Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Coal MiningCoal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Anthracosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by accumulation of inhaled CARBON or coal dust. The disease can progress from asymptomatic anthracosis to massive lung fibrosis. This lung lesion usually occurs in coal MINERS, but can be seen in urban dwellers and tobacco smokers.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Anthracosilicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of dust that contains both CARBON and crystalline SILICON DIOXIDE. These foreign matters induce fibrous nodule formation in the lung.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.MiningAppalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.KentuckyEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)PennsylvaniaBuffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Tsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).Bhutan: A kingdom in the eastern Himalayas on the northeast border of India, bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Assam, on the south by Assam and West Bengal, and on the west by Sikkim and Tibet. From 1720 to 1970 it was under Chinese or Indian domination. In 1971 it became a member of the United Nations. The name comes from the Sanskrit bhota, the name for Tibet, + anta, end, with reference to its location at the southern extremity of Tibet. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p144 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p64)Rhododendron: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.UzbekistanKyrgyzstanMoldovaAzerbaijanLatviaTurkmenistanArmenia: An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.AlaskaEducation, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Gas PoisoningSulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.TurkeyCemeteries: Areas set apart as burial grounds.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.ExplosionsMinor Planets: Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (1/268)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Health impacts of domestic coal use in China. (2/268)

Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiological study of non-small-cell lung cancer from an environmentally polluted region of Poland. (3/268)

The p53 mutation spectrum can generate hypotheses linking carcinogen exposure to human cancer. Although it is well-documented that tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, the contribution of air pollution is less well-established. We determined the molecular and immunohistochemical changes (p53 gene mutations, p53 protein accumulation and WAF1 protein expression) and genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, CYP1A1 and CYP2D6 genes in a case series of non-small-cell lung cancers from Silesia. This region of southern Poland is highly industrialized with considerable environmental pollution. More than 50% of lung cancers (90/164) contained p53 mutations and 75% showed the combined alteration of the p53 gene and protein accumulation. Males occupationally exposed to coal-derived substances showed a relatively high frequency of squamous and large-cell carcinomas, relatively frequent mutations in codon 298 of p53 and a low frequency of p53 immunohistochemically positive tumours. Codon 298 GAG-->TAG mutations have rarely been found in lung cancers in other populations. We found no correlation between WAF1 protein expression and mutations in the p53 gene or p53 protein accumulation. No statistically significant relationship was found between p53 mutations and GSTM1, CYP1A1, CYP2D6 genotypes. Never smokers with lung cancers from Silesia had a higher frequency of G:C-->T:A transversions than previously reported of the p53 mutation spectrum in never smokers (6/15 vs 4/34; P = 0.06 by chi2). These data are a tentative indication that occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo(a)pyrene, in polluted air contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer in never smokers.  (+info)

Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers. (4/268)

OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideoven workers. Liver function profiles including serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), r-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (BIL) were examined in the morning after personal exposure measurements. The MspI polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). RESULTS: Five of 23 (22%) topside oven workers and seven of 65 (11%) sideoven workers had the CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant genotype. With sideoven workers with the combined wild type and heterozygous variant as the reference group in multiple regression models, it was found that topside oven workers with the combined traits had mean AST and ALT activities that were 21% and 46% higher (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4% to 42% and 12% to 91%, respectively) than the reference group after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Also, topside oven workers with the homozygous variant trait had mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities that were 59%, 68%, and 157% higher (95% CI 21% to 109%, 6% to 168%, and 39% to 374%, respectively) than the reference group. The prevalence of an abnormal hepatocellular pattern (AST > 37 IU/l or ALT > 39 IU/l) was more common in the topside oven workers with the homozygous variant than in the sideoven workers with the other combined genotypes (adjusted odds ratio 9.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 82.3) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism may modify the biotransformation of coke oven emissions, which results in hepatocellular damage in coke oven workers.  (+info)

Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children. (5/268)

BACKGROUND: A critical review was conducted of the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution from household use of biomass fuels with acute respiratory infections in young children, which is focused on, but not confined to, acute lower respiratory infection and pneumonia in children under two years in less developed countries. Biomass in the form of wood, crop residues, and animal dung is used in more than two fifths of the world's households as the principal fuel. METHODS: Medline and other electronic databases were used, but it was also necessary to secure literature from colleagues in less developed countries where not all publications are yet internationally indexed. RESULTS: The studies of indoor air pollution from household biomass fuels are reasonably consistent and, as a group, show a strong significant increase in risk for exposed young children compared with those living in households using cleaner fuels or being otherwise less exposed. Not all studies were able to adjust for confounders, but most of those that did so found that strong and significant risks remained. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the relative risks are likely to be significant for the exposures considered here. Since acute lower respiratory infection is the chief cause of death in children in less developed countries, and exacts a larger burden of disease than any other disease category for the world population, even small additional risks due to such a ubiquitous exposure as air pollution have important public health implications. In the case of indoor air pollution in households using biomass fuels, the risks also seem to be fairly strong, presumably because of the high daily concentrations of pollutants found in such settings and the large amount of time young children spend with their mothers doing household cooking. Given the large vulnerable populations at risk, there is an urgent need to conduct randomised trials to increase confidence in the cause-effect relationship, to quantify the risk more precisely, to determine the degree of reduction in exposure required to significantly improve health, and to establish the effectiveness of interventions.  (+info)

Indoor coal combustion emissions, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes, and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Xuan Wei, China. (6/268)

The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuan Wei County, China is among the highest in the country and has been associated with exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This risk may be modified by variation in metabolism genes, including GSTM1, which encodes an enzyme known to detoxify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. To investigate the relationship between GST genotypes and lung cancer risk in Xuan Wei County, we analyzed GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes in a population-based case-control study. A total of 122 lung cancer patients and 122 controls, individually matched by age, sex, and home fuel type, were studied. Compared to subjects who used less than 130 tons of smoky coal during their lifetime, heavier users (> or =130 tons) had a 2.4-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.4) increased risk of lung cancer. The GSTM1-null genotype was associated with a 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.2) increased risk of lung cancer. Furthermore, there was some evidence that smoky coal use was more strongly associated with lung cancer risk among GSTM1-null versus GSTM1-positive individuals. In contrast, the GSTT1 genotype was not significantly associated with lung cancer risk. Our data suggest that the GSTM1-null genotype may enhance susceptibility to air pollution from indoor coal combustion emissions.  (+info)

Silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis. (7/268)

Exposure to coal mine dust and/or crystalline silica results in pneumoconiosis with initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. This review presents characteristics of simple and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) as well as pathologic indices of acute and chronic silicosis by summarizing results of in vitro, animal, and human investigations. These results support four basic mechanisms in the etiology of CWP and silicosis: a) direct cytotoxicity of coal dust or silica, resulting in lung cell damage, release of lipases and proteases, and eventual lung scarring; b) activation of oxidant production by pulmonary phagocytes, which overwhelms the antioxidant defenses and leads to lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosation, cell injury, and lung scarring; c) activation of mediator release from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, which leads to recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive species and in further lung injury and scarring; d) secretion of growth factors from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, stimulating fibroblast proliferation and eventual scarring. Results of in vitro and animal studies provide a basis for proposing these mechanisms for the initiation and progression of pneumoconiosis. Data obtained from exposed workers lend support to these mechanisms.  (+info)

Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: a case-control study in France. (8/268)

OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was conducted in France to assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx. METHODS: The study was restricted to men, and included 201 hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 laryngeal cancers, and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to seven substances (formaldehyde, leather dust, wood dust, flour dust, coal dust, silica dust, and textile dust) was assessed with a job exposure matrix. Exposure variables used in the analysis were probability, duration, and cumulative level of exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for major confounding factors (age, smoking, alcohol, and when relevant other occupational exposures). RESULTS: Hypopharyngeal cancer was found to be associated with exposure to coal dust (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.40), with a significant rise in risk with probability (p<0.005 for trend) and level (p<0.007 for trend) of exposure. Exposure to coal dust was also associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.92 to 3.02), but no dose-response pattern was found. A significant relation, limited to hypopharyngeal cancer, was found with the probability of exposure to formaldehyde (p<0.005 for trend), with a fourfold risk for the highest category (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.50 to 9.49). When subjects exposed to formaldehyde with a low probability were excluded, the risk also increased with duration (p<0.04) and cumulative level of exposure (p<0.14). No significant association was found for any other substance. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that exposure to formaldehyde and coal dust may increase the risk of hypopharyngeal cancer.  (+info)

Global Lignite Coal Sales Market Report 2018 1 Lignite Coal Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Lignite Coal 1.2 Classification of Lignite Coal by Product Category 1.2.1 Global Lignite Coal Market Size (Sales) Comparison by Type (2013-2025) 1.2.2 Global Lignite Coal Market Size (Sales) Market Share by Type (Product Category) in 2017 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.3 Global Lignite Coal Market by Application/End Users 1.3.1 Global Lignite Coal Sales (Volume) and Market Share Comparison by Application (2013-2025) 1.3.2 Power Generation 1.3.3 Agriculture 1.3.4 Mining 1.3.5 Others 1.4 Global Lignite Coal Market by Region 1.4.1 Global Lignite Coal Market Size (Value) Comparison by Region (2013-2025) 1.4.2 United States Lignite Coal Status and Prospect (2013-2025) 1.4.3 China Lignite Coal Status and Prospect (2013-2025) 1.4.4 Europe Lignite Coal Status and Prospect (2013-2025) 1.4.5 Japan Lignite Coal Status and Prospect (2013-2025) 1.4.6 Southeast Asia Lignite Coal Status and Prospect (2013-2025) 1.4.7 ...
Global Biomass Briquette Market Competition, by manufacturer, Biomass Briquette Sales and Biomass Briquette Revenue by Regions (2012-2017). Request Sample Biomass Briquette Research Report at https://market.biz/report/global-biomass-briquette-market-gir/15353/#requestforsample. Global Biomass Briquette Market report mainly covers 12 sections. They are as follows:. Section 1 gives us Biomass Briquette Introduction, market overview, product scope, Biomass Briquette market opportunities, market threat, Biomass Briquette market driving force;. Section 2 shows the global Biomass Briquette market by regions, with sales, Biomass Briquette market share and revenue of Biomass Briquette, for each region, from 2017 to 2022;. Section 3 and 4 displays Biomass Briquette market forecast, by regions, application and type, with revenue and sales of Biomass Briquette market, from 2017 to 2022;. Section 5 shows the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share of Biomass ...
Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness (2.75-3 on the Mohs scale[9]), its higher relative density of 1.3-1.4, and luster, which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed.[3] Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Since the 1980s, ...
Coal combustion accounts for approximately two-thirds of global anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions. Enhanced deposition of Hg can occur close to coal-fired utility boilers (CFUBs), but it is difficult to link specific point sources with local deposition. Measurement of Hg stable isotope ratios in precipitation holds promise as a tool to assist in the identification of local Hg deposition related to anthropogenic emissions. We collected daily event precipitation samples in close proximity to a large CFUB in Crystal River, Florida. Precipitation samples collected in Crystal River were isotopically distinct and displayed large negative δ(202)Hg values (mean = -2.56‰, 1 SD = 1.10‰, n = 28). In contrast, precipitation samples collected at other sites in FL that were not greatly impacted by local coal combustion were characterized by δ(202)Hg values close to 0‰ (mean = 0.07‰, 1 SD = 0.17‰, n = 13). These results indicate that, depending on factors such as powdered coal isotopic composition and
Tanzania Coal Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal. "Tanzania Coal Stats, NationMaster." 1990-2005. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal,.. Tanzania Coal Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal, [assessed 1990-2005]. "Tanzania Coal Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1990-2005. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal,.. "Tanzania Coal Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1990-2005.. "Tanzania Coal Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal (assessed 1990-2005). "Tanzania Coal Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal (last visited 1990-2005). "Tanzania Coal Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tanzania/Energy/Coal (as of ...
Competitive Insights:. Global lignite coal market is segmented on the basis of application and geography. By application, in 2016 power generation segment was the most dominant segment accounting for largest revenue share in global lignite coal market. Growing use of lignite coal as fuel in thermal power plants is anticipated to drive the growth of the segment during the forecast period. Others application is anticipated to be the fastest growing application among all applications in global lignite coal market. Advancement in technology has facilitated the production of synthetic natural gas from lignite coal using coal to liquid technology attracting investment in across the globe. Growing investment in development of CTL technology for the conversions of lignite coal to synthetic natural gas is projected to drive the demand for lignite coal over the forecast period. On the basis of geography, Europe was estimated to be the largest market for lignite coal in 2016. Increasing lignite production ...
The purpose of this project was to conduct a comprehensive laboratory-based evaluation of selected respiratory and cardiac health hazards of subchronic (up to 6 months) inhalation of simulated key components of downwind plume emissions of coal combustion. This project was performed as an integral part of a joint government-industry program termed the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC), which is aimed at disentangling the roles of different physical-chemical air pollutants and their sources in the health effects associated statistically with air pollution. The characterization of the exposure atmosphere and the health assays were identical to those employed in the NERC protocols used to evaluate other pollution source emissions, such as diesel, gasoline, and wood combustion. The project had two phases, each encompassing multiple tasks. Guidelines for the composition of the exposure atmosphere were set by consensus of an expert workshop. Development of the capability to generate the
The goal of the Sierra Clubs Beyond Coal campaign is to retire one-third of the nations over 500 coal plants by 2020; so far 147 have retired. Burning coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel, still produces about 40 percent of the electricity in the U.S., although this figure has been declining because of the natural gas boom. Coal mining destroys mountaintops and dumps rubble and toxic waste into streams. Burning coal is responsible for soot and smog that result in over $100 billion in health costs each year. Coal plants release toxic mercury into the air and leave behind dangerous coal ash pollution.. Moreover, coal-fired power plants are responsible for one third of all U.S. carbon dioxide emissions each year. Carbon dioxide, a powerful greenhouse gas, traps heat and warms the planet. In May, carbon emissions in the atmosphere topped 400 parts per million for the first time in over 2.5 million years. Humans have now put enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to change life on Earth as we know it; ...
From Duke University. Superior energy efficiency of South Korean plants, and choice of replacement fuels in US, are key to success. DURHAM, N.C. - Under the right scenario, exporting U.S. coal to power plants in South Korea could lead to a 21 percent drop in greenhouse gas emissions compared to burning the fossil fuel at plants in the United States, according to a new Duke University-led study.. "Despite the large amount of emissions produced by shipping the coal such a long distance, our analysis shows that the total emissions would drop because of the superior energy efficiency of South Koreas newer coal-fired power plants," said Dalia Patiño-Echeverri, assistant professor of energy systems and public policy at Duke.. For the reduction to occur, U.S. plants would need to replace the exported coal with natural gas. And in South Korea, the imported coal must replace other coal as the power source. However, if imported U.S. coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in Korea, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coal mining is associated with lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Chapman, Robert S.. AU - Wei, Hu. AU - He, Xingzhou. AU - Tian, Linwei. AU - Liu, Larry Z.. AU - Lai, Hong. AU - Engel, Lawrence S.. AU - Chen, Wei. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. AU - Lan, Qing. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Background: Xuanwei, China, experiences some of the highest rates of lung cancer in China. While lung cancer risk has been linked to the household use of bituminous coal, no study has comprehensively evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with the mining of this coal in Xuanwei. In Xuanwei, coal is typically extracted from underground mines, without ventilation, and transported to the surface using carts powered by manpower or electricity. Methods: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer and working as a coal miner, in the absence of diesel exhaust exposure, in a population-based case-control study of 260 male lung cancer cases and 260 age-matched male controls with ...
The Environmental Integrity Project (EIP) has once again put together a fantastic report regarding water contamination near coal ash disposal sites. Last year, the EIP released several reports showing that drinking water near coal ash disposal sites in states across America contained dangerous levels of heavy metals and other toxins, including arsenic. In total, last years report revealed 53 sites in the United States where coal ash had polluted drinking water supplies. The new report has identified a total of 116 coal ash sites in America that are leaching deadly toxins into the environment. The new EIP report resulted from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to the EPA, which revealed that 49 different coal-fired power plants acknowledged that their own testing showed that groundwater pollution around their disposal sites far exceeded the federally acceptable levels. Among the chemicals reported to exceed federal standards at the coal-fired plants disposal sites are:
Coal is one of the cheapest and most important sources of energy, responsible for 41% of electricity production worldwide.The Pros of Coal are most evident in Electricity Generation where it continues to grow at a sharp pace in countries like India and China. In many important countries like India,China,Germany,USA,Coal is the primary source of electricity and energy.Other smaller countries also heavily rely on coal for example Poland 94% , South Africa 92%, China for 77% and Australia for 76% of Electricity.Coal has played this a pivotal role in the development of mankind and his progress into the Industrial Age.Coal is an essential raw material and fuel for important global industries like Cement and Steel.Different qualities of Coal are used for different purposes.For example coking coal with higher carbon percentage is used in Steel Production while Thermal Coal is used in Production of Electricity.It was during the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries that demand for coal ...
Faster depletion of liquid hydrocarbons reserves makes coal bed methane a potential energy source. In the present investigation, coal samples were collected from a coal bed methane reservoir and proximate analysis was carried out to determine the ash content, volatile matter, and moisture content. Permeability and porosity of the coal was obtained to determine the gas content and flow characteristic of gas through the coal bed. Reserve and recoverable gas from the coal bed methane field under study was estimated from the adsorption-desorption experiments and simulation study. Future production rate of gas and water and dewatering time were predicted using Fekete coal bed methane software ...
In 2008/09, 487 million tonnes of coal was mined, and 261 million tonnes was exported.[9] In 2009, Australia was the fourth-highest coal producer in the world, producing 335 megatonnes (Mt) of anthracite and 64 Mt of lignite.[10] Australia was the biggest anthracite exporter, with 31% of global exports (262 Mt out of 836 Mt total). 78% of 2009 anthracite production was exported (262 Mt out of 335 Mt total). Australias global anthracite export share was 14% of all production (836 Mt out of 5,990 Mt total).[11] In 2011, coal exports were Australias second-largest source of export income, after iron ore exports.[12] In 2011, coal exports were worth A$47 billion Australian dollars, or US$47.8 billion, with US$15.6 billion coming from exports of thermal coal for power stations.[12] Coking coal generated A$22.4 billion of export revenue in 2012/13 financial year with thermal coal bringing in A$16.1 billion during the same period.[13] According to the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource ...
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The ratio of the thicknesses of a layer of peat and the coal bed formed from that peat has been calculated for a bituminous coal bed in central Utah. The method used involves comparison of the thickness of peat eroded by a laterally migrating channel system with the thickness of coal now absent from the outcrop. The peat:coal thickness ratio calculated by this method is approximately 11:1. ...
Arsenic is one of the toxic trace elements in coals, which is harmful to both the ecological environment and human health. Based on published literature and the data obtained by our research group, a total of 5314 As concentrations of Chinese coals were analyzed. The arithmetic mean of arsenic content in Chinese coals is 6.97 mg/kg. Choosing the percentage of provincial coal resources in national coal resources as the weighting factor, the weighted average of arsenic content in Chinese coals is 5.33 mg/kg. The content of arsenic in Chinese coals increases from the north to the south. High arsenic content in coal primarily occurs in southwestern Yunnan and certain coalfields in the Guizhou Province. Additionally, arsenic is enriched in the coals from some regions, i.e., the western Yunnan, Guangxi, Tibet, southwestern Liaoning, Jilin, and Henan. The arsenic content in coals of different coal-forming periods shows an overall regularity: Paleogene and Neogene > Late Triassic > Late Permian > Late
The report has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global Anthracite market collected from specialized sources. The report covers key technological developments in the recent times and profiles leading players in the market and analyzes their key strategies. The competitive landscape section of the report provides a clear insight into the market share analysis of key industry players. The major players in the global Anthracite market are Yang Quan Coal Industry (China), Shanxi Jincheng Anthracite Mining (China), Henan Shenhuo Coal & Power (China), Beijing Jingmei Group (China), Shanxi Lanhua Sci-Tech Venture (China), Siberian Anthracite (Russia), DTEK (Ukraine), VostokCoal (Russia), Sadovaya Group (Ukraine), Beijing Haohua Energy Resource (China), Union Corporate (China), Shenhua Group (China) etc ...
When employing hydraulic processes to increase gas drainage efficiency in underground coal mines, coal seams become a three-phase medium, containing water intruding into the coal pores with the inherent occurrence of gas. This can change the stress state of the coal and cause instability. This work studied the mechanical properties of coal containing water and gas and derived an appropriate failure criterion. Based on mixture theory of unsaturated porous media, the effective stress of coal, considering the interaction of water and gas, was analyzed, and the failure criterion established by combining this with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. By introducing the stress factor of matrix suction and using fitted curves of experimentally determined matrix suction and moisture content, the relationships between coal strength, gas pressure, and moisture content were determined. To verify the established strength theory, a series of triaxial compression strength tests of coal containing water and gas were carried
1) No operator of a coalbed methane well may stimulate a coal seam without the written consent of each entity which, at the time that the coalbed methane operator applies for a drilling permit, is operating a coal mine, or has by virtue of his property rights in the coal the ability to operate a coal mine, located within a horizontal or vertical distance from the point of stimulation as established by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection. In seeking the coal operators consent, a coalbed methane well operator shall provide the coal operator with necessary information about such stimulation, including relevant information to ensure compliance with coal mine safety laws and rules.. (2) In the absence of a written consent pursuant to paragraph (1) and at the request of a coalbed methane operator, the Secretary of the Interior shall make a determination regarding stimulation of a coal seam. Such request shall include an affidavit which shall-. (A) state that an ...
The second to the last question during the presidential debate on Sunday night was about energy and how the candidates policies would influence the nations direction. With that, Donald Trump referenced "clean coal," noting that theres enough coal to last 1,000 years. Lets examine that.. What is "clean coal" and is it technically feasible? Coal-fired power plants contribute a third of all man-made carbon emissions in the United States. The goal, though, is to gasify the coal and separate the carbon - before capturing and burying it. While such technologies have been demonstrated, they have yet to have much commercial appeal.. The United States, in fact, is investing $8 billion into the effort. But it has also pulled out of some high profile projects, given that the time tables and budgets keep getting stretched. And the Obama administration has said that it will continue to finance the effort, generally speaking, although it is harder argument to make now that natural gas prices are so ...
Biomass Briquette & Pellets Market Report provides complete information about manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, traders, customers, investors and major types as well as applications. Biomass Briquette & Pellets Market is segmented based on type, application, and region. The Biomass Briquette & Pellets Market report provides an in-depth overview of Product Specification, product type and production analysis considering major factors such as Revenue, Cost, Gross and Gross Margin.. With the slowdown in world economic growth, the Biomass Briquette & Pellets industry has also suffered a certain impact, but still maintained a relatively optimistic growth, the past four years, Biomass Briquette & Pellets market size to maintain the average annual growth rate of xx% from xxxx million $ in 2013 to xxxx million $ in 2016, BisReport analysts believe that in the next few years, Biomass Briquette & Pellets market size will be further expanded, we expect that by 2021 , The market size of the Biomass ...
Coal is India s most abundant resource, and it will continue to play a pivotal role in the country over the upcoming decades. There currently exist in India 82 coal-fired power plants, each of which uses around 1,000 tons of coal and produces about 13.34 tons of fly ash. Fly ash is, alone, a waste product and its responsible disposal poses a huge problem. From each power station, thousands of tons of fly ash are pumped into the ash ponds in the form of slurry (fly ash mixed with water) every day; these lagoons occupy millions of acres of agricultural land all over India.

When coal is burned in a plant, two types of ash are produced: fly ash and bottom ash. Fly ash, otherwise known as pulverized fuel ash, is the residue of coal combustion and is comprised of very fine, powerdy glass-like particles. Because it is so fine, it is highly susceptible to wind erosion; its light color grayish white reflects more light than dirt, raising surface temperature. Bottom ash refers to the non
The first European settlers in Ohio recognized the presence of coal in natural outcrops in stream and river banks in the eastern part of the state. As the industrial revolution began, Ohio�s coal resources became increasingly important. One of the primary objectives of the first Geological Survey of Ohio in 1837-1838 was to survey the mineral resources of the state, particularly coal. Soon, coal was being mined as a fuel to heat homes and businesses. Development of the Ohio canal system in the 1830�s and 1840�s permitted easy transport of coal from mines to markets. By the mid 1800�s, railroads began to replace the canals, allowing for faster and more efficient delivery of coal to consumers. By the late 1800�s, mechanization and improvement of mining methods led to a steady increase in the production of Ohio coal. Much coal was used to make coke to fuel the many steel mills that dotted the upper Ohio River valley. Eventually, coal became the primary source of energy to generate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Particle size dependence of coal volatile matter. T2 - Is there a non-maceral-related effect?. AU - Mathews, Jonathan P.. AU - Hatcher, Patrick G.. AU - Scaroni, Alan W.. PY - 1997/3. Y1 - 1997/3. N2 - Proximate analyses were conducted on different size fractions of pure vitrinite from two bituminous coals and demineralized vitrinite from one of the coals. CO2 surface areas were also determined, to aid in assessing the possible influence of pore diffusion of volatiles in particles of different sizes. The results implied that for comminuted coals, the particle size dependence of the measured volatile matter, after correction for effects of mineral matter, is due almost entirely to differences in maceral composition.. AB - Proximate analyses were conducted on different size fractions of pure vitrinite from two bituminous coals and demineralized vitrinite from one of the coals. CO2 surface areas were also determined, to aid in assessing the possible influence of pore diffusion of ...
Ontario had exactly the same amount of absolute megawatts derived from coal as we do now and their last plant closes this year. Its a tiny little plant. Its in Thunder Bay which only has 300 megawatts and its the last one to close and theyll have no more coal-fired power in that province.". And Ontario did it fast, it took them just over a decade and now they are practically off coal altogether. They kept the lights on and also integrated massive amounts of solar, wind and biomass into their grid. Nova Scotia is trending in that direction as well. For a place that has so heavily depended on coal-fired power for so long coal is now down to 59 per cent of the electricity mix and provincial law mandates that renewables be 25 per cent of the electricity mix by 2015.. At the event was Donna Kennedy-Glans, a Progressive Conservative MLA and recently appointed associate minister of a brand new portfolio - Electricity and Renewable Energy.. While she was cautious there were some positive ...
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Coal was mined in America in the early 18th century, and commercial mining started around 1730 in Midlothian, Virginia.[69]. The American share of world coal production remained steady at about 20 percent from 1980 to 2005, at about 1 billion short tons per year. The United States was ranked as the second highest coal producing country in the world in 2010, and possesses the largest coal reserves in the world. In 2008 then-President George W. Bush stated that coal was the most reliable source of electricity.[70] However, in 2011 President Barack Obama said that the US should rely more on "clean" sources of energy that emit lower or no carbon dioxide pollution.[71] For a time, while domestic coal consumption for electric power was being displaced by natural gas, exports were increasing.[72] US net coal exports increased ninefold from 2006 to 2012, peaked at 117 million short tons in 2012, then declined to 63 million tons in 2015. In 2015, 60% of net US exports went to Europe, 27% to Asia.US coal ...
Cerbera Manghas is a plant that is often used as urban greening so that this plant has the potential to be developed into a source of alternative fuel in Indonesia. The material of solid fuel briquette is waste leaves of Cerbera Manghas tree and tapioca flour are used as binder material. The composition of this briquette is 10% mass of tapioca flour and 90% mass of Cerbera Manghaswaste leaves. The highest heating value (HHV) of this briquette is 4167 Kcal/kg. The particle size of this briquette affects the physical and burning characteristics. This optimizesresearch particle size and pressure of the press machine during the briquette forming process. The two parameters were evaluated for the combustion characteristics include Flame temperature, Ignition timing, Burning time, and Combustion rate. The higher value of flame temperature,ignition time and burning time are caused by the greater the hydraulic pressure. Besides better the briquettesquality are obtained the smaller of combustion rate, ...
AGL Energy (AGL.AX), Australias biggest power producer, came under pressure from the government on Wednesday to sell rather than close one of its coal-fired plants in 2022 to help keep the lights on in a market short on stable power supplies.
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Steel plant coal preparation system project main coal preparation grinding mill equipments are the latest development of KEFID vertical grinding mills, they can combination the desulfurization, denitrification, dust removal device integrally mounted so pulverized coal boiler increased combustion efficiency, improve production capacity, while reducing pollutant emissions.. Coal production mill equipments: more than 10 sets ultra fine vertical grinding mill or VM series vertical grinding mill, machine rated power 600KW. Processing material: bituminous coal, 200 mesh = D80. Ultra fine vertical grinding mill. Input size: 38-55 mm. Final product size: 400-1250mesh. Capacity: 5-18t / h. LM series coal mill. Feed size: 38-65 mm. Capacity: 10-290T/h. PE jaw crusher. Feed size: 125-1200mm. Capacity: 5-1100T/h. KEFID large-scale grinding equipment vertical grinding mill is of stable operation, high yield, the small wearing wear parts and easy to replace, the device combines crushing, drying, grinding, ...
Article A process for synthesising polymeric ferric sulphate using sulphur dioxide from coal combustion. We propose a process that uses sulphur dioxide from coal combustion as a raw material to synthesise polymeric ferric sulphate (PFS), a water trea...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). AU - Metts, Brian S.. AU - Buhlmann, Kurt A.. AU - Scott, David E.. AU - Tuberville, Tracey D.. AU - Hopkins, William A.. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced ...
A: the coal miners in Northern Shaanxi people in the underground smashed paralysis Sohu news Fugu County Road, coal vehicle Liu Tianhua lying in bed, some confused cover news reporter Diao Mingkang Shaanxi reported in Fugu if not a misfortune, Liu Tianhua (a pseudonym) never thought of leaving. He has lived here for 8 years, and his blood is full of memories of coal. But a drop from the clouds of coal, let him stand up from the strong body - the rest of his life, or will always and with paralysis. Fugu County, Shaanxi, the town of the Yellow River and the environment, with 200 tons of coal resources. 950 square kilometers of land, tens of thousands of scattered like Liu Tianhua from around the country who work. They are at the cost of health, the achievement of a city, but also the achievements of their own. With overcapacity and supply side reforms, some of them will leave the land. In late October 2016, the cover news (thecover) reporter came to Fugu, visited the coal miners. A lump of coal ...
A study released on Thursday finds that 39 sites in 21 states where coal-fired power plants dump their coal ash are contaminating water with toxic metals such as arsenic and other pollutants, and that the problem is more extensive than previously estimated.. The analysis of state pollution data by the Environmental Integrity Project, the Sierra Club and Earthjustice comes as the Environmental Protection Agency is considering whether to impose federally enforceable regulations for the first time. An alternative option would leave regulation of coal ash disposal up to the states, as it is now.. The EPA will hold the first of seven nationwide hearings about the proposed regulation Monday in Arlington, Va. A public comment period ends Nov. 19.". Renee Schoof reports for McClatchy Newspapers August 26, 2010. [2]. ...
The Asian Coal Ash Association was founded to bring together industry, academia, governments, NGOs and other stakeholders in the utilization of coal combustion products. The AsianCAA aims to promote initiatives of a scientific, technical, industrial, environmental, educational and legal nature associated with applications for coal ash produced from Asian coal fired power stations.
Coal-fired power plants are the biggest contributors to toxic air and water pollution and the single biggest source of greenhouse gases in the United States-theyre harming us, and our climate. When the Clean Air Act was passed decades ago, coal plants received special treatment that effectively exempted them from controlling their pollution and safely disposing of their waste, a gift that has allowed them to keep operating and profiting at the expense of Americans around the country who are getting sick and dying prematurely from exposure to coal plant pollution.
Environmental activists are calling on state governments to develop alternatives to coal ash dumps at coal-fired power plants. As WFIRs Evan Jones reports, its the result of a major spill into the Dan River.. 02-23 Coal Ash Wrap1-WEB. ...
2012-8-30 · This paper presents the results of a recent coal dust particle size survey to determine the range of coal particle sizes found in dust samples collected from intake airways in 50 US coal mines in MSHA s 10 bituminous Coal Mine Safety and Health Districts (seeFig. 1). (MSHA District 1 covers anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, which do not ...
A review of the need for coal gasification is made at the National level and for the State of Ohio. Current State energy policy promotes the construction of both low and high-Btu coal gasification plants in Ohio. Water requirements of such an industry are estimated and water availability is determined for the Southeastern Ohio study area. Direct stream use, reservoir and groundwater sources are compared economically. Linear programming optimization models are also developed for the coal gasification siting problem. These incorporate the cost of plants, gas transmission, coal supply and transport, solid waste disposal and water supply. Economic efficiency is achieved in meeting the demand for gas at designated market centers. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made for further analysis ...
Coal mining Coal mining Coal preparation As explained above during the formation of coal and subsequent geologic activities a coal seam may acquire mineral matter veins of clay bands of rock and igneous intrusions In addition during the process of mining a portion of the roof and floor material may be taken along with the coal seam in order to create adequate working height for more ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Basis for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Coal. AU - Dick, Thomas J.. AU - Acevedo, Orlando. AU - Dalal, Pranav. AU - Madura, Jeffry D.. AU - Evanseck, Jeffrey D.. AU - Mathews, Jonathan P.. PY - 2002/3/1. Y1 - 2002/3/1. N2 - Sequestration of CO2 within coal seams has been suggested to mitigate climate change. Computational molecular modeling was used to study the forces involved between bituminous coal structure and the molecular species CH4 and CO2. The molecular computations and simulations provided useful information on accessible pore volumes, energy of interactions between host and guest molecules, self-diffusion coefficients, identification of likely sorption sits, impact of CO2 sorption/CH4 exchange upon the coal matrix, and competitive adsorption isotherms. New opportunities in the optimization and gaseous management necessary for low-cost forms of CO2 sequestration would result from this novel procedure.. AB - Sequestration of CO2 within coal seams has been ...
1. Coal dust is a problem wherever there are coal mines or wherever coal is transported through residential areas and cities. That and other particulate matter released during the different processes involving coal can cause a number of health problems, some of them fatal, if in excess.. Very small particulate matter carried by the air can enter our lungs and affect our health, sometimes leading to hospitalisation. If the people breathing in this air already have lung problems, they are going to bear the brunt of it. Other health problems include black lung disease (or coalworkers pneumoconiosis) among miners and treatment plant workers, congestive heart failure, asthma attacks, chronic bronchitis and reduce life expectancy. Young children are also very susceptible to chronic lung problems. It has been found that coal trains passing through a citys outskirts can raise particulate air pollution by as much as 120% in many cases. Also, in general, coal trains were found to cause much more ...
Did you know that Australia is the worlds fourth largest coal producer?1. Right now, coal is Australias primary fuel source for generating electricity at around 73 percent. Of this, black coal is used to generate around half of all our electricity (51 percent), while Victoria mainly uses brown coal (22 percent) because its mined in the state.2. Black coal is found across Australia. It gets its name from its colour and it has higher energy and lower moisture content than brown coal.3 The majority of Australias black coal resources are located in Queensland and New South Wales in the Bowen, Surat and Sydney basins.4. ...
The International Energy Agencys 2014 World Energy Outlook underlines the fundamental role Australian coal and uranium will play in meeting the worlds accelerating energy demand. The IEA expects global demand for energy to increase 37 per cent by 2040. By that date, the mix of the worlds primary energy supply is expected to be divided into four almost-equal parts: oil, gas, coal and low-carbon sources which include uranium-fuelled nuclear energy. The story for Australian coal is unambiguously positive. The IEA predicts that Australia will regain its ranking as the worlds top coal exporter by 2030. The global coal trade will grow by 40 per cent by 2040, with high quality Australian coal securing an impressive 40 per cent of that growth. The forecasts completely undermine activists claims that coal risks becoming a stranded asset. The claims of the peak coal crowd led by The Greens are in tatters. This demand growth will be driven by Australias neighbours in the Asian region: ...
VISCO Briquette binder is starch based binder intentionally developed to be used in charcoal, coal, coke, and biomass briquette manufacturing. It forms an adhesive bond around the briquette particles to bind the particles together and to increase the strength of briquettes. ...
Define coals to Newcastle. coals to Newcastle synonyms, coals to Newcastle pronunciation, coals to Newcastle translation, English dictionary definition of coals to Newcastle. Something brought or sent to a place where it is already plentiful; it is a reference to the English town of Newcastle upon Tyne, historically a major coal...
Coal mining-related respiratory diseases can affect the gas exchanging tissues of the lungs. These lung tissues remove carbon dioxide and take up oxygen. The diseases can also affect the lung passages that carry air back and forth during breathing. The passages are called airways. Depending on what is in the coal mine dust that is inhaled and the part of the lung that is affected, coal miners may develop several different types of respiratory diseases. For more information about each of the following coal mining-related respiratory diseases, click on the links provided.. ...
Phosphorus (P) management in agriculture is crucial for both environmental health and future availability of P resource. Application of P as fertilisers (o
1751 There is increasing recognition that inflammatory pathways contribute to malignant transformation including cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Xuanwei, China, where lung cancer rates are among the countrys highest, and where lung cancer risk is strongly associated with exposure to indoor coal combustion products. We evaluated the role of polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes in lung cancer development. A total of 122 incident lung cancer cases and 122 individually matched controls were enrolled. Fifty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 immunoregulatory genes involved in inflammation (CCR5, ICAM1, IFNG, IFNGR, IL1A/B, IL1RN, IL4, IL4R, IL5, IL8, IL8RA/B, IL10, IL10RA, IL12A/B, IL13, IL16, LTA, MIF, TGFB, and TNF) were genotyped. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, smoking and smoky coal use. Haplotype analyses were conducted for selected genes with two or ...
WASHINGTON - A study released on Thursday finds that 39 sites in 21 states where coal-fired power plants dump their coal ash are contaminating water with toxic metals such as arsenic and other pollutants, and that the problem is more extensive than previously estimated.
Canada could lag behind the U.S. when it comes to cutting emissions from coal-fired power plants, despite claims by Prime Minister Stephen Harper that Canada is way ahead of its closest neighbour when it comes to cleaning up coal.
Major coal and shipping companies propose to strip-mine coal in Montana and Wyoming, transport it on long coal trains and massive cargo ships through Washington and Oregon, and sell it to Asia. Almost every major Washington community including Tacoma could be impacted.. According to Climate Solutions, shipping 130 million tons of coal annually would add more than 9,000 mile-long coal trains to Washingtons rail system every year. In addition to the added traffic congestion, there would be a variety of other impacts.. Each train car can lose 500 pounds of coal dust en route, polluting rivers, coastlines, farms, cities and …. Read more ». ...
Transparency International Bangladesh today termed the governments decision to waive 10 per cent VAT on imported coal for coal-fired power plant as
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A new study on global coal supplies suggests a worldwide peak in production from existing fields in 2011. Claims that the world has 200 to 400 years of coal left at current rates of consumption have blinded policymakers and the public. The claims are based on two questionable notions: 1) That official coal reserve estimates are accurate and 2) that the world will experience no growth in the rate of consumption of coal over the period cited. In a new study published in the international journal Energy researchers Tadeusz W. Patzek and Gregory D. Croft suggest that actual historical coal production is a better indicator of the future trend of worldwide coal output than stated reserves which are notoriously unreliable. They note, for example, that the state of Illinois, despite its rank as second in reserves in the United States, has seen its production decline by half over the last 20 years. In the meantime Illinois estimated recoverable reserves have actually increased from 32 billion tons to 34 ...
Greenpeace has campaigned against the expansion of coal exports from Queensland, through the Great Barrier Reef, using every legitimate means we can to stop them going ahead.. Weve made detailed submissions, weve triggered Departmental inquiries, weve used Freedom of Information to expose holes in assessments, weve helped 25,000 people make submissions to processes, weve published full page advertisements and weve written large on a beach our call to protect the Reef from coal. All to no avail: the Australian government has not acted to protect the Reef and prevent the expansion of our biggest contribution to climate change.. Today Greenpeace has dramatically stepped up its campaign to stop Australias biggest contribution to climate change from getting any bigger, by boarding a bulk carrier filled with thermal coal, leaving Australia bound for Asia.. Plans are underway to roughly double the volume of coal exports from Australia. At the same time the big coal importing markets will ...
The global generation of power depends heavily on coal-fired power plants; in 2008 nearly half of electricity was generated via coal combustion. This is expected to drop as a percentage but rise in absolute terms by 2035. Moreover, industrial processes such as the production of cement or iron emit CO2 as an intrinsic part of the process. As fossil fuels will remain part of the global energy mix for some time, carbon capture and storage is a "must develop" technology for reducing carbon emissions ...
BACKGROUND: Exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) level is positively associated with tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from biomass/coal burning. Relatively little is known about its determinants in China despite the population having a high prevalence of smoking and use of biomass/coal. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank includes 512,000 participants aged 30-79 years recruited from 10 diverse regions. We used linear regression and logistic regression methods to assess the associations of COex level with smoking, exposures to indoor household air pollution and prevalent chronic respiratory conditions among never smokers, both overall and by seasons, regions and smoking status. RESULTS: The overall COex level (ppm) was much higher in current smokers than in never smokers (men: 11.5 vs 3.7; women: 9.3 vs 3.2). Among current smokers, it was higher among those who smoked more and inhaled more deeply. Among never smokers, mean COex was positively associated with levels of exposures to passive smoking and to
TY - CONF. T1 - Permeability evolution in fractured anthracite. T2 - 45th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium. AU - Wang, Shugang. AU - Elsworth, Derek. AU - Liu, Jishan. PY - 2011/12/6. Y1 - 2011/12/6. N2 - We report laboratory experiments that examine the roles of crack geometry and water-content on the evolution of permeability in fractured coals. Experiments are conducted on 2.5 cm diameter, 5 cm long cylindrical anthracite samples from Pennsylvania. To explore the permeability evolution due to coal swelling, we conduct experiments on a sample containing multiple embedded cracks and a fully cracked sample, under both dried and water saturated conditions. Under constant total stress and with pore pressure increases, we find the presence of low gas pressure permeability reduction for the intact sample under dried condition, and the absence of permeability reduction for the split sample under dried condition. This observation is congruent with the need for connected bridges to be present ...
Germanys power generation sector accounted for 86.3% of the total coal consumption (234.6Mt) in 2014. Changing times combined with the governments energy transition policy resulted in a slight increase in the share of renewable sources over lignite for the first time in 2014. Renewable sources accounted for 25.7% in the power generation mix, while lignites share was slightly lower at 25.6%.. The shutting down of domestic mines such as Lippe, Lohberg and Walsum in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bergheim in Baden-Wurttemberg led to a 12.8% increase in the coal imports in 2014 to 57.1Mt. The key suppliers were Russia, the US and Colombia, which contributed 55.6% to the total coal imports in 2014.. The Timetric report mentions that lignite is the widely produced variety of coal used in the German power generation industry.. The key firms in the countrys coal mining industry are RWE Power AG, Vattenfall GmbH and RAG AG. The Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (FMET) and the Federal Institute ...
Coal drying, preparation plants, and lignite beneficiation is another core competency of the Cementation AG team. Background in coal drying includes detailed design of thermal and metallurgical coal fluidized bed dryers, HAZOP reviews, studies, and explosion vent design and evaluation per NFPA 68 and EN 14491. The team has developed coal preparation plants from feasibility through commissioning. Preparation plant engineering experience includes process design & optimization, equipment specification (dense media vessels and cyclones, basket and screen bowl centrifuges, spirals, dewatering screens, froth floatation, filtration, etc.), detailed plant design, commissioning, studies, and existing plant upgrades. Cementation AG personnel have designed, built, and commissioned lignite beneficiation plants and advised in the design of world class facilities for coal gasification.. ...
Coal storage and feed preparation at a gasification facility consists of the following systems:coal handling and storage, which receives, unloads, conveys, and stores coal, andfeed preparation, which ...
Beater wheel mills are designed to prepare a coal powder air fuel mixture for combustion in furnace chambers of coal-fired power plants by coal drying, pulverizing, classifying and transport. Their multipurpose function usually results in operation instability accompanied by unacceptable vibration. This usually is a significant problem due to unplanned shutdowns. Beater wheel mill maintenance program requires special attention due to operation under non-stationary conditions. The purpose of this paper was to identify pulverizing process parameter that affect the beater wheel mill vibration level and severity at the same time by using statistical principles under a wide range of operating conditions. This paper intends to establish the foundations to investigate correlation of pulverizing process parameter with beater wheel mill vibration in order to setup a better predictive maintenance program. To achieve this goal, the beater wheel mill vibration under different combinations of selected ...
The U.S. power sector must cut carbon dioxide emissions 30 percent by 2030 from 2005 levels under federal regulations unveiled on Monday that form the centerpiece of the Obama administrations climate change strategy.. The Environmental Protection Agencys proposal is one of the most significant environmental rules proposed by the United States, and could transform the power sector, which relies on coal for nearly 38 percent of electricity. It also set off a political backlash likely to run well into next year.. Gina McCarthy, EPA administrator, said on Monday that between 2020 and 2030, the amount of carbon dioxide the proposal would reduce would be more than double the carbon pollution from the entire U.S. power sector in 2012.. States will have flexible means to achieve ambitious but attainable targets, regardless of their current energy mixes. States which rely heavily on coal-fired power plants are thought to have the toughest tasks ahead.. "The flexibility of our Clean Power Plan affords ...
In this paper the activation of oxidized surface of anthracite waste coal was investigated. Coal weathering leads to physical and chemical changes on the coal surfaces and a reduction of its hydrophobicity and floatability. The changes and the presence of oxygen functional groups in the structure and surfaces coal was confirmed by the FTIR study on the raw and waste coal. The groups have remarkable impacts on surface charge and thus flotation kinetics. The floatability of oxidized coal may be improved by the creation of fresh, unoxidized surfaces on coal by attrition at high solid concentration prior to introducing coal to the froth flotation process. This paper presents the results of the effects of attrition on the floatability of the oxidized surface of waste coal, coal pyrite and alumino-silicate minerals through electrokinetics and microflotation experiments. The results show that the attrition, in the viscous pulp with the solid content of 50%, lead to the mechanical cleaning of oxidized ...
Lord Kames, Sir J. Sinclair, and Adam Smith were the most distinguished of the many writers who deplored the mischief wrought by the old taxes on sea-borne coal, in retarding the progress of towns and country places, where cheap coal might otherwise have been enjoyed. But it is impossible to describe adequately the all-pervading bane that a general tax on coal would be. A rise in price of coal, whether from taxation or scarcity, must levy open and insidious contributions upon us in a manner with which no other tax whatever can compare. Sydney Smith described how a man in former days was taxed at every step from the cradle to the coffin. But through coals we shall be taxed in everything and at every moment. Our food will be taxed as it crosses the ocean, as it is landed by steam upon the wharf, as it is drawn away by the locomotive, as the corn is ground and the bread mixed and kneaded and baked by steam, and the meat is boiled and roasted by the kitchen fire. The bricks and mortar, the iron ...
The energy commission said in its decision that despite claims by the administration to the contrary, there is no evidence that any past or planned retirements of coal-fired power plants pose a threat to reliability of the nations electric grid.. The administrations plan was opposed by an unusual coalition of business and environmental groups that frequently disagree with each other. Critics said the plan would distort energy markets and raise prices for customers, especially in the Northeast and Midwest.. Energy Secretary Rick Perry thanked the panel Monday for addressing his proposal, which he said had initiated a national debate on the resiliency of the nations electric system.. "What is not debatable is that a diverse fuel supply, especially with onsite fuel capability, plays an essential role in providing Americans with reliable, resilient and affordable electricity, particularly in times of weather-related stress like we are seeing now," Perry said.. Perry was referring to his plan to ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has added a third option to reduce pollution from a coal-fired power plant on the Navajo Nation.
This week the U.S. Supreme Court will hear arguments in a crucial case about regulating mercury and other toxic air pollution coming from coal-fired power plants.
A pulverized coalfired boiler is an industrial or utility boiler that generates thermal energy by burning pulverized coal (also known as powdered coal or coal dust since it is as fine as face powder in cosmetic makeup) that is blown into the firebox.. The basic idea of a firing system using pulverised fuel is to use the whole volume of the furnace for the combustion of solid fuels.. (Get price) ...
CHARLESTON, W.Va. -- A year ago Tuesday, at about 1 a.m., a coal-ash dike ruptured at the Tennessee Valley Authoritys Kingston Plant west of Knoxville, Tenn.. More than a billion gallons of coal ash -- containing an estimated 2.9 million pounds of toxic pollutants -- poured into nearby streams, fields and homes. The spill covered more than 300 acres and made three homes uninhabitable. It damaged 23 other homes, along with roads, rail lines and utilities. TVA estimates the cleanup will cost between $933 million and $1.2 billion and take two to three years to complete.. The disaster heated up a long-simmering controversy over major loopholes in the way the nation regulates the handling and disposal of millions of tons of ash generated by coal-fired power plants.. But today, as the anniversary of the Kingston mess approaches, the battle over potential new rules to protect coalfield communities and the environment from the dangers of toxic coal ash is just getting started.". Ken Ward Jr. reports ...
Led by cutbacks in China and India, construction of new coal-fired power plants is falling worldwide, improving chances climate goals can be met despite earlier pessimism, three environmental groups say
The Court of Appeals (CA) has invalidated the lease development agreement and the environmental compliance certificate (ECC) of a consortium of energy firms proposing to put up a coal-fired power plant inside this free port.
Last week, the EIA published a little-noticed analysis estimating that up to 25 percent of the nations coal-fired power plant fleet could be forced to retire
INTRODUCTION. Coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) is generated in coal gas purification which poses numerous environmental problems in many countries. The chemical composition of coal gasification wastewater is complex and varies from one plant to another. The generated wastewater can contain ammonia, cyanide, thiocyanate, monohydric phenols, dihydric phenols, polycyclic hydroxyl compounds, monocyclic n-aromatics, polycyclic aro-matics and aliphatic acids. Of these compounds the phenolic components, primarily, methyl-phenol, and phenols, constitute between 60 and 80% of the organic content (Li et al., 2003).. Physico-chemical methods for the extraction of the phenolic content have been realised in order to reduce the toxicity of the waste stream before conventional treatment. Such treatments as the Phenosolvan process for phenol recovery have been investigated. The Phenosolvan process employs a liquid-liquid extraction process where the incoming gas liquor is filtered through a gravel bed and ...
Dr. Li Hui Quan, a researcher at Chongqing University recently presented at the recent Coal Ash Asia conference in Beijing, China from July 21-24, 2017. The following is the fully translated abstract of their research. For more information, or to contact this researcher please contact the team at Asian Coal Ash Association.. Thermal power generation is an important component of Chinese energy. Shanxi and Inner Mongolia are regarded as the most important energy bases of China. Large amounts of coal gangue, fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste denitration catalyst emerge during the processes of coal mining and coal to electricity conversions. This causes terrible environmental problems due to the low waste utilization ratio. Many metal elements such as Al, Li and Ga, enrich coal-related solid wastes. Our team proposes a theoretical system of the mild separation of active components, the coordinated control of mineral structure and the step by step extraction of associated elements.. We found ...
In 2001 Chinas carbon emissions from coal use constituted about 10% of world CO2 emissions, which totaled 23,899 million metric tons.[90] The Kyoto Protocol has called for a decrease of 483 million tons of worldwide carbon emissions by 2012, but by then it is expected that coal plants in China will increase CO2 emissions by 1,926 million tons, or over four times the proposed reduction.[91] Chinas annual carbon emissions surpassed U.S. emissions in 2007, with three-fourths of these from coal; however, Chinas per-capita emissions were one-fifth of the U.S per-capita emissions.[92]. China surpassed the U.S. in carbon emissions in 2007, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. China released 6.533 million tons of carbon dioxide in 2008, compared with 5.832 million for the U.S. According to head of the National Energy Administrations general office Zhou Xian, the IEAs data are "not very credible": "When the IEA came to China to publish its energy outlook a couple of days ago, they also ...
As for the world coal consumption rate, I have repeatedly warned here on the board that claims of a decline were overly optimistic. Not only is China still adding a new coal burning unit every 7 to 10 days, India is on a massive building program of their own and most of the rest of the world population in Asia, Africa and South America that were left behind technologically are working hard to catch up. After all, what point buying a smart phone if there is no electricity to keep it charged and no cell tower or computer servers for it to contact? Every large city that does not already have a fully electrified culture is busting its chops to build one. A lot of those Chinese engineers who were building power plants at a rate of one every 3.5 days a few years ago are now working in other countries because the Chinese no longer need as high of a construction rate. IOW the Chinese are still building 2 coal burning plants a week, but now they are building them all over the nominally called third ...
After five months of negotiations behind closed doors, China has finally announced a detailed air pollution action plan to cut fine particle PM2.5 pollution and clear the skies above the country. The plan, for the first time, sets out to cut coal consumption in a way which could significantly affect Chinas upward coal-use trend, and even the future of our climate.. In Greenpeaces Beijing coal team we have campaigned for years to achieve this. After hearing about the negotiations we have been holding our collective breath while intensifying campaigning to increase public momentum of the air pollution debate. Even the negotiation process has been an unprecedented move in Chinese energy policy, juxtaposing the growing public demand for clean environment against the old policy of maximising the GDP.. Two years ago, when our coal campaign started, something like this would have been called, well, Greenpeace dreaming the impossible. But it has not come from nothing. It has taken unparalleled levels ...
Peabody Energy Corporation is the largest private-sector coal company in the world. It accounts for more than 16 percent of all U.S. coal sales--more than 180 tons a year. The Clean Air Act has prompted the company to shut down many mines producing lower grades of coal. After a number of changes of corporate ownership in the 1990s, the company launched a successful public offering in May 2001.. Origins. Peabody Coal was founded in the 1880s by Francis S. Peabody. The son of a prominent Chicago attorney, Peabody graduated from Yale University with the intention of studying law in Chicago. Displaying little aptitude for the profession, however, he opted for a career in business, working at a bank for a brief period before embarking on a private retail venture in 1883. With a partner, $100 in start-up capital, a wagon, and two mules, the 24-year-old Peabody established Peabody, Daniels & Company, which sold and delivered coal purchased from established mines to homes and small businesses in the ...
View Notes - 19_oil_coal_ore_09_post from GEOLOGY 100 at Rutgers. 19: Earths Resources 2- Photo: Chevron Corp. Coal, Ore: 1 Oil, Coal, Ores Energy resources Most common Most source of energy 150
coal in crusher plant pdf,coal crusher plant 250 tph pdf ... Coal crusher Of coal in crusher plant pdfcoal crusher plant 250 tph pdf fil. coal in crusher plant pdf .... ...
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Making fuel briquettes is a tedious and messy work not suitable for everyone. If you are one of those people seeking high-paying dirty jobs, then, you may consider making charcoal briquettes to sell to your neighborhood. The demand for briquettes is...
Anthracite coal is a mineral, dark hues are bright blue is often used in the smelting of metals especially iron mixed with bituminous coals, it can be found also as a filter for water, and, in combination with coal for generation vapor and its subsequent use in generating electricity. The Anthracite coal is the mineral which has the largest amount of pure carbon, easily exceeds 90%, has a calorific value of between 23 and 33 MJ / kGy has its origin in a process called coalification which is nothing else than the transformation of organic materials by gradual migration at moderate temperatures and high pressure in peat and coal, thanks to the incomplete dehydrogenation. All this happens in two stages, the first corresponding to the decomposition of organic matter by aerobic bacteria that live in wet beds, at this stage the organic waste can have a significant reduction in volume, some authors placed in the order of 50%, as is understood, this process ends with the death of bacteria due to lack of ...
The title of a new report from Physicians for Social Responsibility (via the Charleston Gazettes Ken Ward) doesnt pull any punches - its called Coals Assault on Human Health. While noting that coal mining presents risks to miners and local communities, the report focuses mostly on the health effects of coal combustion. The authors discuss the effects on humans respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems, and then explore the more indirect health effects from global warming, to which coal-burning contributes ...
On 7 November 2014, the former Minister for Health, the Hon Peter Dutton MP, referred the inquiry into hepatitis C in Australia to the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Health (the Committee).. On 25 June 2015, the Committee tabled its report - The Silent Disease - on the Inquiry into Hepatitis C in Australia (the Report). The Report made 10 recommendations relating to:. ...
Executive Board, 32. (‎1963)‎. Membership of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/88407 ...
LYME DISEASE: ISSUES IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT FOR UNDERSERVED AND RURAL COMMUNITIES. Presented to the California Senate Committee On Health And Human Services February 25, 2004 Steven Harris, MD. Slideshow 252543 by cian
Engagement with Patient Representatives on CervicalCheck and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Review Process Joint Committee on Health debate - Tuesday, 17 Dec 2019
13. Empty Handed. The song "Suffer In Silence" features a guest appearance by MINISTRYs Al Jourgensen.. Support on COAL CHAMBERs current U.S. trek - which runs through April 12 in Dallas, Texas - is coming from FILTER, COMBICHRIST and AMERICAN HEAD CHARGE.. COAL CHAMBER is offering an exclusive VIP Package for every date on the tour. It includes a meet-and-greet with the band, exclusive t-shirt, exclusive poster, souvenir laminate and early entry (where applicable).. Bassist Nadja Peulen returned to COAL CHAMBER in November 2013 following the departure of Canadian musician Chela Rhea Harper, who joined the band in late 2011 and toured with the group for nearly two years.. COAL CHAMBER rose to prominence with a gold-certified debut album in 1997 that established the group as one of the most promising bands on the then-emerging, so-called "nu metal" scene.. Peulen replaced Foss in 1999 during Raynas pregnancy for almost 12 months while the band was on the road supporting its second album, ...
measuring coal particles in the pipe power 1 apr 2007 the direct cost of coal grinding is a function of the wear and tear of the powdered coal mill, which in turn is influenced by the expected particle size spectrum of the coal dust and thus of the mill Get Price ...
RAVA, E et al. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a high-strength coal gasification wastewater stream. Water SA [online]. 2015, vol.41, n.4, pp.441-447. ISSN 1816-7950. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/WSA.V41I4.02.. The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and actual wastewater composition. The composition of the influent and effluent was studied to determine which compounds were not removed by hydrolysis (bacterial activity) and how this correlated to the suspended and fixed biomass activity, COD and phenol removal. A H-FFBR with 12 gm-3 attached biomass and 440 mg-ℓ1 suspended biomass achieved 78% phenol removal and 49% COD removal but insignificant removal of nitrogenous compounds. During the operation ...
Yes. People living near sites used to store ash or sludge from coal-fired plants have a 1 in 50 chance of getting cancer. Coal ash contains, "high levels of arsenic, lead, mercury and boron, each of which has been known to cause cancer, neurological and development problems, and other illnesses," according to the first citation. Check out the links for more info, but, in general, coal ash is bad stuff, and will make you sick. The possibility for respiratory issues like asthma, as well, are likely to be high whenever youre talking about major contaminants being in the air.. ...
Environmental groups have long pushed for coal ash, a by-product of coal burning energy production that contains toxic contaminants, to be classified as a hazardous material. While the EPA announced new standards for storage and disposal, the agency decided to leave regulation with the states rather than the EPA. Dina Cappiello of the Associated Press joins Jeffrey Brown to discuss the new rules.
How about natural-gas-fired gas turbine power generation stations? Will they be similarly regulated out of existence?. There is a way to burn coal cleanly, with NO fly ash, NO heavy metals, and NO sulfur compounds. A technology called "Plasma arc gasification", which was developed for the reduction of organic matter in trash and converting the end product into syngas, slag, and heat, could be applied to crushed coal in a water slurry just as well. The reaction is carried on in an inert gas atmosphere (usually nitrogen), and the output is syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide), an excellent fuel that burns with no ash and fully combusts the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, a product essential for the proper growth of plant life.. Coal gasification is not that hard, and the output in total BTU energy released is almost fully reclaimable on an industrial scale. The capture of the carbon dioxide in the exhaust stream can be accomplished by a more efficient reclamation of the excess heat by the ...
... industry refers to coal as raw materials, chemical processing of coal into a gas, liquid and solid fuels, and chemical processes. Including coal g
Biomass cofiring with coal has efficiency near those of coal combustion.[33] Cofiring can be easily applied to existing coal- ... Co-firing coal with biomass[edit]. See also: Cofiring. As of 2017 there were roughly 250 cofiring plants in the world, ... The concentration of CO2 in the flue gas from the co-firing power plant is roughly the same as coal plant, about 15% [1].[35][ ... Currently,[when?] the modern 500 MW coal power plant can take up to 15% biomass without changing the component of the steam ...
Coal. Coal dust is responsible for the lung disease known as pneumoconiosis, including black lung disease that occurs among ... In addition, if enough coal dust is dispersed within the air in a given area, in very rare circumstances, it can create an ... The danger of coal dust resulted in environmental legislation regulating work place air quality in some jurisdictions. ...
Coal[edit]. Robin Gollan argues in The Coalminers of New South Wales that anti-competitive practices developed in the coal ... The monopoly was generated by formal meetings of the local management of coal companies agreeing to fix a minimum price for ... "The Vend" was able to maintain its monopoly due to trade union assistance, and material advantages (primarily coal geography). ... the Vend developed as an informal and illegal collusion between the steamship owners and the coal industry, eventually ...
Coal and ore[edit]. Slurry pipelines are sometimes used to transport coal or ore from mines. The material to be transported is ...
Coal gap[edit]. No coal deposits are known from the Early Triassic, and those in the Middle Triassic are thin and low-grade.[20 ... On the other hand, the lack of coal may simply reflect the scarcity of all known sediments from the Early Triassic. Coal- ... and are not considered a likely cause of the coal gap.[20] It could simply be that all coal forming plants were rendered ... Approximately 95% of these peat-producing plants went locally extinct at the P-Tr boundary;[63] Coal deposits in Australia and ...
Coal miners. The term "redneck" in the early 20th century was occasionally used in reference to American coal miner union ... James Green (2015). The Devil Is Here in These Hills: West Virginia's Coal Miners and Their Battle for Freedom. New York: Grove ... The sense of "a union man" dates at least to the 1910s and was especially popular during the 1920s and 1930s in the coal- ... Patrick Huber, "Red Necks and Red Bandanas: Appalachian Coal Miners and the Coloring of Union Identity, 1912-1936," Western ...
Coal mining[edit]. A vast coal vein was found in an area that included the Miller ranch in the mid-1870s.[9][2] Having retained ... Phyllis Smith (1989). Once a Coal Miner: The Story of Colorado's Northern Coal Field. Pruett Publishing Company. pp. 19, 45. ... In March 1868, the Millers purchased 160 acres along Coal Creek, two miles north of Rock Creek House, for $500 from Denver coal ... she leased coal rights to coal prospector John H. Simpson, a British engineer from Cumberland who opened the Simpson Mine in ...
Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry. Minneapolis: Paragon House, 1989; ISBN 1-55778-224-5; ... For the next century, large amounts of coal from Hazle Township were shipped by train to the lucrative Philadelphia market.[8] ... The expanding coal industry led to more extensive roads, railroads, and housing settlements. Immigrants, mostly from Europe, ... On September 10, 1897, about 300 to 400 unarmed strikers-nearly all of them Slavs and Germans-marched to a coal mine owned by ...
Coal and oil sands[edit]. When applied to coal mining tailings ponds and oil sands tailings ponds, the term "tailings" refers ... The greatest danger of tailings ponds is dam failure, with the most publicized failure in the U.S. being the failure of a coal ... Yellow boy in a stream receiving acid mine drainage from surface coal mining ... as well as coal. Although harmless underground, these minerals are reactive toward air in the presence of microorganisms, which ...
Coal mining[edit]. Clifton Hall Colliery was situated a few yards to the west of Lumns Lane on a site currently occupied by a ... Wet Earth Colliery was another early coal pit located in Clifton. Having closed in 1928, its remains can still be seen in ... The underlying rocks are New Red Sandstone between Clifton and Ringley while the rest of the township lies on the Middle Coal ... Clifton, a former centre for coal mining, once formed part of the Municipal Borough of Swinton and Pendlebury. ...
After coal and steel[edit]. After the loss of the two industries on which Workington was built, coal and steel, Workington and ... The area around Workington has long been a producer of coal and steel. ...
The coal for the plant will be derived from NTPC's Pakhri Barwadih coal block in Jharkhand.The water source is from reservoir ... The power plant is one of the coal based power plants of NTPC ... Coal-fired power stations in Karnataka. *Buildings and ...
coal. *t. [t]. ת‬3. ṯ/t. /t/. /θ/, /t/. /t/. תחת. under. ...
The Co-operative invited members through a public share offer, launched in June 2012. Despite the tight timetable caused by the expiry date on the option,[3] the issue was 50% over-subscribed,[4] when it closed at the end of July. This raised £4m from c. 1,650 members.[5] An additional c. £2m was raised by a private placement of B-Shares, mainly from members who had subscribed to the original issue. ...
Coal. *Boxberg Power Station. *Jänschwalde Power Station. *Lippendorf Power Station. *Rostock Power Station (25%) ...
Coal[edit]. The United States mines more coal than it uses, and is an exporter of coal.[58] ... Coal provided the bulk of the US energy needs well into the 20th century. Most urban homes had a coal bin and a coal fired ... Table 7.3 Coal Consumption by Sector, Selected Years, 1949-2006 (p. 207) and Figure 7.3 Coal Consumption by Sector (p. 206) ... Concern for climate change has led to a call for a moratorium on all coal consumption, unless carbon capture is utilized. Coal ...
Coal. Boiler pressure. 175 psi (1.21 MPa). Heating surface. 2,041 sq ft (189.6 m2). ...
Coal will also be exported from the Matola side at a rate of 10 million tons per year. It is envisaged that by 2020, the port ... Coal. A new terminal for vehicles is also planned which will allow for 57,000 vehicles to be moved per year (Phase 1) with a ...
... is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company.[69] ...
In January 2008, the UK government gave the go-ahead for a new generation of nuclear power stations to be built.[17] Hinkley Point C, in conjunction with Sizewell C, was expected to contribute 13% of UK electricity by the early 2020s.[18][19] Areva, the EPR's designer, initially estimated that electricity could be produced at the competitive price of £24 per MWh.[20] EDF, which is 85% owned by the French government,[21] purchased British Energy, now EDF Energy Nuclear Generation Ltd, for £12.4 billion in a deal that was finalised in February 2009. This deal was part of a joint venture with UK utility Centrica, who acquired a 20% stake in EDF Energy Nuclear Generation Ltd as well as the option to participate in EDF Energy's UK new nuclear build programme. In September 2008, EDF, the new owners of Hinkley Point B, announced plans to build a third, twin-unit European Pressurised Reactor (as the EPR was then called) reactor at Hinkley Point,[18] to join Hinkley Point A (Magnox), which is now ...
International Journal of Coal Geology. 86 (1 Special Issue RS/GIS): 108-19. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2011.01.009.. ... Coal. various generator types without scrubbing. 1001 Removal from the atmosphere[edit]. Natural processes[edit]. Greenhouse ... Coal (anthracite) 227 97.59 351.32 Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources[edit]. Main article: Life-cycle ... The burning of coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat is the largest single source of global greenhouse gas ...
In the movie The Iron Giant, a steam locomotive resembling a NYC J-3a Hudson was pulling a coal train that crashed into the ...
Coal. Piyush Goyal. Environment, Forest. and Climate Change. Harsh Vardhan. Health and Family Welfare. Jagat Prakash Nadda ...
District 12 (Coal Mining-But then became Medicine after the Second Rebellion )[edit]. District 12 specializes in coal mining, ... The black market, located at an old coal warehouse named the Hob, was where many of the citizens made their money. The Hob was ... "The Seam" is a slum where those who work in the coal mines live, whereas the mercantile class lives in the town, centered ... 2.12 District 12 (Coal Mining-But then became Medicine after the Second Rebellion ) ...
"Coal protest team glued to doors" *^ a b Vidal, John (15 December 2008). "Those Kingsnorth police injuries in full: six insect ... Antwerp Bulk Terminal (ABT) coal terminal Antwerp, Belgium August 2009[13] Aéroport du Grand Ouest Nantes, France August 2009[ ... BHP Billiton is the world's largest coal producer.[41] Policing[edit]. 1,500 officers were involved at an estimated cost of £ ... The camp was on a squatted site in the Vale of York, situated close to several large power stations including Drax, a coal- ...
Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases. Coal mining-related respiratory diseases can affect the gas exchanging tissues of the ... Depending on what is in the coal mine dust that is inhaled and the part of the lung that is affected, coal miners may develop ... The primary pneumoconiosis seen in coal miners are coal workers pneumoconiosis and silicosis. Asbestosis is another type of ... Silicosis causes x-ray changes similar to CWP; and it is especially seen in coal miners who are exposed to rock dust, such as ...
News Release - Arch Coal Winning Bidder for South Hilight Coal Lease. *^ Mining Weekly - Arch Coal sells Utah thermal coal ... Arch Coal Completes Acquisition of Triton Coal Company. *^ News Release - Arch Coal, Inc. Successful Bidder for Federal Coal ... News Release - Arch Coal Acquires Interest in Knight Hawk Coal. *^ News Release - Arch Coal Completes Acquisition of Jacobs ... "Arch Coal, Inc. Annual Report including form 10k" (PDF).. *^ a b "U.S. Energy Information Administration 2011 Annual Coal ...
Coal Run may refer to: Coal Run, Ohio Coal Run (North Branch Buffalo Creek), a stream in Union County, Pennsylvania Coal Run ( ... novel), a novel by Tawni ODell Coal Run (Shamokin Creek), a stream in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania Coal Run Village, ...
The coal tit (Periparus ater) is a small passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae. It is a widespread and common resident ... The coal tit is 10-11.5 cm in length, and has a distinctive large white nape spot on its black head. The head, throat and neck ... Coal tits in the laboratory prefer to forage at a variable feeding site when they are in a negative energy budget.[12] They ... The coal tit has the dubious distinction of having the largest number of bird fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) reported from a ...
... or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality ... High volatile content coals, while easy to ignite often are not as prized as moderately volatile coals; low volatile coal may ... than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite coal.. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by ... measured by coal dilatation tests. Low phosphorus content is vital for these coals, as phosphorus is a highly deleterious ( ...
Name of coal deposit (Source: TM). Character field Dep_age. Generalized geologic age of coal-bearing territory or coal deposit ... Region topology was built on the basis of coal-territory and coal deposit name attribute.. Date: Jan-2001 (change 3 of 4). ... with indication of coal mark composition): Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. and Ministry of Coal Industry of the U.S.S.R., ... Spatial extent of coal deposits of the Former Soviet Union. * Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time ...
In case it isnt obvious its the price of coal (mostly stable) and gas (much more spiky, but currently below coal) per Mbtu. ... after just 10 months of working in a coal mine in the Shanxi province. "Down in the mine, the coal dust was so thick, we ... Coal-fired electricity production is bad on so many levels. Youd think humans could learn from history, but sadly, no, and no ... If most of the electricity used to charge your electric car is made by burning coal, is it still worth it, in terms of CO2 ...
Underground coal gasification converts coal to gas while still in the coal seam (in-situ). Gas is produced and extracted ... Coal Gas, www.clarke-energy.com, retrieved 12.12.2013 *^ [1], BBC - Coal gasification: The clean energy of the future?, ... Advanced Coal Technologies Conference. Laramie: University of Wyoming.. *^ Copley, Christine (2007). "Coal". In Clarke, A. W.; ... Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process which converts coal into product gas. UCG is an in-situ ...
The Dobropilska coal mine is in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast. Dobropilska represents one of the largest coal ... This article about a coal-related corporation or company is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... "Coal mine methane in Ukraine" (PDF). epa.gov. January 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2010-12- ... reserves in Ukraine, having estimated reserves of 58.6 million tonnes of coal.[1] The annual coal production is around 1.2 ...
According to the Kuzbas Chamber of Commerce; Coal mining accounts for 32% of the overall industrial output. The Kuzbass coal ... Kuzbass currently mines 52% of Russian bituminous coal output, with 84% share for coking coal. ... Kuzbas: Coal Kuzbas: Hard Times in the Siberian Coalfield. Now we will look south to Kuznets Basin, which is also called the ... There have had serious mining accidents in the region in recent years (for a recent news story about coal mining in the Kuzbas ...
Three papers dealt with the sulphur impurity in coal gas. Coal gas is the purest fuel in general use, but this very purity ... The paper by H. Hollings on the formation and removal of gum in coal gas reveals the solution of a baffling problem which has ... Such a process, if successful, might make the industry less dependent on the choice of coal, and less would be required. At the ... The paper shows that the coal gas of the future may be purified of sulphur compounds to a degree hitherto unknown. ...
People mourn at graves for miners who died in Tuesdays mine disaster, at a cemetery in Soma, a district in Turkeys western province of Manisa May 18, 2014. Turkish police have detained 18 people, including mining company executives and personnel, as part of an investigation into last weeks mine disaster, CNN Turk and other broadcasters reported on Sunday. The rescue operation ended on Saturday after the bodies of the last two workers were carried out, bringing the death toll in Turkeys worst industrial accident to 301. REUTERS/Osman Orsal (TURKEY - Tags: DISASTER ...
Australian coal is either high-quality bituminous coal (black coal) or lower-quality lignite (brown coal).[citation needed] ... Hard Coking Coal. 11. ?. ?. Open Cut/Underground Griffin Coal. WA. Collie. LANCO Infratech. 33°21′32″S 116°09′11″E / 33.359°S ... Hard Coking Coal & PCI. 7. ?. ?. Open Cut & Underground Dawson. QLD. Dawson (Moura). Anglo Coal. 24°17′46″S 151°06′47″E /  ... Bulga Coal. NSW. Singleton. Oakbridge Group (Managed by Xstrata Coal). 32°39′S 151°04′E / 32.65°S 151.07°E / -32.65; 151.07 ...
The Science of Coal Flotation J A Euston*, P White and D G Osborne Somerset International Australia * https://au.linkedin.com/ ... Production of coal tar on industria... by Mehwish Imroze 1522 views * Coal Lectures Series Mining Techn... by Thames Global Con ... Coal Flotation Chemistry * 1. The Science of Coal Flotation J A Euston*, P White and D G Osborne Somerset International ... 3. on coal quality, particularly as it affects thermal coal calorific value. As with flotation, above, it is often easier to ...
gas obtained in the destructive distillation of soft coal, as a byproduct in the preparation of coke . Its composition varies, ...
Respirable coal mine dust: Geometric mean exposures and percent exceeding designated occupational exposure limits by MSHA coal ... Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis: Number of deaths by state, U.S. residents age 15 and over, 2001-2010 2014-764 September 2014 ... Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis: Age-adjusted death rates by state, U.S. residents age 15 and over, 2001-2010 2014-763 September ... Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis: Number of deaths by sex, race, age group, and median age at death, U.S. residents age 15 and over ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=coal-tars&oldid=46854084" ...
UK solar power outshined coal power plants for the entire month of May. *by Cat DiStasio ... Dutch parliament votes to shut down all of the countrys coal plants. *by Cat DiStasio ... The Dutch parliament voted Thursday night to shutter the nations coal industry in order to achieve a 55-percent... ... Trump orders Perry to take steps to curb coal plant shutdowns. *by Lacy Cooke ...
A version of this archives appears in print on January 25, 1867, on Page 6 of the New York edition with the headline: COAL. ...
Full text is unavailable for this digitized archive article. Subscribers may view the full text of this article in its original form through TimesMachine ...
Each year, approximately 1,000 miners in the U.S. die from coal workers pneumoconiosis, or black lung disease, a preventable ... The miners stories provide the full impact of this disease that is still a very serious risk to coal miners today. ... illness caused by exposure to coal mine dust. The video features two miners who share their stories and provide insight on how ...
A version of this archives appears in print on October 27, 1867, on Page 7 of the New York edition with the headline: COAL. ...
A version of this archives appears in print on September 14, 1854, on Page 6 of the New York edition with the headline: COAL. ...
A version of this archives appears in print on April 13, 1852, on Page 3 of the New York edition with the headline: COAL. Order ...
  • The coal industry has pointed to Europe's increasing coal use and imports as evidence of coal's inevitable future. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Carefully orchestrated messages that strike fear in the hearts of West Virginians and feed uncertainty about coal's future" are all part of slick of ad campaigns funded by coal interests. (forbes.com)
  • Coal's future, he insists, rest with the development of new technologies such as those that can capture and bury carbon emissions and those that can gasify coal, mitigating many harmful emissions. (forbes.com)
  • In addition to raising the coal's heat value, a significant amount, up to 70 percent, of the elemental mercury in the coal is removed and, because of its higher efficiency, lower chloride and nitrogen oxides emissions are achieved on a per kilowatt hour generated basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • UK Coal's difficulties have been precipitated by a flood of U.S. coal on to the market, as a result of shale gas development, and by the strength of sterling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal blending is the process of mixing coals after coal has been mined to achieve quality attributes that are desirable for the coal's intended application (e.g. steam generation, coking). (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 2009, Arch acquired the rights to mine 731 million tons of Otter Creek coal reserves in the northern Powder River Basin of Montana. (wikipedia.org)
  • It produces 5 million tons of coking coal a year. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2018, its energy coal production declined to 29 million metric tons , which was the lowest in the past 10 years. (investopedia.com)
  • The production of metallurgical coal stood at around 42.65 million metric tons, which has remained steady over the past five years. (investopedia.com)
  • The Montana portion of the basin also sits atop an estimated 119 billion tons of coal, more than any other state and accounting for nearly 25 percent of all U.S. coal reserves. (nwf.org)
  • Nevertheless, Montana produces only about 44 million tons of coal yearly-roughly a tenth of Wyoming's production. (nwf.org)
  • All told, Arch-second only to Peabody Energy in worldwide coal production-has leased more than 1.2 billion tons of coal on state and private land in the Otter Creek Valley. (nwf.org)
  • Each year the nation's 500 plus coal-fired power plants produce about 130 million tons of coal ash, composed of solid wastes that include mercury, lead and arsenic. (nwf.org)
  • In 2007, Patriot sold 22.1 million tons of coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company controls 1.9 billion tons of proven and probable coal reserves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnum had over 600 million tons of proven or probable coal reserves. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5,500,000 short tons) of coal to the plant from the Black Mesa Mine in the northeastern corner of Arizona. (wikipedia.org)
  • Griffin Coal Mine is a large mine in the town of Collie in Western Australia, producing about 5 mn tons of coal p.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hunnu Coal Limited doubled the resource for its Unst Khudag thermal coal project to 676 million tons in mid-2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mine employed almost 2,000 people to produce 14.5 million tons of coal annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vostochny Coal Mine was commissioned on 19 September 1985 and has produced more than 240 million tons of coal since the start of operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The projected capacity of the mine defined by the institute "Karagandagiproshaht" is 20 million tons of coal a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, 19.8 million tons of coal were extracted from the mine. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of the end of 2014, China had 62 billion tons of anthracite and 52 billion tons of lignite quality coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a more complete treatment of the processes involved in coal combustion, see the article coal utilization . (britannica.com)
  • The molten-bath approach is similar to the fluidized-bed concept in that reactions take place in a molten medium (either slag or salt) that disperses the coal and acts as a heat sink for distributing the heat of combustion. (britannica.com)
  • and creating a new 'densified coal' product that is hydrophobic, no longer prone to spontaneous combustion, and readily transportable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal refining or upgrading technologies are typically pre-combustion treatments and/or processes that alter the characteristics of a coal before it is burned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goals of pre-combustion coal upgrading technologies are to increase efficiency and reduce emissions when coal is burned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the situation, pre-combustion technology can be used in place of or as a supplement to post-combustion technologies to control emissions from coal-fueled boilers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refined coal technologies have primarily been developed in the United States, several similar technologies have been researched, developed and tested in Victoria, Australia, including the Densified coal technology (Coldry Process) developed to alter the chemical bonds of brown coal to create a product that is cleaner, stable (not prone to spontaneous combustion), exportable and of sufficiently high calorific value to be a black coal equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fires occurred frequently due to spontaneous combustion of the coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal burner is mainly composed of pulverized coal machine, host of combustion machine (including combustion chamber, automatic back and forth motion system, automatic rotation system, the combustion air supply system) control system, ignition system, the crater and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manual way and automatic way, no matter which way it adopts, the coal burner often needs fuel (oil, gas, etc.) as the combustion medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first ever estimation of death and disease due to coal-fired power plants in India estimates between 85,000 to 115,000 people killed in 2011-12. (greenpeace.org)
  • The study ascertained that coal power plant emissions have caused premature deaths of upto 1,15,000 people between 2011-2012 in India. (greenpeace.org)
  • The documentary film explores the political economy of coal in contemporary India with the situation in Singrauli as a case study. (greenpeace.org)
  • In contrast, coal demand within India and other emerging Asian economies increases. (bp.com)
  • In India up to 40 percent of our current CO2 emissions comes from coal fired power stations. (greenpeace.org)
  • According to the latest data from the World Coal Association report, China, India, America, Australia, and Indonesia are the top five coal-producing nations in the world. (investopedia.com)
  • As on 14 October 2015, Union Government of India owns CIL and controls the operations of CIL through Ministry of Coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 1956, Government of India established its own coal company National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC). (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 November 1975, a new public-sector company Coal India Limited (CIL) was formed to enable better organizational and operational efficiency in coal sector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal India is planning to venture into Coal-to-Methanol technology at the existing Plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • India is fast becoming a major manufacturer and consumer of white coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of White coal (Briquettes made of Biomass) using agricultural and forest waste is more common in North India. (wikipedia.org)
  • While consumption in China and the United States declined in 2015, that of India continued to rise and, in 2015, India surpassed the United States and became the world's second-largest consumer of coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The portfolio is held by Cabinet Minister Piyush Goyal The Ministry of Coal is charged with exploration of coal and lignite reserves in India, production, supply, distribution and price of coal through the government-owned corporations Coal India Limited and its subsidiaries, as well as Neyveli Lignite Corporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Minister of Coal is head of the Ministry of Coal and one of the cabinet ministers of the Government of India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commissioner Of Payments The Ministry of Coal is responsible for development and exploitation of coal and lignite reserves in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subjects allocated to the Ministry which include attached and sub-ordinate or other organisations including PSUs concerned with their subjects under the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961, as amended from time to time, are as follows: Exploration and development of coking coal and non-coking coal and lignite deposits in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ministry of Coal, Government of India / National Informatics Centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL) is a subsidiary of Coal India Limited with its headquarter in Dhanbad, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of coal analyzers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application: e.g. using different types of coal for specific recipes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. A total of 30,332 coal contractor employees, corresponding to 16,795 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees, 1 were reported to MSHA in 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2002, coal contractor employees had a fatality rate of 41.7 fatalities per 100,000 FTE employees, compared to a fatality rate of 25.4 fatalities per 100,000 FTE coal operator employees. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. There were 641 nonfatal lost-time injuries among coal contractor employees occurring at a rate of 3.8 injuries per 100 FTEs in 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • One hundred fifteen (26.7%) cases of black lung (coal workers' pneumoconiosis) were reported in 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. A total of 70,241 employees , corresponding to 75,425 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees, were reported by coal mine operators to MSHA.1 This represents a 4.0% decrease in FTE employees from 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • Titanic Research & Modeling Association: Coal Bunker Fire Lee W. Merideth (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rock candy Coal candy recipe About.com Secret Toronto: The Unique Guidebook to Toronto's Hidden Sites, Sounds and Tastes Scott Mitchell ECW Press, 2002 The Famous Dutch Kitchen Restaurant Cookbook: Family-Style Diner Delights from the Heart of Pennsylvania Tom Levkulic. (wikipedia.org)
  • One time harvest: reflections on coal and our future by Mike Jacobs 1975 300 pages Chicago's Loop Janice A. Knox, Heather Olivia Belcher Arcadia Publishing, 2002 - History - 95 pages 500 Things to Eat Before It's Too Late: and the Very Best Places to Eat Them by Jane Stern and Michael Stern Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, June 4, 2009 448 pages page 101 Victor, T. (wikipedia.org)
  • This shapefile contains arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe coal deposits in the countries comprising the Former Soviet Union. (usgs.gov)
  • Vernadsky State Geological Museum, and U.S. Geological Survey, 20010600, territory.shp Coal deposits of the Former Soviet Union: U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO. (usgs.gov)
  • Coal , solid, usually brown or black, carbon-rich material that most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits. (britannica.com)
  • Noted coal geologist James Morton Schopf defined coal as containing more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and induration of altered plant remains-namely, peat deposits. (britannica.com)
  • Although most coals occur in stratified sedimentary deposits, the deposits may later be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures caused by igneous intrusions or deformation during orogenesis (i.e., processes of mountain building), resulting in the development of anthracite and even graphite . (britannica.com)
  • Bituminous coal deposits, formed during the Pennsylvanian subperiod, are found throughout much of south-central Iowa, and demand for coal in Iowa grew steadily as railroad construction moved westward. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canada, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin of Alberta and British Columbia hosts major deposits of bituminous coal that formed in swamps along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Intermontane and Insular Coalfields of British Columbia also contain deposits of Cretaceous bituminous coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • As vegetable matter from these forests decayed, enormous deposits of peat accumulated, which later changed into coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the carbon in the peat deposits produced by coal forests came from photosynthetic splitting of existing carbon dioxide, which released the accompanying split-off oxygen into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1973 Iscor began detailed exploration of the deposits below the farms to determine the quality and quantity of coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal Lake was named after nearby deposits of coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different varieties of coal arise because of differences in the kinds of plant material (coal type), degree of coalification (coal rank), and range of impurities (coal grade). (britannica.com)
  • Therefore, run-of-mine (ROM) coal-the coal that comes directly from a mine-has impurities associated with it. (britannica.com)
  • Liberation is the creation of individual particles that are more homogeneous in their composition as either coal or impurities. (britannica.com)
  • In general, the finer the ROM coal is crushed, the greater the liberation of impurities. (britannica.com)
  • In the separation step, the liberated particles are classified into the appropriate groups of coal, impurities, and middlings. (britannica.com)
  • Since impurities are generally heavier than middlings and middlings heavier than coal, the methods most commonly used to separate the input stream into the three product streams are based on gravity concentration. (britannica.com)
  • In reality, however, coal char is a mixture of pure carbon and impurities with structural defects. (britannica.com)
  • Coal breakers also remove impurities from the coal (typically slate) and deposit them into a culm dump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally speaking, a coal tipple was typically used at a bituminous coal mine, where removing impurities was important but sorting by size was only a secondary, minor concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second function of a coal breaker is to remove impurities (such as slate or rock), and then grade the coal on the basis of the percent of impurities remaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal pieces smaller than 0.09375 inches (2.381 mm) in size were considered "culm," and unable to be separated from the impurities (and thus useless). (wikipedia.org)
  • Raw coal often contains impurities such as slate, sulphur, ash (or "bone"), clay, or soil, which requires that it be cleaned before shipment to market. (wikipedia.org)
  • This represents an 8.4% decrease in FTE coal contractor employees from 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2001, coal contractor employees had a fatality rate of 32.7 fatalities per 100,000 FTE employees, compared to 61.1 per 100,000 FTE employees in 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • 6. Eight cases of occupational illness in coal contractor employees were reported to MSHA in 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • It's the key for clean coal in China," says chemical engineer Li -Wenhua, who directed advanced coal development for Beijing's national high-tech R&D program (better known in China as the "863" program) from 2001 through 2005. (technologyreview.com)
  • It changed its name to UK Coal in 2001 after the retirement of its founder, having acquired UK Coal plc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reactions and interactions between coal, slimes, dissolved minerals, flotation and dewatering chemicals are highly complex, having a seemingly unpredictable effect on fine coal processes such as flotation and thickening. (slideshare.net)
  • Processes to clean and dewater this coal are intrinsically more complex than those for coarse and small coal. (slideshare.net)
  • Although most coal operations can obtain this information about coal quality by taking physical samples, preparing the samples, and analyzing them with laboratory equipment, these processes often involve a time lag of up to 24 hours from gathering the sample to final analysis results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shiao-Hung Chiang and James T. Cobb "Coal Conversion Processes, Cleaning and Desulfurization" in Kirk-othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Wiley-VCH, 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worldwide, industry uses bulk material, like coal, as a source of energy or as a raw material for production processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, direct liquefaction processes convert coal into liquids directly without having to rely on intermediate steps by breaking down the organic structure of coal with application of solvents or catalysts in a high pressure and temperature environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • That refers to the process of turning solid coal into syngas, which is made up of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. (technologyreview.com)
  • Building a coal-fired power plant today is betting that we are not going to put a serious financial cost on emitting carbon dioxide," said Severin Borenstein, director of the Energy Institute at the University of California-Berkeley. (commondreams.org)
  • Producing clean coal power appears straightforward: Separate the carbon dioxide before it goes up the smokestack, then store it underground in geological formations. (commondreams.org)
  • The UK is introducing a floor price for carbon and a de facto ban on new coal (a carbon dioxide limit on new power plants that conventional coal cannot meet). (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Coal is expected to be responsible for three-quarters of that carbon dioxide. (technologyreview.com)
  • This resurgence of the coal forests in very late Carboniferous times seems to have coincided with a lowering of global temperatures and a return of extensive polar ice in southern Gondwana, perhaps due to lessening of the greenhouse effect as the massive coal deposition process abstracted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal gas contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and volatile hydrocarbons together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • By integrating the North Rochelle mine with Black Thunder, Arch created the premier mine in the nation's fastest growing coal supply region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dutch parliament voted Thursday night to shutter the nation's coal industry in order to achieve a 55-percent. (inhabitat.com)
  • The UMW accounted for nearly 70 per cent of the nation's coal production when the current contract was ratified three years ago, but now produces only slightly more than 50 per cent. (washingtonpost.com)
  • An increasing number of ''ethical'' investment funds are avoiding investment in coal producers, while an independent panel in Norway will decide later this year whether the nation's sovereign wealth fund should also be banned from fossil fuel investments. (theage.com.au)
  • On July 6, 2008 in central and northern China, 2.5% of the nation's coal plants (58 units or 14,020 MW of capacity) had to shut down due to coal shortages. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the demand for coal is likely to decline as the cost of cleaner and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar drop and the pressure to use cleaner energy increases. (investopedia.com)
  • Bituminous coals are graded according to vitrinite reflectance, moisture content, volatile content, plasticity and ash content. (princeton.edu)
  • low volatile coal may be difficult to ignite although it contains more energy per unit volume. (princeton.edu)
  • The smelter must balance the volatile content of the coals to optimize the ease of ignition, burn rate, and energy output of the coal. (princeton.edu)
  • Coking coal (metallurgical coal) is used in the manufacture of steel, where carbon must be as volatile-free and ash-free as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) and carbon content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal, except for moisture, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off. (wikipedia.org)
  • On heating, the coal softens, and volatile components evaporate and escape through pores in the mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the term "peak coal" is now used primarily to refer to a peak and subsequent decline in global and national coal consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods are used primarily to determine the suitability of coal for coking, power generation or for iron ore smelting in the manufacture of steel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and submetamorphic compression of peat bog material. (princeton.edu)
  • Coalification was thus prevented, and the peat was preserved and eventually became a coal ball. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first German gas works was built in Hannover in 1825 and by 1870 there were 340 gas works in Germany making town gas from coal, wood, peat and other materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cannel coal was accumulated in ponds and shallow lakes in peat-forming swamps and bogs of the Carboniferous age under oxygen-deficient conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, Cretaceous bituminous coals occur in Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some easily identified species occur over a wide area but only for a small part of the coal-forming period, and are thus useful as zone fossils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many coal associations suggest the peak could occur in 200 years or more, while scholarly estimates predict the peak to occur as soon as the immediate future. (wikipedia.org)
  • So named by FIDS because thin lenses of coal occur there. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuing to reduce pollution will require the country to take tricky steps, such as implementing carbon capture and significantly reducing the use of coal. (technologyreview.com)
  • I've worked to tackle coal pollution for 15 years, so for me, being part of the launch of the Beyond Coal Campaign in Europe is surreal, humbling, and profoundly inspiring. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Because pollution doesn't respect borders, neither do the all-too-real health consequences burning dirty coal creates around the world. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Coal is deadly everywhere: Its pollution estimated to have caused 19,500 premature deaths across Europe in 2015 alone and 13,200 deaths in the US in 2009. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • To prevent massive pollution and slow its growing contribution to global warming, China will need to make advanced coal technology work on an unprecedented scale. (technologyreview.com)
  • And the primary cause of pollution is also the source of the energy propelling the ultramodern train: coal. (technologyreview.com)
  • Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitigation of Climate Change and the Potential Reduction in Global Health Impact of Particulate Air Pollution from Coal Fired Power Station. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasticity is vital for coking as it represents its ability to gradually form specific plasticity phases during the coking process, measured by coal dilatation tests. (princeton.edu)
  • Such a process, if successful, might make the industry less dependent on the choice of coal, and less would be required. (nature.com)
  • Flotation is the only currently accepted technique for processing coal finer than around 250 microns and, in the context of coal, the process is poorly understood. (slideshare.net)
  • In very simple terms, the process of converting ROM coal into marketable products is called coal preparation. (britannica.com)
  • But there are a couple of powerful reasons to go ahead with the coal-gas process despite the fierce costs. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The first function of a coal breaker is to break coal into pieces and sort these pieces into categories of nearly uniform size, a process known as breaking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passing the coal through the tipple was an essential pre-treatment process for coal washing, however, because the impure coal must be of similar sized lumps for coal washing to work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The K-Fuel(R) process uses heat and pressure to remove approximately 30 percent of the moisture from raw, low-rank coal and raises its thermal content to approximately 11,000 Btu per pound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Coldry Process uses low-pressure mechanical shear to create a natural exothermic reaction within the coal that then naturally expels 80 per cent of the moisture content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal homogenization refers to the process of mixing coal to reduce the variance of the product supplied. (wikipedia.org)
  • This homogenization process is performed during the coal stockpiling operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manufacturing process was similar to that used for artillery shells, except that actual pieces of coal were used as patterns for iron castings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal oil that burned cleanly enough to compete with whale oil as an indoor illuminant was first produced in 1850 on the Union Canal in Scotland by James Young, who patented the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, coal oil was widely manufactured in the 1850s under the trade name Kerosene, manufactured by a process invented by Canadian geologist Abraham Gesner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frederick Accum, Description of the Process of Manufacturing Coal Gas, 2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is often known as "Coal to X", where X can be many different hydrocarbon-based products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corporation (Sasol) was founded in 1950 as part of industrialization process that the South African government considered essential for continued economic development and autonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first process used was the carbonization and partial pyrolysis of coal. (wikipedia.org)