Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 100 kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 2.Clathrin-Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.Adaptor Protein Complex 2: An adaptor protein complex primarily involved in the formation of clathrin-related endocytotic vesicles (ENDOSOMES) at the CELL MEMBRANE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dynamins: A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport: A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Heymann Nephritis Antigenic Complex: A complex of antigenic proteins obtained from the brush border of kidney tubules. It contains two principal components LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-2 and LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN. The name of this complex is derived from researcher, Dr. Walter Heymann, who developed an experimental model of membranous glomerulonephritis (GLOMERULONEPHRITIS) by injecting this antigenic complex into rats to induce an autoimmune response.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Asialoglycoprotein Receptor: A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Adaptor Protein Complex beta Subunits: A family of large adaptin protein complex subunits of approximately 90-130 kDa in size.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Annexin A6: Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.Coated Vesicles: Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Auxilins: A family of proteins that play a role as cofactors in the process of CLATHRIN recycling in cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Monomeric Clathrin Assembly Proteins: A subclass of clathrin assembly proteins that occur as monomers.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dynamin I: A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Adaptor Protein Complex 1: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).PhosphoproteinsHemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type III: A family of highly conserved and widely expressed sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins. They are electrogenic sodium-dependent transporters of phosphate that were originally identified as retroviral receptors in HUMANS and have been described in yeast and many other organisms.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)MaleatesCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Enhancement of endocytosis due to aminophospholipid transport across the plasma membrane of living cells. (1/613)

Formation of intracellular vesicles is initiated by membrane budding. Here we test the hypothesis that the plasma membrane surface area asymmetry could be a driving force for vesicle formation during endocytosis. The inner layer phospholipid number was therefore increased by adding exogenous aminophospholipids to living cells, which were then translocated from the outer to the inner layer of the membrane by the ubiquitous flippase. Addition of either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine led to an enhancement of endocytosis, showing that the observed acceleration does not depend on the lipid polar head group. Conversely, a closely related aminophospholipid that is not recognized by the flippase, lyso-alpha-phosphatidylserine, inhibited endocytosis, and similar results were obtained with a cholesterol derivative that also remains in the plasma membrane outer layer. Thus an increase of lipid concentration in the inner layer enhanced internalization, whereas an increase of the lipid concentration in the outer layer inhibited internalization. These experiments suggest that transient asymmetries in lipid concentration might contribute to the formation of endocytic vesicles.  (+info)

Inhibition of clathrin-coated pit assembly by an Eps15 mutant. (2/613)

Recent data have shown that Eps15, a newly identified component of clathrin-coated pits constitutively associated with the AP-2 complex, is required for receptor-mediated endocytosis. However, its precise function remains unknown. Interestingly, Eps15 contains three EH (Eps15-Homology) domains also found in proteins required for the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast. Results presented here show that EH domains are required for correct coated pit targeting of Eps15. Furthermore, when cells expressed an Eps15 mutant lacking EH domains, the plasma membrane punctate distribution of both AP-2 and clathrin was lost, implying the absence of coated pits. This was further confirmed by the fact that dynamin, a GTPase found in coated pits, was homogeneously redistributed on the plasma membrane and that endocytosis of transferrin, a specific marker of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, was strongly inhibited. Altogether, these results strongly suggest a role for Eps15 in coated pit assembly and more precisely a role for Eps15 in the docking of AP-2 onto the plasma membrane. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that a GFP fusion protein encoding the ear domain of (alpha)-adaptin, the AP-2 binding site for Eps15, was efficiently targeted to plasma membrane coated pits.  (+info)

Direct demonstration of the endocytic function of caveolae by a cell-free assay. (3/613)

The endocytic function of caveolae was challenged by taking advantage of a cell-free assay directly measuring the detachment of receptor-containing vesicles from isolated plasma membranes. Plasma membranes from cultured cells surface-labeled with 125I-cholera toxin (segregating in caveolae) were isolated as described previously. Following incubation of these labeled membranes in the presence of nucleotide(s) and cytosol, a significant proportion of the initially membrane-associated radioactivity was released into the incubation medium in sedimentable form (14*10(6 )g). Results of biochemical, morphological, and fractionation analysis of the material containing the released radioactivity directly demonstrated that caveolae are plasma membrane domains involved in an endocytic process and resulting in the formation of caveolae-derived vesicles. In addition, these studies allowed a direct comparison of caveolae- and clathrin-coated pit-mediated endocytosis and reveal that these two processes diverge in terms of kinetics, cytosol and nucleotide requirements as well as in terms of the density and size of the endocytic vesicles formed.  (+info)

Characterization of the internalization pathways for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. (4/613)

Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel give rise to the most common lethal genetic disease of Caucasian populations, CF. Although the function of CFTR is primarily related to the regulation of apical membrane chloride permeability, biochemical, immunocytochemical, and functional studies indicate that CFTR is also present in endosomal and trans Golgi compartments. The molecular pathways by which CFTR is internalized into intracellular compartments are not fully understood. To define the pathways for CFTR internalization, we investigated the association of CFTR with two specialized domains of the plasma membrane, clathrin-coated pits and caveolae. Internalization of CFTR was monitored after cell surface biotinylation and quantitation of cell surface CFTR levels after elution of cell lysates from a monomeric avidin column. Cell surface levels of CFTR were determined after disruption of caveolae or clathrin-coated vesicle formation. Biochemical assays revealed that disrupting the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles inhibited the internalization of CFTR from the plasma membrane, resulting in a threefold increase in the steady-state levels of cell surface CFTR. In contrast, the levels of cell surface CFTR after disruption of caveolae were not different from those in control cells. In addition, although our studies show the presence of caveolin at the apical membrane domain of human airway epithelial cells, we were unable to detect CFTR in purified caveolae. These results suggest that CFTR is constitutively internalized from the apical plasma membrane via clathrin-coated pits and that CFTR is excluded from caveolae.  (+info)

Cutting edge: receptor-mediated endocytosis of heat shock proteins by professional antigen-presenting cells. (5/613)

Immunization with heat shock proteins (HSPs) induces Ag-specific CTL responses. The specificity of the immune response is based on peptides associated with HSPs. To investigate how exogenous HSP/peptide complexes gain access to the MHC class I-restricted Ag presentation pathway, we incubated the monocytic cell line P388D1 and the dendritic cell line D2SC/1 with gold-labeled HSPs gp96 and HSC70. We show that HSPs bind specifically to the surface of these APCs and are internalized spontaneously by receptor-mediated endocytosis, demonstrating the existence of specific receptors for HSPs on these cells. In addition, we observe colocalization of internalized HSPs and surface MHC class I molecules in early and late endosomal structures. These findings provide possible explanations for the immunogenicity of HSP/peptide complexes and for the transfer of HSP-associated peptides onto MHC class I molecules.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced internalization of the human B2 receptor requires phosphorylation of three serine and two threonine residues at its carboxyl tail. (6/613)

The binding of bradykinin (BK) to B2 receptor triggers the internalization of the agonist-receptor complex. To investigate the mechanisms and the receptor structures involved in this fundamental process of receptor regulation, the human B2 receptor was mutated within its cytoplasmic tail by complementary strategies of truncation, deletion, and amino acid substitution. Ligand binding, signal transduction, internalization as well as phosphorylation were studied for the mutated receptors expressed in COS, CHO, and HEK 293 cells. Truncation of 44 out of 55 amino acid residues of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail corresponding to positions 321-364 did not alter the kinetics of BK binding and the receptor coupling to phospholipase C and phospholipase A2. By contrast, truncations after positions 320 and 334, deletions within the segment covering positions 335-351, as well as alanine substitution of serine and threonine residues within segment 335-351 diminished the internalization capacity of the mutant receptors. Mutants with a markedly reduced internalization potential failed to produce BK-induced receptor phosphorylation suggesting that phosphorylation may be involved in receptor internalization. The mutagenesis approaches converged at the conclusion that three serines in positions 339, 346, and 348 and two threonines in positions 342 and 345, contained in a sequence segment that is highly conserved between species, have a critical role in the ligand-dependent internalization and phosphorylation of kinin receptors and can intervene in these processes in an alternative manner. However, mutants lacking these residues were still sensitive to dominant-negative forms of beta-arrestin and dynamin, suggesting the existence of additional receptor structure(s) involved in the receptor sequestration through clathrin-coated vesicles.  (+info)

Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. (7/613)

Although interactions between the mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 and tyrosine-based internalization motifs have been implicated in the selective recruitment of cargo molecules into coated pits, the functional significance of this interaction for endocytosis of many types of membrane proteins remains unclear. To analyze the function of mu2-receptor interactions, we constructed an epitope-tagged mu2 that incorporates into AP-2 and is targeted to coated pits. Mutational analysis revealed that Asp176 and Trp421 of mu2 are involved in the interaction with internalization motifs of TGN38 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Inducible overexpression of mutant mu2, in which these two residues were changed to alanines, resulted in metabolic replacement of endogenous mu2 in AP-2 complexes and complete abrogation of AP-2 interaction with the tyrosine-based internalization motifs. As a consequence, endocytosis of the transferrin receptor was severely impaired. In contrast, internalization of the EGF receptor was not affected. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the dominant-interfering approach for functional analysis of the adaptor protein family, and indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis may proceed in both a mu2-dependent and -independent manner.  (+info)

Functional properties of leptin receptor isoforms: internalization and degradation of leptin and ligand-induced receptor downregulation. (8/613)

Long (ObRb) and short (ObRa) leptin receptor isoforms are thought to play essential roles in mediating leptin signaling and the transport and degradation of leptin, respectively. Although the capacity of these cloned receptor species to mediate signal transduction has been reported, there is no information on the ability of individual receptor species to mediate leptin internalization and degradation or to undergo ligand-induced downregulation. We therefore studied these parameters in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing either ObRa or ObRb isoforms of the leptin receptor. We determined that both ObRa and ObRb mediated internalization of 125I-labeled leptin by a temperature- and coated pit-dependent mechanism. Both ObRa and ObRb also mediated degradation of 125I-leptin by a lysosomal mechanism, and this was more efficiently mediated by ObRa in these cells. Neither leptin internalization nor degradation by ObRa was affected by mutation of the conserved Box 1 motif. By studying deletion mutants of ObRa, we found that efficient internalization was dependent on a motif located between amino acids 8 and 29 of the intracellular domain of ObRa. Exposure of cells expressing ObRa or ObRb to unlabeled leptin for 90 min at 37 degrees C produced downregulation of available surface receptors, and this effect was of greater magnitude in cells expressing ObRb. Whereas CHO cells expressing the growth hormone receptor showed marked downregulation of ligand binding after exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) or phorbol myristic acid (PMA), PMA had no effect on expression of ObRa or ObRb, and DEX reduced binding to cells expressing ObRb by 15%. Thus, the two leptin receptor isoforms, ObRa and ObRb, mediate leptin internalization by a coated pit-dependent mechanism, leptin degradation by a lysosomal pathway, and ligand-induced receptor downregulation. The differential capacity of the two receptor isoforms may relate to the different roles of the receptor isoforms in the biology of leptin.  (+info)

*Endocytosis

... are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. Coated pits can ... This large protein assists in the formation of a coated pit on the inner surface of the plasma membrane of the cell. This pit ... of the plasma membrane of a fibroblast is made up of coated pits. As a coated pit has a life of about a minute before it buds ... Gaidarov I, Santini F, Warren RA, Keen JH (May 1999). "Spatial control of coated-pit dynamics in living cells". Nature Cell ...

*Endocytic cycle

... coated pits 'bud in' from all over the cell's surface in a random fashion and the returned membrane is exocytosed at the cell's ... Endocytosis by coated pits occurs, as in stationary cells, at random. But in motile cells exocytosis now occurs at the front of ... A key protein required for endocytosis is dynamin: It assists in budding a coated pit into a cell to form a coated vesicle. ... The main route of endocytosis is the coated pit, which buds into a cell to form a cytoplasmic vesicle-clathrin-coated vesicle. ...

*List of MeSH codes (A11)

... coated pits, cell-membrane MeSH A11.284.149.165.175.160 - caveolae MeSH A11.284.149.165.355 - glycocalyx MeSH A11.284.149.165. ... k562 cells MeSH A11.251.860.180.750 - pc12 cells MeSH A11.251.860.180.880 - u937 cells MeSH A11.284.149.165 - cell membrane ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ...

*Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Budding of the plasma membrane then occurs, forming a clathrin coated pit.[1] Other receptors can nucleate a clathrin-coated ... The cargo ligand and receptor will then recruit adaptor proteins and clathrin triskelions to the outside membrane of the cell ... A mature pit will be cleaved from the plasma membrane through the use of membrane binding and fission proteins such as dynamin ... "Cell. 166 (4): 907-919. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.004. PMC 5418658. PMID 27499021.. ...

*Cytosis

Endocytosis is when a cell absorbs molecules, such as proteins, from outside the cell by engulfing it with the cell membrane. ... The particles are absorbed through the use of clathrin coated pits. These clathrin coated pits are short lived and serve only ... but also add and subtract membrane from the cell's plasma membrane. The surface area of the membrane is determined[citation ... The clathrin coated pit invaginates into the cytosol and forms a clathrin coated vesicle. The clathrin proteins will then ...

*Cap formation

He and Hopkins showed that the specific membrane endocytosed by coated pits on motile cells is returned by exocytosis to the ... This led him to propose that, as a cell moves, membrane from internal stores is added at the front of the cell-enabling the ... Bretscher, MS (1996). "Getting Membrane Flow and the Cytoskeleton to Cooperate in Moving Cells". Cell. 87 (4): 601-606. doi: ... 1996). "Actin-Based Cell Motility and Cell Locomotion". Cell. 84 (3): 371-379. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81281-7. PMID 8608590 ...

*Michael Stuart Brown

"A mutation that impairs the ability of lipoprotein receptors to localise in coated pits on the cell surface of human ... "Regulated step in cholesterol feedback localized to budding of SCAP from ER membranes". Cell. 102 (3): 315-23. doi:10.1016/ ... Goldstein JL, Anderson RG, Brown MS (Jun 1979). "Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis". Nature. 279 ... "Depletion of intracellular potassium arrests coated pit formation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in fibroblasts". Cell. 33 ( ...

*Vesicular transport adaptor protein

"The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 (3): 495-507. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.047. PMC ... An almost universal feature of coat assembly is the recruitment of the various adaptor complexes to the "donor" membrane by the ... Another almost universal feature of coat assembly is that the adaptors are recruited first, and they then recruit the coats. ... Part 2: Lipid rafts as a membrane organizing principle Part 3: Biogenesis of glycolipid-rich apical membranes. ...

*Майкл Стюарт Браун - Вікіпедія

Cell. 1978 Nov; 15 (3) :919-33. [11] Coated pits, coated vesicles, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Nature. 1979 Jun 21; 279 ... Cell. 1994 Apr 8; 77 (1) :53-62 [48] Sterol-regulated release of SREBP-2 from cell membranes requires two sequential cleavages ... Cell. 1977 Nov; 12 (3) :629-41. [9] A mutation that impairs the ability of lipoprotein receptors to localise in coated pits on ... Cell. 1983 Mar; 32 (3) :941-51. [19] Depletion of intracellular potassium arrests coated pit formation and receptor-mediated ...

*Arrestin

Increased accessibility of these sites in receptor-bound arrestin targets the arrestin-receptor complex to the coated pit. ... Arrestins shuttle between cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Their nuclear functions are not fully understood, but it was shown that ... Active phosphorylated GPCRs recruit arrestin to the plasma membrane. Receptor binding induces a global conformational change ... which promotes receptor internalization via coated pits and subsequent transport to internal compartments, called endosomes. ...

*Alpha-tubulin N-acetyltransferase

... or the clathrin coated-pit in the membrane. This is closely related to one of its main functions which is the catalysis of ... cell division, cellular morphogenesis and force production in eukaryotic cells. There is a constant modulation of the balance ... Cell. 157 (6, p1405-1415, 5 June 2014): 1405-1415. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.061. PMC 4726456 . PMID 24906155. Friedmann, DR; ... Cell. 136 (3): 551-564. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.043. PMID 19185337. Kalebic, Nereo; Sorrentino, Simona; Perlas, Emerald; ...

*Ricin

Moya M, Dautry-Varsat A, Goud B, Louvard D, Boquet P (August 1985). "Inhibition of coated pit formation in Hep2 cells blocks ... The profuse binding of ricin to surface membranes allows internalization with all types of membrane invaginations. The ... Nichols BJ, Lippincott-Schwartz J (October 2001). "Endocytosis without clathrin coats". Trends Cell Biol. 11 (10): 406-12. doi: ... RTB has been shown to bind to the cell surface on the order of 106-108 ricin molecules per cell surface. ...

*Patching and Capping

... the ligand-receptor complex accumulates in the coated pits. In many cells these pits and complexes begin to concentrate in one ... The aggregation of fluorescently tagged antibodies that are associated with proteins on membranes of living cells. The ... Immunofluorescence Patching and Capping: Plasma Membrane Protein Redistribution Patching and Capping: Plasma Membrane Protein ... the patches coalesce to form a cap at one pole of the cell (capping). Not all cells form caps, but most do form patches. The ...

*Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor

... "coated pit," where such units are concentrated and then stabilized by a framework of clathrins. A pinched-off coated pit is ... For a cell to respond to FSH, only a small percentage (~1%) of receptor sites need to be activated.[citation needed] Cyclic AMP ... Upregulation refers to the increase in the number of receptor sites on the membrane. Estrogen upregulates FSH receptor sites. ... DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the ...

*VLDL receptor

The NPxY motif functions in signal transduction and the targeting of receptors to coated pits and consists of the sequence ... in the non-lipid raft sections of cell membranes. Unlike LDLR, VLDLR does not exhibit any feedback mechanism, and hence ... In general, lipoprotein receptors undergo a process by which they are endocytosed with their ligand into clathrin-coated pits. ... Endocytosis is mediated through NPxY sequences known to signal for receptor internalization through clathrin-coated pits. The ...

*AMPA receptor

... allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell membrane and become a cytoplasmic vesicle. Once the clathrin coat ... The complex, consisting of a clathrin-coated pit underneath a section of AMPAR-containing plasma membrane and interacting ... The Ca2+ that enters the cell triggers the upregulation of AMPARs to the membrane, which results in a long-lasting increase in ... Intracellular AMPARs are subsequently sorted for degradation by lysosomes or recycling to the cell membrane. For the latter, ...

*Low-density lipoprotein

LDL receptors are inserted into the plasma membrane and diffuse freely until they associate with clathrin-coated pits. When LDL ... the clathrin-coated pits are endocytosed into the cell. Vesicles containing LDL receptors bound to LDL are delivered to the ... When a cell requires additional cholesterol (beyond its current internal HMGCoA production pathway), it synthesizes the ... LDL receptors are typically returned to the plasma membrane, where they repeat this cycle. If LDL receptors bind to PCSK9, ...

*AMPA receptor

... allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell membrane and become a cytoplasmic vesicle.[63] Once the clathrin coat ... consisting of a clathrin-coated pit underneath a section of AMPAR-containing plasma membrane and interacting proteins, is the ... The Ca2+ that enters the cell triggers the upregulation of AMPARs to the membrane, which results in a long-lasting increase in ... "Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.057. PMC 2585749 . PMID 18984164.. ...

*Lassa virus

The cleaved glycoproteins are incorporated into the virion envelope when the virus buds and release from the cell membrane.[23] ... Unlike most enveloped viruses which use clathrin coated pits for cellular entry and bind to their receptors in a pH dependent ... The main targets of the virus are antigen-presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells) and endothelial cells.[25][26][27] In 2012 ... The Lassa virus gains entry into the host cell by means of the cell-surface receptor the alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG),[18] a ...

*Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor

A pinched-off coated pit is internalized and degraded by lysosomes. Proteins may be metabolized or the receptor can be recycled ... neuroendocrine cells, and (rat) brain. Upregulation refers to the increase in the number of receptor sites on the membrane. ... The LHCGR is present on granulosa cells, theca cells, luteal cells, and interstitial cells The LCGR is restimulated by ... The bound LCGR complex is brought by lateral migration to a coated pit, where such units are concentrated and then stabilized ...

*Cell membrane

Peripheral membrane protein/Lipid-anchored protein. Other. *Caveolae/Coated pits. *Cell junctions ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900),[13] plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some ... Intracellular membranes. The content of the cell, inside the cell membrane, is composed of numerous membrane-bound organelles, ... The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement ...

*Hussein Naim

269, 3928-3933 Apical and basolateral coated pits of MDCK cells differ in their rates of maturation into coated vesicles, but ... J. Cell Biol. 142, 51-57. Tyrosine-based Membrane Protein Sorting Signals Are Differentially Interpreted by Polarized Madin- ... Cell. Neurosci. 17, 855-871 Measles virus spreads in rat hippocampal neurons by cell-to-cell contact and in a polarized fashion ... Hussein Naim is a Lebanese-Swiss biochemist and molecular virologist, known for his research in cell biology (membrane protein ...

*Muniscins

"The first five seconds in the life of a clathrin-coated pit". Cell. 150 (3): 495-507. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.047. PMC ... is thought to help curve the membrane as the clathrin coated pit forms. The muniscins are early arriving proteins involved in ... "Intersectin 1 forms complexes with SGIP1 and Reps1 in clathrin-coated pits". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Robinson MS (2015). "Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles". Traffic. 16 (12): 1210-38. doi:10.1111/tra.12335. PMID 26403691 ...

*Pinocytosis

The clathrin-coated pits occupy about 2% of the surface area of the cell and only last about a minute, with an estimated 2500 ... The clathrin coats are lost almost immediately, and the membrane is subsequently recycled to the cell surface. Macropinosome ... which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, ... a process in which small particles are taken in by a cell by splitting off small vesicles from the cell surface. Cationic ...

*Photoactivated localization microscopy

... whereas STORM has allowed imaging of faster processes such as membrane diffusion of clathrin coated pits or mitochondrial ... "Dynamic clustered distribution of hemagglutinin resolved at 40 nm in living cell membranes discriminates between raft theories ... Cell. 143 (7): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.12.002. PMC 3272504 . PMID 21168201. Shtengel, Gleb and Galbraith, James A. and ... A number of works have been published as early as 2007 performing PALM/STORM on live cells. The ability to perform live super- ...

*Barbara Pearse

Pearse, B. M. (1988). "Receptors compete for adaptors found in plasma membrane coated pits". The EMBO Journal. 7 (11): 3331-6. ... She was visiting professor in cell biology at Stanford University (1984-5). She was elected a member of European Molecular ... Pearse first purified coated vesicles; she also discovered the clathrin coat molecule in 1975. Coated pits and vesicles were ... doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(75)80024-6. Pearse, B. M. F.; Bretscher, M. S. (1981). "Membrane Recycling by Coated Vesicles". Annual ...

*Lassa fever

Gloves, masks, laboratory coats, and goggles are advised while in contact with an infected person, to avoid contact with blood ... The "Swollen baby syndrome" occurs in newborns, infants and toddlers with pitting edema, abdominal distension and hemorrhage.[6 ... It is possible to acquire the infection through broken skin or mucous membranes that are directly exposed to infectious ... Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include lymphocytopenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelets ...

*AP1M1

"Nef-mediated clathrin-coated pit formation". The Journal of Cell Biology. 139 (1): 37-47. doi:10.1083/jcb.139.1.37. PMC 2139808 ... transports mannose-6-phosphate receptor to plasma membrane through direct interaction with AP-1 complex". Cell. 103 (4): 569-81 ... "A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4". Current ... "A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells". Cell. 99 (2): 189-98. doi: ...
During clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it has been thought that the sensing and binding of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 to cargo and lipids leads to the recruitment of clathrin, nucleating the formation of a clathrin-coated pit. Henne et al. have now found that this process of AP2 binding may not in fact represent either the first or the nucleation event of endocytosis. Instead, ubiquitous proteins called FCHo1/2 (F-BAR proteins) bind to the plasma membrane and define the sites of endocytosis independently of AP2. The F-BAR protein can generate very low curvatures and, at higher concentrations, generates higher curvatures like those required at the neck of budding vesicles. The C terminus of the protein has a μ-homology domain (with homology to the μ domain of the AP2 complex) that interacts with Eps15 and intersectin and via these proteins recruits AP2, which further recruits clathrin. Thus, a curvature-inducing protein can act to nucleate clathrin-coated pit assembly during ...
To complement studies that have demonstrated the prominent phosphorylation of a 50-kD coated vesicle polypeptide in vitro, we have evaluated the phosphorylation of coated membrane proteins in intact cells. A co-assembly assay has been devised in which extracts of cultured rat sympathetic neurons labeled with [32P]-Pi were combined with unlabeled carrier bovine brain coat proteins and reassembled coat structures were isolated by gradient centrifugation. Two groups of phosphorylated polypeptides, of 100-110 kD (pp100-110) and 155 kD (pp155) apparent molecular mass, were incorporated into reassembled coats. The neuronal pp100-110 are structurally and functionally related to the 100-110-kD component of the bovine brain assembly protein (AP), a protein complex that also contains 50-kD and 16.5-kD components and is characterized by its ability to promote the reassembly of clathrin coat structures under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength (Zaremba, S. and J. H. Keen, 1983, J. Cell Biol., ...
Looking for coated pit? Find out information about coated pit. A cell surface depression that is coated with clathrin on its cytoplasmic surface and functions in receptor-mediated endocytosis Explanation of coated pit
Coated pit: …of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes,…
Glyvuk et al (2010) argue that the CME of SV membranes represents a kinetic bottleneck of the recycling pathway. Under conditions of sustained activity BE provides a compensatory mechanism to balance high exocytic load with matching endocytic activity. Vacuolar membrane invaginations are then consumed by undefined budding events that chop these membranes into small vesicles that may re‐enter the SV cycle (Figure 1A). It is this consumption step that the authors envision to depend on AP‐1/σ1B (Figure 1B). The experimental evidence for this model at present remains indirect. AP‐1, as its relative AP‐2, is one of the major recruitment factors for clathrin and loss of either protein complex results in depletion of clathrin‐coated pits from TGN/endosomes or the plasmalemma, respectively. Why then do AP‐1/σ1B‐KO mice accumulate clathrin‐coated pits on endosome‐like vacuoles? One possibility is that other σ1 isoproteins such as σ1A do a poor job in functionally replacing σ1B on ...
The structure of the appendage domain of β2 adaptin is similar to that of α‐adaptin in that it has two subdomains with similar topology, but with a difference of ∼46° in the orientation between the two subdomains. Like the α‐appendage, the β2‐appendage domain binds AP180, epsin and eps15, and therefore is likely to be involved in recruiting proteins involved in controlling CCV formation to sites of coated pit formation in vivo. The two proteins possess a partly conserved binding site of high hydrophobic potential on the C‐terminal platform domain, suggesting that they bind similar motifs i.e. DΦF/W. The binding site residues are also conserved in β1‐adaptin from the adaptor AP1, so this homologue would be predicted to bind the same ligands as β2. Indeed, a GSTβ1 appendage construct does bind to eps15, and weakly to clathrin and epsin (data not shown). Although the α and β2 appendages share some of the same ligands, they bind to them with different relative affinities: the ...
Trading pits are home to risky business / Its every man for himself in commodities In between are 270 minutes of organized mayhem as New York Mercantile Exchange traders scream across a pit, wave their arms and shove each other for position in that cruelest and most unpredictable of financial arenas -- the global commodities markets. Almost all are men, and some are so hooked on life on the edge that if the market gets slow, they will head for the traders lounge for a $500-a-hand poker game. People say Ive got a great job because its just 4 1/2 hours a day, but Im getting yelled at, spit on, elbowed, pushed; I mean its tough in there, says Beau Roffman, a 44-year-old trader from Monmouth Beach, N.J., during a 50- minute lunch break. Roffman, a soft-spoken Grateful Dead fan, has survived 20 years in the crude oil futures pit. From 1986 to 1990, the price of a barrel of light, sweet crude oil stayed between $15 and $20 in constant dollars. An oil company pumps crude out of the ground in
Ball pits are colorful, fun and ... crawling with germs, according to a study published late last month in the American Journal of Infection Control.
Yasmin Young of the 2 to 6 Takeover will be hosting Stand Up for Pits at Helium Comedy Club this Sunday! Get the details here!
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Ford, M.G.J., Mills, I.G., Peter, B.J., Vallis, Y., Praefcke, G.J.K., Evans, P.R. and McMahon, H.T. (2002) Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin. Nature 419: 361-366 (abstract). (.pdf) supplemental data. (see also News and Views and highlights in Nature Cell Biology, Nature reviews in molecular cell biology, and a mini review in Cell (Cell October 18, 2002: 111 (2):143-146)(summary) ...
Well dogs off the streets can snap at any time. those breeds arent safe. look at the news.. of course responded with the fact that most pits in the news arent really pits and if you looked at a picture or DNA tested now theyre probably actually a lab mix.. and if youre going to make that argument that thats like saying any kid that grew up on the streets is going to shoot someone just because of where they came from. I also brought up that in true street pits and fighting pit rings that dogs that are human aggressive were worth nothing to their owners. if they got bit and had to go to the hospital and had to explain what happened multiple times people got suspicous ...
I have never seen a dog affect so many peoples lives. From my 80 year old grandmother to proud pit bull haters. One by one Chubbs won them over one by one with his happy-go-lucky attitude, super smile and gentleness. Chubbs is the reason I became a pit bull owner myself. I was a little apprehensive when my cousin told me he was going to get a pit bull for his family. After meeting Chubby, he inspired me to start researching the breed. What I found shocked me! Pit bulls are great dogs! I now am the proud owner of my Layla ...
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The battle of South Aliso Street began with a low growl in the underbrush and a sudden attack by three pit bulls, city Councilman Brian Barnwell recalls. One bit deeply into his foot, another ripped
Review: Doctor Who meets Doom3 - This was an excellent 2-part episode, although I had never been seen the older ones, I never thought the doctor would...
We were at a play centre today and I noticed a girl, around 5yr pushing a young boy around 2yrs (It was in the ball pit part). I went in to see if I could help and then noticed my 4.5yr old kicking this boy! (For no reason) I asked the - page 5
To assess the role of clathrin in the bulk endocytic flow of rat foetal fibroblasts, the rate of internalization of fluid-phase and membrane-lipid tracers were compared, under control conditions and after inhibition of endocytic clathrin-coated pit formation. After intracellular potassium depletion or upon cell transfer into 0.35 M NaCl, the rate of internalization of receptor-bound transferrin and the residual membrane area of plasmalemmal clathrin-coated pits and vesicles were similarly decreased by approximately 90%. In contrast, the initial rate (, 5 min) of intracellular accumulation of the fluid-phase tracer HRP was not affected. Both in control and treated cells, the rate of HRP accumulation declined after approximately 5 min, and was twofold lower in treated cells, due to enhanced regurgitation. After correction for regurgitation, the endocytic rate constant was similar to measurements at shorter intervals and identical in control and treated cells. Similarly, the rate of internalization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycoproteins of coated pits, cell junctions, and the entire cell surface revealed by monoclonal antibodies and immunoelectron microscopy.. AU - Murphy, T. L.. AU - Decker, G.. AU - August, Thomas. PY - 1983/8. Y1 - 1983/8. N2 - Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. A glycoprotein of Mr 80,000 was distributed throughout the total cell surface. A second of Mr 90,000 was concentrated in coated pits, and a third of Mr 100,000 was localized at cell junctions.. AB - Topographical descriptions of three major plasma membrane glycoproteins of murine 3T3 cells were obtained by immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies. A glycoprotein of Mr 80,000 was distributed throughout the total cell surface. A second of Mr 90,000 was concentrated in coated pits, and a third of Mr 100,000 was localized at cell junctions.. UR - ...
Characterization of clathrin-coated vesicles isolated from MPR-deficient fibroblasts. The material contained in fractions 8 to 10 of the density gradients sho
The 3-layer or Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) version of the popular 5-layer Hydrogen/Oxygen MEA, this high performance Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) is used where performance and efficiency is critical and when you need a free-floating GDL layer. It can be used in Hydrogen/Air or Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells. The standard configuration features a high Platinum loading (4 mg/cm²) and a 0.005" membrane (Nafion® 115). Custom sizes and configurations are also available with no minimum order quantities and short lead times even for custom configurations.. ...
A broad irregular penannular ring ditch, possibly a henge, and pits are visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs. The internal diameter of the enclosure is 43m and the external diameter is between 58m and 65m. The enclosure is defined by a broad and very irregular ditch which measures between 5m and 14m wide. There is an entrance, 12m wide, which faces north-east roughly in the direction of the contour, and towards the river Avon. A line of eight pits curves around part of the enclosure, facing the entrance. More possible pits, possibly forming part of a circle around the enclosure, are situated on the east and south sides of the enclosure . Another pit is situated within the south east part of the enclosure. Yet more possible pits, situated between 20m and 70m to the south west of the enclosure, may be associated features. There are a number of potentially confusing geological cropmarks in the area. It is therefore possible that some of the pits could be natural, or that some man-made pits in ...
Guarda Foto stock di Crosssection Of The Gastric Or Stomach Epithelium Showing The Numerous Gastric Pits On The Surface Of The Mucosa Sem. Cerca foto premium ad alta risoluzione su Getty Images.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Clathrin interactor 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
The latest tips and news on Pit Bulls are on POPSUGAR Pets. On POPSUGAR Pets you will find everything you need on pets and Pit Bulls.
Is your pit bull in good health and you want to make sure he stays that way? Or perhaps your companion is getting older and youre wondering if there is anything you can do to reduce the risk of illness during her senior years?
There are many dangers when working on a dairy, from working with machinery to animals, it is essential to stress safety with employees
Assembly protein recruiting clathrin and adapter protein complex 2 (AP2) to cell membranes at sites of coated-pit formation and clathrin-vesicle assembly. May be required to determine the amount of membrane to be recycled, possibly by regulating the size of the clathrin cage. Involved in AP2-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the neuromuscular junction. Plays a crucial role in fetal and adult hematopoiesis, and normal prenatal and postnatal growth and viability.
Internalization of cargo proteins and lipids at the cell surface occurs in both a constitutive and signal-regulated manner through clathrin-mediated and other endocytic pathways. Clathrin-coated vesicle formation is a principal uptake route in response to signalling events. Protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions control both the targeting of signalling molecules and their binding partners to membrane compartments and the assembly of clathrin coats. An emerging aspect of membrane trafficking research is now addressing how signalling cascades and vesicle coat assembly and subsequently disassembly are integrated.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves cargo selection and membrane budding into vesicles with the aid of a protein coat. Formation of invaginated pits on the plasma membrane and subsequent budding of vesicles is an energetically demanding process that involves the cooperation of clathrin with many different proteins. Here we investigate the role of the brain-enriched protein epsin 1 in this process. Epsin is targeted to areas of endocytosis by binding the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). We show here that epsin 1 directly modifies membrane curvature on binding to PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in conjunction with clathrin polymerization. We have discovered that formation of an amphipathic alpha-helix in epsin is coupled to PtdIns(4,5)P(2) binding. Mutation of residues on the hydrophobic region of this helix abolishes the ability to curve membranes. We propose that this helix is inserted into one leaflet of the lipid bilayer, inducing curvature. On lipid monolayers epsin alone is
The major challenge in membrane filtration is fouling which reduces the membrane performance. Fouling is mainly due to the adhesion of foulants on the membrane surfaces. In this work, we studied the fouling behaviour of polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) isoporous membrane and the mussel inspired polydopamine/L-cysteine isoporous zwitterionic membrane. Polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) isoporous membranes were fabricated via self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation method. Subsequently, the isoporous membrane was modified by a mild mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) coating; the isoporous surface structure and the water flux was retained. Zwitterionic L-cysteine was further anchored on the PDA coated membranes via Michael addition reaction at pH 7 and 50 °C to alleviate their antifouling ability with foulants solution. The membranes were thoroughly characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c, c, and d. This gene is one of four genes in man and mouse that encode different isoforms of the a subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. Mutations in this gene are associated with renal tubular acidosis associated with preserved hearing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Housing bans are preventing pits at the shelter from finding homes, and that is truly sad. But many residents of NYCHA claim that the pits that live in their buildings are being abused, trained for fighting, and bred for profit. The ban and the breed-specific neutering/spaying proposals would ideally save dogs lives in the long run, while unfortunately creating more suffering in the short term. As much as I love this breed, I want to see them thrive with good homes. I want to stop seeing heart breaking stories about them. I think the best way to achieve this is to bring them back to being the reliable family pet, and not allowing them to be abused, over-bred, and tortured by thugs. Without allowing them to over-breed, we can bring the pit bull back from the inner-city back into the suburbs, where I am sure they will live longer healthier lives ...
PIT RULES USED FOR CONTESTS DECIDING THE GAMER OF TWO DOGS (GAME = PLUCKY, UNYIELDING IN MANNER, READY AND WILLING) Rule 1: The principals shall select a referee who is familiar with the rules and who is satisfactory to both sides. The referee will then appoint his Timekeeper. Each handler will select a man to act as his chief second or cornerman, whose duties are to wash the opponents dog, and to remain near this dogs corner as an observer. Rule 2: Each handler is to furnish two clean towels and a suitable blanket, to be used by his opponent. Either handler may demand that the opposing handler and his cornerman bare their arms to the elbows; also the handler may taste his opponents dogs water before or after the contest (up until the referee has rendered his decision on the contest). Rule 3: No water, sponges, towels or any other accessories are allowed in the pit at any time, except the referee who shall have in his possession an adequate breaking stick and a pencil; also a copy of these ...
City Inspector Jeremy Crowe said the recreational fires must be contained in a UL approved outdoor pit or fireplace. The pit also must be placed on a noncombustible surface and must be equipped with a spark arrester, spark screen or any other manufactured non-combustible device to prevent spark or ember release into the air or the ground. The fire pits must remain in place at all times ...
A deadly plague ravages your world. Your last hope: a legendary alien facility dug deep into the Feldspar Mountains...a massive Pit, built by the ancient Suulka.If The Pit really exists, there might be something left. Something that will give your doctors a fighting chance at the cure.
I wont say where, but I stumbled upon another forum recently, and my eye was drawn by a very familiar style of photoshopped image. Yes, Pitizen Ape+Lust is doing his thing elsewhere. He goes by a different name, but his work is drawing amazed gasps over there just as it used to do here...and who knows where else before the Pit ...
ST. PETERSBURG - Three pit bulls, which bit two people earlier this month, are scheduled to be euthanized.Officials with Pinellas County Animal Services determined those pit bulls - among
Pit bulls are controversial dogs. Properly known as American pit bull terriers, they are a powerful, athletic and tenacious breed that, unfortunately, are therefore a target for misuse and abuse by ...
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Pits of Death. Download Pits of Death and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
When I saw this article, I thought it was a little overwrought. Now, Im not so sure. I have family in the APS, and apparently there are people there who seem seriously depressed. Like to the point where other staff are worried about them and talking about it. Ive also had my own encounters with people who have non-ironically said "Fuck Queensland" to me assuming I had the same opinion. Ill be with a group of progressives in a few hours, so I think thatll be a much more painful experience than I was expecting ...
The Pit and the Pendulum: Seven students answer an advertisement to participate in an experiment to explore how the sensation of pain can be eliminate...
Authorities have issued issued an arrest warrant for a Midwest City man accused of abandoning two pit bulls because they needed to be bathed.
Sandy ground caves in steeply at the right of the photograph to form a cliff and pit of fine white sand. A wheelbarrow sits in front of the base of the pit. Bare trees form a background. In the foreground left of the pit is a pile of crooked sticks ...
Life is a teacher. This phrase came up in a conversation I had with a friend yesterday. It was so timely. It summarised exactly where I was at. A little background, after I had Miss K, I was a walking train wreck. Things did not go according to plan, my dream of a vaginal…
Sexy Simone is in her floppy hat & skirt. She shows off her hairy pits & lifts her skirt to show that beautiful hairy pussy off. With her sensual looks & hairy body, Simone looks beautiful outdoors.
My pup is 4 months old and, he was 10 weeks when I got him. We swore he was going to look like an Akita but, there are some very Pitty characteristics coming out in my guy (hes an Akita/Pit Bull mix ...
Just wondering how many people in this forum are actually underwater photographers. Im just getting into it and would like to share feedback and experiences. Pit
Welcome to Clout Street: Morning Spin, our weekday feature to catch you up with what's going on in government and politics from Chicago to Springfield.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Partitioning of proteins into plasma membrane microdomains. Clustering of mutant influenza virus hemagglutinins into coated pits depends on the strength of the internalization signal. AU - Fire, Ella. AU - Brown, Claire M.. AU - Roth, Michael G.. AU - Henis, Yoav I.. AU - Petersen, Nils O.. PY - 1997/11/21. Y1 - 1997/11/21. N2 - Internalization of membrane proteins involves their recruitment into plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits, with which they are thought to interact by binding to AP-2 adaptor protein complexes. To investigate the interactions of membrane proteins with coated pits at the cell surface, we applied image correlation spectroscopy to measure directly and quantitatively the clustering of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein mutants carrying specific cytoplasmic internalization signals. The HA system enables direct comparison between isolated internalization signals, because HA itself is excluded from coated pits. The studies presented here provide, for the first ...
The general objective of our lab is to understand the functions of clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) during the different steps of cancer development. CCSs recruit specific cell surface receptors and progressively shape the plasma membrane in receptor-containing vesicles that are released in the cytosol. This endocytosis machinery allows for nutrient uptake but also for the fine-tuned control of signaling pathways triggered by cell surface receptors. As a consequence, deregulation of endocytosis has been linked to many pathological situations, including cancers.. Tumor development is accompanied by dramatic changes in the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Also, when cancer cells invade the stroma to establish distant metastases, they migrate in an environment with different topological features than the tumor mass. However, it is not known how the physical parameters of the environment impact on CCSs and what are the consequences for the cell.. Our team addresses this general question by ...
PICALM, the gene encoding phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly (picalm) protein, was recently shown to be associated with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). Picalm is a key component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It recruits clathrin and adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) to the plasma membrane and, along with, AP-2 recognizes target proteins. The attached clathrin triskelions cause membrane deformation around the target proteins enclosing them within clathrin-coated vesicles to be processed in lysosomes or endosomes. We examined the distribution of picalm in control and AD brain tissue and measured levels of picalm messenger RNA (mRNA) by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunolabeling of brain tissue showed that picalm is predominately present in endothelial cells. This was further supported by the demonstration of picalm in human cerebral microvascular cells grown in culture. Picalm mRNA was elevated in relation to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase but not factor VIII-related ...
Steps in CCV assembly and links to structures and information around clathrin-coated vesicle formation and other forms of vesicle budding
The health risk of organic micro pollutants in water is yet to be comprehensively established. However, the persistence of these pollutants in the environment as a result of continuous discharge even at trace concentrations is considered to pose major environmental concerns. Advance treatment methods such as membrane-assisted processes (MAPs) are potential technologies capable of removing a wide range of these organic micropollutants (OMPs) detected in water. In this study, investigation of surface-coated ultrafiltration (UF) poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibre membrane for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water was performed. Coating of PVDF membranes with poly(1-phenylethene-1,2-diyl)/polystyrene and pluronics F68 solutions through physical adsorption was carried out in two modes: "dipping" and "spraying". Surface characterization of coated membranes showed that the coating layer potentially influenced the surface properties suitable for improved solute-membrane ...
This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c, c, and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene is one of two genes that encode the V1 domain C subunit proteins and is found ubiquitously. This C subunit is analogous but not homologous to gamma subunit of F-ATPases. Previously, this gene was ...
OregonPizza Pit,来自TripAdvisor(猫途鹰)用户的Pizza Pit点评,为您推荐Pizza Pit美食与独特Pizza Pit体验。Coming from Illinois its been difficult to find a good pizza. This also...
American Pit Bull Terrier--Pit Bull--Sporting Dog Online. Your true online Pit Bull source. Pitbull articles, pit bull breeders, pitbull photos, pit bull pedigrees, pitbull links. Huge Pit Bull resource.
P.F. Whitehead. Moor Leys, Little Comberton, Pershore, Worcestershire WR10 3EH Email: [email protected] Reference was recently made (Whitehead, 2013) to the finding of Ancistrocerus oviventris (Wesmael, 1836) at Grafton Wood, Worcestershire on 25 August 2013. I recently reviewed the specimen and decided to send it to Dr Michael Archer for examination; he found that it was a female Gymnomerus laevipes (Shuckard, 1837). This published record of A. oviventris is therefore untenable.. Richards (1980) keys the subfamily Eumeninae and states that the head of Gymnomerus has two approximate occasionally fused pubescent pits and illustrates them as figure 25. In the present example these pits are very small, much smaller than this figure 25 and situated well behind the eyes and might be passed over; this and a subsequent failure to attend to other points of detail lead to the specimen being misidentified. Dr Archer also stated that when considering the identity of certain individuals reliance is ...
First off guys in the pit are assholes and I didnt know where else this thread would belong, im sorry if its not in the right place, but Id really a...
Revelation 9:2 And he opened the bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit. Read verse in Third Millennium Bible
Im such a baby. I cried and cried at the video of Bridgette standing up. Way too many memories! Im so excited that shes up and moving. Also, the picture of Bridgette in the ball pit caught my eye- Ben LOVES the ball pit at therapy. Four therapy sessions a week? Welcome to crazy girl. Weve been doing multiple sessoins a week since Ben was 3 months old (right now we do 6) and I have to tell you that there will be days that you will want to quit, where you will still mourn the loss of the dream and wish that you could spend your mornings in playgroup instead of at therapy. But it SO worth it. The progress that the kids make is reason enough to keep going. But you will also develop relationships with other moms who truly understand and that is as important to you and the progress will be to Bridgette. So on the day that you want to stay home or call it quits, DONT. ...
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A woman was attacked by two pit bull dogs near Slidell on Wednesday morning, the St. Tammany Parish Sheriffs Office said in a news release.
Updated May 11, 2015 Having a pre-determined pit crew with assigned responsibilities can increase treatment efficiency for trauma and medical patients My
A deadly plague ravages your world. Your last hope: a legendary alien facility dug deep into the Feldspar Mountains...a massive Pit, built by the ancient Suulka.If The Pit really exists, there might be something left. Something that will give your doctors a fighting chance at the cure.
A family day with displays of classic cars, vehicles from the big and small screen including those featured in Knight Rider and The Dukes of Hazzard, the F
In recent years, the ranks of independent coffee shops in Toronto have expanded from a handful of stalwarts such as Ideal and Ezras Pound to a burgeoning number of spaces across many neighbourhoods. To investigate, were launching Freshly Brewed, an exploration of the citys café scene.
Sepanjang kehamilan, bayi akan berkembang daripada satu sel sehingga menjadi janin yang kelihatan seperti bentuk manusia dan seterusnya lahir sebagai bayi yang comel dan sihat, Banyak perkara menarik yang berlaku sepanjag minggu-minggu ini. Ketahui fakta-fakta menarik tentang minggu-minggu pertama kehamilan anda ...
Looking for the webs Top Playpen Sites? Top20Sites.com is the leading directory of popular Ball Pits, Car Makes, Playpen, & Baby Gate sites.
Pitted keratolysis is the infection of the soles of your feet that can cause painful pits and cuts. Try some treatment options to clear the infection and stop it from recurring.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ACR \ Clathrin light chain B \ GTX101938 for more molecular products just contact us
Nucleotide binding to the 70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein (Hsc70) from mung bean seeds and pig brain was investigated, as well as the clathrin uncoating activity of Hsc70 in the presence of these nucleotides. The two enzymes were found to behave identically. ATP bound to two different forms of Hsc70, with dissociation constants of 1.1±0.1 µM and 1.4±0.7 mM respectively at 25 °C. This corresponds to ΔG0´ = -34 and -16 kJ/mol respectively. From the temperature-dependence of the dissociation constant of the high-affinity site, ΔH0´ was calculated to -36±2 kJ/mol. This gives ΔS0´ = 6.7 J/mol per K. Adenosine 5´-[γ-thio]triphosphate, ADP, adenosine 5´-[β,γ-imino]triphosphate and adenosine 5´-[β,γ-methylene]triphosphate showed dissociation constants of 2.3, 11, 31 and 284 µM respectively. The order of affinities corresponded to the order of effectiveness in uncoating of pig brain coated vesicles. The implications of these findings for the mechanism of Hsc70 action are discussed. ...
Silicone rubber as used in blood contacting situations usually contains fillers, catalyst and other additives. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) alone was cross-linked by ionizing radiation in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce a pure silicone rubber. This material exhibited a Lee-White clotting time over 45 minutes and a clotting time of 90 minutes when air-blood contact was minimized. Comparable times for commercial silicones are 25 and 60 minutes. In extracorporeal testing using a Mini Lung, an irradiated PDMS coated membrane demonstrated greatly improved thromboresistance over standard silicone rubber membranes. (Author)
It has long been established that African trypanosomes possess a dense protein surface coat that must offer protection from destruction by the host immune system. The coat is comprised of close to only one GPI-anchored surface protein from a large family of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs). This VSG is thought to form an impervious, physical barrier on the cell surface, thus protecting the underlying proteins from immune attack. It is itself highly immunogenic, but bound antibodies are passively cleared from the cell surface by hydrodynamic drag forces. Importantly, the expressed VSG can be replaced by another, antigenically distinct, member of the large family of VSGs in a process known as antigenic variation.. Despite the N-terminal domain structure of one VSG, MITat1.2, having been solved and published in 1990, the structure of a complete VSG has proven difficult to obtain. In fact, at the start of this study, structural data was only available for the individual domains of two of the ...
Constitutive secretory vesicles carrying heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) were identified in isolated rat hepatocytes by pulse-chase experiments with [35S]sulfate and purified by velocity-controlled sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by equilibrium density centrifugation in Nycodenz. Using this procedure, the vesicles were separated from plasma membranes, Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), ER, endosomes, lysosomes, transcytotic vesicles, and mitochondria. The diameter of these vesicles was approximately 100-200 nm as determined by electron microscopy. A typical coat structure as described for intra-Golgi transport vesicles or clathrin-coated vesicles could not be seen, and the vesicles were not associated with the coat protein beta-COP. Furthermore, the vesicles appear to represent a low density compartment (1.05-1.06 g/ml). Other constitutively secreted proteins (rat serum albumin, apolipoprotein E, and fibrinogen) could not be detected in purified HSPG-carrying vesicles, but banded in ...
Involved in cell growth regulation. May be involved in the regulation of mitogenic signals and control of cell proliferation. Involved in the internalization of ligand-inducible receptors of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) type, in particular EGFR. Plays a role in the assembly of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Acts as a clathrin adapter required for post-Golgi trafficking. Seems to be involved in CCPs maturation including invagination or budding. Involved in endocytosis of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and transferrin receptor (TFR); internalization of ITGB1 as DAB2-dependent cargo but not TFR seems to require association with DAB2. ...
by Vetscite. Dogs labelled as "pit bulls" may wait three times as long to be adopted from shelters than differently labelled lookalikes, according to a study published March 23, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Lisa Gunter from Arizona State University, USA, and colleagues.. Previous research had suggested that certain types of dogs take longer to be adopted from shelters, but it was unclear how much breed identification influenced adoption decisions. Since pit bull breeds are often negatively perceived, the authors of this study wanted to know if the "pit bull" label affects adoption.. The authors initially assessed perceptions of pit bull dogs compared to other breeds. They then analysed the effect of the "pit bull" breed label in dog shelters by surveying the perceived attractiveness to potential adopters, based on factors including perceived friendliness, aggressiveness and intelligence, of dogs labelled as pit bull breeds and of differently labelled lookalikes. They also examined ...
The mucus-secreting columnar cells lining the luminal surface and the pits are joined near their free surfaces to each other by tight junctions (Ham l974). It is surmized that this arrangement forms one of the mechanisms by which the underlying layers are protected against luminal acid. The supranuclear portions of the cells just below their free surfaces contain dense, homogeneous, spherical or ovoid granules consisting of a type of mucigen (Bloom and Fawcett l975). Upon release into the lumen, the granules give rise to the layer of mucus that covers the luminal surface of the mucosa. In the cells of the gastric pits, the granules become progressively less abundant at deeper levels, and in the bottom of the pits they from only a thin layer immediately beneath the cell surface. Cells of this kind continue into the necks of the gastric glands. Under physiological conditions, the surface mucus cells are continuously desquamated into the lumen and are completely replaced every 3 days (Ham l974; ...
INVERNESS -- A man who fell into a pit used as a work space by mechanics to perform oil changes on vehicles was airlifted to Tampa General Hospital on Monday afternoon. The man fell into one of the service pits at the Pennzoil 10-Minute Oil Change Center, 449 S Croft Road, Inverness. After falling, he was carried up a small staircase to the ground floor, where he was loaded into an ambulance and then taken aboard a medical evacuation helicopter, which landed across the road in the Wal-Mart parking lot. The incident occurred at 5:15 p.m. ...
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The placement of the pits is intriguing: They were found on the eastern and western sides of the Cursus, a racetrack-style enclosure north of Stonehenge itself that spans 1.5 miles (2.5 kilometers) from east to west and is up to 100 yards (meters) wide. From the perspective of an observer standing at the Heel Stone, a massive upright stone just outside Stonehenges main circle, the sun would rise just above the eastern pit on the day of the summer solstice, which is the longest day of the year. The same observer would see the sun set that evening in line with the western pit. ...
The high metal dip differs from the other dips in that the roughening of the metal is accompanied by the formation on the aluminium of an immersion layer surface. This layer greatly facilitates plating. The dip accomplishes some of the roughening by attacking through the pores of the immersion layer. When pits are formed they are quite large, and often undercut with smooth areas between them. This makes an excellent anchor for holding the plate on the aluminum. Deposits as thick as 0.38 mm. (0.015 in.) have been applied in 2SO aluminum, and on bending the nickel broke in small pieces rather than flaked off. The dip also does not require close control, for relatively large changes, as much as 20 per cent sometimes, in the time of dip or in the composition of the solution do not greatly reduce the effectiveness of the dip. Occasionally, however, acid and nickel chloride must be added to maintain the original proportions. Titration is employed to control the acidity, and colorimetric methods may ...
My APBT/ Lab is 16 months old and is as healthy and happy as can be!I am quite certain it is because she is a mixed breed and because pits are so generally healthy as long as they have protein-heavy diets. She doesnt get along with bigger dogs but her aggression has never been more than wrestling and posturing- no injuries. Cant say the same for some bulldogs- american or otherwise- or labs- or golden retrievers that Ive met- on the aggression or health issues. Good to see that there are people trying to get the truth out! ...
There are little Antlion pits all around the cabin. The soil is very sandy here and perfect for building pits. There are lots of ants too, so its a good ecosystem for predator and prey. I took a short video (from my phone, hence the jitter) of me simulating an ant falling into the pit…
Pit Of Snakes lyrics by Gravediggaz: [Rza] / The pit, the pit (Ohhhh my!) / Yo, 1, 2 / Dun dunna dunna dun. / All yall mentally dead
Vermi-composting has become very popular in the last few years. In this method, worms are added to the compost. These help to break the waste and the added excreta of the worms makes the compost very rich in nutrients. In the activity section of this web site you can learn how to make a compost pit or a vermi-compost pit in your school or in the garden at home.. To make a compost pit, you have to select a cool, shaded corner of the garden or the school compound and dig a pit, which ideally should be 3 feet deep. This depth is convenient for aerobic composting as the compost has to be turned at regular intervals in this process. Preferably the pit should be lined with granite or brick to prevent nitrite pollution of the subsoil water, which is known to be highly toxic. Each time organic matter is added to the pit it should be covered with a layer of dried leaves or a thin layer of soil which allows air to enter the pit thereby preventing bad odour. At the end of 45 days, the rich pure organic ...
As I was boarding a plane to Chicago, my inbox filled up with Wright County Eggs and Hillandale Farms first every FDA inspection - the so called 483. Here are the highlights (more like lowlights) of Wright County Egg. Frankly, it was hard to read this one. Ill leave Hillandales for another day. If you want to read them in full, head over to the FDA Website.. • Chicken manure located in the manure pits below the egg laying operations was observed to be approximately 4 feet high to 8 feet high at the following locations: Layer 1 - House 1; Layer 3 - Houses 2, 7, 17, and 18. The outside access doors to the manure pits at these locations had been pushed out by the weight of the manure, leaving open access to wildlife or domesticated animals.. • Un-baited, unsealed holes appearing to be rodent burrows located along the second floor baseboards were observed inside Layer 1 - Houses 1-9 and 11-13; Layer 2 - Houses 7 and 11; Layer 3 - Houses 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6; Layer 4 - House 3.. • Dark liquid ...
SPRINGFIELD, Mo. (AP) _ Two pit bulls have been shot to death in the last week in Springfield, where city officials passed a ban on the dogs earlier this month. The Kansas City Star reports that one familys pit bull was killed Saturday.
Burn Pit Dispersion Analysis - posted in Refining, Hydrocarbons, Oil, and Gas: Hi It is my first time posting here and Im very grateful that a forum like this exist. I need some help with this case, Im working on a burn pit design and Im not sure if the gaussian dispersion model is good for dispersion analysis when using an horizontal stack and tip, Im also considering low wind speeds (2 m/s - 5 m/s) since windspeed profile decreases with height and this is a constraint for the model....
Eventbrite - Marrickville Library and History presents Historical walking tour of Marrickville Pumping Station and Sydenham Drainage Pit - Friday, 18 November 2016 at Sydenham Drainage Pit, Sydenham, NSW. Find event and ticket information.
RIVERSIDE, Calif. - A pit bull in California attacked its neighbors poodle-mix puppy, prompting the poodle owner to slit the pit bulls throat, authorities said this weekend. Both dogs died, and the poodle owner was arrested on suspicion of animal cruelty.
Pit Caribou LÉtoile du Brasseur Triple IPA a Imperial IPA beer by Microbrasserie Pit Caribou, a brewery in LAnse-à-Beaufils, Quebec
The General Assembly's failure to respond to a Court of Appeals ruling that pit bulls are inherently dangerous during the special legislative session is disappointing but not catastrophic.
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 20486136. Bioessays 2010 Jun;32(6):496-504. Clathrin and the endocytosis machinery has recently been described as being required in mammalian cells for the internalization of large particles including pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and large viruses. These apparently unexpected observations, within the framework of the classical mechanisms for the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles, are now considered as examples of a new non-classical function of clathrin, which can promote the internalization of membrane domains associated to planar clathrin lattices. The role of actin downstream of clathrin seems to be critical for this still poorly characterized process. The historical frontier between endocytosis and phagocytosis is vanishing in the light of this new role for clathrin.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20486136 ...
Traditionally, the game is played with a field of 2x5 pits and 90 game pieces. Some prefer to play the game with 10 cups and any 90 undifferentiated objects, such as stones or glass beads. The nomadic herdsmen often use goat droppings, which have the appearance or consistency of hard, dry pellets. ...
Optic pit, optic nerve pit, or optic disc pit is a congenital excavation (or regional depression) of the optic disc (also optic nerve head), resulting from a malformation during development of the eye. Optic pits are important because they are associated with posterior vitreous detachments (PVD) and even serous retinal detachments. Many times, an optic pit is asymptomatic and is just an incidental finding on examination of the eye by a physician. However, some patients may present with the symptoms of a posterior vitreous detachment or serous retinal detachment. This is because optic pits are associated with these disorders and are even speculated to be the actual cause of these disorders when they arise in patients with optic pits (see "Associated Retinal Changes" below for a more in-depth discussion on this theory). The most common visual field defects include an enlarged blind spot and a scotoma. Visual acuity is typically not affected by the pit but may get worse if serous detachment of the ...
Video articles in JoVE about clathrin coated vesicles include Applications of pHluorin for Quantitative, Kinetic and High-throughput Analysis of Endocytosis in Budding Yeast, Visualizing Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of G Protein-coupled Receptors at Single-event Resolution via TIRF Microscopy, Measuring Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Pulling Membrane Nanotubes from Giant Unilamellar Vesicles, In vivo and in vitro Studies of Adaptor-clathrin Interaction, Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers, Methods for Cell-attached Capacitance Measurements in Mouse Adrenal Chromaffin Cell, Single-molecule Super-resolution Imaging of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the Plasma Membrane with Novel Fluorescent Probes, Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the
Clathrin-coated vesicles are the most prominent carriers of membrane traffic from cell surface to endosomes (endocytosis), a pathway by which hormones, transferrin, immunoglobulins, LDL, viruses, and their receptors enter cells. They are also important for traffic between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. In this presentation, I will discuss (i) technological and analytical advances that I developed to directly visualize clathrin-mediated membrane traffic in three dimensions and in living cells; (ii) data obtained using these advances that defined a role for actin filament polymerization in counteracting membrane tension during clathrin-coated vesicle budding at the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells; and (iii) how these advances can be used to study a wide variety of biological processes that occur in living cells and tissues. ...

Coated pits cell-membrane - Biology-Online DictionaryCoated pits cell-membrane - Biology-Online Dictionary

Coated pits, cell-membrane Specialised regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the ... These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalised into the ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Coated_pits_cell-membrane&oldid=32083" ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Coated_pits_cell-membrane

Coated pit | biology | Britannica.comCoated pit | biology | Britannica.com

The coated vesicle fuses with cytoplasmic endosomes (membrane-enclosed vesicles) and then with cell organelles called lysosomes ... of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a special protein known as clathrin. As the coated pit invaginates, it ... is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. ... of the membrane called a coated pit, which is lined by a ... As the coated pit invaginates, it is pinched off in the cytoplasm to form a coated vesicle. The coated vesicle fuses with ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/coated-pit

SWISSPROT: AP2B SCHPOSWISSPROT: AP2B SCHPO

Cell membrane {ECO:0000250}. Membrane, CC coated pit {ECO:0000250}; Peripheral membrane protein CC {ECO:0000250}; Cytoplasmic ... KW Cell membrane; Coated pit; Complete proteome; Endocytosis; Membrane; KW Protein transport; Reference proteome; Transport. FT ... DR GO; GO:0051285; C:cell cortex of cell tip; IDA:PomBase. DR GO; GO:0032153; C:cell division site; IDA:PomBase. DR GO; GO: ... the coat surrounding the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in CC the plasma membrane. {ECO:0000250}. CC -!- SIMILARITY: ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-ac?query=O43005&db=SWISSPROT&ident=ACNUC22857

Study to Compare CAUTI Rates Following ERASE CAUTI Tray Silver vs Silver Coated Foley CathetersStudy to Compare CAUTI Rates Following ERASE CAUTI Tray Silver vs Silver Coated Foley Catheters

Coated Pits, Cell-membrane. Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of ... These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the ... The cellulose acetate based membranes with polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles,.... Influence of salinity on the ... ERASE Silver Coated Foley Catheter, Comparator Silver Coated Catheter. Location. Oconnee Regional Medical Center. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/166763/Study-to-Compare-CAUTI-Rates-Following-ERASE-CAUTI-Tray-Silver-vs-Silver.html

Membranes - How Things Get In and Out of CellsMembranes - How Things Get In and Out of Cells

receptor mediated* endocytosis... uptake @ membrane sites w receptors. - coated pits with protein clathrin Sumanas, Inc. ... How Things Get In/Out of Cells The Cell Membrane.... 1. Unit Membrane Hypothesis - all membranes look alike*. ... cell wall Fluid Mosaic model* & Extra-cellular Matrix*-common to animal cells. Functions of Membrane Proteins*. Concept ... Membrane Transport Concept Activity - chapter 7.2 - Selective Permeability of Membranes,. Concept Activity - chapter 7.3 - ...
more infohttp://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/memb/membranes.htm

UniProt: A2ARV4UniProt: A2ARV4

PE 1: Evidence at protein level; KW Calcium; Cell membrane; Cell projection; Coated pit; KW Complete proteome; Disulfide bond; ... Membrane, coated pit CC {ECO:0000269,PubMed:22340494}. Cell projection, dendrite CC {ECO:0000269,PubMed:20637285}. Cell ... DR GO; GO:0009986; C:cell surface; ISO:MGI. DR GO; GO:0005905; C:clathrin-coated pit; IDA:MGI. DR GO; GO:0005737; C:cytoplasm; ... DR GO; GO:0045177; C:apical part of cell; IDA:MGI. DR GO; GO:0016324; C:apical plasma membrane; IDA:UniProtKB. DR GO; GO: ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?uniprot:A2ARV4

Anti-AP2M1 antibody [EP2695Y] Recombinant (ab75995) | AbcamAnti-AP2M1 antibody [EP2695Y] Recombinant (ab75995) | Abcam

Cell membrane. Membrane , coated pit. AP-2 appears to be excluded from internalizing CCVs and to disengage from sites of ... Lane 1 : HEK293 cell lysate. Lane 2 : SKBR-3 cell lysate. Lane 3 : MCF-7 cell lysate. Lysates/proteins at 20 µg per lane.. ... Lane 1 : MCF-7 cell lysate. Lane 2 : SKBR-3 cell lysate. Lysates/proteins at 10 µg per lane.. Secondary. All lanes : HRP ... in membrane-associated AP-2. The membrane-specific phosphorylation event appears to involve assembled clathrin which activates ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/ap2m1-antibody-ep2695y-ab75995.html

Anti-beta Arrestin 1 antibody (ab31868) | AbcamAnti-beta Arrestin 1 antibody (ab31868) | Abcam

Cell membrane. Membrane , clathrin-coated pit. Cell projection , pseudopodium. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Translocates to the plasma ... Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell ... ICC/IF image of ab31868 stained PC12 cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal ... Mouse Brain, Mouse Brain Whole Cell Lysate - normal tissue, 0 days old, Rat Brain Whole Cell Lysate - normal tissue. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/beta-arrestin-1-antibody-ab31868.html

LDLR Gene - GeneCards | LDLR Protein | LDLR AntibodyLDLR Gene - GeneCards | LDLR Protein | LDLR Antibody

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit. Golgi apparatus. Early endosome. Late ... Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is normally bound at the cell membrane and taken into the cell ending up in lysosomes where the ... Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence ... In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. *LDLR_HUMAN,P01130 ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=3949

EPS15 Gene - GeneCards | EPS15 Protein | EPS15 AntibodyEPS15 Gene - GeneCards | EPS15 Protein | EPS15 Antibody

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit. Note=Recruited to the plasma ... Not required for membrane translocation after EGF treatment or for targeting to coated pits, but essential for a subsequent ... membrane upon EGFR activation and localizes to coated pits. Colocalizes with UBQLN1 in ubiquitin-rich cytoplasmic aggregates ... Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=EPS15

What is Rabies? 
 | Rabies | CDCWhat is Rabies? | Rabies | CDC

After adsorption, the virus penetrates the host cell and enters the cytoplasm by pinocytosis (via clathrin-coated pits). The ... Conversely, virus in the salivary glands buds primarily from the cell membrane into the acinar lumen. Viral budding into the ... The fusion of the rabies virus envelope to the host cell membrane (adsorption) initiates the infection process. The interaction ... The viral membranes fuse to the endosomal membranes, causing the release of viral RNP into the cytoplasm (uncoating). Because ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/rabies/about.html

Receptor-mediated endocytosis - WikipediaReceptor-mediated endocytosis - Wikipedia

Budding of the plasma membrane then occurs, forming a clathrin coated pit.[1] Other receptors can nucleate a clathrin-coated ... The cargo ligand and receptor will then recruit adaptor proteins and clathrin triskelions to the outside membrane of the cell ... A mature pit will be cleaved from the plasma membrane through the use of membrane binding and fission proteins such as dynamin ... "Cell. 166 (4): 907-919. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.004. PMC 5418658. PMID 27499021.. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Receptor-mediated_endocytosis

Visualization of Rab5 activity in living cells by FRET microscopy and influence of plasma-membrane-targeted Rab5 on clathrin...Visualization of Rab5 activity in living cells by FRET microscopy and influence of plasma-membrane-targeted Rab5 on clathrin...

The cells were also co-transfected with β2-YFP to mark coated pits. Fig. 6 demonstrates that, after incubation of cells ... Spatial control of coated-pit dynamics in living cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 1, 1-7. ... called clathrin-coated pits. Ligand-receptor complexes destined for internalization are selectively recruited into coated pits ... In our experiments, EGF and transferrin receptors were efficiently recruited into coated pits in cells overexpressing Rab5(S34N ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/116/23/4799.long

Cell Component | Plasma MembraneCell Component | Plasma Membrane

clathrin coat of coated pit Human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells labeled for clathrin-coated pits (green), focal ... negative regulation of cell adhesion involved in substrate-bound cell migration Cellular Component. cell-substrate adherens ... cell communication Cellular Component. gap junction Replica of a freeze-fractured gap junction presents the inner half-membrane ... cell cortex The cortex of Paramecium consists of a plasma membrane and alveolar sacs, with their inner and outer alveolar ...
more infohttp://cellimagelibrary.org/browse/cellcomponent/Plasma%20Membrane?per_page=10&page=1

Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis with Cell Confinement and during Neutrophil PolarizationClathrin-mediated Endocytosis with Cell Confinement and during Neutrophil Polarization

It occurs on the membrane via clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). In this thesis, we studied CCPs behavior when cells are under ... Seeding cells on anisotropic fibronectin patterns, we were able to manipulate where and how long CCPs appear on the cell. ... is one of the major pathway through which cells internalize nutrients and membrane proteins. ... Together, these results showed that CCPs distribution and behavior are regulated by mechanical cues in a cell. In the last ...
more infohttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/144015

μ2 adaptin facilitates but is not essential for synaptic vesicle recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans | JCBμ2 adaptin facilitates but is not essential for synaptic vesicle recycling in Caenorhabditis elegans | JCB

Phosphoinositide-AP-2 interactions required for targeting to plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits. J. Cell Biol. 146:755-764. ... Clathrin-coated pits contain an integral membrane protein that binds the AP-2 subunit with high affinity. J. Biol. Chem. 265: ... Clathrin-coated vesicles in nervous tissue are involved primarily in synaptic vesicle recycling. J. Cell Biol. 118:1379-1388. ... The classical whole-cell configuration was obtained by rupturing the patch membrane of a gigaohm seal formed between the ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/183/5/881

The F-BAR domains from srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 regulate membrane deformation differently | Journal of Cell ScienceThe F-BAR domains from srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 regulate membrane deformation differently | Journal of Cell Science

2002). Curvature of clathrin-coated pits driven by epsin. Nature 419, 361-366. doi:10.1038/nature01020. ... 1996). Modulation of membrane dynamics and cell motility by membrane tension. Trends Cell Biol. 6, 85-89. doi:10.1016/0962-8924 ... Live-cell imaging. Live cell imaging of COS7 cells, HEK293 cells, and neuronal cultures were imaged using Leica TCS confocal ... A) Whole-cell image of a cortical neuron coexpressing F-BAR(1)-EGFP and LifeAct-mRFPruby. (B-I) F-BAR(1)-coated membrane shows ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/125/14/3390

Flat clathrin lattices are dynamic molecular assemblies | Open-iFlat clathrin lattices are dynamic molecular assemblies | Open-i

HeLa cells expressing LCb-RFP and Dyn-2-EGFP were imaged by spinning disk microscopy. The fluorescenc ... Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/metabolism*/ultrastructure. *Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane/metabolism*/ultrastructure. *Dynamins/ ... Flat clathrin lattices: stable features of the plasma membrane. Grove J, Metcalf DJ, Knight AE, Wavre-Shapton ST, Sun T, ... HeLa cells expressing LCb-RFP and Dyn-2-EGFP were imaged by spinning disk microscopy. The fluorescence signals associated with ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4230618_3581fig4&req=4

Kavli Workshop in Pucon | The New York Academy of SciencesKavli Workshop in Pucon | The New York Academy of Sciences

... and other molecules involved in communication between cells. ... and membrane scission observed in live cells. Cell 121: 593-606 ... Coupling between clathrin-coated-pit invagination, cortactin recruitment, ... The Nanomechanics of Endocytosis and Exocytosis in Live Cells. Jahn, R., T. Lang & T. C. Sudhof. 2003. Membrane fusion. Cell ... Exocytosis of single chromaffin granules in cell-free inside-out membrane patches. Nat. Cell Biol. 5: 358-362.. Dernick, G., L ...
more infohttps://www.nyas.org/ebriefings/kavli-workshop-in-pucon/

AP2A2 Antibody (Center) - Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, FC, E - Buy Now! |AbgentAP2A2 Antibody (Center) - Peptide Affinity Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, FC, E - Buy Now! |Abgent

Membrane, coated pit {ECO:0000250,UniProtKB:P17427}; Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000250,UniProtKB:P17427}; Cytoplasmic ... CHO Cells. Purified From HEK 293 Cell culture Supernatant.. Goat. chicken. Sheep. Swine. Donkey. Guinea Pig. Horse. Hamster. ... Cell membrane {ECO:0000250,UniProtKB:P17427}; Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000250,UniProtKB:P17427}; Cytoplasmic side {ECO ... All lanes : Anti-AP2A2 Antibody (Center) at 1:1000 dilution Lane 1: A431 whole cell lysate Lane 2: HepG2 whole cell lysate ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AP8551c-AP2A2-Antibody-Center

ARF6 stimulates clathrin/AP-2 recruitment to synaptic membranes by activating phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type Iγ |...ARF6 stimulates clathrin/AP-2 recruitment to synaptic membranes by activating phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type Iγ |...

Phosphoinositide-AP-2 interactions required for targeting to plasma membrane clathrin-coated pits. J. Cell Biol. 146:755-764. ... to the membranes at which clathrin-coated pits nucleate. A GTPγS-stimulated recruitment of clathrin/AP-2 coats to endosomes was ... Recruitment of coat proteins onto Golgi membranes in intact and permeabilized cells: effects of brefeldin A and G protein ... Consistent with its effects on clathrin/AP-2-coated pit formation and with previous observations (Malecz et al., 2000), cells ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/162/1/113

Inactive Actin | The Scientist Magazine®Inactive Actin | The Scientist Magazine®

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis shuts down during mitosis in eukaryotic cells because all of the required actin is hoarded by the ... From prophase to anaphase, shallow clathrin-coated pits form at the plasma membrane, but the cell never internalizes them. ... The second theory suggested that elevated tension in the plasma membrane prevents clathrin-coated pits from pinching off into ... is sequestered at the cell cortex, and CME cant proceed because actin is required to help stretch the clathrin-coated pits to ...
more infohttps://www.the-scientist.com/the-literature/inactive-actin-37576

CEMIP - Cell migration-inducing and hyaluronan-binding protein precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CEMIP gene & proteinCEMIP - Cell migration-inducing and hyaluronan-binding protein precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CEMIP gene & protein

... via the cell membrane-associated clathrin-coated pit endocytic pathway. Binds to hyaluronic acid. Hydrolyzes high molecular ... In collaboration with HSPA5/BIP, promotes cancer cell migration in a calcium and PKC-dependent manner. May be involved in ... Positively regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and hence tumor cell growth, invasion and cancer dissemination. ... Cell membrane, Coated pit, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Nucleus, Secreted. ,p>This section provides information ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8WUJ3

Clathrin lattice, molecular model - Stock Image C015/6790 - Science Photo LibraryClathrin lattice, molecular model - Stock Image C015/6790 - Science Photo Library

Clathrin-coated vesicles are important vehicles of membrane traffic in cells. - Stock Image C015/6790 ... The fibrous protein forms a characteristic polyhedral coat on the surface of coated pits and coated vesicles. ... and coated pits and appears to be involved in protein secretion and membrane trafficking. This protein also occurs in synaptic ... The polyhedral protein lattice coats eukaryotic cell membranes (vesicles) ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/507311/view/clathrin-lattice-molecular-model

Unstable F-Actin Specifies the Area and Microtubule Direction of Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis Root Hairs | Plant CellUnstable F-Actin Specifies the Area and Microtubule Direction of Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis Root Hairs | Plant Cell

Emons, A.M.C., and Traas, J.A. (1986). Coated pits and coated vesicles on the plasma membrane of plant cells. Eur. J. Cell Biol ... The subapical actin cytoskeleton regulates secretion and membrane retrieval in pancreatic acinar cells. J. Cell Sci. 112, 81-96 ... because cell expansion proceeded at the same rate as in control cells but increased the cell surface area where expansion takes ... Plant cells grow when Golgi-derived vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane while inserting cellulose synthases (Kimura et al., ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/15/1/285?ijkey=db5350c69370178af704b13c837f8c140fe9ce96&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Within the central nervous system (CNS), there is preferential viral budding from plasma membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • In a recent report from Nothnagel and colleagues ( 13 ), the presence of a GPI anchor on AGPs from plasma membranes of Rosa cells in suspension culture was inferred from the presence of trace amounts of Man, GlcN, inositol, tetracosanoic acid, and phytosphingosine. (pnas.org)
  • In the last years, several investigations, using either artificial (liposomes) or cellular plasma membranes and a variety of techniques [ 7 - 9 ] confirmed the existence of "quasicrystalline" regions, suggesting that organization in domains is a common feature of biological membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • EGFRs stimulated with TGF-alpha recycled back to the plasma membrane, where they could be reactivated with ligand. (nih.gov)
  • MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, University College London, London NW3 2PF, United Kingdom [email protected] [email protected] (nih.gov)
  • So Stone ordered skin biopsies from Despota and his parents and sent the cells to a pair of young researchers who had carved a niche in cholesterol biology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, TX. (pnas.org)
  • When Despota's cells arrived in Texas, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein, now feted in biochemists' circles, had made substantial inroads into the biology of cholesterol metabolism in human cells. (pnas.org)
  • Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, U.S.A. (bioscirep.org)
  • Cell Biology Unit, MRC-Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. (genes2cognition.org)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary endothelial cells from mammalian cardiac muscle caught in the act of fluid-phase micropinocytosis. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The endocytic pathway of ricin in sinusoidal liver endothelial cells (EC) was traced by means of immunocytochemical labeling of ultrathin cryosections. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of this receptor in lymphatic endothelial cells and overexpression in vascular tumors suggested its function in chemokine-driven recirculation of leukocytes and possible chemokine effects on the development and growth of vascular tumors. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Acts as a regulator of inflammatory leukocyte interactions with lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and is required for immature/mature dendritic cells discrimination by LECs. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Invasion of non-phagocytic cells (i.e., epithelial, fibroblast and endothelial cells) involves either a trigger or a zipper mechanism mediated by the T3SS-1 or the invasin Rck, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like many siglecs, CD22 interacts with endogenous ligands on B cells in cis , and on other cells, such as T cells and bone marrow vessel endothelial cells in trans . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiate into retinal pigment epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor-{alpha} enhances corneal epithelial cell migration by promoting EGFR recycling. (nih.gov)
  • Telomerase immortalized human corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells and primary human corneal epithelial cells were tested for their ability to migrate in response to EGF and TGF-alpha. (nih.gov)
  • TGF-alpha, compared with EGF, is a more potent activator of corneal epithelial cell migration. (nih.gov)
  • TGF-α is a more efficacious activator of primary corneal epithelial cell migration than EGF. (nih.gov)
  • Transmission electron micrograph of two frog epithelial cell cells showing the tight junction complex running horizontally in this image. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Electron micrograph of the junctional complex of intestinal epithelial cells of the rat shows the apical-most zonula occludens (tight junction), the zonula adherens (medium junction) and the macula ad. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells labeled for clathrin-coated pits (green), focal adhesions (red) and nuclei (blue). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Royle's team is now addressing how the endocytic machinery is able to sense high membrane tension and recruit actin within cells of tissues undergoing physical stretching or in polarized epithelial cells, which have different tensions at their basolateral and apical membranes. (the-scientist.com)
  • Positively regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and hence tumor cell growth, invasion and cancer dissemination. (uniprot.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: LDL R Antibody (C7) [NBP1-- Image from a customer review on porcine intestinal epithelial cells IPEC-J2. (novusbio.com)
  • AP-1 also mediates basolateral sorting in epithelial cells. (bioscirep.org)
  • ref. 12 ), a conserved core oligosaccharide is linked at the nonreducing end, via ethanolamine phosphate, to the C terminus of the protein, with the reducing end linked to an inositol-phospholipid moiety (Fig. 1 ), which is embedded in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Mediates depolymerization of hyaluronic acid (HA) via the cell membrane-associated clathrin-coated pit endocytic pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition to the membrane-curvature sensing/inducing BAR domain module, which also mediates antiparallel dimerization, most contain auxiliary domains implicated in protein-protein and/or protein-membrane interactions, including SH3, PX, PH, RhoGEF, and RhoGAP domains. (springer.com)
  • At the core of this specificity may be the ability of LtxA to bind to integrin LFA1 , the transmembrane receptor of cells of the immune system that mediates cell attachment and signaling.Its binding induces the formation of pores on the membrane of monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and other myeloid and lymphoid cells. (asmblog.org)
  • 2012). Introduction of hyperosmolar medium (lowering membrane tension) caused the total number of dynamins to increase (Figure 7, A and B), suggesting that a flaccid membrane needs more dynamin to rupture than does a tense one. (nih.gov)
  • Dynamic behavior of fluorescent probes in lipid bilayer model membranes. (currentprotocols.com)
  • have suggested an energy independent nonendocytotic mechanism that involves insertion and diffusion of nanotubes through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. (docme.ru)
  • By 1974, studies on the effects of temperature on membrane behaviour led investigators to propose the presence of "clusters of lipids" [ 5 ], and by the following year data were obtained that suggested that these clusters might be "quasicrystalline" regions, namely, a liquid-order phase, surrounded by more freely dispersed and disordered lipid bilayer [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The RNP-M complex migrates to an area of the plasma membrane containing glycoprotein inserts, and the M-protein initiates coiling. (cdc.gov)
  • identification of a 420-kD cell surface glycoprotein specific for the activated conformation of α 2 -macroglobulin. (springer.com)
  • Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane cell surface glycoprotein of 45 to 50 kDa that forms a complex with activated factor VII, initiating blood coagulation and leading to the focal production of thrombin via the successive activation of factor IX, factor X, and prothrombin. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have recently shown that Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 2 (srGAP2) regulates neuronal morphogenesis through the ability of its F-BAR domain to regulate membrane deformation and induce filopodia formation. (biologists.org)
  • Nef down-regulates CD4 by linking CD4 to clathrin-coated pits. (jimmunol.org)
  • it regulates membrane fluidity over a wide range of temperatures . (wikidoc.org)
  • Beta adaptin is a subunit of the plasma membrane CC adaptor (By similarity). (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • The surface region interacting with to the Y-X-X-Phi motif is inaccessible in cytosolic AP-2, but becomes accessible through a conformational change following phosphorylation of AP-2 mu subunit at 'Tyr-156' in membrane-associated AP-2. (abcam.com)
  • The 85-kd subunit constitutes the membrane-spanning domain of the receptor that noncovalently anchors the 515-kd subunit to the cell surface. (springer.com)
  • The secreted form of PcAGP1 contains a truncated GPI lacking the phosphoceramide moiety, suggesting that it is released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase D. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potential mechanisms by which GPI-anchored AGPs may be involved in signal transduction pathways. (pnas.org)
  • The iron is released inside the cell and the receptor returned to the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have a normal endocytic cycle: coated pits 'bud in' from all over the cell's surface in a random fashion and the returned membrane is exocytosed at the cell's surface, also at random. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bladder, the aggregates are tightly packed linear arrays, in the skin they form orthogonally packed square arrays, and in the collecting duct principal cell they form loose clusters that are often located in shallow depressions on the cell surface. (slideserve.com)
  • Release of low density lipoprotein from its cell surface receptor by sulfated glycosaminoglycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results also suggest that TiO 2 NP-induced effects on cytotoxicity and gene expression vary depending upon the cell type and surface modification. (mdpi.com)
  • Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, including charge and surface functional groups were found to play a role in nanoparticle-cell interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • One Nef function is down-regulating CD4 from the cell surface, which correlates with Nef-enhanced viral pathogenicity. (jimmunol.org)
  • An integral membrane protein, CD4 is expressed primarily on the surface of Th cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (jimmunol.org)
  • In these cells, PMA can induce serine phosphorylation in the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 that triggers the down-regulation of CD4 from the cell surface ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) is a cell surface protein highly expressed in liver that has close structural and biochemical similarities to the LDL receptor. (mybiosource.com)
  • Langerhans cells (LCs) represent a unique DC subset populating the outermost body surface, i.e., the epidermis. (jci.org)
  • The α 2 -macroglobulin receptor (α 2 MR) or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a cell-surface receptor synthesized as a 600-kd precursor protein (1, 2). (springer.com)
  • En route to the cell surface, the receptor is processed into 515- and 85-kd subunits. (springer.com)
  • Surface location and high affinity for calcium of a 500 kd liver membrane protein closely related to the LDL-receptor suggest a physiological role as lipoprotein receptor. (springer.com)
  • The result was an increase in large clathrin-coated structures (CCS) on the surface of the cells. (fredhutch.org)
  • Although most of the clathrin structures were found to contain both Dab2 and AP2, the authors showed that integrin β1 and TfnR do not co-localize on the cell surface. (fredhutch.org)
  • Electron microscopy of colloidal gold-acetyl-LDL showed that acetyl-LDL on the cell surface was often associated with microvilli or ruffles. (ahajournals.org)
  • The origin of the eukaryotic cell. (springer.com)
  • Origin of eukaryotic cell nuclei by symbiosis of Archaea in Bacteria is revealed, by homology-hit analysis. (springer.com)
  • Recognizes human CD91, a type I membrane protein which is also known as the alpha 2 macroglobulin receptor (alpha 2 MR). Recognizes an epitope in the extracellular region of the 500kD alpha chain. (mybiosource.com)
  • I contrast these scenarios to traditional and revised autogenous models according to which eukaryotic endomembranes evolved by the inward budding of a prokaryotic cell's plasma membrane. (springer.com)