Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Workplace Violence: Threatened or actual attempt to harm others at place of employment.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Sexual Harassment: A form of discrimination in the workplace which violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment takes two forms: quid pro quo, where the employee must submit to sexual advances in exchange for job benefits or be penalized for refusing; or a hostile environment, where the atmosphere of the workplace is offensive and affects the employee's well-being. Offensive sexual conduct may include unwelcome advances, comments, touching, questions about marital status and sex practices, etc. Both men and women may be aggressors or victims. (Slee and Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed, p.404). While civil rights legislation deals with sexual harassment in the workplace, the behavior is not restricted to this; it may take place outside the work environment: in schools and colleges, athletics, and other social milieus and activities.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bullying: Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.RestaurantsProstitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Job Description: Statement of the position requirements, qualifications for the position, wage range, and any special conditions expected of the employee.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.JapanSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.United StatesCarbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PaintBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).MiningPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)PrintingSalaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Respiratory Tract DiseasesTanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.HydrocarbonsMaintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Employee Grievances: Formal procedures whereby the employee expresses any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice regarding the work situation.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.FinlandHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Railroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Employee Performance Appraisal: The assessment of the functioning of an employee in relation to work.Employee Discipline: Regulations or conditions imposed on employees by management in order to correct or prevent behaviors which are counterproductive to the organization.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Burnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.SwedenInservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.TaiwanHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Beryllium: Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.WeldingPesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Great BritainChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Berylliosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Lead PoisoningSmoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.IndiaAsthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Byssinosis: A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.
  • PHOTO: People protest to demand increased safety measures from Burger King after employees said a fellow worker died amid the outbreak of the coronavirus in Los Angeles on July 10, 2020. (yahoo.com)
  • Since March 2020, this measure has also included workers quarantined because of an exposure to a person who has COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • AARP sued the EEOC in October 2016 on the grounds that EEOC's wellness rules were coercive, making workers pay much more for health insurance if they decided to protect private medical information. (aarp.org)
  • As a result of the 2015 inspection, the employer and OSHA entered into a Formal Settlement Agreement on April 12, 2016, which outlined specific provisions of a workplace violence prevention program. (osha.gov)
  • Lee's case was reported by The Associated Press in 2016 as one of several in which the government and Samsung denied workers key safety data needed to win state compensation. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Menlo Park, Calif. - Annual family premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance rose an average of 3 percent to $18,142 this year, a modest increase at a time when workers' wages (2.5%) and inflation (1.1%) also grew modestly, according to the benchmark Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET) 2016 Employer Health Benefits Survey released today. (kff.org)
  • In 2016, 29 percent of all workers were in such plans, up from 20 percent in 2014, while a shrinking share of workers (48% in 2016, down from 58% in 2014) are enrolled in Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans, which have higher-than-average premiums. (kff.org)
  • In 2016, 83 percent of covered workers face a deductible for single coverage, which averages $1,478. (kff.org)
  • Ohio's rate for calendar year 2016 was 2.7 injuries per 100 workers, compared to the national average of 3.2. (norwalkreflector.com)
  • The new safety order, which the California Office of Administrative Law approved on December 8, 2016, will require healthcare providers to develop workplace violence prevention plans, institute training programs, and keep records on certain incidents of workplace violence. (mondaq.com)
  • The composite duration index, a measure of how long workers are off the job due to injury, is at 115 days at the end of the third quarter, up from 110 at the end of 2016. (wcb.ns.ca)
  • In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 5 factories in Babol, Northern Iran, in 2016, where 280 workers responded to a survey on social capital at work and psychosocial distress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our union believes that at least three people have headaches brought on by the use of carbonless copy paper," said Mrs. Batson, secretary-treasurer of Local 2107, Communications Workers of America. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Assessment of relationships of case managers, employers and workers relative to impacts on claim duration and RTW outcomes. (wcb.mb.ca)
  • Although age is associated with increased life satisfaction and decreased perceptions of discrimination for workers with adult disability onset, age is unrelated to these outcomes for workers with childhood disability onset. (ed.gov)
  • A number of studies have shown that women are more likely than men to experience workplace incivility and its associated negative outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion Among Brazilian workers, the prevalence of hypertension is associated with individual risk factors, lack of a canteen at the workplace, small companies and higher economic inequalities of cities. (bmj.com)
  • Aims: To estimate the prevalence and possible associated factors of workplace violence among HCWs in emergency departments (EDs) of public hospitals in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
  • In another large study conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at primary healthcare centres in Belgrade, Serbia, the prevalence of workplace violence was 52.6% among 1757 HCWs (8). (who.int)
  • After controlling for each individual's characteristics, the prevalence ratio of psychological distress was 2.11 (95% CI: 1.43-3.17) times higher among workers with low individual social capital, and low aggregated workplace social capital was associated with 2.64 (95% CI: 1.28-5.45) times higher odds of psychological distress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, MassMutual is launching a marketing campaign for insurance brokers, including direct mail, email, video and advertising, to promote the value of critical illness and accident insurance to help protect workers' personal finances from unexpected financial emergencies, Shuman said. (prnewswire.com)
  • MassMutual offers critical illness, accident, disability and life insurance at the workplace. (prnewswire.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of injured workers with musculoskeletal conditions experiencing mental illness is high, yet the proportion receiving mental health services is low. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Conclusions The present study could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion. (sjweh.fi)
  • The project aims to create a new document that gives clearer guidance to a range of workplaces-in different sectors and of different sizes-about the tools that can be used to identify and assess MSD risk factors. (whsc.on.ca)
  • The survey results suggest links between specific job sectors and the level of engagement in workplace-wellness initiatives, or steps taken towards a heart-healthy lifestyle," said Dr. Kathryn Taubert, senior science officer for the World Heart Federation. (ohsonline.com)
  • Despite the existing legislation, reports suggest that dangerous substances are present in 38% of workplaces across the EU - with the percentage reaching almost two-thirds in certain sectors. (europa.eu)
  • The agriculture, manufacturing, and construction sectors are those identified where workers can be particularly at risk. (europa.eu)
  • To change that, employers need to realize that savings and improved quality that can result from simple methods such as providing greater responsibility to frontline workers, he said. (cfah.org)
  • All workers, whatever their position in the hierarchy of jobs, may suffer from indignities, large and small, that cripple their spirit and hinder their journey to greater wholeness. (ucc.org)
  • Women workers working on government payroll suffer from the same fate. (indiatimes.com)
  • To date few studies have investigated whether legislation for smoke-free workplaces protects the health of workers. (bmj.com)
  • If reporting bias was demonstrated and it was shown that those who were more positive towards the legislation experienced a greater improvement in self-reported symptoms post-implementation, then the validity of such studies to demonstrate acute improvements in workers' health is weakened. (springermedizin.de)
  • The poultry supply chain, no matter how well free-range chickens are treated, cannot be sustainable when workers endure crippling musculoskeletal disorders while processing those chickens. (elcosh.org)
  • Lillie Foots-Wilson, 49, allegedly shot and killed co-worker Latange Long at a Central Moloney Inc. plant that produces components for transformers. (aol.com)