer clathrin cage or inner vesicle membrane. (uthscsa.edu)
  • PrPSc was co-localized with components of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) as well as those of the retromer complex, which are known as machineries for retrograde transport. (hokudai.ac.jp)
  • similar to the size of synaptic vesicles) is considerably smaller than the size of CCVs in soma/dendrites (~ 90 nm). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous immunogold EM studies have demonstrated that unassembled clathrin molecule itself is not visible until many of them assemble to form a coat on CCPs and CCVs [ 7 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Auxilin is a cofactor for Hsc70-mediated uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coatomer coated (COPI) vesicles play a pivotal role for multiple membrane trafficking steps throughout the eukaryotic cell. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Roles of singleton tryptophan motifs in COPI coat stability and vesicle tethering. (princeton.edu)
  • Major progress has been made in defining the structure of COPI coats, in vitro and in vivo, at resolutions as high as 9 Å. (princeton.edu)
  • Nevertheless, important questions remain unanswered, including what specific interactions stabilize COPI coats, how COPI vesicles recognize their target membranes, and how coat disassembly is coordinated with vesicle fusion and cargo delivery. (princeton.edu)
  • Another such sequence is contained within the lasso of the ER-resident Dsl1 complex, where it helps mediate the tethering of Golgi-derived COPI vesicles at the ER membrane. (princeton.edu)
  • Together, our findings suggest that α-COP homo-oligomerization plays a key role in COPI coat stability, with potential implications for the coordination of vesicle tethering, uncoating, and fusion. (princeton.edu)
  • Electron micrograph of in vitro-formed COPI-coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, COPI-coated vesicles keep ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) when the vesicles form with GTP or with GTPγS. (dcyphr.org)
  • They also revealed very diverse mechanisms of interaction between viruses and the highly dynamic organelles of the endomembrane system, such as the nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and vesicles. (nature.com)
  • Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes? (plantphysiol.org)
  • In attempts to attribute pathology of COVID-19 patients directly to tissue damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, investigators have inaccurately reported subcellular structures, including coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and vesiculating rough endoplasmic reticulum, as coronavirus particles. (cdc.gov)
  • Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits ( Coated pits , Cell-membrane ) invaginate and pinch off. (jove.com)
  • Spiny-(clathrin-)coated vesicles of rodent liver, both at the mature or trans face of the Golgi apparatus and at the cell surface, as well as coated pits, are surrounded by a "halo" or zone of exclusion that extends 55-75 nm beyond the membrane of the coated vesicle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we show that darkness-induced degradation of charasomes involves the formation of coated pits and coated vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study uses electron microscopy (EM) and immunogold EM to document the different categories of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) and pits (CCP) in axons compared to soma/dendrites, and the depolarization-induced redistribution of clathrin in these two polarized compartments of the neuron. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coated pits and vesicles were first seen in thin sections of tissue in the electron microscope by Thomas Roth and Keith Porter in 1964. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vesicle released from the cell is known as an extracellular vesicle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretory vesicles hold the enzymes that are used to make the cell walls of plants , protists , fungi , bacteria and Archaea cells as well as the extracellular matrix of animal cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • After a completed course you should be able to: + Discuss the nomenclature and subgroups of extracellular vesicles. (coursera.org)
  • State the benefits and limitations of the most common isolation and characterization techniques for extracellular vesicles. (coursera.org)
  • Describe the release and uptake mechanisms of extracellular vesicles All lectures are given in English. (coursera.org)
  • The course is organized in collaboration between the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV), University of California Irvine (USA), University of Gothenburg (Sweden) and Pohang University of Science and Technology (South Korea). (coursera.org)
  • In this module, we will focus on the biogenesis and release of extracellular vesicles as well as the uptake mechanisms of extracellular vesicles when they are encountered by a recipient cell. (coursera.org)
  • Furthermore, the techniques that are commonly used to detect these molecules as well as databases that can be useful to use when analyzing the cargo of extracellular vesicles will be highlighted. (coursera.org)
  • Right, welcome to this Basics of Extracellular Vesicles talk. (coursera.org)
  • And I'm going to talk about the mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake. (coursera.org)
  • granted this idea that extracellular vesicles are transferred between cells. (coursera.org)
  • All prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells secrete, in an evolutionary conserved way, extracellular vesicles (EVs), i.e., membrane-derived nano- and microvesicles [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed from cells and carry markers of the parent cells. (mendeley.com)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as microvesicles and exosomes, are membranous structures containing bioactive material released by several cells types, including mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). (hindawi.com)
  • Using radiolabeled L-[ 14 C]glutamate, it was shown that D-mannose-coated γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles did not affect high-affinity Na + -dependent uptake, tonic release and the extracellular level of L-[ 14 C]glutamate in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Many cell types, including neurons, release extracellular vesicles (EVs) which include microvesicles and exosomes. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Here, the role of extracellular vesicles in the pathogenesis and potential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases will be discussed. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • In a murine setting, these cells inhibit the aforementioned cells in a variety of ways including the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles derived from activated or apoptotic cells. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Consideration of the surface structure in the light of current understanding of the cell membrane as a dynamic system leads to a possible explanation of the process of vesicle formation in this context and of the selective nature of uptake by micropinocytosis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Glutamate uptake occurs at an early stage of synaptic vesicle recycling. (dbcls.jp)
  • At a much higher concentration (100 μM), IKA also significantly reduces the internalization of styryl dyes, indicating uptake via clathrin-coated vesicles (CV). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SNARE involved in targeting and fusion of ER-derived transport vesicles with the Golgi complex as well as Golgi-derived retrograde transport vesicles with the ER. (uniprot.org)
  • abstract = "Clathrin containing coated vesicles prepared from bovine brain catalyzed ATP-driven proton translocation and a 32Pi-ATP exchange reaction. (elsevier.com)
  • neuronal vesicles which occur in neuronal terminals in which norepinephrine or other catecholamine is the transmitter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The membrane-bound γ-adaptin represents AP-1 bound to the donor compartment as well as AP-1 present in transport vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • In neurons, CME plays an important role in synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling in axon terminals [ 3 , 4 ], preventing unlimited enlargement of surface membrane area due to exocytosis of SVs during stimulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms through which synaptic vesicle membranes are reinternalized after exocytosis remain a matter of debate. (nih.gov)
  • Characterizing chloride-dependent acidification in brain clathrin-coated vesicles 1. (dbcls.jp)
  • Amantadine and related compounds stabilized the structure of purified pig brain clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) at biologically relevant concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • The lipid bilayer surrounding a coated vesicle. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In cell biology , a vesicle is a structure within or outside a cell , consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid bilayer . (wikipedia.org)
  • We visualized the insulin binding structure of coated vesicles by cross-linking 125I-insulin to detergent-solubilized coated vesicles using the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate followed by electrophoresis and autoradiography. (rupress.org)
  • Pearse's main contributions lie in the structure of coated vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report that the amount of AP-1 bound to membranes and associated with clathrin-coated vesicles depends on the expression level of the MPRs and on the integrity of their cytoplasmic domains. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these data suggest AP2 μ2 facilitates but is not essential for synaptic vesicle recycling. (rupress.org)
  • Measurements of the polygonal network seen in surface views have been made and compared with measurements of structures projecting from vesicle walls in median sections. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Electron micrographs of these preparations reveal only the polyhedral structures typical of coated vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • At the morphological level, these fractions contained only spherical structures of ∼50-100 nm in diameter with a coat lattice reminiscent of clathrin-coated vesicles (Fig. 6 B). (nih.gov)
  • Life of a clathrin coat: insights from clathrin and AP structures. (pathwaymaps.com)
  • Gaining this fundamental level of understanding allows us to see if there is a correlation between the biophysical properties and the structures of the vesicles," said Hsia, a professor of biomedical and mechanical engineering at Carnegie Mellon. (phys.org)
  • CryoEM is now producing high-resolution structures of large biomolecules and molecular machines such as chromatin, supercoiled DNA, intracellular vesicles, membrane pores, ion channels, and individual virus particles. (biomedicalcomputationreview.org)
  • When a signal comes down an axon , the synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane releasing the neurotransmitter so that it can be detected by receptor molecules on the next nerve cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunogold labeling of clathrin revealed that in presynaptic terminals under resting conditions, the majority of clathrin molecules are unassembled and concentrated outside of synaptic vesicle clusters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have shown that GTP hydrolysis is coupled to vesicle scission and that on GTP hydrolysis dynamin spirals undergo a length-wise extension in vitro- which we believe drives the vesicle away from the membrane causing lipid fission. (endocytosis.org)
  • Because it is separated from the cytosol , the inside of the vesicle can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have developed quantitative and complementary in vivo and in vitro assays for endocytic clathrin coated vesicle (CCV) formation and will use these to probe the fundamental mechanisms underlying CME. (grantome.com)
  • The in vitro assay utilizes supported lipid bilayers with excess membrane reservoir or 'SUPER'templates, which provide a robust and facile assay system for vesicle formation that is amenable to both biochemical analysis and real-time imaging. (grantome.com)
  • In vivo (pyrogen and hemodynamic studies in rabbits) and in vitro (CH50 hemolytic assay) studies were conducted to determine the safety and tolerability of PEG-coated vesicles. (ubc.ca)
  • Based on these in vitro studies and in vivo rabbit results, a vesicle based kit was developed and tested in a human subject. (ubc.ca)
  • Schmid, SL 1993, ' Coated-vesicle formation in vitro: conflicting results using different assays ', Trends in Cell Biology , vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 145-148. (elsevier.com)
  • Schmid, Sandra L. / Coated-vesicle formation in vitro : conflicting results using different assays . (elsevier.com)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both been implicated in the Golgi-to-vacuole transport step. (biologists.org)
  • Outer membrane vesicles produced by engineered E. coli bacteria, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. (cornell.edu)
  • Incubation of purified CCV for 30 min at 25°C or 37°C caused the release clathrin, as determined by a centrifugation assay, and a reduction in the number of coated vesicles, by electron microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to investigate the heterogeneity of clathrin-coated vesiscle purified from rat liver, and to quantitate rigorously their membrane contents, we have analyzed scanning transmission electron micrographs of unstained coated vesicles before and after extraction with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, as well as of vesicles whose coats had been removed by dialysis against 10mM or 100 mM Tis (pH 8.2). (umn.edu)
  • In electron micrographs of the frog neuromuscular junction, invaginating vesicles at presynaptic terminals are enveloped by a coat ( Heuser and Reese, 1973 ). (rupress.org)
  • Thin section electron microscopy reveal a thick coat around the vesicles. (dcyphr.org)
  • Further analysis reveals a flexible coupling between the clathrin coat and the membrane, a structural property whose modulation may affect vesicle biogenesis and cellular function. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The functional relationship between the Cdc50p-Drs2p putative aminophospholipid translocase and the Arf GAP Gcs1p in vesicle formation in the retrieval pathway from yeast early endosomes to the TGN. (dbcls.jp)
  • Selective membrane recruitment of EEA1 suggests a role in directional transport of clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes. (dbcls.jp)
  • Molecular evolution of the vesicle coat component betaCOP in Toxoplasma gondii. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These findings show that infection with the SARS-associated coronavirus subsequently were corroborated by immunohistochemical, resulted in distinct ultrastructural features: double-mem- immunofluorescent, and serologic assays, by additional brane vesicles, nucleocapsid inclusions, and large granular culture isolates, and by a variety of molecular approaches, areas of cytoplasm. (cdc.gov)
  • Synaptic vesicles are located at presynaptic terminals in neurons and store neurotransmitters . (wikipedia.org)
  • COP-coated Golgi-derived vesicles mediate intra-Golgi transport. (dcyphr.org)
  • Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF hydrolyzes GTP, allowing the uncoated vesicle to fuse. (rupress.org)
  • vesicle transport through interaction with. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Vesicles are involved in metabolism , transport, buoyancy control, [1] and temporary storage of food and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study suggested that calcyon-containing vesicles might transport D1DR by associating calcyon with D1DR through their assembly to clathrin [ PMID: 16595675 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Then, they did a vesicle chase to track vesicle transport. (dcyphr.org)
  • when transport vesicles bud from one membrane and fuse to the next, does the same face of the membrane remain oriented toward the cytosol? (brainscape.com)
  • Because several vesicular transport steps require GTP hydrolysis, GTP-gamma S may help identify intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling. (nih.gov)
  • This unit explains the function of the cytoskeleton and its role in controlling transport of vesicles between different subcellular compartments. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It is followed by an article from David Robinson defending the classical notion that transport occurs via vesicles. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is exclusively expressed in neurons, and localized in moving vesicles and it thought to play a role in brain plasticity [ PMID: 17885599 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Experimental results from the Magee team suggest that some of the most interesting and useful biological cargo of vesicles may be contained in exosomes, the smallest of three major vesicle types, with diameters of approximately 100 nanometers. (phys.org)
  • This review reports on diagnostic or theranostic platforms based on exosomes or exosome-mimetic vesicles, highlighting the diverse preparation, loading and surface modification methods applied, and the results achieved so far. (mdpi.com)
  • Their method uses the versatility and ease of manufacture of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) , which the DeLisa-Putnam partnership has been developing for several years as a way to deliver targeted vaccines - such as the kind Pier has been working on for years at Harvard. (cornell.edu)
  • Their paper, "Immunization With Outer Membrane Vesicles Displaying Conserved Surface Polysaccharide Antigen Elicits Broadly Antimicrobial Antibodies," published March 19 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (cornell.edu)
  • Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria are spherical membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mannose 6-phosphate receptors regulate the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles in the TGN. (nih.gov)
  • Purification of Clathrin-Coated Vesicles from Adult Rat Brain. (dbcls.jp)
  • Analyses performed during the purification procedure demonstrated that the oligomycin-resistant pump was concentrated and highly purified in the fractions containing coated vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • An evolutionary path can be deduced from the earliest origins of the heterotetramer/scaffold coat to its multiple manifestations in modern organisms, including the mammalian muniscins, descendants of the TSET medium subunits. (elifesciences.org)
  • In contrast, spontaneous neurotransmission can be maintained after complete depletion of vesicle pools that sustain evoked neurotransmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cell cycle-dependent changes in Golgi stacks, vacuoles, clathrin-coated vesicles and multivesicular bodies in meristematic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana: a quantitative and spatial analysis. (dbcls.jp)
  • Here, we used a reversible inhibitor of dynamin, dynasore, to dissect the vesicle pool dynamics underlying the three forms of neurotransmitter release in hippocampal GABAergic inhibitory synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • This result lends additional support to the notion that synapses harbor distinct vesicle populations with divergent release properties that maintain independent forms of neurotransmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • In apm-2 mutants, clathrin is mislocalized at synapses, and synaptic vesicle numbers and evoked responses are reduced to 60 and 65%, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • Secretory vesicles contain materials that are to be excreted from the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemicals are stored in secretory vesicles and released when needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones are stored within secretory vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original tracer experiments of Heuser and Reese also revealed that, after heavy stimulation, an endosome-like intracellular structure transiently appears, from which vesicles bud off ( Heuser and Reese, 1973 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • At the synapse, CME is the major pathway for synaptic vesicle recycling and thus for maintaining neurotransmission. (grantome.com)
  • For synaptic vesicle retrieval by this pathway the network is centred around the AP2 adaptor complex. (endocytosis.org)
  • The Magee researchers, led by Yoel Sadovsky, are collecting experimental data on vesicles, and are characterizing their biological and biochemical properties and cargo. (phys.org)
  • Two model systems have recently been developed to reconstitute coated-vesicle budding, and two different biochemical assays are used to detect this event. (elsevier.com)
  • Striking differences in the biochemical requirements for 'coated-vesicle budding' are detected by these two assays, suggesting that two distinct events are being measured. (elsevier.com)
  • The reformed vesicle with a geodesic coat is budded into the cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that dynamin and clathrin act at different sites in the formation of endocytic vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • Budding proceeds without rupture of the donor liposome or vesicle product. (nih.gov)
  • A distinct coat structure appears to be mediating each intracellular vesicle budding. (dcyphr.org)
  • To study budding and vesicle formation, they did an analytical budding assay. (dcyphr.org)