Factor XI Deficiency
Factor VII Deficiency
Blood Coagulation Factors
Tosylarginine Methyl Ester
Partial Thromboplastin Time
von Willebrand Diseases
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Argon Plasma Coagulation
von Willebrand Factor
Deamino Arginine Vasopressin
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
Amino Acid Sequence
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
Molecular Sequence Data
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Leukocyte microparticles stimulate endothelial cell cytokine release and tissue factor induction in a JNK1 signaling pathway. (1/178)A role of membrane microparticles (MP) released by vascular cells in endothelial cell (EC) activation was investigated. Flow cytofluorimetric analysis of blood samples from normal volunteers revealed the presence of an heterogeneous MP population, which increased by approximately 2-fold after inflammatory stimulation with the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (2,799 +/- 360 versus 5241 +/- 640, p < 0.001). Blood-derived MP stimulated release of EC cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (377 +/- 68 pg/ml) and MCP-1 (1, 282 +/- 79) and up-regulated de novo expression of tissue factor on the EC surface. This was associated with generation of a factor Xa-dependent procoagulant response (2.28 +/- 0.56 nM factor Xa/min/10(4) cells), in a reaction inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to tissue factor. Fluorescent labeling with antibodies to platelet GPIbalpha or leukocyte lactoferrin demonstrated that circulating MP originated from both platelets and leukocytes. However, depletion of platelet MP with an antibody to GPIbalpha did not reduce EC IL-6 release, and, similarly, MP from thrombin-stimulated platelets did not induce IL-6 release from endothelium. EC stimulation with leukocyte MP did not result in activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and was not associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, ERK1. In contrast, leukocyte MP stimulated a sustained, time-dependent increased tyrosine phosphorylation of approximately 46-kDa c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK1) in EC. These findings demonstrate that circulating leukocyte MP are up-regulated by inflammatory stimulation in vivo and activate a stress signaling pathway in EC, leading to increased procoagulant and proinflammatory activity. This may provide an alternative mechanism of EC activation, potentially contributing to dysregulation of endothelial functions during vascular injury. (+info)
Procoagulant effect of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies with lupus anticoagulant activity. (2/178)Prothrombin time (PT) is routinely used to monitor oral anticoagulant treatment in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). The fact that PT is a phospholipid (PL)-dependent coagulation test raises the possibility that lupus anticoagulant (LA) might interfere with this test, thus complicating the control of anticoagulant treatment. The effect of 6 affinity-purified preparations of anti- (a)beta2-glycoprotein I (GPI) antibodies with LA activity on the PT was tested. Instead of prolonging PT as expected, the abeta2-GPI antibodies reduced the PT of both normal plasma and anticoagulated plasma by a mean of 2.4 seconds and 5.6 seconds, respectively. This effect was also observed using other 5 commercially available preparations of thromboplastin. The abeta2-GPI-mediated reduction in PT was dose-dependent and was lost upon removal of beta2-GPI. The failure of abeta2-GPI antibodies to express LA activity in PT was found to depend on the fact that calcium ions were added together with PL at the beginning of the assay. In fact, modification of the standard diluted Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) test by adding calcium ions together with PL resulted in a loss of abeta2-GPI anticoagulant activity. The procoagulant effect was not as evident in an assay that used stimulated monocytes as a source of thromboplastin. These results show that abeta2-GPI antibodies exhibit an 'in vitro' procoagulant effect in PT and an anticoagulant effect in dRVVT only when the interaction with their antigen and PL occurs in the absence of calcium ions. (+info)
Platelet factor 4-induced neutrophil-endothelial cell interaction: involvement of mechanisms and functional consequences different from those elicited by interleukin-8. (3/178)Platelet factor 4 (PF-4), a member of the CXC-subfamily of chemokines, is secreted in high amounts by activated platelets. In previous studies, we found that PF-4 specifically binds to human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN), but requires tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as a costimulus for the induction of effector functions in suspended cells. In the present study, we have examined PF-4 in comparison with interleukin-8 (IL-8) for its ability to promote interaction of PMN with cultured endothelial cells (EC). We show here for the first time that PF-4 dose-dependently induces PMN to undergo extremely firm adhesion to EC as well as to exocytose secondary granule contents in the presence of these cells. Interestingly, costimulation by TNF-alpha was not required, indicating that EC could provide a corresponding signal(s). As evident from antibody blocking experiments, PF-4-induced adhesion involved PMN-expressed L-selectin as well as leukocyte function-associated molecule-1 (LFA-1), whereas IL-8 involved MAC-1. Because blocking antibodies to LFA-1 but not to L-selectin or MAC-1 abrogated PF-4-dependent marker exocytosis from PMN, the costimulatory signal provided by EC appears to be elicited through cell-cell contact via LFA-1. IL-8, inducing the upregulation of MAC-1, did not elicit marker exocytosis in contact with EC. Our results suggest a role for PF-4 in the promotion of PMN-EC interaction that is virtually different from that exhibited by other CXC-chemokines such as IL-8. (+info)
Hydrophobic contact between the two epidermal growth factor-like domains of blood coagulation factor IX contributes to enzymatic activity. (4/178)The three-dimensional structure of activated factor IX comprises multiple contacts between the two epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. One of these is a salt bridge between Glu(78) and Arg(94), which is essential for binding of factor IXa to its cofactor factor VIII and for factor VIII-dependent factor X activation (Christophe, O. D., Lenting, P. J., Kolkman, J. A., Brownlee, G. G., and Mertens, K. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 222-227). We now addressed the putative hydrophobic contact at the interface between the EGF-like domains. Recombinant factor IX chimeras were constructed in which hydrophobic regions Phe(75)-Phe(77) and Lys(106)-Val(108) were replaced by the corresponding sites of factor X and factor VII. Activated factor IX/factor X chimeras were indistinguishable from normal factor IXa with respect to factor IXa enzymatic activity. In contrast, factor IXa(75-77)/factor VII displayed approximately 2-fold increased factor X activation in the presence of factor VIII, suggesting that residues 75-77 contribute to cofactor-dependent factor X activation. Activation of factor X by factor IX(106-108)/factor VII was strongly decreased, both in the absence and presence of factor VIII. Activity could be restored by simultaneous substitution of the hydrophobic sites in both EGF-like domains for factor VII residues. These data suggest that factor IXa enzymatic activity requires hydrophobic contact between the two EGF-like domains. (+info)
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate regulates Ca(2+) entry via btk in platelets and megakaryocytes without increasing phospholipase C activity. (5/178)The role of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI3,4,5P(3)) and Btk in signalling by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI was investigated. PI3,4,5P(3) was increased in platelets from mice deficient in the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP), in response to collagen related peptide (CRP). Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) were unaltered in SHIP(-/-) platelets, whereas Btk was heavily tyrosine phosphorylated under basal conditions and maximally phosphorylated by low concentrations of CRP. There was an increase in basal Ca(2+), maximal expression of P-selectin, and potentiation of Ca(2+) and aminophospholipid exposure to CRP in SHIP(-/-) platelets in the presence of Ca(2+) (1 mM). Microinjection of PI3,4, 5P(3) into megakaryocytes caused a 3-fold increase in Ca(2+) in response to CRP, which was absent in X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) mice, which have a mutation in the PH domain of Btk. There was a corresponding partial reduction in the sustained level of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to CRP in Xid mice but no change in PLC activity. These results demonstrate a novel pathway of Ca(2+) entry that involves PI3,4,5P(3) and Btk, and which is independent of increased PLC activity. (+info)
A plasma kallikrein-dependent plasminogen cascade required for adipocyte differentiation. (6/178)Here we show that plasma kallikrein (PKal) mediates a plasminogen (Plg) cascade in adipocyte differentiation. Ecotin, an inhibitor of serine proteases, inhibits cell-shape change, adipocyte-specific gene expression, and lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in culture. Deficiency of Plg, but not of urokinase or tissue-type plasminogen activator, suppresses adipogenesis during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and mammary-gland involution. PKal, which is inhibited by ecotin, is required for adipose conversion, Plg activation and 3T3-L1 differentiation. Human plasma lacking PKal does not support differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. PKal is therefore a physiological regulator that acts in the Plg cascade during adipogenesis. We propose that the Plg cascade fosters adipocyte differentiation by degradation of the fibronectin-rich preadipocyte stromal matrix. (+info)
Glycoprotein VI but not alpha2beta1 integrin is essential for platelet interaction with collagen. (7/178)Platelet adhesion on and activation by components of the extracellular matrix are crucial to arrest post-traumatic bleeding, but can also harm tissue by occluding diseased vessels. Integrin alpha2beta1 is thought to be essential for platelet adhesion to subendothelial collagens, facilitating subsequent interactions with the activating platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here we show that Cre/loxP-mediated loss of beta1 integrin on platelets has no significant effect on the bleeding time in mice. Aggregation of beta1-null platelets to native fibrillar collagen is delayed, but not reduced, whereas aggregation to enzymatically digested soluble collagen is abolished. Furthermore, beta1-null platelets adhere to fibrillar, but not soluble collagen under static as well as low (150 s(-1)) and high (1000 s(-1)) shear flow conditions, probably through binding of alphaIIbbeta3 to von Willebrand factor. On the other hand, we show that platelets lacking GPVI can not activate integrins and consequently fail to adhere to and aggregate on fibrillar as well as soluble collagen. These data show that GPVI plays the central role in platelet-collagen interactions by activating different adhesive receptors, including alpha2beta1 integrin, which strengthens adhesion without being essential. (+info)
Femoral artery thrombosis after percutaneous thrombin injection of an external iliac artery pseudoaneurysm. (8/178)Ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection has been developed as a less invasive and highly successful treatment of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms. Most of these lesions have been the result of catheterization procedures. This method has proved to be highly effective, and few complications have been reported. Specifically, native arterial thrombosis, although recognized as a severe complication, has been mentioned only briefly in the literature. We present a case of the successful management of native arterial thrombosis after attempted percutaneous thrombin injection of a chronic external iliac artery pseudoaneurysm. This case serves to illustrate the risk factors for this complication and the treatment options once it occurs. The success of this treatment with acute iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms may not necessarily translate into similar success in other anatomic locations and clinical situations. (+info)
Factor VII, also known as coagulation factor VII or prothrombin activator, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is a vitamin K-dependent enzyme that is produced by the liver and circulates in the bloodstream. Factor VII is activated by tissue factor, which is released by damaged or injured cells. Once activated, factor VII forms a complex with factor X and calcium ions, which leads to the activation of factor X to factor Xa. Factor Xa then forms a complex with factor V and calcium ions, which leads to the activation of prothrombin to thrombin. Thrombin is the final enzyme in the clotting cascade, which converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the clot. Factor VII deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to excessive bleeding and bruising. It is treated with replacement therapy using factor VII concentrate.
Factor VIII, also known as Antihemophilic Factor VIII or Factor VIII concentrate, is a protein that plays a crucial role in blood clotting. It is one of the eight clotting factors in the blood that work together to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is injured. Factor VIII is produced by the liver and circulates in the bloodstream. It is essential for the formation of blood clots, which help to prevent excessive bleeding. In individuals with hemophilia A, a genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, the production of Factor VIII is impaired, leading to excessive bleeding and an increased risk of bleeding-related complications. Factor VIII concentrate is a medication used to treat hemophilia A. It is made from human plasma and contains purified Factor VIII. It is administered by injection and can help to reduce the frequency and severity of bleeding episodes in individuals with hemophilia A.
Kaolin is a naturally occurring clay mineral that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent and absorbent. It is often used in the preparation of medications, such as liquid suspensions and ointments, to help them retain their consistency and prevent them from separating or settling out. Kaolin is also used as an absorbent in various medical applications, such as in the treatment of diarrhea and as a dressing for wounds. In addition, kaolin has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer.
In the medical field, "Factor X" refers to one of the clotting factors in the blood. Factor X is also known as Stuart-Prower factor or tenase factor. It is a protein that plays a crucial role in the coagulation cascade, which is the series of chemical reactions that ultimately leads to the formation of a blood clot. Factor X is produced in the liver and is activated by the enzyme thrombin, which is generated during the coagulation cascade. Activated Factor X, along with Factor V, Factor VIII, and calcium ions, forms the prothrombinase complex, which converts prothrombin into thrombin. Thrombin then catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, which forms the meshwork that stabilizes the blood clot. Factor X deficiency can lead to bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia A or B, which are characterized by an inability to form blood clots properly.
Factor IX, also known as Christmas factor or anti-hemophilic factor B, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is one of the coagulation factors that are involved in the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting. Factor IX is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form. When it is activated by other coagulation factors, it helps to convert prothrombin, another coagulation factor, into thrombin. Thrombin then catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin, which forms a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the blood clot. Factor IX deficiency, also known as hemophilia B, is a genetic disorder that results in a reduced ability of the body to produce Factor IX. This can lead to excessive bleeding and bruising, particularly after injury or surgery. Treatment for hemophilia B typically involves regular infusions of Factor IX concentrate to replace the missing protein and prevent bleeding episodes.
Factor XI deficiency, also known as hemophilia C, is a rare bleeding disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot properly. It is caused by a deficiency or absence of factor XI, a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. People with factor XI deficiency may experience prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery, nosebleeds, and heavy menstrual bleeding in women. They may also have an increased risk of bleeding into joints, muscles, and organs, which can cause pain, swelling, and damage. Factor XI deficiency is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. There is no cure for factor XI deficiency, but treatment options include replacement therapy with factor XI concentrate, desmopressin, and antifibrinolytic agents to help control bleeding episodes.
Thromboplastin is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process, also known as coagulation. It is produced by the liver and stored in the blood as an inactive form called prothrombin. When the body experiences an injury or damage to a blood vessel, thromboplastin is activated, which triggers a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a blood clot. This clot helps to stop bleeding and prevent further damage to the blood vessel. Thromboplastin is also used in medical tests to assess the function of the blood clotting system. Abnormal levels of thromboplastin can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, and certain blood disorders.
Factor VII deficiency, also known as hemophilia B, is a rare bleeding disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot properly. It is caused by a deficiency in factor VII, a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. People with factor VII deficiency may experience excessive bleeding after minor injuries or even spontaneous bleeding into joints, muscles, and organs. The severity of the bleeding can vary from person to person, and some individuals may not experience any symptoms at all. The diagnosis of factor VII deficiency is typically made through blood tests that measure the level of factor VII in the blood. Treatment options for factor VII deficiency include replacement therapy with factor VII concentrate, which can help to stop bleeding episodes and prevent further bleeding. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat severe bleeding or to prevent bleeding during medical procedures.
Kininogens are plasma proteins that are precursors to kinins, which are a group of peptides that play a role in the body's inflammatory response and regulation of blood pressure. There are two main types of kininogens: high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and low molecular weight kininogen (LMWK). HMWK is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it can be activated by proteolytic enzymes such as kallikrein to produce bradykinin, a potent vasodilator and mediator of inflammation. LMWK is also synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, but it is also found in the kidneys and other tissues. LMWK can be activated by a different proteolytic enzyme, plasmin, to produce bradykinin and other kinins. Kininogens are important in the regulation of blood pressure and the body's response to injury and inflammation. Abnormal levels of kininogens have been associated with various medical conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
Blood coagulation factors are proteins that play a crucial role in the process of blood clotting, also known as coagulation. There are 13 different coagulation factors that work together in a complex cascade to form a blood clot and stop bleeding. The coagulation process begins when the blood vessel is damaged, and the platelets in the blood start to clump together to form a plug. The coagulation factors then activate a series of chemical reactions that ultimately lead to the formation of a fibrin clot, which stabilizes the plug and prevents further bleeding. Each coagulation factor has a specific role in the coagulation cascade, and deficiencies or abnormalities in any of these factors can lead to bleeding disorders. For example, hemophilia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of certain coagulation factors, leading to excessive bleeding. In the medical field, blood coagulation factors are often used as diagnostic tools to identify bleeding disorders or to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. They may also be used in laboratory tests to assess the risk of blood clots forming in the body, which can be a serious health concern for people with certain medical conditions.
Factor XIa, also known as thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), is an enzyme that plays a role in the blood clotting process. It is activated by thrombin, which is a key enzyme in the coagulation cascade, and converts the inactive form of factor XI (factor XI zymogen) to its active form, factor XIa. Factor XIa is involved in the regulation of fibrinolysis, the process by which blood clots are broken down and removed from the body. It does this by inhibiting the activation of plasminogen, an enzyme that breaks down fibrin, the protein that forms the meshwork of a blood clot. Abnormalities in the activity or levels of factor XIa have been associated with various bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia B, and with an increased risk of thrombosis, or blood clots. Therefore, factor XIa is an important target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
Tosylarginine Methyl Ester (TAME) is a chemical compound that is used as a substrate in the measurement of the activity of various enzymes, particularly those that hydrolyze esters. It is a methyl ester of tosylarginine, which is a synthetic amino acid that is structurally similar to arginine. TAME is often used in the study of proteases, which are enzymes that break down proteins, and in the development of new drugs that target these enzymes. In the medical field, TAME is used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of proteases in various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Factor XI, also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA), is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is one of the coagulation factors that are involved in the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting. Factor XI is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form. When it is activated, it helps to convert Factor IX to Factor IXa, which is a key enzyme in the intrinsic pathway. Factor IXa then combines with Factor VIIIa to form the enzyme complex that cleaves Factor X to Factor Xa, which is another key enzyme in the blood clotting process. Deficiency or dysfunction of Factor XI can lead to a bleeding disorder called hemophilia C. This condition is characterized by prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery, as well as spontaneous bleeding into joints and muscles. Hemophilia C is a rare genetic disorder that is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern.
Hemophilia A is a genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot properly. It is caused by a deficiency in clotting factor VIII, which is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. People with hemophilia A experience prolonged bleeding episodes, which can be spontaneous or occur after an injury or surgery. These bleeding episodes can be severe and can affect various parts of the body, including the joints, muscles, and internal organs. Hemophilia A is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, which means that it primarily affects males. Females can also be carriers of the gene and pass it on to their children. There is currently no cure for hemophilia A, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and prevent bleeding episodes.
Prekallikrein is a plasma protein that plays a role in the blood clotting cascade. It is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form. When it is activated, it converts another plasma protein called high molecular weight kininogen (HK) into kallikrein, which in turn cleaves bradykinin from HK. Bradykinin is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, leading to the release of other clotting factors and the formation of a blood clot. Prekallikrein is therefore an important component of the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting.
Factor VIIa, also known as coagulation factor VIIa or tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is a serine protease that is activated by tissue factor, a protein found on the surface of cells that are damaged or dying. Once activated, factor VIIa binds to factor X, forming a complex that activates factor IX, which in turn activates factor X. This leads to the formation of thrombin, which is a key enzyme in the clotting process. Factor VIIa is also involved in the regulation of blood vessel tone and inflammation. Deficiencies in factor VIIa can lead to bleeding disorders, while excess levels can increase the risk of blood clots.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth metal that is not commonly used in the medical field. However, dysprosium compounds have been studied for their potential medical applications. For example, dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3) has been used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to enhance the visibility of certain tissues. Dysprosium has also been investigated as a potential treatment for certain types of cancer, as it has been shown to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells in vitro. In addition, dysprosium has been used in the development of medical devices, such as MRI machines and X-ray equipment, due to its unique magnetic properties.
Thrombin is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is produced by the activation of the protein thromboplastin, which is present in the blood. Thrombin is responsible for converting fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into insoluble fibrin fibers, which form the meshwork of a blood clot. Thrombin also activates platelets, which are small cell fragments that play a key role in blood clotting. It does this by cleaving a protein called von Willebrand factor, which binds platelets to the site of injury and helps them to aggregate and form a plug. In addition to its role in blood clotting, thrombin has other functions in the body, including the activation of certain types of cells and the regulation of inflammation. It is also used in medicine as a medication to stop bleeding, as well as in the treatment of certain blood disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
Factor XIIa, also known as Hageman factor, is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation cascade. It is a component of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, which is activated in response to injury or inflammation. Factor XII is a zymogen, meaning it is inactive until it is activated by other factors in the coagulation cascade. Once activated, Factor XIIa cleaves Factor XI, which then activates Factor IX, leading to the formation of thrombin and ultimately the formation of a blood clot. Factor XIIa is also involved in the regulation of inflammation and the activation of the complement system, which helps to clear pathogens from the body. Abnormalities in Factor XIIa activity can lead to bleeding disorders, such as hereditary angioedema, which is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of Factor XII. It can also be involved in the development of thrombotic disorders, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, when it becomes overactive.
Crotalid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by snakes of the family Viperidae, particularly those in the subfamily Crotalinae, which includes rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths. These venoms are composed of a complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and other molecules that can cause a range of physiological effects in humans and other animals. The effects of crotalid venom can vary depending on the species of snake, the size of the snake, and the amount of venom injected. Common symptoms of crotalid envenomation include pain, swelling, redness, and necrosis (tissue death) at the site of the bite. In severe cases, crotalid venom can cause systemic effects such as coagulopathy (disruption of the blood clotting process), cardiovascular collapse, and respiratory failure. Treatment for crotalid envenomation typically involves the administration of antivenom, which is a serum containing antibodies that neutralize the venom's toxic effects. In some cases, supportive care such as pain management, fluid replacement, and wound care may also be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has been bitten by a venomous snake.
Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is used in a variety of applications, including in the medical field. In medicine, neodymium is used in a number of different ways. One of the most common uses is in the production of medical imaging equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines. Neodymium is used to create the powerful magnets that are used in these machines to generate detailed images of the inside of the body. Neodymium is also used in the production of medical devices, such as surgical instruments and prosthetic devices. The high strength and magnetic properties of neodymium make it an ideal material for these applications. In addition, neodymium is used in the production of certain types of lasers, which are used in a variety of medical procedures, including eye surgery and skin resurfacing. Overall, neodymium plays an important role in the medical field, and its unique properties make it a valuable resource for a wide range of medical applications.
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a bleeding disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot properly. It is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a protein that helps platelets stick together and form blood clots. VWD is the most common inherited bleeding disorder, affecting about 1% of the population. There are three main types of VWD: type 1, which is the most common and mild form; type 2, which is less common and can range from mild to severe; and type 3, which is the most severe and life-threatening form. Treatment for VWD typically involves replacement therapy with VWF concentrate or desmopressin, a hormone that increases the production of VWF.
Fibrinogen is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream as a soluble protein. When the blood vessels are damaged, platelets aggregate at the site of injury and release various substances, including thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin strands, which form a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the platelet plug and prevents further bleeding. This process is known as coagulation and is essential for stopping bleeding and healing wounds. Fibrinogen levels can be measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.
Prothrombin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is produced in the liver and is converted into thrombin by the enzyme thrombinase, which is activated by the tissue factor (TF) protein. Thrombin then catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into insoluble fibrin strands, which form the basis of a blood clot. Prothrombin is also known as factor II, and it is one of the factors in the coagulation cascade, a series of reactions that ultimately leads to the formation of a blood clot. Deficiencies or mutations in the prothrombin gene can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia A or B. On the other hand, excessive production of prothrombin can increase the risk of blood clots, which can lead to serious health problems such as stroke or heart attack.
Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide (BAN) is a synthetic peptide that is used as a substrate for the measurement of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. ACE is an enzyme that plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. In medical research and clinical practice, BAN is often used to assess ACE activity in various tissues and fluids, including blood, urine, and tissue extracts. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and kidney disease. BAN is typically administered as a solution or suspension, and its effects are measured by monitoring changes in the absorbance of light at a specific wavelength. The rate of absorption is proportional to the amount of ACE activity present in the sample, allowing researchers and clinicians to quantify ACE activity and assess its role in various physiological and pathological processes.
Factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a blood protein that plays a role in the coagulation cascade, which is the series of reactions that ultimately leads to the formation of a blood clot. It is a zymogen, meaning that it is inactive until it is activated by other factors in the coagulation cascade. Factor XII is activated in response to tissue injury or inflammation, and it helps to initiate the intrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. Once activated, it converts prothrombin to thrombin, which then converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a mesh that stabilizes the clot. Deficiencies or defects in factor XII can lead to a bleeding disorder called hereditary angioedema, which is characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling in the face, extremities, and abdomen. It can also be associated with other bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease.
Blood coagulation disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood's ability to clot properly. These disorders can either result in excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) or the formation of blood clots (thrombosis), which can lead to serious health complications such as stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. There are several types of blood coagulation disorders, including: 1. Hemophilia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of clotting factors in the blood, leading to excessive bleeding. 2. Von Willebrand disease: A genetic disorder that affects the production or function of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together and form blood clots. 3. Thrombophilia: A condition that increases the risk of blood clots forming in the blood vessels, which can lead to stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. 4. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks phospholipids, which are important components of blood clots, leading to the formation of excessive blood clots. 5. Factor V Leiden mutation: A genetic mutation that increases the risk of blood clots forming in the blood vessels. Blood coagulation disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests and other medical procedures, and treatment options may include medications, blood transfusions, and surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have a blood coagulation disorder, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious health complications.
Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) is a large glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is synthesized and secreted by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, and is stored in the endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies. vWF is involved in the adhesion and aggregation of platelets at the site of injury, and also helps to stabilize and protect factor VIII, another protein involved in the clotting process. Deficiencies or defects in vWF can lead to von Willebrand disease (VWD), a bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding times and reduced platelet adhesion and aggregation. VWD can be inherited in an autosomal dominant or recessive manner, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment for VWD typically involves replacement therapy with vWF concentrate or desmopressin, a hormone that increases vWF release from endothelial cells.
Factor IXa is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is also known as coagulation factor IX or Christmas factor, as it was first identified in the blood of a patient with hemophilia B during the holiday season in 1950. Factor IXa is produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form, bound to a protein called antithrombin. When the blood vessel is damaged, factor IXa is activated by factor Xa, which cleaves factor IX into two fragments: factor IXa and factor IXa heavy chain. Factor IXa then binds to factor VIIIa, forming a complex that activates factor X, which is the final step in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, the enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin, forming a blood clot. Factor IXa deficiency, also known as hemophilia B, is a genetic disorder that results in a deficiency or dysfunction of factor IXa, leading to prolonged bleeding and an increased risk of bleeding episodes. Treatment for hemophilia B typically involves replacement therapy with factor IX concentrate, which contains the missing or dysfunctional factor IXa.
Antivenins are a type of medication used to treat venomous bites or stings from animals such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and others. These medications are made from the venom of the same or similar animals that caused the bite or sting, but they have been purified and weakened so that they are no longer harmful to humans. Antivenins work by neutralizing the toxins in the venom, which can help to prevent or reduce the severity of symptoms such as pain, swelling, nausea, vomiting, and in severe cases, respiratory failure or cardiac arrest. They are typically administered through injection and may be given in a single dose or in a series of doses over several days, depending on the severity of the venomous bite or sting and the individual's response to treatment. It is important to note that antivenins are not effective against all venomous animals and that the specific type of antivenin needed will depend on the type of animal that caused the bite or sting. In some cases, other treatments such as supportive care, pain management, and wound care may also be necessary.
Factor V is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is also known as prothrombin activator or antihemophilic factor V. Factor V is produced by the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form. When it comes into contact with a blood vessel that has been damaged, it is activated by other clotting factors, such as Factor Xa and Factor VIIIa, to form thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into insoluble fibrin strands, which form a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the blood clot and prevents further bleeding. Factor V is also involved in the regulation of blood clotting. It is activated by thrombin, which in turn activates Factor V to form a complex with Factor Xa and Factor VIIIa. This complex, known as the prothrombinase complex, is responsible for converting prothrombin into thrombin, the key enzyme in the blood clotting process. Mutations in the gene that codes for Factor V can lead to a condition called Factor V Leiden thrombophilia, which increases the risk of blood clots. This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the mutated gene from one parent to develop the condition.
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that are produced by venom glands in snakes. These venoms are used by snakes as a means of defense against predators or as a tool for capturing prey. The effects of snake venom can vary widely depending on the species of snake and the specific components of the venom. Some snake venoms are primarily hemotoxic, meaning they cause damage to blood vessels and can lead to internal bleeding or organ failure. Other snake venoms are neurotoxic, meaning they affect the nervous system and can cause paralysis or respiratory failure. Still, other snake venoms are myotoxic, meaning they cause damage to muscle tissue. In the medical field, snake venoms are studied for their potential therapeutic uses. Some components of snake venom have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, or anti-viral properties. Additionally, some snake venom components have been used to develop new drugs for the treatment of conditions such as heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, it is important to note that snake venom can also be dangerous and can cause serious harm or death if not treated properly.
Factor Xa is a serine protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation cascade. It is also known as coagulation factor X or prothrombinase. Factor Xa is activated by factor IXa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids on the surface of activated platelets or endothelial cells. Once activated, Factor Xa catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, which is the key enzyme in the coagulation cascade that converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a blood clot. Factor Xa inhibitors are a class of anticoagulant drugs that prevent the activation of Factor Xa, thereby inhibiting the formation of blood clots. These drugs are used to prevent and treat various thrombotic disorders, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke.
Serum globulins are a group of proteins found in the blood plasma that are responsible for various functions in the body. They are classified into four main categories: albumin, alpha globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. Albumin is the most abundant serum protein, accounting for about 50-60% of total serum protein. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones and fatty acids, and serving as a reservoir for various substances. Alpha globulins are a diverse group of proteins that include haptoglobin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and alpha-2 macroglobulin. They play a role in the immune system, as well as in the transport and metabolism of various substances. Beta globulins include transferrin, which transports iron in the blood, and haptoglobin, which binds to free hemoglobin and helps to remove it from the bloodstream. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins, are the most diverse group of serum proteins and are responsible for the immune response. They are produced by B cells in response to foreign substances and are involved in the destruction of pathogens and the production of antibodies. Abnormal levels of serum globulins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or certain types of cancer.
Factor VIIIa, also known as antihemophilic factor VIIIa or VIIIa, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is a component of the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that occur when the body is injured and needs to stop bleeding. Factor VIIIa is a complex protein that is made up of two subunits, called heavy chains and light chains. It is produced by the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form. When it is activated by other clotting factors, it becomes a key player in the formation of blood clots. Factor VIIIa is essential for the function of Factor IXa, which is another clotting factor. Together, Factor VIIIa and Factor IXa form a complex that helps to activate Factor X, which is the final step in the coagulation cascade. Without Factor VIIIa, the coagulation cascade cannot function properly, and bleeding can occur. Factor VIII deficiency, also known as hemophilia A, is a genetic disorder that affects the production of Factor VIII. People with hemophilia A have a higher risk of bleeding, especially into joints and muscles, and may require regular infusions of Factor VIII to prevent bleeding episodes.
Antithrombin III (AT-III) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood clotting. It is produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it acts as an inhibitor of several clotting factors, including thrombin, factor Xa, and factor IXa. AT-III binds to these clotting factors and prevents them from catalyzing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which is a key step in the formation of blood clots. By inhibiting these clotting factors, AT-III helps to maintain a balance between clotting and bleeding in the body. AT-III deficiency, also known as antithrombin deficiency, is a rare genetic disorder that can increase the risk of blood clots and thrombosis. In this condition, the body produces less AT-III than normal, which can lead to an imbalance between clotting and bleeding and increase the risk of blood clots forming in the veins or arteries. Treatment for AT-III deficiency typically involves replacement therapy with AT-III concentrate or other clotting inhibitors.
Kallikreins are a family of proteases (enzymes that break down proteins) that play important roles in the regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and coagulation. They are produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the kidneys, lungs, and pancreas, and are activated by a variety of stimuli, such as tissue injury, stress, and hormonal changes. One of the main functions of kallikreins is to convert inactive precursor molecules called kinins into active kinins, which are hormones that cause vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) and increased blood flow. This helps to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow to tissues. Kallikreins also play a role in the inflammatory response by activating other enzymes and proteins that contribute to inflammation. They are also involved in the coagulation cascade, which is the series of reactions that ultimately leads to the formation of a blood clot. Abnormal levels of kallikreins or defects in their regulation have been implicated in a number of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
Deamino Arginine Vasopressin (DAVP) is a synthetic hormone that is similar to the naturally occurring hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland in response to dehydration or low blood pressure. It acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption and on blood vessels to constrict, which helps to raise blood pressure. DAVP is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is a condition in which the body is unable to produce enough vasopressin, and to control high blood pressure in people with certain heart conditions. It is also used to treat low blood pressure (hypotension) that occurs during surgery or other medical procedures. DAVP is typically administered by injection, either intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin). It is important to note that DAVP can have side effects, including headache, dizziness, and increased heart rate. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a complex and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by widespread activation of the coagulation system in the blood vessels. This leads to the formation of blood clots throughout the body, which can obstruct blood flow and cause tissue damage. DIC can occur as a complication of various medical conditions, including infections, cancer, and obstetric complications, and can also be triggered by certain medications or toxins. The hallmark of DIC is an imbalance between clotting and fibrinolysis, leading to an accumulation of fibrin clots in the blood vessels and a deficiency of clotting factors. This can result in a range of symptoms, including bleeding, bruising, and organ dysfunction. Treatment of DIC typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement and blood transfusions, as well as measures to manage the underlying cause of the disorder.
In the medical field, venoms are toxic substances produced by certain animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and some fish, that are injected into their prey or predators through specialized structures called venom glands. These venoms contain a complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and other molecules that can cause a range of physiological effects in the victim, including pain, swelling, paralysis, and even death. Venoms are often used as a defense mechanism by animals to protect themselves from predators or to subdue their prey. In some cases, venoms are also used for hunting or as a means of communication between animals. In medicine, venoms are studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the development of new drugs for pain relief, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer treatments. However, venoms can also be dangerous and can cause serious harm or death if not treated properly. Therefore, medical professionals must be trained in the proper handling and treatment of venomous animals and their bites or stings.
Protein C is a blood protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood clotting. It is produced in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream, where it helps to prevent the formation of blood clots by inhibiting the activity of enzymes involved in clotting. Protein C deficiency is a rare genetic disorder in which the body produces too little or no functional protein C. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, which can cause serious health problems such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Protein C deficiency can be treated with replacement therapy, which involves infusing the body with functional protein C. This can help to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of complications associated with the disorder.
Viper venoms are the toxic secretions produced by venomous snakes of the Viperidae family, including rattlesnakes, copperheads, mambas, and cobras. These venoms contain a complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and other molecules that can cause a range of physiological effects in humans and other animals. The effects of viper venom can vary depending on the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Some common symptoms of viper venom poisoning include pain, swelling, redness, and blistering at the site of the bite, as well as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, weakness, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, viper venom can cause systemic effects such as kidney failure, respiratory failure, and even death. Treatment for viper venom poisoning typically involves antivenom, which is a serum containing antibodies that can neutralize the venom and prevent its harmful effects. Other treatments may include supportive care, such as pain management, fluid replacement, and oxygen therapy.
Isoflurophate is a chemical compound that is used as an herbicide. It is not typically used in the medical field.
Hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease, is a genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot properly. It is caused by a deficiency in clotting factor IX, which is necessary for the blood to form clots and stop bleeding. Hemophilia B is an inherited condition, meaning it is passed down from parents to their children through their genes. People with hemophilia B may experience spontaneous bleeding into joints, muscles, and other tissues, as well as prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. The severity of the condition can vary widely, with some people experiencing only mild bleeding and others experiencing severe bleeding that can be life-threatening. Treatment for hemophilia B typically involves replacing the missing clotting factor IX through regular infusions of clotting factor concentrate. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to control bleeding. With proper treatment, people with hemophilia B can lead normal, healthy lives.
Esterases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters, which are compounds formed by the reaction of an acid and an alcohol. In the medical field, esterases are important in the metabolism of many drugs and other substances, as well as in the breakdown of fats and other lipids in the body. There are many different types of esterases, including carboxylesterases, lipases, and cholinesterases. Carboxylesterases are found in many tissues throughout the body and are involved in the metabolism of a wide range of drugs and other substances. Lipases are enzymes that break down fats and other lipids, and are important in the digestion and absorption of dietary fats. Cholinesterases are enzymes that break down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and are important in the regulation of muscle movement and other functions. Esterases can be inhibited or activated by various substances, and changes in their activity can have important effects on the body. For example, certain drugs can inhibit the activity of esterases, leading to an accumulation of drugs or other substances in the body and potentially causing toxicity. On the other hand, esterase activators can increase the activity of these enzymes, leading to faster metabolism and elimination of drugs and other substances from the body.
Receptor, PAR-1 (Protease-Activated Receptor 1) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed on the surface of various cells in the human body, including platelets, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. PAR-1 is activated by proteases, such as thrombin, which cleave the extracellular domain of the receptor, exposing an intracellular domain that binds to and activates a G protein, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events. Activation of PAR-1 plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade and platelet aggregation, which are essential processes for hemostasis (the prevention of bleeding). However, excessive activation of PAR-1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. Therefore, PAR-1 is a target for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs, such as thrombin inhibitors, which block the activation of PAR-1 and reduce the risk of thrombotic events.
Receptors, Thrombin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the blood vessels and platelets that bind to and respond to the hormone thrombin. Thrombin is a key enzyme in the blood clotting process, and its binding to these receptors triggers a series of events that lead to the formation of a blood clot. The receptors, Thrombin play an important role in regulating blood clotting and preventing excessive bleeding. They are also involved in the development of certain medical conditions, such as thrombosis and cardiovascular disease.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
Fibrin is a protein that plays a crucial role in blood clotting, also known as coagulation. It is produced by platelets and certain cells in the blood called endothelial cells, and it forms a mesh-like structure that helps to stabilize a blood clot and prevent further bleeding. Fibrin is a key component of the blood clotting cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that occur when blood vessels are damaged and bleeding occurs. When a blood vessel is injured, platelets aggregate at the site of the injury and release chemicals that activate the coagulation cascade. This cascade leads to the formation of fibrin, which forms a mesh-like structure around the platelets and other blood cells, creating a stable clot. Fibrin is also important in wound healing, as it helps to form a scab over a wound and prevent infection. In addition, fibrin is involved in the formation of blood clots in the heart and brain, which can be life-threatening if they become dislodged and travel to other parts of the body. Overall, fibrin is a critical protein in the body's ability to prevent and control bleeding, and it plays an important role in wound healing and the prevention of blood clots.
Immunoglobulin Fab fragments, also known as Fab fragments or Fabs, are a type of protein that is derived from the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of an immunoglobulin (antibody). They are composed of two antigen-binding sites, which are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens. Fab fragments are often used in medical research and diagnostic testing because they have a high specificity for their target antigens and can be easily produced and purified. They are also used in the development of therapeutic antibodies, as they can be engineered to have a variety of functions, such as delivering drugs to specific cells or tissues. In addition to their use in research and diagnostic testing, Fab fragments have also been used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. They are typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly and can be used alone or in combination with other therapies.
Heparin is a medication that is used to prevent and treat blood clots. It is a natural anticoagulant that works by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that are involved in the formation of blood clots. Heparin is typically administered intravenously, but it can also be given by injection or applied topically to the skin. It is commonly used to prevent blood clots in people who are at risk due to surgery, pregnancy, or other medical conditions. Heparin is also used to treat blood clots that have already formed, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). It is important to note that heparin can have serious side effects, including bleeding, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.
Arginine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, arginine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Erectile dysfunction: Arginine is a precursor to nitric oxide, which helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the penis, leading to improved sexual function. 2. Cardiovascular disease: Arginine has been shown to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and improving the function of the endothelium, the inner lining of blood vessels. 3. Wound healing: Arginine is involved in the production of collagen, a protein that is essential for wound healing. 4. Immune function: Arginine is involved in the production of antibodies and other immune system components, making it important for maintaining a healthy immune system. 5. Cancer: Arginine has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to slow the growth of tumors. However, it is important to note that the use of arginine as a supplement is not without risks, and it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Phospholipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which together form a bilayer structure that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment. Phospholipids are important for maintaining the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play a role in cell signaling and the transport of molecules across the membrane. They are found in all types of cells, including animal, plant, and bacterial cells, and are also present in many types of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport lipids in the bloodstream. In the medical field, phospholipids are used in a variety of applications, including as components of artificial cell membranes for research purposes, as components of liposomes (small vesicles that can deliver drugs to specific cells), and as ingredients in dietary supplements and other health products. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of nutrition, metabolism, and disease prevention.
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is an enzyme that regulates the activity of plasminogen activators, which are proteins that convert plasminogen into plasmin. Plasmin is a protease that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of fibrin clots in the blood, which helps to prevent excessive bleeding. PAI-1 acts as an inhibitor of plasminogen activators, preventing them from converting plasminogen into plasmin. This can lead to a decrease in the rate of fibrin clot breakdown, which can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the body. PAI-1 is produced by a variety of cells in the body, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and monocytes. It is also produced by the liver and the placenta during pregnancy. Abnormal levels of PAI-1 have been associated with a number of medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. High levels of PAI-1 have been linked to an increased risk of blood clots, while low levels have been associated with an increased risk of bleeding.
In the medical field, dietary fats refer to the fats that are consumed as part of a person's diet. These fats can come from a variety of sources, including animal products (such as meat, dairy, and eggs), plant-based oils (such as olive oil, canola oil, and avocado oil), and nuts and seeds. Dietary fats are an important source of energy for the body and are also necessary for the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals. However, excessive consumption of certain types of dietary fats, particularly saturated and trans fats, has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Therefore, healthcare professionals often recommend that people limit their intake of saturated and trans fats and increase their consumption of unsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and plant-based oils. This can help to promote overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
Triglycerides are a type of fat that are found in the blood and are an important source of energy for the body. They are made up of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule, and are stored in fat cells (adipocytes) in the body. Triglycerides are transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are complex particles that also carry cholesterol and other lipids. In the medical field, triglycerides are often measured as part of a routine lipid panel, which is a blood test that assesses levels of various types of lipids in the blood. High levels of triglycerides, known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems. Treatment for high triglyceride levels may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medications.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
Andrew Rae Gilchrist
William Bowen Sarles
Tonka bean oil
Snakebites in Latin America
List of unrefined sweeteners
Red-bellied black snake
La Serena cheese
Solar water disinfection
Organic Coagulant Market, Global Industry Size Forecast
Blog Post: Management of Anti-coagulants ("Blood Thinners") Around the Time of Surgery | RCSEd
Voluntary running exercise protects against sepsis-induced early inflammatory and pro-coagulant responses in aged mice
Aluminium Hydroxide Chloride with Organic Polymer - High Performance Coagulant
SciELO - Brazil - Study of fluvial water treatability using γ-polyglutamic acid based biopolymer coagulant Study of fluvial...
Nigari - coagulant for tofu - 5 ml - Umami
Slag coagulants - Weaver Materiel
feasibility study banana plant extract coagulant
Vile Coagulant - ESO Hub - Elder Scrolls Online
Feiba Vh Medication: Hemophilia Treatment Side Effects & Dosage
Manufacturer for coagulant water treatment in brazil - Finansepl
Anti Coagulant Medicine Manufacturer & Supplier In India - Weefsel Pharma
Effect Of Different Coagulant On The Physiochemical Properties Of Soybean Curd
Topical Coagulant Agents. | Surg Clin North Am;102(1): 65-83, 2022 Feb. | MEDLINE
Reducing length of stay with the direct oral anti-coagulants in low and intermediate risk pulmonary embolism: a single center...
strong|Treatment of rice grain based biodigester distillery effluent (BDE) using inorganic coagulants|/strong| | Prajapati |...
DailyMed - KETOCONAZOLE tablet
The effect of anti-coagulant agents against in vitro hemophilia A plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis potential in the presence...
All You Need To Know About Finding a Venue for an Event - Article Rich
Aminocaproic Acid: MedlinePlus Drug Information
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride - poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride online Wholesalers
The liver: Structure, function, and disease
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC): Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
coagulation factor VIIa (injection) | Cigna
Water | Free Full-Text | Daily Rhythms and Oxygen Balance in the Hypersaline Lake Moynaki (Crimea)
- What is Feiba Vh (Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex), and how does it work? (medicinenet.com)
- The removal of COD and colour from biodigester effluent (BDE) of rice grain based alcohol distillery plant has been studied using inorganic coagulant such as CaCO 3 , CuNO 3 and Na 2 SiO 3 . (niscpr.res.in)
- The growing demand for organic coagulants is due to declining freshwater resources, and the harmful effects of inorganic coagulants. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The advanced technologies minimize the use of organic coagulants in water treatment processes. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- This increased investment is likely to drive demand for organic coagulants, as they are an effective and environmentally friendly solution for water treatment. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The fact that organic coagulants can be sensitive to changes in pH and temperature is the major challenge. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Oil & gas is a major end-user of organic coagulants. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- There is limited information about coagulation and fibrinolysis status in infected PwHA treated with emicizumab and the use of anti-coagulant agents in such cases. (isth.org)
- In this study, we investigated how anti-coagulant agents affect the balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in PwHA plasma spiked with emicizumab. (isth.org)
- These results showed a tendency similar to the inhibitory effect of anti-coagulant agents on coagulation and fibrinolysis function in normal reference plasma. (isth.org)
- Anti-coagulant agents exhibit inhibitory effects on the coagulation and fibrinolytic function in PwHA plasma spiked with emicizumab similar to those in normal reference plasma. (isth.org)
- Onishi T, Harada S, Shimo H, Tashiro Y, Soeda T, Nogami K. The effect of anti-coagulant agents against in vitro hemophilia A plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis potential in the presence of emicizumab [abstract]. (isth.org)
- He also remains on a prescribed anti-coagulant. (medlineplus.gov)
- The study aimed at evaluating the effect of different coagulants on the physiochemical and characteristics of tofu prepared from soybean, the moisture content of the two tofu varied from 20% while the oil absorption capacity of the tofu was gotten to be 0.1. (projectslib.com)
- Feiba is an Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex indicated for use in hemophilia A and B patients with inhibitors for control and prevention of bleeding episodes, perioperative management, or routine prophylaxis to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes. (medicinenet.com)
- Coagulation consists of mixing chemicals, usually inorganic coagulants, into the water under intense agitation in order to electrically destabilize impurities (suspended solids, colloids, algae, bacteria), causing them to agglomerate. (scielo.br)
- Inorganic coagulants, such as aluminum and iron salts, have been used for decades to treat drinking water and wastewater due to their effectiveness in removing impurities and contaminants from water. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Whereas at very high temperatures, the organic coagulant may break down or become less effective, while at very low temperatures, the coagulation process may be slowed or reduced. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex is used in patients with FVIII inhibitors. (medscape.com)
- Am a final year student in Uganda, requesting for a complete pdf of the FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BANANA PLANT AS A COAGULANT. (easyreport.in)
- The global organic coagulant market size is projected to reach USD 2.9 billion by 2027 from USD 2.0 billion in 2022, at a CAGR of 8.1% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- As per Persistence Market Research, the global milk coagulants market will grow on a remarkable note between 2020 and 2030. (articlerich.com)
- Vitamin K is necessary to create coagulants that help clot the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The p H of effluent-coagulant mixture play a major role in removal of pollutant from the BDE. (niscpr.res.in)
- SLAX slag coagulant allows easy removal of slag from ladles or furnaces. (wmsinc.com)
- Protection against pro-coagulant responses may involve eNOS upregulation. (nih.gov)
- CuNO 3 is found to be more effective, among all coagulant. (niscpr.res.in)
- SLAX slag coagulant collects and modifies the nature of slags to form a crust so that they can easily be removed from the metal surface. (wmsinc.com)
- PolyDADMAC and/or cationic polyamines can also be used in combination with our flocculant and coagulant products to lower overall treatment costs. (waterpurifyingchemicals.com)
- Direct oral anti-coagulants (DOACs) reduce hospital length-of-stay (LOS) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in clinical trials. (elsevierpure.com)
- Successful treatment of surface water for public use requires the evaluation of raw water and coagulant efficacy. (scielo.br)
- 2010. A comparison between Moringa oleifera and chemical coagulants in the purification of drinking water - An alternative sustainable solution for developing countries. (scielo.br)
- The global flocculants and coagulants market has been witnessing a marked transition from traditionally used chemical flocculants, such as alum and ferric chloride, towards natural products derived from plants. (researchandmarkets.com)
- As a consequence of this, demand for natural coagulants and flocculants has spiked over the recent years and is likely to maintain this trend over the coming period. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Asia-Pacific is the largest global market for coagulants and flocculants and is also anticipated to register the fastest growth during the reporting period. (researchandmarkets.com)
- In terms of market share, globally, Inorganic Coagulants and Organic Coagulants account for approximately equal shares under Coagulants while Synthetic Flocculants type leads the Flocculants global market with 42% in 2018 closely followed by Mineral Flocculants with 30% in the same year. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Flocculants and coagulants are two types of chemicals commonly used in water treatment to remove suspended solids and other impurities from water. (environex.net.au)
- Overall, the use of coagulants and flocculants is an effective and widely used method for water treatment, particularly in the removal of suspended solids, colour, and turbidity from water. (environex.net.au)
- Use of Different Coagulants for Cassava Processing Wastewater Treatment. (sciencetechindonesia.com)
- These organic coagulants are liquid, cationic polymers of differing molecular weights. (waterdecolouringagent.com)
- Another commonly encountered problem is that the distribution of oily solids in water can be converted from an anionic dispersion to a cationic dispersion if the dose of the polycationic coagulant becomes too high. (aqueroco.com)
- PolyDADMAC and/or cationic polyamines can also be used in combination with our flocculant and coagulant products to lower overall treatment costs. (waterdecolouringagent.com)
- Aquero Company is introducing some fully biodegradable and environmentally friendly coagulants for water clarification applications. (aqueroco.com)
- Coagulants are chemicals that are added to water to destabilize the suspended particles and bring them together. (environex.net.au)
- However, when the desulfurized ash is directly used as a water treatment coagulant, the treatment effect has not yet reached the ideal state. (meshfiltro.com)
- It can be seen from the above table that the total content of SiO2 and Al2O3 in the desulfurized ash is greater than 60%, and these two substances are the main components of the coagulant in water treatment. (meshfiltro.com)
- Aquatic plants thus act as the best natural coagulants, thereby reducing the level of contaminants from the polluted water. (icontrolpollution.com)
- These natural coagulants which can be readily propagated and easily accessible to common persons would offer solution to our most plagued environmental issues and water pollution. (icontrolpollution.com)
- The present study aimed at the development of water purification technology using natural coagulants which can be easily accessible to the rural people who regularly become the victims of contaminated drinking water. (icontrolpollution.com)
- State of the Art and Sustainability of Natural Coagulants in Water and Wastewa ter Treatment. (sciencetechindonesia.com)
- S. A. A. Jahn, "Using Moringa oleifera Seeds as Coagulant in Developing Countries," Journal of the American Water Works Association, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1988, pp. 43-50. (scirp.org)
- G. Folkard, J. Sutherland and R. Shaw, "Water Clarification Using Moringa oleifera Coagulant. (scirp.org)
- The coagulants neutralize the electrical charges on the particles, which allows them to come closer together and form larger particles that are easier to remove. (environex.net.au)
- The original Sumatera Bentonite (SB), which has been impregnated to be ammonium bentonite (NH-B), was applied as a cassava wastewater coagulant. (sciencetechindonesia.com)
- The optimization parameter focused on the coagulant dose that was used. (sciencetechindonesia.com)
- The most commonly used coagulants in oilfield applications are polycationic, vinyl petro-polymers like the copolymer of epichlorohydrin and dimethyl amine (polyEPI/DMA). (aqueroco.com)
- Factor VII gene polymorphisms may contribute to elevations in factor VII coagulant [FVIIc] levels that have been associated with cardiovascular risk. (who.int)
- Another thing to keep in mind about polycationic coagulants is that the covering of cells and cellular components (like cell walls, cell membranes, membranes of organelles) are almost invariably net-anionic in character. (aqueroco.com)
- Thus, it is important to All swabs were inoculated onto 5% establish the epidemiological patterns of horse blood agar plates, with nalidixic acid group A streptococci in different countries and colistin and incubated in a CO -en- and regions, and especially to serotype the 2 riched atmosphere for 24 hours at 37 °C. strains that have been isolated. (who.int)